The Water Quality Information Center at the National Agricultural Library
Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture

Pfiesteria piscicida Bibliography

Joe Makuch and Mary Stevanus

This electronic bibliography is intended primarily to provide awareness of recent investigations and discussions of a topic and is not intended to be in-depth and exhaustive. The inclusion or omission of a particular publication or citation should not be construed as endorsement or disapproval.

To locate a publication cited in this bibliography, please contact your local, state, or university library. If you are unable to locate a particular publication, your library can contact the National Agricultural Library (please see Document Delivery Services for details.)

Nineteen Citations

Behavior of a toxic estuarine dinoflagellate with microbial and vertebrate prey.
Burkholder J M; Glasgow H B Jr
Dep. Botany, Box 7612, North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 43 (1). 1996. 1A. 48th Annual Meeting of the Society of Protozoologists, June 27-30, 1995.

Discovery of the "phantom" dinoflagellate in Chesapeake Bay.
Lewitus, A.J.; Jesien, R.V.; Kana, T.M.; Burkholder, J.M.;
Glasgow, H.B.,Jr.; May, E.
Belle W. Baruch Inst. Mar. Biol. Coast. Res., Baruch Mar. Field Lab., Univ. South Carolina, P.O. Box 1630, Georgetown, SC 29442, USA
Estuaries, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 373-378, 1995

Abstract: The presence of P. piscicida in Chesapeake Bay is documented. The appearance and behavior of the algae and symptoms associated with fish mortality were consistent with those previously observed in P. piscicida-associated aquaria fish kills in North Carolina. The discovery of P. piscicida in Chesapeake Bay shows that dinoflagellates have a dramatic and far-reaching impact on fish stocks in shallow, eutrophic estuaries.

Effects of the toxic dinoflagellate, Pfiesteria piscicida, on juvenile bay scallops (Argopecten irradians, Lamarck).
Springer, J. J.; Burkholder, J.; Shumway, S. E. National Shellfisheries Association
Journal of Shellfish Research, 1996; Vol 15; Number 2, p. 530 [np], 1996

Effects on fisheries and human health linked to a toxic estuarine dinoflagellate.
Burkholder J M; Glasgow H B Jr
N.C. State Univ., Raleigh, NC 27965-7612, USA.
Toxicon, 34 (3). 1996. 308.
Fifth Pan American Symposium on Animal, Plant and Microbial Toxins, Frederick, Maryland, USA, July 30-August 4, 1995.

Fish-killing dinoflagellates in a tropical marine aquarium.
Florida Dep. Environ. Protect., Florida Mar. Res. Inst., St. Petersburg, FL 33701
IN: Harmful Marine Algal Blooms. Proliferation D'Algues Marines Nuisibles. Nantes (France), 1993
Landsberg, J.H.; Steidinger, K.A.; Blakesley, B.A.;Lassus, P.;Arzul, G.; Erard-Le Denn, E.; Gentien, P.; Marcaillou-Le Baut, C. eds. Lavoisier: Paris, 1995, pp. 65-70

Abstract: A recent fish mortality in a marine home aquarium in Florida was associated with two scenarios: a bloom of a previously undescribed free-living dinoflagellate and a heavy infestation of a parasitic dinoflagellate. Parasitic dinospores were identified after trophonts obtained from the gills of 4 species were incubated. The parasite is tentatively identified as Amyloodinium cf. ocellatum. The connection between these stages and the life cycle of the Pfiesteria-like species is being studied.

Fish kills linked to a toxic ambush-predator dinoflagellate: Distribution and environmental conditions.
Burkholder, J.M.; Glasgow, H.B.,Jr.; Hobbs, C.W.
Department of Botany, North Carolina State University, Box 7612, Raleigh, NC 27695-7612
Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., vol. 124, no. 1-3, pp. 43-61, 1995

Abstract: Pfiesteria piscicida gen. et sp. nov. is stimulated by fresh fish secreta, and it was lethal to all 19 species of native and exotic finfish and shellfish bioassayed in culture; thus far in field and aquaculture kills linked to the dinoflagellate, 13 additional fish species have been affected. Field data andlaboratory bioassays document toxicity at high temperatures and salinity. Pfiesteria-like species also have been tracked to other eutrophic sudden-death fish kill sites.

Impacts of Cultural Eutrophication on Water Quality, Algae, and Aquatic Angiosperms.
Burkholder Jm
North Carolina State Univ/botany, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 Source: Fedrip Database, National Technical Information Service (NTIS)
U. S. Department of Agriculture/Cooperative State Research Service

Abstract: Complete enclosure experiments are used to To examine controlling influences of cultural eutrophication on water quality and aquatic flora, especially concerning dinoflagellate. The effects of water-column nitrate enrichment (simulating sewage inputs) and high temperatures on the seagrass, Zostera marina, are studied. Reductions in nutrient loading could discourage the growth of P. piscicida.

Insidious effects of a toxic estuarine dinoflagellate on fish survival and human health.
Glasgow H B Jr; Burkholder J M; Schmechel D E; Tester P A; Rublee P A
Dep. Botany, Box 7612, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7612
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 46 (4). 1995. 501-522.

Abstract: The estuarine dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida gen. et sp. nov. produces exotoxin(s) that can be absorbed from water or fine aerosols. Human exposure to aerosols from ichthyotoxic cultures has been associated with health problems, including hepatic and renal dysfunction; easy infection and low counts of several T-cell types may indicate immune system suppression. Pfiesteria piscicida is euryhaline and eurythermal, and in bioassays a nontoxic flagellated stage has increased under P enrichment, suggesting a stimulatory role of nutrients. Pfiesteria-like dinoflagellates have been found at other sites.

Interactions of a toxic estuarine dinoflagellate with microbial predators and prey.
Burkholder J M; Glasgow H B Jr
Dep. Botany, Box 7612, North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC 27695-7612
Archiv fuer Protistenkunde 145 (3-4). 1995. 177-188.

Abstract: The toxic ambush-predator dinoflagellate, Pfiesteria piscicida (gen. et. sp. nov.) targets finfish and shellfish prey, and is a causative agent of fish kills. After fish death, remaining gametes revert to asexual, nontoxic zoospores that thrive in nutrient-enriched waters with flagellated algal prey. Toxic ambush-predator dinoflagellates play a major role in the structure and function of estuarine microbial food webs.

Killer dinoflagellate fact sheet.
Hart, K.
North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill (USA). Sea Grant Program , 1994, 2 pp

Abstract: North Carolina Sea Grant researchers discovered a fish killer - a microscopic animal that paralyzes fish with toxins and sucks away their flesh. JoAnn Burkholder, an aquatic botanist at N.C. State University, explains that Pfiesteria piscimortuis means "fish killer."

The morphology and cytology of a newly discovered toxic dinoflagellate.
Steidinger, K.A.; Truby, E.W.; Garrett, J.K.; Burkholder, J.M.
Florida Mar. Res. Inst., Florida Dep. Environ. Protect., St Petersburg, FL 33701
Harmful Marine Algal Blooms."Proliferation D'algues Marines Nuisibles"
Conference Location: Nantes (France), 1993
Lassus, P.; Arzul, G.; Erard-Le Denn, E.; Gentien, P.; Marcaillou-Le Baut, C. eds. Lavoisier: Paris, 1995, pp. 83-88

Abstract: The toxic ambush predator known as Pfiesteria piscimorte (Steidinger et al., in prep.) is a polymorphic dinoflagellate with flagellated, amoeboid, and cyst stages. We have observed the flagellated stage turning into a naked, amoeboid, star-like stage within minutes. One theory explaining this transformation involves two unique cytological characters, both known to be transformable, that are attributable to dinoflagellates: the multimembrane cell covering and the "mesokaryotic" nucleus.

Ocean commotion.
Tibbetts J
Environmental Health Perspectives. 104 (4). 1996. 380-385.

Pfiesteria piscicida gen. et sp. nov. (Pfiesteriaceae fam. nov.), a new toxic dinoflagellate with a complex life cycle and behavior.
Steidinger, K.A.; Burkholder, J.M.; Glasgow, H.B.,Jr.; Hobbs, C.W.; Garrett, J.K.; Truby, E.W.; Noga, E.J.; Smith, S.A.
Florida Mar. Res. Inst., Dep. Environ. Prot., 100 Eighth Ave., S.E., St. Petersburg, FL 33701
J. Phycol., vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 157-164, 1996

Abstract: Dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida is a polymorphic and multiphasic species with flagellated, amoeboid, and cyst stages. The physiology and biology of this new species is described. The species is placed in a new family, Pfiesteriaceae, and the order Dinamoebales is emended.

Response of two zooplankton grazers to an ichthyotoxic estuarine dinoflagellate.
Mallin, M.A.; Burkholder, J.M.; Larsen, L.M.; Glasgow, H.B.,Jr.
Cent. Mar. Sci. Res., Univ. North Carolina, 7205 Wrightsville Ave., Wilmington, NC 28403
J. Plankton Research, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 351-363, 1995

Abstract: Experimental tests of interactions between P. piscicida and estuarine zooplankton predators, specifically the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa are reported. Results indicate that on a short-term basis, toxic stages of P. piscicida can be readily utilized as a nutritional resource by these common estuarine zooplankters. Studies are needed on the long-term effects of P. piscicida on zooplankton, the potential for toxin bioaccumulation across trophic levels, and the utility of zooplankton as biological control agents for this toxic dinoflagellate.

Role of a Newly Discovered Toxic Dinoflagellate in Finfish and Shellfish Kills in the Neuse and Pamlico Estuaries.
Burkholder JM; Glasgow HB; Noga EJ; Hobbs CW
North Carolina State Univ. at Raleigh. Dept. of Botany. North Carolina Dept. of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Raleigh. Albemarle-Pamlico Estuarine Study.

Abstract: The objectives of the study were to obtain field and experimental information needed to formally speciate and characterize the general ecology of a newly discovered toxic estuarine dinoflagellate, and to examine its significance in causing fish kills in the Neuse and Pamlico (North Carolina) estuaries.

Scanning electron microscopy of selected protists associated with marine fish.
Blakesley, B.A.; Landsberg, J.H.
Florida Mar. Res. Inst., Florida Dep. Environ. Prot., 100 Eighth Ave. SE, St. Petersburg, FL 33701-5095
Iinternational Symposium on Aquatic Animal Health:Programs and Abstracts. Seattle, WA, 1994
Univ. of California, School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, CA, 1994, p. 43

Abstract: Scanning electron microscopy was used to study parasitic, commensal, and free-living protists associated with cultured, wild, and aquarium-held marine fish in Florida. Modifications to the SEM revealed the presence of previously undescribed thin-plated armature in some parasitic and free-living dinoflagellates and other morphological details.

Stage transformations in the complex life cycle of an ichthyotoxic "ambush-predator" dinoflagellate.
Dep. Bot., Box 7612, N. Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
IN: Harmful Marine Algal Blooms. "Proliferation D'algues Marines Nuisibles" Nantes (France), 1993.
Burkholder, J.M.; Glasgow, H.B.; Steidinger, K.A.; Lassus, P.;Arzul, G.; Erard-Le Denn, E.; Gentien, P.; Marcaillou-Le Baut, C. eds. Lavoisier, Paris, 1995, pp. 567-572

Abstract: An estuarine dinoflagellate, Pfiesteria piscimortuis, represents a new family, genus and species of armored dinoflagellate. There are 15 known stages in its complex life cycle, consisting mostly of filipodial ("star") and lobose amoebae that can transform from flagellated forms (vegetative cells, planozygotes, gametes). Toxic flagellated vegetative cells (TFVCs) emerge from scaled cysts and excrete a potent neurotoxin while multiplying or producing anisogamous gametes.

Trophic controls on stage transformations of a toxic ambush-predator dinoflagellate.
Burkholder J M; Glasgow H B Jr
Dep. Botany, Box 7612, North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC 27695
Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 44 (3). 1997. 200-205.

Abstract: The toxic dinoflagellate, Pfiesteria piscicida, was recently implicated as the causative agent for r fish kills in the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuarine System of the southeastern USA. Toxic zoospores of P. piscicida excrete lethal neurotoxins that narcotize the prey, disrupt its osmoregulatory system, and attack its nervous system.

Watch out for killer algae.
Malvaney, Kieran
E--The Environmental Magazine, 1996 Vol. VII, No. 2 (March-April), p. 15

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