Water Quality Information Center of the National Agricultural Library
Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture


Researching Water Quality (I)

 January 1989 - July 1993
 Quick Bibliography Series:  QB 93-71
 149 citations from AGRICOLA
 
 Bonnie Emmert
 and Joe Makuch
 Water Quality Information Center
 
 
                    RESEARCHING WATER QUALITY
 1                                   NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1E5
 Acidic deposition to streams: a geology-based method predicts
 their sensitivity.
 Bricker, O.P.; Rice, K.C.
 Washington, D.C. : American Chemical Society; 1989 Apr.
 Environmental science & technology v. 23 (4): p. 379-385.
 ill., maps; 1989 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Maryland; Streams; Acid rain; Acids; Deposition;
 Watersheds; Water pollution; Sampling; Prediction; Geology;
 Methodology
 
 
 2                                   NAL Call. No.: 292.9 AM34
 An algorithm for estimating surface suspended sediment
 concentrations with Landsat MSS digital data.
 Ritchie, J.C.; Cooper, C.M.
 Bethesda, Md. : American Water Resources Association; 1991
 May. Water resources bulletin v. 27 (3): p. 373-379; 1991 May. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mississippi; Sediment; Surface layers; Erosion;
 Water reservoirs; Water quality; Reflectance; Optical
 properties; Landsat; Remote sensing; Spectral data;
 Algorithms; Regression analysis; Monitoring
 
 Abstract:  Algorithms for Landsat MSS digital data are needed
 to reduce the necessity of calibrating each Landsat scene if
 these data are to be useful in monitoring programs for surface
 suspended sediments. In this study digital data were extracted
 from 16 Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) scenes collected
 between March 1987 and August 1988 over Enid Reservoir in
 North Central Mississippi. These data were converted to
 radiance and reflectance data for comparison with field
 measurements of surface suspended sediment concentrations.
 Concentrations ranged from 2 to 168 mg/1 during the study with
 only four greater than 100 mg/1. Linear and polynomial
 regression analyses were used to relate the surface suspended
 sediment concentrations with radiance and reflectance.
 Reflectance in MSS band 2 (0.6 to 0.7 Km) and MSS band 3 (0.7
 to 0.8 ;micrometer) were best related to the surface suspended
 sediment concentrations with coefficients of determination
 accounting for 71 percent and 68 percent of the variation in
 the data, respectively. Regressions with radiance data
 accounted for 36 percent (band 2) or less of the variation.
 Logarithmic transformations of either reflectance or sediment
 concentrations increase the coefficients of determination for
 MSS band 2 reflectance data to 81 percent. Regressions between
 the ratio of MSS band 1 to MSS band 2 reflectances and
 concentrations also accounted for 80 percent of the variation.
 An equation Log(e) SS(mg/l) = -9.21R1/2 + 2.71R,1/2(2) + 8.45,
 where S is surface suspended sediment concentrations and R1/2
 is the ratio of MSS band 1 to MSS band 2 reflectances,
 provided the best fit to the data with a coefficient of
 determination of 0.82. This equation is essentially the same
 as an algorithm proposed by Topliss et al. (1990), for
 estimating surface suspended sediment concentrations in
 Canadian coastal waters. These equations for Enid Reservoir
 and Canadian waters suggest that it may be possible to develop
 an algorithm for widespread use for est
 
 
 3                                      NAL Call. No.: QR1.L47
 An alternative approach to the yeast extract-nalidixic acid
 method for determining the proportion of metabolically active
 aquatic bacteria. Al-Hadithi, S.A.; Goulder, R.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1989 Mar.
 Letters in applied microbiology v. 8 (3): p. 87-90; 1989 Mar. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: England; Water composition and quality; Aquatic
 organisms; Isolation technique; Laboratory methods
 
 
 4                                   NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1E5
 Analysis of substituted benzene compounds in groundwater using
 solid-phase microextraction.
 Arthur, C.L.; Killam, L.M.; Motlagh, S.; Lim, M.; Potter,
 D.W.; Pawliszyn, J. Washington, D.C. : American Chemical
 Society; 1992 May.
 Environmental science & technology v. 26 (5): p. 979-983; 1992
 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Groundwater pollution; Pollutants; Benzene;
 Toluene; Xylene; Analytical methods; Extraction
 
 
 5                        NAL Call. No.: GB701.W375 no.90-4005
 Analysis of water-quality data and sampling programs at
 selected sites in north-central Colorado..  Analysis of water
 quality data and sampling programs at selected sites in north-
 central Colorado
 Mueller, David K.
 Geological Survey (U.S.),Northern Colorado Water Conservancy
 District, United States, Bureau of Reclamation
 Denver, Colo. : U.S. Geological Survey : Open-File Reports
 Section [distributor],; 1990.
 v, 79 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm. (Water-resources investigations
 report ; 90-4005).  Includes bibliographical references (p.
 57).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Water quality; Water, Underground
 
 
 6                                   NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1E5
 Analyte stability studies conducted during the National
 Pesticide Survey. Munch, D.J.; Frebis, C.P.
 Washington, D.C. : American Chemical Society; 1992 May.
 Environmental science & technology v. 26 (5): p. 921-925; 1992
 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Pesticides; Pollutants; Stability;
 Environmental protection; Government organizations; Surveys;
 Samples; Groundwater pollution; Analytical methods
 
 
 7                                   NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1E5
 Analytical chemistry for environmental sciences.
 D'Elia, C.F.; Sanders, J.G.; Capone, D.G.
 Washington, D.C. : American Chemical Society; 1989 Jul.
 Environmental science & technology v. 23 (7): p. 768-774. ill;
 1989 Jul. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Maryland; Saline water; Water composition and
 quality; Analytical methods; Environmental protection;
 Monitoring; Water law; Water pollution
 
 
 8                                      NAL Call. No.: QD1.A45
 Aseptic sampling of unconsolidated heaving soils in saturated
 zones. Leach, L.E.; Ross, R.R.
 Washington, D.C. : The Society; 1991.
 ACS Symposium series - American Chemical Society (465): p.
 334-348; 1991.  In the series analytic: Groundwater residue
 sampling design / edited by R.G. Nash and A.R. Leslie. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Groundwater; Water pollution; Agricultural
 chemicals; Soil; Sampling
 
 Abstract:  Collecting undisturbed subsurface soil samples in
 noncohesive, heaving sandy environments below the water table
 has been extremely difficult using conventional soil sampling
 equipment. Several modifications of the conventional hollow-
 stem auger coring procedures were adapted, which allowed
 collection of depth-discreet soil samples in very fluid,
 heaving sands. These methods were used where accurate
 subsurface characterization of the contamination of RCRA and
 CERCLA sites was essential. Cohesionless cores were
 consistently retrieved, aseptically extruded from the core
 barrel inside an anaerobic environmental chamber, and
 preserved in the field. The physical, chemical, and biological
 integrity of discreet soil intervals was maintained for
 laboratory analysis. Statistical analysis of repeated
 collection of soil samples from the same depth intervals in
 nearby boreholes was documented.
 
 
 9                                  NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32P
 An automated soil water monitoring and leachate sampling
 system. Bjorneberg, D.L.; Bischoff, J.H.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1989.
 Paper - American Society of Agricultural Engineers (89-2533):
 p. 167-195; 1989.  Paper presented at the 1989 International
 Winter Meeting of the American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers, December 12-15, 1989, New Orleans, Louisiana. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Soil water content; Monitoring; Water quality
 
 
 10                                    NAL Call. No.: 56.8 SO3
 Batch versu column method for determining distribution of
 organics between soil and water phases.
 Johnson, J.A.; Farmer, W.J.
 Baltimore, Md. : Williams & Wilkins; 1993 Feb.
 Soil science v. 155 (2): p. 92-99; 1993 Feb.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Alfisols; Sandy loam soils; Soil analysis;
 Analytical methods; Comparisons; Napropamide; Lindane;
 Sorption; Distribution; Soil solution; Sorption isotherms;
 Leaching; Movement in soil
 
 
 11                                     NAL Call. No.: S583.A7
 C18 Extraction of atrazine from small water sample volumes.
 Shepherd, T.R.; Carr, J.D.; Duncan, D.; Pederson, D.T.
 Arlington, VA : AOAC International; 1992 May.
 Journal of AOAC International v. 75 (3): p. 581-583; 1992 May. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Atrazine; Detection; Herbicide residues; Water
 quality; Extraction; Gas chromatography; Mass spectrometry;
 Evaluation; Sampling; Volume
 
 
 12                                   NAL Call. No.: TD426.J68
 Characterization of a sandy aquifer material at the grain
 scale. Ball, W.P.; Buehler, C.; Harmon, T.C.; Mackay, D.M.;
 Roberts, P.V. Amsterdam : Elsevier; 1990 Mar.
 Journal of contaminant hydrology v. 5 (3): p. 253-295; 1990
 Mar.  Literature review.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Aquifers; Sandy soils; Physico-chemical
 properties of soil; Solutions; Sorption; Movement in soil;
 Soil pollution; Groundwater pollution; Analytical methods
 
 
 13                                     NAL Call. No.: S583.A7
 Characterization of the O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)-
 hydroxylamine hydrochloride (PFBOA) derivatives of some
 aliphatic mono- and dialdehydes and quantitative water
 analysis of these aldehydes.
 Cancilla, D.A.; Chou, C.C.; Barthel, R.; Hee, S.S.Q.
 Arlington, VA : AOAC International; 1992 Sep.
 Journal of AOAC International v. 75 (5): p. 842-854; 1992 Sep. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Water quality; Pesticide residues; Quantitative
 analysis; Oximes; Validity; Reference standards; Spectral
 data; Water pollution
 
 
 14                                    NAL Call. No.: TD172.A7
 Comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and high-
 performance liquid chromatography for the analysis of atrazine
 in water from Czechoslovakia. Bushway, R.J.; Perkins, L.B.;
 Fukal, L.; Harrison, R.O.; Ferguson, B.S. New York, N.Y. :
 Springer-Verlag; 1991 Sep.
 Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology v. 21
 (3): p. 365-370; 1991 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Czechoslovakia; Water pollution; Atrazine;
 Samples; Analytical methods; Hplc; Accuracy
 
 
 15                                    NAL Call. No.: 56.9 SO3
 Comparison of statistical and standard techniques to classify
 and delineate sodic soils.
 Seelig, B.D.; Richardson, J.L.; Knighton, R.E.
 Madison, Wis. : The Society; 1991 Jul.
 Soil Science Society of America journal v. 55 (4): p.
 1042-1048; 1991 Jul. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North Dakota; Sodic soils; Soil classification;
 Spatial variation; Soil surveys; Statistical analysis;
 Discriminant analysis; Component analysis; Spatial
 distribution; Soil boundaries; Upland soils; Wetland soils;
 Soil morphology; Soil variability; Soil salinity; Leaching;
 Physicochemical properties
 
 Abstract:  Statistical estimates of soil variability within
 and among delineations of taxonomic units are useful in
 designing and checking classification systems. We compared
 soil classification and spatial differentiation of a landscape
 dominated by sodic soils. Both statistical methodologies and
 standard soil-survey techniques were used to differentiate
 soils. Forty-nine pedons at three landform positions were
 compared with canonical discriminant analysis, principal
 component analysis, and kriging. Statistical analyses improved
 soil classification and allowed a clearer view of the field
 distribution of soil properties, compared with standard soil-
 survey techniques. Soils with properties indicative of strong
 leaching (Solods) are recognized as significantly different
 from other soil taxonomic components at the intermediate and
 wetland positions. Solods were extensive at the wetland
 position, but could not be differentiated from Typic
 Natraquolls solely by morphologic observation. Although Solods
 are related to other leached soils, Argiaquolls and
 Argialbolls, they also possess soil properties that are
 similar to associated sodic soils. Leptic Natriborolls and
 Udic Natriborolls were similar except for salinity. The
 salinity difference by itself does not produce significant
 statistical differentiation between the soils of the two
 natric subgroups. High salinity would be better recognized as
 a soil-series phase, not a separate subgroup of Natriborolls.
 
 
 16                                   NAL Call. No.: TD419.R47
 A comparison of surface-grab and cross sectionally integrated
 stream-water-quality sampling methods.
 Martin, G.R.; Smoot, J.L.; White, K.D.
 Alexandria, Va. : The Federation; 1992 Nov.
 Water environment reserarch v. 64 (7): p. 866-876; 1992 Nov. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Kentucky; River water; Water quality; Sampling;
 Site types; Farmland; Forests
 
 
 17                                     NAL Call. No.: QD1.A45
 Compendium of in situ pore-liquid samplers for vadose zone.
 Dorrance, D.W.; Wilson, L.G.; Everett, L.G.; Cullen, S.J.
 Washington, D.C. : The Society; 1991.
 ACS Symposium series - American Chemical Society (465): p.
 300-331; 1991.  In the series analytic: Groundwater residue
 sampling design / edited by R.G. Nash and A.R. Leslie. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Groundwater; Water pollution; Agricultural
 chemicals; Sampling; Lysimeters
 
 Abstract:  In recent years, there has been increasing emphasis
 on monitoring contaminant transport in the vadose zone. Vadose
 zone monitoring relies on a variety of in situ samplers to
 collect pore-liquids under saturated and/or unsaturated
 conditions. This compendium describes these samplers together
 with their advantages and disadvantages.
 
 
 18                             NAL Call. No.: TD423.C642 1992
 Compilation of E.P.A.'s sampling and analysis methods.. 
 E.P.A.'s sampling and analysis methods
 Keith, Lawrence H.,_1938-; Mueller, William,_1929-; Smith,
 David, Chelsea, MI. : Lewis Publishers,; 1992.
 803 p. ; 24 cm.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Water; Pollutants
 
 
 19                       NAL Call. No.: GB701.W375 no.89-4172
 A computerized data-base system for land-use and land-cover
 data collected at ground-water sampling sites in the pilot
 National Water-Quality Assessment Program..  Computerized data
 base system for land-use and land-cover data collected at
 ground-water sampling sites in the pilot National Water-
 Quality Assessment Program
 Scott, J. C.
 Geological Survey (U.S.)
 Oklahoma City, Okla. : Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological
 Survey ; Denver, Colo. : Books and Open-File Reports, U.S.
 Geological Survey [distributor],; 1989.
 vi, 139 p. : ill. ; 28 cm. (Water-resources investigations
 report ; 89-4172). Includes bibliographical references (p.
 71).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Land use; Data bases; Land use; Data processing;
 Water, Underground; Sampling
 
 
 20                       NAL Call. No.: GB701.W375 no.90-4101
 Computerized stratified random site-selection approaches for
 design of a ground-water-quality sampling network.. 
 Computerized stratified random site selection approaches for
 design of a ground water quality sampling network Scott, J. C.
 Geological Survey (U.S.)
 Oklahoma City, Okla. : Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological
 Survey ; Denver, Colo. : Books and Open-File Reports
 [distributor],; 1990; I 19.42/4:90-4101. vi, 109 p. : ill.,
 maps ; 28 cm. (Water-resources investigations report ;
 90-4101).  "National Water-Quality Assessment Program"--Cover. 
 Includes bibliographical references (p. 64-65).
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Water, Underground; Water quality; Stratified
 sets
 
 
 21                                   NAL Call. No.: QH540.I52
 Conducting field studies for testing pesticide leaching
 models. Smith, C.N.; Parrish, R.S.; Brown, D.S.
 London : Gordon and Breach Science Publishers; 1990.
 International journal of environmental analytical chemistry v.
 39 (1): p. 3-21. ill; 1990.  Paper presented at the " Workshop
 on Soil Residue Analysis," Aug 8-10, 1988, Winnipeg, Manitoba. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pesticides; Leaching; Groundwater; Models; Field
 tests
 
 
 22                                  NAL Call. No.: 99.8 F7632
 Confidence intervals from single observations in forest
 research. Valentine, H.T.; Furnival, G.M.; Gregoire, T.G.
 Bethesda, Md. : Society of American Foresters; 1991 Mar.
 Forest science v. 37 (1): p. 370-373; 1991 Mar.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Forests; Forest inventories; Forest trees;
 Volume; Forest statistics; Logging effects; Clearcutting;
 Clear strip felling; Water quality; Water yield; Statistical
 analysis; Statistical data; Experimental design
 
 Abstract:  A procedure for constructing confidence intervals
 and testing hypotheses from a single trial or observation is
 reviewed. The procedure requires a prior, fixed estimate or
 guess of the outcome of an experiment or sampling. Two
 examples of applications are described: a confidence interval
 is constructed for the expected outcome of a systematic
 sampling of a forested tract, and a hypothesis is tested in
 connection with a watershed experiment. Potential misuses of
 the procedure also are discussed.
 
 
 23                                    NAL Call. No.: 56.8 SO3
 Contamination of collected soil water samples by the
 dissolution of the mineral constituents of porous P.T.F.E.
 cups.
 Maitre, V.; Bourrie, G.; Curmi, P.
 Baltimore, Md. : Williams & Wilkins; 1991 Oct.
 Soil science v. 152 (4): p. 289-293; 1991 Oct.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Soil analysis; Acid soils; Soil water; Sampling;
 Contamination; Samplers; Ethylene; Fluorine; Polymers;
 Dissolving; Acid treatment; Silicon; Silica; Calcium;
 Potassium; Magnesium; Sodium; Iron; Aluminum; Manganese;
 Chromium; Titanium; Chemical composition; Soil solution;
 Leaching; Geochemistry; Soil micromorphology
 
 
 24                                   NAL Call. No.: 292.8 J82
 Contamination of soil and groundwater by automatic
 transmission fluid: site description and problem assessment.
 Abdul, A.S.; Gibson, T.L.; Kia, S.F.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Scientific Publishers, B.V.; 1990 Dec15.
 Journal of hydrology v. 121 (1/4): p. 133-153; 1990 Dec15. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Michigan; Soil pollution; Groundwater pollution;
 Pollutants; Wells; Aquifers; Measurement; Core sampling; Soil
 analysis; Monitoring
 
 Abstract:  Soil and groundwater beneath a region of a
 manufacturing plant are contaminated with automatic
 transmission fluid (ATF). The extent of contamination was
 assessed by maximizing the use of real-time data from soil-
 core sampling and monitoring wells. The number, location, and
 depth of cores and of monitoring wells were determined during
 the investigation based on: (1) inspection and analysis of
 soil-core samples immediately after each core was taken: (2)
 physical and chemical measurements of core samples at the end
 of each day; (3) measurements in monitoring wells at several
 stages during the investigation. This approach differs
 significantly from the conventional approach of randomly
 placing wells through the hydrogeologic system. Soil cores
 were taken and monitoring wells installed at 53 locations. The
 perched aquifer extends to about 13 ft. and is comprised
 mainly of sandy materials, which have spatial heterogeneity in
 size distribution and hydraulic properties. About 208000 +/-
 33000 gal. of ATF has spread over an area of about 64000 ft.
 The region of ATF contamination is comprised of three distinct
 and contiguous layers. The center layer is about 2.6 ft. deep
 at its thickest point and extends to about 250 ft. at its
 widest point. The soil in this zone is about 85% saturated
 with 133000 +/- 21000 gal. of ATF, which has depressed the
 water table into the aquifer. The top layer is about 14 in.
 thick and contains about 50640 gal. of ATF held by capillary
 forces. The amount of ATF in this zone decreases with height
 above the center layer from about 85% saturation to residual
 saturation (20%). The amount of ATF in the deepest layer is
 near the residual saturation. This layer is 1.0 +/- 0.5 ft.
 thick and has 24500 +/- 12250 gal. ATF. This investigative
 approach did not spread the ATF to clean regions of the
 aquifer as could occur with conventional approaches, and it
 provided the data needed to assess the problem and to design a
 cleanup plan. A new approach is being use
 
 
 25                                  NAL Call. No.: RA1221.T69
 Cr and Hg toxicity assessed in situ using the structural and
 functional characteristics of algal communities.
 Singh, A.K.; Rai, L.C.
 New York, N.Y. : John Wiley & Sons; 1991 Feb.
 Environmental toxicology and water quality v. 6 (1): p.
 97-107; 1991 Feb. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: India; Phytoplankton; Algae; Cyanobacteria;
 Phytotoxicity; Mercury; Chromium; Heavy metals; Nitrogenase;
 Enzyme activity; Nitrogen fixation; Nutrient uptake; Carbon;
 Inhibition; Metal tolerance; Carotenoids; Chlorophyll;
 Susceptibility; Field tests; Aquatic environment; Water
 pollution
 
 Abstract:  The toxicity of mercury and chromium on algal
 community structure have been assessed using in situ N2ase
 activity, pigment diversity, autotrophic index, and 14C uptake
 of algae. The location was in the river Ganga and controlled
 ecosystem pollution experiment enclosures were used. Maximum
 inhibition of algal number was observed at 0.8 micrograms Hg
 mL-1 followed by 8.0 micrograms Cr mL-1. Unicellular forms,
 except for Anorthoneis excentrica, were very sensitive to test
 metals used. The decline in algal number was concentration
 dependent and metal specific at generic and species levels.
 Complete elimination of three and six species was observed
 respectively at 8.0 micrograms Cr mL-1 and 0.8 micrograms Hg
 mL-1 after 12 days' exposure. Likewise, a concentration-
 dependent and metal-specific increase in autotrophic index and
 pigment diversity of phytoplankton was recorded for Hg and Cr.
 Inhibition of 14C uptake of phytoplankton in Ganga water was
 almost equal (79%) at 0.8 micrograms Hg mL-1 and 8.0
 micrograms Cr mL-1 (78%). Although complete inhibition of in
 situ N(2)ase was observed at 0.8 micrograms Hg mL-1, it was
 only 80% with 8.0 micrograms Cr mL-1. Our study suggests that
 heavy metals inhibit both structural and functional variables
 of phytoplankton in field microcosms. Hence this technique
 seems to hold potential for the biomonitoring of heavy metal
 toxicity in the field.
 
 
 26                                   NAL Call. No.: HC79.E5E5
 Detecting acid precipitation impacts on lake water quality.
 Loftis, J.C.; Taylor, C.H.
 New York, N.Y. : Springer-Verlag; 1989 Sep.
 Environmental management v. 13 (5): p. 529-538; 1989 Sep. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Acid rain; Water composition and quality;
 Monitoring; Trends; Lakes; Statistical methods; Mathematical
 models; Monte carlo method
 
 
 27                                     NAL Call. No.: S583.A7
 Determination of eight organochlorine pesticides at low
 nanogram/liter concentrations in groundwater using filter disk
 extraction and gas chromatography.
 Tomkins, B.A.; Merriweather, R.; Jenkins, R.A.; Bayne, C.K.
 Arlington, VA : AOAC International; 1992 Nov.
 Journal of AOAC International v. 75 (6): p. 1091-1099; 1992
 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Groundwater pollution; Organochlorine pesticides;
 Pesticide residues; Determination; Quantitative analysis;
 Analytical methods
 
 
 28                                     NAL Call. No.: S583.A7
 Determination of organic pollutants in reagent water by
 liquid-solid extraction followed by supercritical fluid
 elution.
 Tang, P.H.; Ho, J.S.; Eichelberger, J.W.
 Arlington, VA : AOAC International; 1993 Jan.
 Journal of AOAC International v. 76 (1): p. 72-82; 1993 Jan. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pollution; Pollutants; Organic compounds;
 Determination; Extraction; Analytical methods
 
 
 29                                    NAL Call. No.: 475 J824
 Determination of phenoxy acid herbicides in water. Polymeric
 pre-column preconcentration and tetrabutyl-ammonium ion-pair
 separation on a PRP-1 column.
 Geerdink, R.B.; Balkom, C.A.A. van; Brouwer, H.J.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers; 1989 Nov03.
 Journal of chromatography v. 481: p. 275-285. ill; 1989 Nov03. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Herbicides; Water pollution; Gas chromatography;
 Analytical methods
 
 
 30                                    NAL Call. No.: TD172.A7
 Determination of textile dyes in organs of Oncorhynchus mykiss
 W. after in vitro exposure.
 Riva, M.C.; Flos, R.; Crespi, M.; Pepio, M.
 New York, N.Y. : Springer-Verlag; 1992 Aug.
 Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology v. 23
 (2): p. 206-210; 1992 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Water pollution; Textiles; Dyes; Oncorhynchus; In
 vitro; Exposure; Body parts; Analysis; Detection; Analytical
 methods
 
 
 31                                  NAL Call. No.: 302.8 T162
 Development and validation of analytical methods for the
 determination of phenolic compounds in pulp and wastewater
 treatment plant sludges. Louch, J.R.; LaFleur, L.E.; Wilson,
 G.; Bautz, D.; Woodrow, D.; Teitzel, H.; Jones, J.; Mark, M.
 Norcross, Ga. : The Technical Association of the Pulp and
 Paper Industry; 1993 Mar.
 Tappi journal v. 76 (3): p. 71-80; 1993 Mar.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pulp mill effluent; Paper mill sludge; Waste
 water treatment; Phenolic compounds; Chemical analysis;
 Aromatic compounds; Organochlorine compounds; Water pollution
 
 
 32                                   NAL Call. No.: 56.8 J823
 The development, calibration and field testing of a soil loss
 and a runoff model derived from a small-scale physical
 simulation of the erosion environment on arable land in
 Zimbabwe.
 Elwell, H.A.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1990 Jun.
 The Journal of soil science v. 41 (2): p. 239-253; 1990 Jun. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Zimbabwe; Interrill erosion; Arable land; Runoff;
 Losses from soil systems; Simulation; Prediction; Mathematical
 models
 
 
 33                                   NAL Call. No.: TD419.R47
 Difficulties related to using extreme percentiles for water
 quality regulations.
 Berthouex, P.M.; Hau, I.
 Alexandria, Va. : The Federation; 1991 Sep.
 Research journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation v.
 63 (6): p. 873-879; 1991 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Water quality; Regulation; Statistical analysis;
 Accuracy; Decision making; Mathematics; Statistical methods
 
 
 34                                 NAL Call. No.: S592.7.A1S6
 Dispersion effect on the apparent nitrogen isotope
 fractionation factor associated with denitrification in soil;
 evaluation by a mathematical model. Kawanishi, T.; Hayashi,
 Y.; Kihou, N.; Yoneyama, T.; Ozaki, Y. Exeter : Pergamon
 Press; 1993 Mar.
 Soil biology and biochemistry v. 25 (3): p. 349-354; 1993 Mar. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Denitrification; Quantitative analysis;
 Agricultural soils; Solutes; Dispersion; Transport processes;
 Soil water; Water flow; Mathematical models; Nitrate;
 Groundwater pollution
 
 Abstract:  An analytical model is constructed to investigate
 the effect of dispersion on the apparent 15N/14N fractionation
 factor associated with denitrification in soil. The steady
 input of solute with a fixed isotope ratio, uniform flow of
 the solute, and the first-order reaction for each isotope are
 assumed, and the relationship between the concentration
 distribution and the change of isotope ratio in the steady
 state is examined. The only dimensionless parameter, kl4ND/v2,
 the product of the first-order reaction rate constant and the
 dispersion coefficient divided by the square of the
 superficial velocity, determines the effect of dispersion, and
 if its value is larger than 0.01, the dispersion will affect
 the apparent isotope fractionation factor. As kl4ND/v2
 increases, the effect becomes more prominent, and when it
 approaches infinity, the ratio of the apparent per mille
 enrichment factor to the true one, (alpha ap-1)/(alpha tr-1),
 reaches 0.5.
 
 
 35                            NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM3PS (EE)
 Do model uncertainty with correlated inputs.
 Song, Q.; Brown, L.C.
 New York, N.Y. : American Society of Civil Engineers,
 Environmental Engineering Division; 1990 Nov.
 Journal of environmental engineering v. 116 (6): p. 1164-1180;
 1990 Nov. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Water quality; Models; Dissolved oxygen;
 Uncertainty; Statistical analysis; Monte carlo method
 
 
 36                                NAL Call. No.: RA1270.P35A1
 Ecological control on the basis of biological object response.
 Genjatulin, K.V.
 New York, N.Y. : Springer-Verlag; 1991 Mar.
 Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology v. 46
 (3): p. 387-391; 1991 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Water pollution; Pollutants; Escherichia coli;
 Bacteriophages; Viruses; Microbial activities; Toxicity;
 Resistance; Mathematical models; Quantitative analysis
 
 
 37                                     NAL Call. No.: QD1.A45
 Economical monitoring procedure for assessing agrochemical
 nonpoint source loading in unconsolidated aquifers.
 Spalding, R.F.; Exner, M.E.; Burbach, M.E.
 Washington, D.C. : The Society; 1991.
 ACS Symposium series - American Chemical Society (465): p.
 255-261; 1991.  In the series analytic: Groundwater residue
 sampling design / edited by R.G. Nash and A.R. Leslie. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Groundwater; Agricultural chemicals; Piezometers;
 Sampling; Water pollution
 
 Abstract:  Multilevel samplers (MLSs) consisting of
 piezometers and tube samplers, a logical approach for
 determining the direction of groundwater flow and chemistry in
 shallow (< 6 m) nonpoint source (NPS) groundwater
 investigations. These MLSs have evolved from fastening the
 tubing to conduit at specific depths while the conduit was
 lowered into the hollow stem auger train to the present method
 of installing preassembled MLSs in boreholes drilled by the
 reverse circulation rotary method without the use of drilling
 additives. This method allows the aquifer to be sectioned into
 discrete layers and provides an instantaneous snapshot of both
 flow and chemistry in three dimensions. The procedure has been
 used successfully at several sites in Nebraska. The method is
 cheap, fast, and accurate in areas where the depth to water is
 less than 6 m. While the same procedure can be used where
 depths to water exceed 6 m, the need for gas-driven samplers
 substantially increases the cost.
 
 
 38                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32T
 Effect of rainfall measurement time and depth resolution on EI
 calculation. Williams, R.G.; Sheridan, J.M.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1991 Mar. Transactions of the ASAE v. 34 (2): p.
 402-406; 1991 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Georgia; Water erosion; Losses from soil systems;
 Rain; Runoff; Statistical analysis; Universal soil loss
 equation
 
 Abstract:  The Rainfall Erosion Index (EI) is one of the
 primary factors in the Universal Soil Loss Equation.
 Calculation of EI is based on breakpoint rainfall records
 where breakpoints separate periods of constant rainfall
 intensity. Breakpoint data are determined from continuously
 recording, chart-type raingage records. This article examines
 the use of rainfall records for EI determination where
 accumulated depth is recorded at fixed time increments.
 Various time (1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30, and 60 min) and depth
 (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 mm) resolutions
 were superimposed on breakpoint rainfall records from Tifton,
 GA to obtain equivalent non-breakpoint records. Results of
 statistical analyses relating non-breakpoing EI values to
 breakpoint EI values are presented, along with correction
 factors for adjusting non-breakpoint EI to breakpoint EI and a
 relationship defining optimum time and depth resolution
 combinations for accurate EI calculation.
 
 
 39                                  NAL Call. No.: 292.9 AM34
 Effect of serial correction on ground water quality sampling
 frequency. Close, M.E.
 Minneapolis, Minn. : American Water Resources Association;
 1989 Jun. Water resources bulletin v. 25 (3): p. 507-515.
 maps; 1989 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New Zealand; Groundwater; Water composition and
 quality; Nitrates; Sampling techniques; Evaluation
 
 
 40                                  NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1E5
 Effect of suspended sediment concentration on the sediment to
 water partition coefficient for 1,3,6,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-
 dioxin.
 Servos, M.R.; Muir, D.C.G.
 Washington, D.C. : American Chemical Society; 1989 Oct.
 Environmental science & technology v. 23 (10): p. 1302-1306;
 1989 Oct. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Water pollution; Suspensions; Sediments;
 Concentration; Organic compounds; Pollutants; Analytical
 methods; Calculation
 
 
 41                          NAL Call. No.: TD428.A37T695 1989
 Effect of water table height and soil physical properties on
 nutrient leaching.
 Elder, L.; Chieng, S.T.
 Denver, Colo. : U.S. Committee on Irrigation and Drainage;
 1989. Toxic substances in agricultural water supply and
 drainage : an int environ perspective : papers from the Second
 Pan-American Regional Conf of the Int Commission on Irrigation
 and Drainage, Ottawa, Canada, June 8-9, 1989. p. 293-304. ill;
 1989.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: British Columbia; Water table; Height; Physical
 properties of soil; Nitrates; Leaching; Silty soils; Clay
 soils; Loam soils; Laboratory methods
 
 
 42                                    NAL Call. No.: TD403.G7
 Effects of small-scale vertical variations in well-screen
 inflow rates and concentrations of organic compounds on the
 collection of representative ground-water-quality samples.
 Gibs, J.; Brown, G.A.; Turner, K.S.; MacLeod, C.L.; Jelinski,
 J.C.; Koehnlein, S.A.
 Dublin, Ohio : Ground Water Pub. Co; 1993 Mar.
 Ground water v. 31 (2): p. 201-208; 1993 Mar.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New Jersey; Groundwater pollution; Wells; Water;
 Sampling; Pollutants; Organic compounds; Concentration
 
 Abstract:  Because a water sample collected from a well is an
 integration of water from different depths along the well
 screen, measured concentrations can be biased if analyte
 concentrations are not uniform along the length of the well
 screen. The resulting concentration in the sample, therefore,
 is a function of variations in well-screen inflow rate and
 analyte concentration with depth. A multiport sampler with
 seven short screened intervals was designed and used to
 investigate small-scale vertical variations in water chemistry
 and aquifer hydraulic conductivity in ground water
 contaminated by leaded gasoline at Galloway Township, Atlantic
 County, New Jersey. The multiport samplers were used to
 collect independent samples from seven intervals within the
 screened zone that were flow-rate weighted and integrated to
 simulate a 5-foot-long, 2.375-inch-outside-diameter
 conventional wire-wound screen. The integrations of the
 results of analyses of samples collected from two multiport
 samplers showed that a conventional 5-foot-long well screen
 would integrate contaminant concentrations over its length and
 resulted in an apparent contaminant concentration that was as
 little as 28 percent of the maximum concentration observed in
 the multiport sampler.
 
 
 43                                NAL Call. No.: RA1270.P35A1
 ELISA of simazine in soil: applications for a field leaching
 study. Goh, K.S.; Richman, S.J.; Troiano, J.; Garretson, C.L.;
 Hernandez, J.; Hsu, J.; White, J.; Barry, T.A.; Ray, M.; Tran,
 D.
 New York, N.Y. : Springer-Verlag; 1992 Apr.
 Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology v. 48
 (4): p. 554-560; 1992 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Simazine; Herbicide residues; Leaching; Soil
 water; Irrigation; Soil depth; Quantitative analysis; Elisa;
 Gas chromatography
 
 
 44                                  NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1E5
 Enantioselective determination of chlordane components using
 chiral high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
 with application to environmental samples.
 Buser, H.R.; Muller, M.D.; Rappe, C.
 Washington, D.C. : American Chemical Society; 1992 Aug.
 Environmental science & technology v. 26 (8): p. 1533-1540;
 1992 Aug. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sweden; Antarctica; Baltic sea; Chlordane; Water
 pollution; Sea water; Animal tissues; Chemical analysis;
 Herrings; Atlantic salmon; Seals; Pygoscelis; Analytical
 methods; Toxicity
 
 
 45                                  NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1E5
 EPA's analytical methods for water: the next generation.
 Hites, R.A.; Budde, W.L.
 Washington, D.C. : American Chemical Society; 1991 Jun.
 Environmental science & technology v. 25 (6): p. 998-1006;
 1991 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Water pollution; Pollutants; Organic
 compounds; Analytical methods; Environmental protection;
 Public agencies
 
 
 46                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32P
 Error control in pollutant mass load estimation.
 Magette, W.L.; Ifft, T.H.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1989.
 Paper - American Society of Agricultural Engineers (89-2517):
 12 p.; 1989. Paper presented at the 1989 International Winter
 Meeting of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,
 December 12-15, 1989, New Orleans, Louisiana.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Runoff; Pollutants; Regression analysis; Errors;
 Control
 
 
 47                                    NAL Call. No.: 56.8 SO3
 Estimation of zero-tension pan lysimeter collection
 efficiency. Jemison, J.M. Jr; Fox, R.H. Jr
 Baltimore, Md. : Williams & Wilkins; 1992 Aug.
 Soil science v. 154 (2): p. 85-94; 1992 Aug.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pennsylvania; Hapludalfs; Solutes; Leaching;
 Measurement; Lysimeters; Efficiency; Soil water; Sampling;
 Assessment; Analytical methods; Evaluation; Comparisons; Soil
 water movement; Zea mays
 
 
 48                                NAL Call. No.: S561.6.I8I35
 Evaluating the effectiveness of field demonstration programs.
 Contant, C.K.; Young, C.L.
 Ames, Iowa : The Extension; 1990 May.
 IFM - Iowa State University Extension (6): 17 p.; 1990 May. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Iowa; Demonstration farms; Field tests;
 Information; Effects; Integrated pest management; Groundwater
 pollution; Water quality; Farmers' attitudes; Extension
 education
 
 
 49                                 NAL Call. No.: QH545.A1E58
 Evaluation of EPA's rapid bioassessment benthic metrics:
 metric redundancy and variability among reference stream
 sites.
 Barbour, M.T.; Plafkin, J.L.; Bradley, B.P.; Graves, C.G.;
 Wisseman, R.W. Elmsford, N.Y. : Pergamon Press; 1992.
 Environmental toxicology and chemistry v. 11 (4): p. 432-449;
 1992.  Paper presented at the Symposium on Community Metrics
 to Detect Ecosystem Effects, 10th Annual Meeting of the
 Society of Environmental Toxicology, October 28-November 2,
 1989, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Oregon; Colorado; Kentucky; Aquatic insects;
 Aquatic communities; Aquatic environment; Water pollution;
 Pollutants; Toxicity; Community ecology; Species diversity;
 Benthos; Streams; Statistical analysis; River valleys;
 Mountain areas; Plains; Public agencies; Rapid methods
 
 
 50                                   NAL Call. No.: 56.8 J823
 Evaluation of porous ceramic cups for monitoring soil-water
 aluminium in acid soils: comment on a paper by Raulund-
 Rasmussen (1989).
 Hughes, S.; Reynolds, B.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1990 Jun.
 The Journal of soil science v. 41 (2): p. 325-328; 1990 Jun. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Acid soils; Soil solution; Aluminum; Leaching;
 Gibbsite; Solubility; Samplers; Sequential sampling;
 Monitoring
 
 
 51                                   NAL Call. No.: GB746.W33
 Evaluation of quality and detection of sources of pollution of
 subsurface waters by the gas geochemical method.
 Korobeinik, G.S.; Kostromin, A.N.; Sedova, V.K.; Trufmanova,
 E.P. New York, N.Y. : Consultants Bureau; 1989 Mar.
 Water resources v. 15 (3): p. 234-238; 1989 Mar.  Translated
 from: Vodnye Resursy,.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English; Russian
 
 Descriptors: U.S.S.R.in europe; Groundwater pollution;
 Industrial wastes; Pollutants; Water composition and quality;
 Gases; Geochemistry; Analytical methods; Aquifers;
 Hydrocarbons; Mathematics; Statistical methods
 
 
 52                                   NAL Call. No.: 292.8 J82
 Evaluation of the accuracy and precision of annual phosphorus
 load estimates from two agricultural basins in Finland.
 Rekolainen, S.; Posch, M.; Kamari, J.; Ekholm, P.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Scientific Publishers, B.V.; 1991 Nov.
 Journal of hydrology v. 128 (1/4): p. 237-255; 1991 Nov. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Finland; Agricultural land; Drainage; Runoff;
 Pollution; Phosphorus; Transport processes; Flow; Estimates;
 Sampling; Frequency; Monitoring; Mathematical models;
 Comparisons
 
 Abstract:  The accuracy and precision of phosphorus load
 estimates from two agricultural drainage basins in western
 Finland were evaluated, based on continuous flow measurements
 and frequent flow-proportional sampling of total phosphorus
 concentration during a 2 year period. The objective was to
 compare different load calculation methods and to evaluate
 alternative sampling strategies. An hourly data set of
 concentrations was constructed by linear interpolation, and
 these data were used in Monte Carlo runs for producing
 replicate data sets for calculating the accuracy and precision
 of load estimates. All estimates were compared with reference
 values computed from the complete hourly data sets. The load
 calculation methods based on summing the products of regularly
 sampled flows and concentrations produced the best precision,
 whereas the best accuracy was achieved using methods based on
 multiplying annual flow by flow-weighted annual mean
 concentration. When comparing different sampling strategies,
 concentrating sampling in high runoff periods (spring and
 autumn) was found to give better accuracy and precision than
 strategies based on regular interval sampling throughout the
 year. However, the best result was obtained by taking samples
 flow-proportionally within the highest peak flows plus
 additional regular interval (e.g. biweekly) samples outside
 these flow peaks. Using this strategy, which calls for
 automatic sampling equipment, accuracies better than 5% and
 precisions better than 10% can be achieved with only 30-50
 samples per year.
 
 
 53                                     NAL Call. No.: QD1.A45
 Experiences and knowledge gained from vadose zone sampling.
 Starr, J.L.; Meisinger, J.J.; Parkin, T.B.
 Washington, D.C. : The Society; 1991.
 ACS Symposium series - American Chemical Society (465): p.
 279-289; 1991.  In the series analytic: Groundwater residue
 sampling design / edited by R.G. Nash and A.R. Leslie. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Groundwater; Water pollution; Agricultural
 chemicals; Sampling
 
 Abstract:  Vadose zone sampling offers an opportunity for
 assessing the impact on groundwater quality of chemicals
 applied at the land surface. Many interacting factors control
 the fate of chemicals in the field cause major sampling
 problems even for experienced researchers. Underlying any
 sampling program is the absolute need to clearly define the
 study's objectives. The sampling procedure should then be
 developed with a clear conceptual view of the physical,
 chemical, and biological processes that affect the fate of the
 chemical(s) under investigation. Basic questions regarding the
 spatial, temporal, and statistical distributions of specific
 parameters must also be addressed in developing an efficient
 sampling plan. There is no "best sampling method" for all
 situations, rather, there are several techniques with
 attendant advantages and disadvantages. An efficient sampling
 plan considers: the underlying processes; spatial, temporal,
 and statistical distributions of important parameters; and
 limited resources to answer the study's objectives.
 
 
 54                                   NAL Call. No.: TD201.A72
 Experiences of quality control of raw water storage
 reservoirs. Clasen, J.; Bernhardt, H.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1989 Aug.
 Aqua v. 38 (4): p. 256-264. ill., maps; 1989 Aug.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Water storage; Water composition and quality;
 Reservoirs; Quality controls; Physico-chemical properties;
 Algae; Biology; Sampling techniques
 
 
 55                       NAL Call. No.: GB701.W375 no.88-4178
 An experiment in representative ground-water sampling for
 water-quality analysis.
 Huntzinger, Thomas L.; Stullken, Lloyd E.
 Toxic Waste-Ground-Water Contamination Program (U.S.)
 Lawrence, Kan. : The Survey ; Denver, Colo. : Books and Open-
 File Reports [distributor], 1988 [i.e.; 1989; I
 19.42/4:88-4178.
 iv, 12 p. : ill., 1 map ; 28 cm. (Water-resources
 investigations report ; 4178.).  Bibliography: p. 12.
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Water, Underground; Kansas; Sampling
 
 
 56                                 NAL Call. No.: QH545.A1E58
 Experimental designs for aquatic mesocosm studies: a
 comparison of the "ANOVA" and "regression" design for
 assessing the impact of tetrachlorophenol on zooplankton
 populations in limnocorrals.
 Liber, K.; Kaushik, N.K.; Solomon, K.R.; Carey, J.H.
 Elmsford, N.Y. : Pergamon Press; 1992.
 Environmental toxicology and chemistry v. 11 (1): p. 61-77;
 1992.  Paper presented at the "Symposium on Aquatic Mesocosms
 in Ecotoxicology," Tenth Annual Meeting of the Society of
 Environmental Toxicology, October 28-November 2, 1989,
 Toronto, Ontario, Canada.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Organochlorine compounds; Biocides; Phenols;
 Water pollution; Toxicity; Zooplankton; Lakes; Experimental
 design; Analysis of variance; Regression analysis; Aquatic
 environment
 
 
 57                                    NAL Call. No.: TD201.A4
 A fast and accurate method for solving subsurface contaminant
 transport problems with a single uncertain parameter.
 Ahlfeld, D.P.; Pinder, G.F.
 Essex : Elsevier Science Publishers Ltd; 1992.
 Advances in water resources v. 15 (2): p. 143-150; 1992. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Groundwater pollution; Contaminants; Transport;
 Equations; Random sampling; Stochastic models; Groundwater
 flow; Hydraulic conductivity
 
 
 58                                    NAL Call. No.: 56.9 SO3
 Fiberglass wicks for sampling of water and solutes in the
 vadose zone. Boll, J.; Steenhuis, T.S.; Selker, J.S.
 Madison, Wis. : The Society; 1992 May.
 Soil Science Society of America journal v. 56 (3): p. 701-707;
 1992 May. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Soil water; Recharge; Water quality; Monitoring;
 Sampling; Wicking property; Groundwater recharge; Groundwater
 pollution
 
 Abstract:  Sampling solute concentrations in the vadose zone
 provides an early-warning system for groundwater pollution.
 Various sampling devices are available. This study evaluates
 the functionality of fiberglass wicks in a soil solution
 sampler. Fiberglass wicks act as a hanging water column,
 drawing water from the undisturbed field soil without external
 application of suction. Flow characteristics of wicks were
 observed in the laboratory by miscible-displacement tests
 using Br and an organic dye. The matric potential in the wick
 as a function of flow rate was measured. Fiberglass wicks
 behaved like a porous medium that effectively could apply a
 suction to the soil while only minimally retarding the organic
 dye. The relationship between matric potential, moisture
 content, and unsaturated conductivity was determined for
 several wicks. Based on these relationships, a set of curves
 was produced depicting travel time of nonadsorbed chemicals
 and the matric potential in the wick as a function of flow
 rate. These curves can be used for selecting optimum wick
 length and diameter for a given sampler configuration.
 
 
 59                              NAL Call. No.: TD475.C66 1991
 Field demonstration of biological denitrification of polluted
 groundwater and pilot scale field testing of biological
 denitrification with widely varied hydraulic loading rates.
 Cook, Nevis E.; Silverstein, JoAnn; Veydovec, Bill
 Colorado Water Resources Research Institute
 Fort Collins, Colo. : Colorado Water Resources Research
 Institute,; 1991. 27, [1], 11 p. : ill. ; 28 cm. (Completion
 report (Colorado Water Resources Research Institute) ; no.
 162.).  December 15, 1991.  Grant nos: 14-08-0001-G1551-01,
 14-08-0001-G1551-04, project nos.: 03 and 09.  ... financed in
 part by the U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Geological Survey ...
 Includes bibliographical references (p. [28]).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Denitrification; Water
 
 
 60                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J824
 Field evaluation of the MUG assay for enumerating Escherichia
 coli in seawater and oysters from southeastern United States.
 Motes, M.L. Jr; Peeler, J.T.
 Ames, Iowa : International Association of Milk, Food, and
 Environmental Sanitarians; 1991 Apr.
 Journal of food protection v. 54 (4): p. 246-248; 1991 Apr. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Southeastern states of U.S.A.; Oysters; Food
 contamination; Sea water; Pollution; Fecal coliforms;
 Escherichia coli; Bacterial count; Bioassays; Laboratory
 methods; Evaluation
 
 Abstract:  Oysters and seawater collected from the
 southeastern United States were examined for fecal coliforms
 and Escherichia coli, using the current procedure of the
 American Public Health Association (APHA) and the fluorogenic
 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG) modified APHA
 procedure. After the presence of E. coli in both methods was
 confirmed by conventional IMViC procedures, there was no
 significant difference between method means at the alpha =
 0.05 level. In oysters, low confirmation rates of 67 and 77%
 were observed by the APHA and the MUG methods, respectively.
 Seawater had the greatest confirmation rates (95%) by the MUG
 method. The MUG method may be a suitable alternative to the
 current APHA method for the microbiological evaluation of
 oysters and seawater.
 
 
 61                                    NAL Call. No.: QK745.J6
 Gas chromatography determination of flurprimidol in a
 submersed aquatic plant (Myriophyllum spicatum), soil, and
 water.
 Chand, T.; Lembi, C.A.
 New York, N.Y. : Springer; 1991.
 Journal of plant growth regulation v. 10 (2): p. 73-78; 1991. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Myriophyllum spicatum; Aquatic weeds;
 Flurprimidol; Half life; Persistence; Herbicide residues;
 Roots; Shoots; Buds; Quantitative analysis; Soil water; Water
 quality; Extraction; Gas chromatography; Mass spectrometry
 
 Abstract:  Methods for the extraction and quantification of
 flurprimidol residues in Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum
 spicatum), soil, and water are described. The compound was
 detected and quantified by gas chromatography (GC) with a
 thermionic specific detector. Its identity was confirmed by
 gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with detection at
 m/e 40-320. Recoveries from samples spiked with flurprimidol
 at 10-10,000 ng ml-1 or g-1 averaged 86.8% for Eurasian
 watermilfoil shoots, 85.2% for roots, 79.3% for loam soil, and
 93.3% for water. In a small-scale experiment under field
 conditions, approximately 88% of the applied flurprimidol
 dissipated in 4 weeks. The majority of recovered flurprimidol
 was found in the water and upper 5 cm soil layer. The half-
 life of the compound in water was 6.8-8 days during June/July
 1989.
 
 
 62                                    NAL Call. No.: TD403.G7
 A general statistical procedure for ground-water detection
 monitoring at waste disposal facilities.
 Gibbons, R.D.
 Dublin, Ohio : Water Well Journal Publishers; 1990 Mar.
 Ground water v. 28 (2): p. 235-243; 1990 Mar.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Groundwater; Water pollution; Waste disposal
 sites; Detection; Monitoring; Wells; Statistical methods
 
 
 63                                NAL Call. No.: TD428.A86G64
 Geostatistical, sensitivity, and uncertainty methods for
 ground-water flow and radionuclide transport modeling.
 Buxton, Bruce E.,
 United States, Dept. of Energy, Atomic Energy of Canada
 Limited DOE/AECL '87 Conference on Geostatistical,
 Sensitivity, and Uncertainty Methods for Ground-Water Flow and
 Radionuclide Transport Modeling 1987 : San Francisco, Calif.
 Columbus, OH : Battelle Press,; 1989.
 x, 670 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.  Papers presented at the DOE/AECL
 '87 Conference on Geostatistical, Sensitivity, and Uncertainty
 Methods for Ground-Water Flow and Radionuclide Transport
 Modeling held in San Francisco, on Sept. 15-17, 1987. Includes
 bibliographies and index.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Nuclear power plants; Waste disposal;
 Environmental aspects; Mathematical models; Congresses;
 Radioactive pollution of water; Mathematical models;
 Congresses; Water, Underground; Pollution; Mathematical
 models; Congresses; Groundwater flow; Statistical methods;
 Congresses
 
 
 64                                     NAL Call. No.: QD1.A45
 Geostatistics for sampling designs and analysis.
 Gutjahr, A.
 Washington, D.C. : The Society; 1991.
 ACS Symposium series - American Chemical Society (465): p.
 48-90; 1991.  In the series analytic: Groundwater residue
 sampling design / edited by R.G. Nash and A.R. Leslie. 
 Includes statistical data.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pesticide residues; Groundwater; Water pollution;
 Sampling; Statistical analysis
 
 Abstract:  Spatial variability and its affect on groundwater
 flow and transport is an active research field. The
 characterization of that spatial (and possible temporal)
 variability can often be done effectively by using
 geostatistical techniques. The methods used and the
 implications for designs and analysis of groundwater transport
 and pollution problems will be discussed and illustrated.
 Discussion will include the incorporation of soft-data and
 their utility.
 
 
 65                                NAL Call. No.: TD196.P38L66
 Global monitoring of organochlorine insecticides: an 11-year
 case study (1975-1985) of HCHs and DDTs in the open ocean
 atmosphere and hydrosphere. Tatsukawa, R.; Yamaguchi, Y.;
 Kawano, M.; Kannan, N.; Tanabe, S. Chelsea, Mich. : Lewis
 Publishers; 1990.
 Long range transport of pesticides / David A. Kurtz, editor.
 p. 127-141; 1990.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ddt; Hch; Air pollutants; Case studies; Chemical
 analysis; Marine areas; Monitoring; Sampling; Spatial
 distribution; Water pollution
 
 
 66                                   NAL Call. No.: 56.8 J822
 Groundwater quality assessment through cooperative private
 well testing: an Ohio example.
 Baker, D.B.
 Ankeny, Iowa : Soil and Water Conservation Society of America;
 1990 Mar. Journal of soil and water conservation v. 45 (2): p.
 230-235. ill., maps; 1990 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ohio; Groundwater; Water quality; Wells; Sampling
 
 
 67                              NAL Call. No.: QD1.A45 no.465
 Groundwater residue sampling design.
 Nash, Ralph G.,_1930-; Leslie, Anne R.,
 American Chemical Society, Division of Agrochemicals, American
 Chemical Society, Division of Environmental Chemistry,
 American Chemical Society, Meeting_1990 :_Boston, Mass.)
 Washington, D.C. : American Chemical Society,; 1991.
 xii, 395 p. : ill., maps ; 24 cm. (ACS symposium series, 465). 
 Developed from a symposium sponsored by the Divisions of
 Agrochemicals and of Environmental Chemistry at the 199th
 National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Boston,
 Massachusetts, April 22-27, 1990.  Includes bibliographical
 references and indexes.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Agricultural chemicals; Water, Underground; Soil
 pollution
 
 
 68                                     NAL Call. No.: QD1.A45
 Groundwater residue sampling: overview of the approach taken
 by government agencies.
 Nash, R.G.; Helling, C.S.; Ragone, S.E.; Leslie, A.R.
 Washington, D.C. : The Society; 1991.
 ACS Symposium series - American Chemical Society (465): p.
 1-13; 1991.  In the series analytic: Groundwater residue
 sampling design / edited by R.G. Nash and A.R. Leslie. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pesticide residues; Groundwater; Water pollution;
 Sampling; Nitrogen
 
 Abstract:  Recognition that nitrogen applied as fertilizer may
 reach groundwater has been known for two to three decades. It
 is only in the past decade that evidence has become available
 suggesting pesticides may leach to groundwater, also. The
 evidence, though mostly anecdotal, has raised the nation's
 awareness of the potential for contamination of our water
 resources, the need to ascertain the extent of the problem,
 and ways to prevent it. Because of the complexity of natural
 systems, an interdisciplinary study approach is needed to
 provide information for cost-effective solutions to the
 problem.
 
 
 69                                     NAL Call. No.: QD1.A45
 Groundwater-sampling network to study agrochemical effects on
 water quality in the unconfined aquifer: southeastern
 Delaware.
 Denver, J.M.
 Washington, D.C. : The Society; 1991.
 ACS Symposium series - American Chemical Society (465): p.
 139-149; 1991.  In the series analytic: Groundwater residue
 sampling design / edited by R.G. Nash and A.R. Leslie. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Delaware; Groundwater; Agricultural chemicals;
 Water quality; Sampling
 
 Abstract:  Understanding local and regional groundwater-flow
 patterns was necessary to design a sampling network to study
 the movement and distribution of agrochemicals in the
 unconfined aquifer in southeastern Delaware. Clusters of wells
 completed at various depths were installed in the expected
 direction of local groundwater flow along a transect from the
 center of a 100-ha cultivated field toward a nearby stream.
 Contrary to expectations, groundwater flow in the study area
 is almost parallel to the stream, in the direction of regional
 flow. Consequently, agrochemicals from the site migrate along
 flow paths from source (recharge) areas to distant regional
 discharge areas and do not significantly influence the water
 quality in the stream. The sampling network was expanded
 upgradient and downgradient from the original site during a
 second phase of the study. The expanded network provided
 better understanding of agrochemical distribution relative to
 regional groundwater-flow patterns.
 
 
 70                                    NAL Call. No.: TD172.A7
 High performance liquid chromatographic separation of fish
 biliary polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites.
 Deshpande, A.D.
 New York, N.Y. : Springer-Verlag; 1989 Nov.
 Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology v. 18
 (6): p. 900-907. maps; 1989 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Water pollution; Pollutants; Aromatic
 hydrocarbons; Metabolites; Toxicity; Fish; Biliary system;
 Analytical methods; Liquid chromatography
 
 
 71                                NAL Call. No.: S544.3.N3C66
 How to test your well water and understanding the results.
 Hammond, B.; Lewis, S.R.; Johnson, W.S.; Spoon, E.
 Reno, Nev. : The College; 1992.
 Fact sheet - College of Agriculture, University of Nevada-
 Reno, Nevada Cooperative Extension (92-17): 6 p.; 1992. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Wells; Water quality; Standards; Tests; Sampling
 
 
 72                                    NAL Call. No.: QH540.J6
 A hydride generation atomic absorption technique for arsenic
 speciation. Masscheleyn, P.H.; Delaune, R.D.; Patrick, W.H. Jr
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Jan.
 Journal of environmental quality v. 20 (1): p. 96-100; 1991
 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Louisiana; Arsenic; Analytical methods; Atomic
 absorption spectrophotometry; Contaminants; River water;
 Sediment; Soil pollution; Soil testing; Water pollution
 
 Abstract:  Based on an investigation of hydride generation
 responses in solutions of various acidities containing
 nanogram quantities of arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [AS(V)],
 monomethylarsonic acid (MMAA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA)
 a sensitive analytical method for the accurate determination
 of inorganic and organic As species in aqueous solutions was
 developed. After a pH-selective reduction, the arsenic species
 were condensed in a U-tube filled with a gas chromatographic
 packing immersed in liquid N2. The species were then separated
 by slow warming of the trap and measured with an atomic
 absorption spectrophotometer. The arsines from inorganic As
 (III) were selectively generated from a solution buffered at a
 pH of 6.0. The solution of then further acidified to a pH
 corresponding to 2 M HCl and analyzed for As(V). A second
 sample aliquot, buffered at pH 1.5 with oxalic acid, was used
 for the quantitative determination of [As(III)+As(V)], MMAA
 and DMAA.
 
 
 73                                    NAL Call. No.: 56.9 SO3
 Imhoff cone determination of sediment in irrigation runoff.
 Sojka, R.E.; Carter, D.L.; Brown, M.J.
 Madison, Wis. : The Society; 1992 May.
 Soil Science Society of America journal v. 56 (3): p. 884-890;
 1992 May. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigated soils; Furrow irrigation; Water
 erosion; Soil; Losses from soil; Runoff; Sediment;
 Measurement; Analytical methods; Evaluation
 
 Abstract:  There is a need to rapidly quantify erosion from
 irrigated farmland. The prevailing method consists of
 collecting runoff samples, then filtering, drying and weighing
 them to determine sediment concentration. Labor cost and slow
 data availability prompted development of a faster, less
 expensive technique. Sediment settling volume in a graduated
 vessel was expected to correlate well with total mass of
 suspended sediment. Eight soils varying in texture,
 mineralogy, and organic-matter content were sampled,
 fragmented, and air dried. A series of 1-L suspensions was
 prepared with sediment concentrations from 1 to 30 g L-1.
 Samples were either hand shaken for 30 s or mechanically
 blended for 60 s. Suspensions were decanted into graduated
 Imhoff cones and allowed to settle for 0.5 h (1800 s). The
 series was repented three times for each soil. Settling volume
 was regressed against sediment concentration (total sediment,
 g L-1). Field calibrations for two soils were developed from
 furrow runoff samples. Laboratory regressions had a mean r2 of
 0.99. Field regressions of two soils had r2 of 0.94 or higher.
 Cone design did not permit accurate volume estimates o( the
 first 1 mL, causing slopes and intercepts to very among field
 regressions for sediment concentrations < 1.0 g L-1. These
 samples, however, represent negligible erosion, and therefore
 have little value. Slope and intercept of field regressions
 corresponded closely to 30-s-shaken laboratory regressions but
 different statistically at P less than or equal to 0.05. The
 technique provided a rapid, inexpensive, and accurate. rate
 suspended-sediment determination in the field for
 concentrations > 1.0 g L-1. Several settling-volume
 predictions based on textural components and organic-matter
 content had r2 > 0.60. Laboratory 30-s hand-shaken
 calibrations may be adequate for diagnostic purposes, but
 individual field calibrations should be performed for research
 purposes.
 
 
 74                                   NAL Call. No.: TD426.J68
 Importance of closely spaced vertical sampling in delineating
 chemical and microbiological gradients in groundwater studies.
 Smith, R.L.; Harvey, R.W.; LeBlanc, D.R.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier; 1991 Feb.
 Journal of contaminant hydrology v. 7 (3): p. 285-300. ill.,
 maps; 1991 Feb. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Massachusetts; Groundwater pollution; Aquifers;
 Pollutants; Bacteria; Nitrates; Organic compounds; Profiles;
 Hydraulic conductivity; Movement in soil; Vertical movement;
 Samples; Collection; Gradients
 
 
 75                                  NAL Call. No.: HC79.P55J6
 Integrating fishery and water resource management: a
 biological model of a California salmon fishery.
 Fisher, A.C.; Hanemann, W.M.; Keeler, A.G.
 Duluth, Minn. : Academic Press; 1991 May.
 Journal of environmental economics and management v. 20 (3):
 p. 234-261; 1991 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Salmon; Fishery management; Water
 resources; Water management; Water flow; Hatcheries;
 Regulations; Water quality; Fresh water; Deltas; Dynamic
 models; Populations; Trends; Simulation; Quantitative analysis
 
 
 76                                     NAL Call. No.: S583.A7
 Interlaboratory study on the analysis of chlorobiphenyl
 congeners. Boer, J. de; Duinker, J.C.; Calder, J.A.; Meer, J
 van der Arlington, VA : AOAC International; 1992 Nov.
 Journal of AOAC International v. 75 (6): p. 1054-1062; 1992
 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Water pollution; Marine fouling; Polychlorinated
 biphenyls; Residues; Determination; Contamination; Sediment;
 Marine areas; Seals; Animal fat; Analytical methods
 
 
 77                                NAL Call. No.: 275.29 IO9PA
 Iowa statewide rural well water survey.
 Stoltenberg, D.; Vaughan, M.
 Ames, Iowa : The Service; 1990 Oct.
 PM - Iowa State University, Cooperative Extension Service
 (1396): 4 p.; 1990 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Iowa; Groundwater; Wells; Water quality;
 Sampling; Contaminants; Pesticides; Coliform bacteria
 
 
 78                                  NAL Call. No.: 280.8 J822
 IQ and lead exposure: analytic issues arising in the water
 lead and gasoline lead standards.
 Pitcher, H.M.
 Ames, Iowa : American Agricultural Economics Association; 1989
 May. American journal of agricultural economics v. 71 (2): p.
 475-479; 1989 May. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Water composition and quality; Petroleum;
 Lead poisoning; Intelligence; Health hazards; Environmental
 pollution; Dosage effect; Analytical methods; Quality
 standards
 
 
 79                                   NAL Call. No.: TD426.J68
 Laboratory and field measurements of non-equilibrium transport
 in the Borden aquifer, Ontario, Canada.
 Ptacek, C.J.; Gillham, R.W.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier; 1992 Jul.
 Journal of contaminant hydrology v. 10 (2): p. 119-158; 1992
 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ontario; Aquifers; Groundwater pollution;
 Halogenated hydrocarbons; Prediction; Laboratory methods;
 Sorption; Equilibration; Field experimentation; Equations
 
 
 80                                   NAL Call. No.: 292.8 J82
 Laboratory and numerical investigations of immiscible
 multiphase flow in soil. Host-Madsen, J.; Jensen, K.H.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Scientific Publishers, B.V.; 1992 Jul.
 Journal of hydrology v. 135 (1/4): p. 13-52; 1992 Jul. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Soil pollution; Groundwater pollution; Petroleum;
 Flow; Hydraulics; Laboratory tests; Simulation models;
 Mathematical models; Quantitative analysis
 
 Abstract:  Immiscible multiphase flow in porous media is
 investigated by laboratory experiments and numerical
 simulations. The hydraulic parameters used in mathematical
 models for multiphase flow are determined experimentally, and
 the interrelations between the individual parameters are
 analysed. The experimental data support the applicability of
 analytical closed-form expressions for the constitutive
 relations, and a scaling procedure is verified in which the
 interfacial tensions are used to derive scaling factors. These
 simplifications in the parameter requirements are very
 valuable from an engineering point of view. A two-dimensional
 plexiglass flume is used for studying the flow of lighter-
 than-water, non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPL) in sandy porous
 media. The migration of the LNAPL is observed both in the
 unsaturated zone and in the saturated zone at the bottom of
 the flume. A dual-gamma attenuation system is used for
 measuring the phase saturations of organic fluid, water, and
 air simultaneously without disturbing the flow. This permits a
 two-dimensional quantitative determination of the LNAPL plume
 in contrast to many earlier qualitative studies. A black oil
 reservoir model is used to simulate immiscible multiphase
 flow. By using the parameter estimation methods presented for
 establishing the constitutive relations, the model is applied
 to the simulation of the laboratory experiments. The
 experimental and numerical results compare reasonably well,
 thus supporting the adopted model formulation.
 
 
 81                                    NAL Call. No.: QH540.J6
 Leaching of nitrate from monolith lysimeters of different
 types of agricultural soils.
 Bergstrom, L.; Johansson, R.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Oct.
 Journal of environmental quality v. 20 (4): p. 801-807; 1991
 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Nitrate; Leaching; Drainage; Nitrate fertilizers;
 Lysimeters; Lysimetry; Soil organic matter; Agricultural
 soils; Peat soils; Clay soils; Sandy loam soils; Sandy soils;
 Loam soils; Monolith sampling; Leachates; Hordeum vulgare
 
 Abstract:  Nitrate leaching was measured in field lysimeters
 containing undisturbed soils of different texture and organic
 matter content. Spring barley (Hordeum distichum L.) was sown
 on each lysimeter and fertilized with 100 kg N ha-1. Each soil
 type received supplementary watering to simulate either
 "average" or "worst-case" precipitation. The largest leaching
 losses of NO3-, ca. 65 kg N ha-1 yr-1, occurred in a sandy
 soil that contained little organic matter and in a peat soil.
 Two loamy soils lost between 25 and 40 kg N ha-1 yr-1.
 Smallest leaching losses, ca. 20 kg N ha-1 yr-1 or less,
 occurred in a clay soil and another sandy soil rich in organic
 matter. With the exception of the clay and peat soils, the
 watering treatment did not significantly affect the amounts of
 NO3- leached, although the temporal distribution of leaching
 was clearly influenced by weather conditions. The difference
 in leaching between the two sandy soils was explained by
 differences in crop growth, whereas leaching differences
 between soil types were mainly considered to be due to
 different textural and structural properties. The results show
 that to make a thorough comparison of NO3-leaching between
 different soil types they have to be tested simultaneously at
 the same site.
 
 
 82                                   NAL Call. No.: QH540.I52
 A liquid membrane enrichment technique for integrating field
 sampling in water applied to MCPA.
 Mathiasson, L.; Nilve, G.; Ulen, B.
 Reading: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers; 1991.
 International journal of environmental analytical chemistry v.
 45 (2): p. 117-125; 1991.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mcpa; Herbicide residues; Water pollution;
 Analytical methods; Sampling; Liquid chromatography
 
 
 83                                    NAL Call. No.: 56.9 SO3
 Macropore characterization for two tillage systems using
 resin-impregnation technique.
 Singh, P.; Kanwar, R.S.; Thompson, M.L.
 Madison, Wis. : The Society; 1991 Nov.
 Soil Science Society of America journal v. 55 (6): p.
 1674-1679; 1991 Nov. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Loam soils; No-tillage; Tillage; Continuous
 cropping; Zea mays; Macropores; Soil micromorphology;
 Characterization; Laboratory methods; Imagery; Polyesters;
 Resins; Comparisons; Field experimentation; Solutes; Leaching;
 Measurement; Porosity; Bulk density; Soil depth; Soil water
 content; Soil water movement
 
 Abstract:  This study used resin impregnation and image
 analysis to characterize macroporosity of a Nicollet loam soil
 (fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Aquic Hapludoll) under no-tillage
 and conventional tillage. Soil samples (7.5 by 5 by 5 cm) were
 taken at each 5-cm depth interval to determine macroporosity
 after conducting solute-leaching experiments on undisturbed
 soil columns. These soil samples were impregnated with either
 polyester or epoxy resin. Impregnated soil blocks were
 sectioned in the middle and ground to a smooth finish.
 Photographic slides were made of the horizontal faces and an
 automatic image analyzer was used to calculate the percentage
 of area occupied by macropores, and total perimeter, number,
 and size-frequency distribution of macropores. Percentage of
 area, perimeter, and number of macropores were not
 statistically different for the two treatments. Macroporosity
 data obtained from the samples did not support the
 observations made in the solute-leaching studies on saturated
 soil columns (i.e., a greater degree of preferential flow in
 no-tillage columns) because the air-dried samples and the
 saturated columns had different porosity characteristics and
 because small, two-dimensional images were unable to sample
 any less frequently occurring larger pores. Another source of
 discrepancy between the results of the two studies may be
 macropore continuity. Two-dimensional analysis of porosity
 images does not provide a measure of pore continuity, which
 can be a decisive factor in solute transport through soil
 columns under different tillage systems. Results from the
 resin-impregnation study were not consistent with the results
 of a related field study. Inconsistency between the
 macroporosity data of these two studies were attributed to:
 the difference in minimum cut-off diameter of macropores in
 the two studies, the difference in sample size, and the
 difference in moisture status of the field and lab samples.
 
 
 84                                   NAL Call. No.: S590.S652
 Measures for runoff and erosion control on clayey soils: a
 review of trails carried out in the Apennines hilly area.
 Chisci, G.
 Cremlingen-Destedt, West Germany : CATENA-Verlag; 1989.
 Soil technology series (1): p. 53-71; 1989.  In the series
 analytic: Soil erosion protection measures in Europe / edited
 by U. Schwertmann, R.J. Rickson, and K. Auerswald. Proceedings
 of the European Community Workshop on Soil Erosion Protection,
 May 24-26, 1988, Freising, Germany.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Italy; Clay soils; Erosion control; Field tests;
 Runoff
 
 
 85                                    NAL Call. No.: TD172.A7
 Metal concentrations and tissues distribution in larvae of
 Chironomus with reference to X-ray microprobe analysis.
 Krantzberg, G.; Stokes, P.M.
 New York, N.Y. : Springer-Verlag; 1990 Jan.
 Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology v. 19
 (1): p. 84-93; 1990 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Chironomus; Larvae; Water pollution; Metals;
 Uptake; Chemical analysis; Analytical methods; Tissue
 analysis; Distribution
 
 
 86                                   NAL Call. No.: 56.8 J823
 A method for assessing the goodness of computer simulation of
 soil processes. Whitmore, A.P.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1991 Jun.
 The Journal of soil science v. 42 (2): p. 289-299; 1991 Jun. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Soil testing; Bromide; Diffusion; Nitrate
 nitrogen; Leaching; Movement in soil; Computer simulation;
 Simulation models; Assessment; Evaluation; Statistical
 analysis; Statistical data; Measurement; Variation;
 Experimental design; Replication; Temporal variation;
 Mathematics; Errors
 
 Abstract:  Any satisfactory computer simulation model of a
 soil process must match actual behaviour in the laboratory or
 field; a model can be evaluated by how well it does so. This
 paper describes a method for assessing models using anion
 diffusion and nitrate leaching as examples. The method
 partitions the sum of squares of the differences between
 measurement and simulation into two components, one calculated
 from the differences between the simulation and the mean of
 replicate measurements (the 'lack of fit'), and the other
 calculated from the variance within each set of replicate
 measurements (the 'pure error'). If the former is not
 significantly larger than the latter than the data present no
 grounds for rejecting the model. Where a model simulates the
 change in a process with time the method can also take account
 of how experimental error in the initial measurements affects
 the goodness of fit of the simulation of subsequent
 measurements. The method is particularly valuable where it is
 difficult or costly to take many replicate measurements, such
 as often happens in soil science or agriculture; nonetheless,
 some replicates must be taken.
 
 
 87                                    NAL Call. No.: TD172.A7
 A method for the trace analysis of naptalam (N-1-
 naphthylphthalamic acid) in water.
 Wolfe, M.F.; Seiber, J.N.
 New York, N.Y. : Springer-Verlag; 1992 Jul.
 Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology v. 23
 (1): p. 137-141; 1992 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Water pollution; Naptalam; Herbicide residues;
 Chemical analysis; Water; Sampling; Analytical methods
 
 
 88                                    NAL Call. No.: 56.9 SO3
 A method to secure, leach, and incubate undisturbed soil
 cores. Myers, R.G.; Swallow, C.W.; Kissel, D.E.
 Madison, Wis. : The Society; 1989 Mar.
 Soil Science Society of America journal v. 53 (2): p. 467-471.
 ill; 1989 Mar. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Core sampling; Undisturbed sampling; Incubation;
 Leaching; Laboratory methods; Field moisture conditions;
 Nitrogen mineralization; Measurement; Accuracy; Apparatus
 
 Abstract:  Accurate N fertilizer recommendations depend upon
 knowing the amount of soil organic N that is mineralized. A
 promising method developed by Stanford and Smith (1972) to
 predict N mineralized with disturbed soil samples allows for
 adjustment in the mineralization rate due to field variations
 in soil temperature and water. Recent work has indicated that
 undisturbed soil cores could more closely represent the field
 soil and its mineralization characteristics. Therefore, a
 method was needed to secure undisturbed soil cores in a
 container that would maintain their field integrity and allow
 them to be incubated and leached periodically as per Stanford
 and Smith's technique. The method utilizes a 6.3-cm i.d.
 polyvinyl chloride (PVC) compression coupler to hold an
 undisturbed soil core. The undisturbed soil sampling device
 consists of a lever and anchor system, which can put pressure
 on a soil cutter and adjustment bar to force soil into the
 coupler. After a soil core is obtained from the field, the
 coupler is adapted so that the soil within can be leached,
 equilibrated to a constant water potential, and incubated. In
 extensive sampling of 19 soils that varied widely in clay and
 organic C contents, samples could be obtained rapidly if soil
 was near field capacity. This method of sampling and
 incubation was relatively inexpensive and simple, and produced
 data of cumulative N mineralized with time that could be fit
 with a first-order kinetic model.
 
 
 89                                     NAL Call. No.: QD1.A45
 Minimum cost sample allocation.
 Mason, R.E.; Boland, J.
 Washington, D.C. : The Society; 1991.
 ACS Symposium series - American Chemical Society (465): p.
 91-107; 1991.  In the series analytic: Groundwater residue
 sampling design / edited by R.G. Nash and A.R. Leslie. 
 Includes statistical data.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pesticide residues; Groundwater; Water pollution;
 Statistical analysis; Models; Variance; Sampling
 
 Abstract:  A procedure for determining the minimum cost
 allocation of samples subject to multiple variance constraints
 is described. The procedure is illustrated using information
 developed for the National Pesticide Survey conducted by the
 United States Environmental Protection Agency.
 
 
 90                                NAL Call. No.: S561.6.I8I35
 Monitoring audience response to demonstration projects--
 baseline reports: Des Moines County.
 Padgitt, S.C.
 Ames, Iowa : The Extension; 1990 Jun.
 IFM - Iowa State University Extension (8): 29 p.; 1990 Jun. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Iowa; Demonstration farms; Field tests;
 Information; Effects; Conservation tillage; Farmers'
 attitudes; Groundwater pollution; Water quality; Extension
 education; Surveys
 
 
 91                                    NAL Call. No.: TD403.G7
 Multivariate geostatistical analysis of ground-water
 contamination: a case history.
 Istok, J.D.; Smyth, J.D.; Flint, A.L.
 Dublin, Ohio : Ground Water Pub. Co; 1993 Jan.
 Ground water v. 31 (1): p. 63-74; 1993 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Oregon; Groundwater pollution; Pesticide
 residues; Nitrates; Aquifers; Water; Sampling; Multivariate
 analysis
 
 
 92                                  NAL Call. No.: 292.9 AM34
 New Zealand's national water quality monitoring network--
 design and first year's operation.
 Smith, D.G.; McBride, G.B.
 Minneapolis, Minn. : American Water Resources Association;
 1990 Oct. Water resources bulletin v. 26 (5): p. 767-775.
 maps; 1990 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New Zealand; Surface water; Water quality;
 Monitoring; Sampling; Data collection; Data analysis
 
 Abstract:  The design and implementation of a national surface
 water quality monitoring network for New Zealand are
 described. Some of the lessons learned from the first year of
 operation are also addressed. Underpinning the design, and
 specified in advance, are the goal and objectives, the data
 quality assurance system, and the mechanism for data
 interpretation and reporting. Because of the difficulties
 associated with the use of a multitude of different agencies,
 only one agency is involved in field work and one laboratory
 undertakes the analysis. Staff training has been given a high
 priority. The network has been designed to give good trend
 detectability for regular sampling over a 5-10 year period.
 
 
 93                                    NAL Call. No.: TD172.A7
 Paritcle beam/liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry of
 national pesticide survey analytes.
 Miles, C.J.; Doerge, D.R.; Bajic, S.
 New York, N.Y. : Springer-Verlag; 1992 Feb.
 Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology v. 22
 (2): p. 247-251; 1992 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Groundwater pollution; Pesticides;
 Surveys; Environmental protection; Public agencies; Analytical
 methods
 
 
 94                                   NAL Call. No.: 56.8 J822
 Participation in the CRP: implications of the New York
 experience. Force, D.; Bills, N.
 Ankeny, Iowa : Soil and Water Conservation Society of America;
 1989 Sep. Journal of soil and water conservation v. 44 (5): p.
 512-516; 1989 Sep. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New York; Soil conservation; Water conservation;
 Regression analysis; Flexibility; Water quality
 
 
 95                                   NAL Call. No.: QP501.P72
 Pesticides in ground water: conduct of field research studies.
 Jones, R.L.
 Chichester, W. Sussex : John Wiley & Sons; 1990.
 Progress in pesticide biochemistry and toxicology v. 7: p.
 827-46; 1990.  In the series analytic: Environmental fate of
 pesticides / edited by D.H. Hutson and T.R. Roberts.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pesticides; Groundwater; Groundwater pollution;
 Soil pollution; Movement in soil; Degradation; Monitoring;
 Sampling; Soil analysis
 
 
 96                                   NAL Call. No.: TD201.A72
 The phosphate load of the river Rhine 1975-1986.
 De Jong, A.L.; De Oude, N.T.; Smits, A.H.; Volz, J.
 Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1989 Jun.
 Aqua v. 38 (3): p. 176-188. maps; 1989 Jun.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Netherlands; Rivers; Phosphates; Water pollution;
 Detergents; Water composition and quality; Estimates;
 Statistical analysis
 
 
 97                                   NAL Call. No.: 64.8 C883
 Population structuring of near infrared spectra and modified
 partial least squares regression.
 Shenk, J.S.; Westerhaus, M.O.
 Madison, Wis. : Crop Science Society of America; 1991 Nov.
 Crop science v. 31 (6): p. 1548-1555; 1991 Nov.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Agricultural products; Quality; Maize; Wheat;
 Barley; Hay; Haylage; Spectral analysis; Infrared
 spectroscopy; Representative sampling; Variation; Spectral
 data; Calibration; Computer software; Regression analysis;
 Frequency distribution; Prediction
 
 Abstract:  The computer programs CENTER and SELECT have been
 presented as a way to establish population boundaries and
 choose samples for near infrared calibrations. This study was
 conducted to evaluate calibrations derived on samples chosen
 by CENTER and SELECT from broad groups of hay, haylage, corn
 (Zea mays L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and barley
 (Hordeum vulgare L.) samples. Population boundaries were
 established with a maximum standardized H distance from the
 average spectrum of 3.0. Every fifth sample was reserved for
 equation validation. Calibration samples were selected with a
 minimum standardized H distance between samples of 0.6. Forage
 samples were found to have more diverse spectra and chemistry
 than grain samples. Average r2 values were smaller, numbers of
 eigenvectors were larger, and standard deviations of
 laboratory reference values were larger for forages than for
 grains. The standard error of performance (SEP) for all
 samples and SEP for samples chosen by SELECT with a limit of
 0.6 were similar for four of five products. Calibrations were
 developed using five different math treatments with and
 without multiplicative scatter correction (De-trend). First
 derivative was the best math treatment for protein in all
 products. Second derivative was best for acid-detergent fiber
 (ADF) in forage products, but no single math treatment was
 superior for ADF in grain products. De-trend improved SEP in
 28 of 50 calibrations.
 
 
 98                                   NAL Call. No.: TD172.J61
 Potential interferences in the analysis of atrazine and
 deethylatrazine in soil and water.
 Koskinen, W.C.; Otto, J.M.; Jarvis, L.J.; Dowdy, R.H.
 New York, N.Y. : Marcel Dekker; 1992 Jun.
 Journal of environmental science and health : Part B :
 Pesticides, food contaminants, and agricultural wastes v. 27
 (3): p. 255-268; 1992 Jun. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Herbicide residues; Atrazine; Prynachlor; Soil
 pollution; Water pollution; Chemical analysis; Analytical
 methods; Interference
 
 
 99                                    NAL Call. No.: 56.9 SO3
 Potential sampling error: trace metal adsorption on vacuum
 porous cup samplers.
 McGuire, P.E.; Lowery, B.; Helmke, P.A.
 Madison, Wis. : The Society; 1992 Jan.
 Soil Science Society of America journal v. 56 (1): p. 74-82;
 1992 Jan. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Soil water; Soil solution; Sampling; Errors;
 Adsorption; Desorption; Cadmium; Cobalt; Chromium; Zinc; Ions;
 Samplers; Ceramics; Glass; Stainless steel; Ph; Cleaning;
 Volume; Duration; Groundwater pollution; Monitoring
 
 Abstract:  The adsorption of trace metals on ceramic,
 polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or Teflon), fritted glass, and
 stainless steel vacuum pore-water samplers and silica packing
 material used to seat samplers was evaluated with respect to
 potential sampling errors. A solution containing radio-labeled
 Cd+2, Co+2, Cr+3 and Zn+2 and a mix of ions typically found in
 soil solutions was used to assess specific absorption of
 inorganics to porous cups of samplers and to silica. Four sets
 of samplers were cleaned with acid or water and then treated
 with a solution containing trace metals at concentrations near
 primary or secondary drinking-water standards or one order of
 magnitude lower for 2 or 7 d. After treatment, the samplers
 were rinsed with 10 or 30 pore volumes (PV) of simulated soil
 solution and radioassayed. Duplicate silica samples were
 treated with the high-trace-metal solution adjusted to a pH of
 4, 6, or 8 for a 5-d period, rinsed with simulated soil
 solution, and radioassayed. Adsorption was greatest on
 samplers treated with high trace-metal concentrations and
 samplers cleaned with water. Desorption of both Co and Zn
 occurred with the 30-PV soil solution rinse for all sampler
 types except stainless steel. The general pattern of metal
 adsorption on samplers was ceramic > stainless steel > >
 fritted glass = PTFE. The general order that trace metal
 adsorbed to samplers and silica was Zn > > Co > Cr > Cd. At pH
 values of 6 to 8, trace-metal adsorption on silica (mass of
 adsorbent/mass of adsorbate) was similar to or greater than
 that observed for ceramic samplers. This study shows that
 adsorption-desorption processes can cause sampling error when
 analysis of trace metals at microgram-per-liter concentration
 levels is necessary.
 
 
 100                                NAL Call. No.: QH545.A1E29
 Prediction of heavy metal behavior in soil by means of simple
 field tests. Blume, H.P.; Brummer, G.
 Orlando, Fla. : Academic Press; 1991 Oct.
 Ecotoxicology and environmental safety v. 22 (2): p. 164-174;
 1991 Oct. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Soil pollution; Polluted soils; Heavy metals;
 Metal ions; Sorption; Soil ph; Redox potential; Soil organic
 matter; Soil texture; Iron oxides; Infiltration; Groundwater
 pollution
 
 
 101                                 NAL Call. No.: 292.9 AM34
 Problems and methods involved in relating land use to ground-
 water quality. Barringer, T.; Dunn, D.; Battaglin, W.;
 Vowinkel, E.
 Minneapolis, Minn. : American Water Resources Association;
 1990 Feb. Water resources bulletin v. 26 (1): p. 1-9. ill.,
 maps; 1990 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Groundwater pollution; Water composition and
 quality; Land use; Organic compounds; Statistical analysis;
 Spatial equilibrium analysis
 
 
 102                                    NAL Call. No.: 80 AC82
 Problems of irrigation with polluted waters in greenhouses.
 Azpiazu, M.N.
 Wageningen : International Society for Horticultural Science;
 1989 Sep. Acta horticulturae (246): p. 97-104; 1989 Sep. 
 Paper presented at the "International Symposium on Protected
 Cultivation of Ornamentals in Mild Winter Climates," October
 18-21, 1988, Tenerife (Canary Islands), Spain. Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Spain; Greenhouse crops; Irrigation water; Water
 pollution; Heavy metals; Uptake; Nutrient uptake; Laboratory
 methods
 
 
 103                                   NAL Call. No.: TD172.J6
 The properties of various statistical prediction intervals for
 ground-water detection monitoring.
 Gibbons, R.D.; Baker, J.
 New York, N.Y. : Marcel Dekker; 1991.
 Journal of environmental science and health : Part A :
 Environmental science and engineering v. 26 (4): p. 535-553;
 1991.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Groundwater pollution; Detection; Monitoring;
 Prediction; Statistical methods; Simulation
 
 
 104                               NAL Call. No.: 275.29 IO9PA
 Protecting our water quality with effective soil sampling.
 Miller, G.; Zahn, D.R.
 Ames, Iowa : The Service; 1991 Jul.
 PM - Iowa State University, Cooperative Extension Service
 (1428c): 4 p.; 1991 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Soil analysis; Sampling; Fertilizers; Water
 quality
 
 
 105                               NAL Call. No.: RA1270.P35A1
 Quantification of alachlor in water by a novel magnetic
 particle-based ELISA. Lawruk, T.S.; Hottenstein, C.S.; Herzog,
 D.P.; Rubio, F.M. New York, N.Y. : Springer-Verlag; 1992 May.
 Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology v. 48
 (5): p. 643-650; 1992 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Alachlor; Herbicide residues; Groundwater; Water
 quality; Testing; Magnetic separation; Elisa; Quantitative
 analysis
 
 
 106                                 NAL Call. No.: 464.8 AN72
 Quantifying pesticide behavior in soil.
 Wagenet, R.J.; Hutson, J.L.
 Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews, Inc; 1990.
 Annual review of phytopathology v. 28: p. 295-319; 1990. 
 Literature review. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pesticides; Quantitative analysis; Simulation
 models; Mathematical models; Leaching; Movement in soil;
 Pesticide residues; Transformation; Degradation;
 Volatilization; Literature reviews
 
 
 107                                   NAL Call. No.: 475 J824
 Quantitative analysis of total resin acids by high-performance
 liquid chromatography of their coumarin ester derivatives.
 Richardson, D.E.; Bremner, J.B.; O'Grady, B.V.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers; 1992 Mar20.
 Journal of chromatography v. 595 (1/2): p. 155-162; 1992
 Mar20.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Resin acids; Pulping; Pulp mill effluent; Water
 pollution; Determination; Hplc
 
 
 108                                  NAL Call. No.: QK900.J67
 A quantitative study of vegetation--environment relationships
 in two Egyptian deserts.
 Dargie, T.C.D.; El Demerdash, M.A.
 Knivsta, Sweden : Opulus Press; 1991 Feb.
 Journal of vegetation science v. 2 (1): p. 3-10. maps; 1991
 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Egypt; Desert plants; Coastal plains; Ecosystems;
 Environmental factors; Site factors; Water quality
 
 
 109                                     NAL Call. No.: QE1.E5
 Radionuclide partitioning across Great Lakes natural
 interfaces. Platford, R.F.; Joshi, S.R.
 New York, N.Y. : Springer; 1989 Nov.
 Environmental geology and water sciences v. 14 (3): p.
 183-186; 1989 Nov. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Canada; U.S.A.; Water pollution; Lakes;
 Radionuclides; Sampling; Radiation; Interface phenomena
 
 
 110                                    NAL Call. No.: QD1.A45
 Regional and targeted groundwater quality networks in the
 Delmarva Peninsula. Koterba, M.T.; Shedlock, R.J.; Bachman,
 L.J.; Phillips, P.J. Washington, D.C. : The Society; 1991.
 ACS Symposium series - American Chemical Society (465): p.
 110-138; 1991.  In the series analytic: Groundwater residue
 sampling design / edited by R.G. Nash and A.R. Leslie. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Delaware; Maryland; Virginia; Groundwater; Water
 quality; Sampling
 
 Abstract:  A multi-network monitoring and quality-assurance
 program was designed to assess the occurrence and distribution
 of selected pesticides and nutrients in groundwater in the
 Delmarva Peninsula in Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia. As
 part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality
 Assessment (NAWQA) Program, four interrelated networks were
 established with wells distributed regionally across the
 peninsula and locally in small watersheds. Data from these
 networks are being used to assess groundwater quality relative
 to differences in soil, land use, geomorphology, physiography,
 and hydrogeology at regional and local scales. An accompanying
 quality-assurance program was designed to help ensure accurate
 data and determine whether differences in water quality among
 network samples result from changes in hydrologic setting or
 are from sampling design.
 
 
 111                                   NAL Call. No.: QD241.T6
 Regression models for some solute distribution equilibria in
 the terrestrial environment.
 Noegrohati, S.; Hammers, W.E.
 Reading : Gordon and Breach Science Publishers; 1992.
 Toxicological and environmental chemistry v. 34 (2/4): p.
 175-185; 1992. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Organochlorine insecticides; Soil; Sorption;
 Solvents; Leaching; Regression analysis
 
 Abstract:  Sorption coefficients (K(p)) of several
 organochlorine insecticides (OCs) in volcanic ash silt from
 Central Java are presented. Selected experimental and
 estimated octanol-water partition coefficient (P) values are
 used to study log-log regressions with K(p) data collected
 from the literature (PAHs, chlorophenols, phenylureas, chloro-
 s-triazines, carbamates and organophosphorus insecticides) and
 those of the OCs determined in the present study. Leaching
 distances and bioactivities in soil are correlated with the
 K(p) values of the pesticides, and with the organic matter and
 the water content of the soil.
 
 
 112                                  NAL Call. No.: GB746.W33
 Regularities of migration of trace elements in natural waters
 of the arid zone by radioanalytical methods.
 Isamatov, E.E.; Kulmatov, R.A.; Kist, A.A.
 New York, N.Y. : Consultants Bureau; 1989 May.
 Water resources v. 15 (4): p. 372-378. ill., maps; 1989 May. 
 Translated from: Vodnye Resursy, (4), p. 103-109, July-August,
 1988. (GB746.V55).  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English; Russian
 
 Descriptors: Uzbek ssr; Water pollution; River water;
 Pollutants; Heavy metals; Trace elements; Arid zones;
 Analytical methods
 
 
 113                                   NAL Call. No.: QH540.J6
 Relations among NaOH-extractable phosphorus, suspended solids,
 and ortho-phosphorus in streams of Wyoming.
 Parker, M.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Jan.
 Journal of environmental quality v. 20 (1): p. 271-278; 1991
 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Wyoming; Orthophosphates; Phosphorus; Particles;
 Suspensions; Bioavailability; Eutrophication; River water;
 Sampling; Sewage effluent; Streams; Water quality; Castor
 
 Abstract:  During 1984-1986, 369 water samples from seven
 streams and a sewage treatment plant in Wyoming were analyzed
 for NaOH-extractable P (NaOH-P; a possible index of
 biologically available P), ortho-P (OP), and suspended solids
 (SS). Regressions predicting NaOH-P were developed from data
 on SS and OP, plus information on variability in time (year of
 sampling), meteorology (volume discharge), nd presence/absence
 of beaver (Castor sp.) dams. Scatter plots, ANOVA, and cluster
 analyses indicated data could be aggregated into four groups
 reflecting processes that differ among the eight stations
 (e.g., relations among volume discharge, SS, and OP). These
 groups are composed of one to three stations, and index a
 component of spatial variability. Adjusted R2 and precision
 (95% confidence limits for the mean) always tended to be poor
 when OP was more influential in affecting NaOH-P than were SS
 (R2 = 21-88%); only in some cases where SS were highly
 influential were adjusted R2 and precision good. If data
 presented are representative, then the best precision
 obtainable from regressions will be about +/- 50% of the mean
 value for NaOH-P. This value compares favorably with many
 other techniques, so predicting NaOH-P from regressions should
 be useful for some applications.
 
 
 114                                   NAL Call. No.: TD172.A7
 Reliability of heavy metal pollution monitoring utilizing
 aquatic animals versus statistical evaluation methods.
 Mastala, Z.; Balogh, K.V.; Salanki, J.
 New York, N.Y. : Springer-Verlag; 1992 Nov.
 Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology v. 23
 (4): p. 476-483; 1992 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Hungary; Freshwater molluscs; Freshwater fishes;
 Metals; Concentration; Water pollution; Monitoring;
 Comparisons; Statistical methods; Analysis of variance;
 Analysis of covariance
 
 
 115                                 NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1E5
 Sampling bias caused by materials used to monitor halocarbons
 in groundwater. Reynolds, G.W.; Hoff, J.T.; Gillham, R.W.
 Washington, D.C. : American Chemical Society; 1990 Jan.
 Environmental science & technology v. 24 (1): p. 135-142; 1990
 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Groundwater pollution; Organic compounds;
 Halogenated hydrocarbons; Sorption; Techniques; Sampling
 
 
 116                                    NAL Call. No.: QD1.A45
 Sampling groundwater in a northeastern U.S. watershed.
 Pionke, H.B.; Urban, J.B.; Gburek, W.J.; Rogowski, A.S.;
 Schnabel, R.R. Washington, D.C. : The Society; 1991.
 ACS Symposium series - American Chemical Society (465): p.
 222-241; 1991.  In the series analytic: Groundwater residue
 sampling design / edited by R.G. Nash and A.R. Leslie. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Northeastern states of U.S.A.; Groundwater;
 Agricultural chemicals; Nitrates; Water pollution; Sampling;
 Watersheds
 
 Abstract:  The sampling of groundwater, particularly for
 nitrates, is examined in a flow system and watershed context.
 A groundwater flow dominated watershed located in east-central
 Pennsylvania provides an example and basis for this analysis.
 Groundwater sampling is also viewed from a groundwater
 recharge (percolate) and discharge (streamflow) perspective.
 Some spatial and timing controls are described and examined in
 terms of where and when to sample.
 
 
 117                                   NAL Call. No.: QH540.J6
 Sampling unsaturated-zone water for trichloroethene at
 Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey.
 Smith, J.A.; Cho, H.J.; Jaffe, P.R.; MacLeod, C.L.; Koehnlein,
 S.A. Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 Apr.
 Journal of environmental quality v. 21 (2): p. 264-271; 1992
 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New Jersey; Chlorinated hydrocarbons; Bound
 water; Soil pollution; Water pollution; Sampling; Lysimetry;
 Lysimetric chromatography; Industrial sites
 
 Abstract:  A new method of collecting samples of unsaturated-
 zone water for quantitative analysis for a volatile organic
 compound, trichloroethene (TCE), was compared to three other,
 previously described sampling methodologies in the laboratory
 and in the field. In the laboratory, prepared water samples
 containing TCE in a known concentration (20 micrograms/L) were
 sampled repeatedly by using each of the four methods to
 quantify method precision and accuracy. To compare the four
 methods in the field, unsaturated-zone water above a TCE-
 contaminated water-table aquifer was transferred from a depth
 of 2 m to land surface with 0.15-m-long suction lysimeters
 attached to 1.85-m lengths of stainless-steel tubing.
 Statistical analyses of the laboratory and field data indicate
 that the new method, which involves collecting the water
 samples in gas-tight glass syringes, is superior to the other
 three methods for the quantitative sampling and analysis of
 TCE on the basis of its high precision and accuracy and ease
 of use. This method was used to collect additional samples
 from the field site to quantify the spatial variability of TCE
 concentrations in the unsaturated-zone water. Results of
 analysis of variance of the data indicate that the spatial
 concentration variability is important, and that differences
 in TCE concentration are statistically significant for
 horizontal distances less than 3.6 m.
 
 
 118                                NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32P
 Selection of flumes for small watershed instrumentation.
 Yoder, D.C.; Monke, E.J.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1989.
 Paper - American Society of Agricultural Engineers (89-2514):
 12 p.; 1989. Paper presented at the 1989 International Winter
 Meeting of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,
 December 12-15, 1989, New Orleans, Louisiana.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Watersheds; Chutes; Runoff
 
 
 119                                 NAL Call. No.: 292.8 W295
 Selection of methods for the detection and estimation of
 trends in water quality.
 Hirsch, R.M.; Alexander, R.B.; Smith, R.A.
 Washington, D.C. : American Geophysical Union; 1991 May.
 Water resources research v. 27 (5): p. 803-813; 1991 May. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Streams; Water quality; Trends;
 Statistical methods; Applications
 
 Abstract:  One result of increased scientific and public
 interest in water quality over the past few decades has been
 the gradual accumulation of reliable long-term water quality
 data records and an interest in examining these data for long-
 term trends. This paper summarizes and examines some of the
 major issues and choices involved in detecting and estimating
 the magnitude of temporal trends in measures of stream water
 quality. The first issue is the type of trend hypothesis to
 examine: step trends versus monotonic trend. The second
 relates to the general category of statistical methods to
 employ: parametric versus nonparametric. The third issue
 relates to the kind of data to analyze: concentration data
 versus flux data. The fourth relates to issues of data
 manipulation to achieve the best results from the trend
 analysis. These issues include the use of mathematical
 transformations of the data and the removal of natural sources
 of variability in water quality due to seasonal and stream
 discharge variations. The final issue relates to the choice of
 a trend technique for the analysis of data records with
 censored or "less than" values. The authors' experiences
 during the past decade with the development of several trend
 detection techniques and application of these techniques to a
 large number of water quality records provide insight into the
 issues related to a choice of a statistical test for trend in
 water quality.
 
 
 120                                  NAL Call. No.: QH344.N87
 Sequential stemflow sampling for estimation of dry deposition
 and crown leaching in beech stands.
 Kazda, M.
 New York : Elsevier Applied Science; 1990.
 Nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems : field methods,
 applications, and interpretation / edited by A.F. Harrison, P.
 Ineson, and D.W. Heal. p. 46-55; 1990.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Austria; Fagus sylvatica; Canopy; Stemflow;
 Precipitation; Nutrients; Concentration; Deposition; Crown;
 Leaching; Models
 
 
 121                                   NAL Call. No.: S671.A66
 Shallow groundwater and surface runoff instrumentation for
 small watersheds. Cullum, R.F.; Schreiber, J.D.; Smith, S. Jr;
 Grissinger, E.H. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers; 1992 Jul. Applied engineering in
 agriculture v. 8 (4): p. 449-453; 1992 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mississippi; Watersheds; Groundwater pollution;
 Groundwater; Runoff; Water quality; Instrumentation;
 Quantitative analysis; Pesticides; Nitrate; No-tillage;
 Minimum tillage; Tillage
 
 Abstract:  An acquisition system was constructed to sample and
 quantify surface runoff and shallow groundwater. The main
 components of the system for shallow groundwater included
 hydrologically isolated erosion plots with subsurface drains
 (installed via horizontal drilling), outlets into sumps,
 tipping buckets mounted under drain outlets, composite water
 samplers, and a series of sampling piezometers ranging from
 0.3- to 6.1-m (1- to 20-ft) depths positioned in one row of
 each main plot. The main components of the system for surface
 runoff from standardized erosion plots cropped to corn were
 appropriately sized collectors, approaches, H-flumes equipped
 with portable liquid-level recorders, runoff splitters,
 dataloggers, and composite water samplers. The dataloggers
 recorded rainfall and runoff every minute and groundwater
 discharge volume every 15 minutes during storm events. Water
 samplers were activated by the dataloggers when the cumulative
 discharge volumes equaled or exceeded a preset condition.
 Derived variables from surface runoff were incremental
 discharge rate, cumulative discharge volume, sediment loads,
 and water quality. Groundwater incremental discharge and total
 discharge volumes were recorded and the composite of the
 weighted-discharge samples were analyzed for specific
 chemicals introduced as fertilizer or pesticides. Depth of
 free water within each piezometer after major storm events was
 monitored to determine water movement in the root and vadose
 zones.
 
 
 122                                   NAL Call. No.: TD172.J6
 Simulating the degradation of TCE under methanogenesis.
 Baek, N.H.; Jaffe, P.R.; Shingal, N.
 New York, N.Y. : Marcel Dekker; 1990.
 Journal of environmental science and health : Part A :
 Environmental science and engineering v. 25 (8): p. 987-1005;
 1990.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Groundwater pollution; Organic compounds;
 Biodegradation; Bacteria; Degradation; Kinetics; Methane
 production; Laboratory methods; Simulation; Techniques;
 Aquifers
 
 
 123                                   NAL Call. No.: 56.8 SO3
 Soil sampling and nutrient variability in dairy animal holding
 areas. Anderson, D.L.; Hanlon, E.A.; Miller, O.P.; Hoge, V.R.;
 Diaz, O.A. Baltimore, Md. : Williams & Wilkins; 1992 Apr.
 Soil science v. 153 (4): p. 314-321; 1992 Apr.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Spodosols; Sandy soils; Surface layers;
 Soil testing; Sampling; Assessment; Nutrient content;
 Phosphorus; Potassium; Calcium; Aluminum; Iron; Sodium; Soil
 organic matter; Soil ph; Soil variability; Spatial variation;
 Nutrient availability; Nutrient retention; Movement in soil;
 Spodic horizons; Dairy wastes; Population density; Topography;
 Water pollution
 
 
 124                                    NAL Call. No.: QD1.A45
 Soil-pan method for studying pesticide dissipation on soil.
 Hill, B.D.; Inaba, D.J.; Schaalje, G.B.
 Washington, D.C. : The Society; 1991.
 ACS Symposium series - American Chemical Society (465): p.
 358-366; 1991.  In the series analytic: Groundwater residue
 sampling design / edited by R.G. Nash and A.R. Leslie. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pesticide residues; Water pollution; Soil;
 Sampling
 
 Abstract:  To predict the amount of pesticide that could leach
 through the soil and contaminate groundwater requires
 information about the residue levels at the soil surface over
 time. A soil-pan method has been developed to estimate surface
 residues and their dissipation rates. An indoor spray chamber
 is used to apply the pesticide to soil contained in metal
 flats, the treated flats are moved outdoors and set into a
 field, and the soil is sampled over the season by taking four
 cores per flat. Using this method, it was determined that the
 emulsifiable concentrate formulation of deltamethrin
 dissipated faster than the Flowable formulation. When the
 soil-pan method was compared with a field-plot method, the
 dissipation of lambda-cyhalothrin was faster in the soil pans.
 Monitoring the soil temperature and moisture indicated that
 both were slightly higher in the soil pans than in the
 adjacent field plots. At present, the soil-pan method is best
 suited for the direct comparison of different treatments.
 
 
 125                                NAL Call. No.: QH545.A1E58
 Solid-phase extraction of carbaryl and malathion from pond and
 well water. Beyers, D.W.; Carlson, C.A.; Tessari, J.D.
 Elmsford, N.Y. : Pergamon Press; 1991.
 Environmental toxicology and chemistry v. 10 (11): p.
 1425-1429; 1991. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Carbaryl; Malathion; Water pollution; Insecticide
 residues; Analytical methods; Extraction; Ponds; Wells
 
 
 126                                    NAL Call. No.: 381 AS7
 Solid-phase extraction of carbofuran, atrazine, simazine,
 alachlor, and cyanazine from shallow well water.
 Nash, R.G.
 Arlington, Va. : The Association; 1990 May.
 Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists v.
 73 (3): p. 438-442; 1990 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Wells; Drinking water; Water pollution; Atrazine;
 Carbofuran; Alachlor; Cyanazine; Simazine; Analytical methods;
 Sample pretreatment; Extraction
 
 
 127                                NAL Call. No.: QH545.A1E58
 Statisical treatment of data from microbial toxicity tests.
 Nyholm, N.; Sorensen, P.S.; Kusk, K.O.
 Elmsford, N.Y. : Pergamon Press; 1992.
 Environmental toxicology and chemistry v. 11 (2): p. 157-167;
 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Phytoplankton; Scenedesmus; Chlorophyta; Toxic
 substances; Pollutants; Phytotoxicity; Testing; Tests;
 Regression analysis; Water pollution
 
 
 128                                 NAL Call. No.: 292.8 W295
 Statistical analysis of spatial variability in unsaturated
 flow parameters. Russo, D.; Bouton, M.
 Washington, D.C. : American Geophysical Union; 1992 Jul.
 Water resources research v. 28 (7): p. 1911-1925; 1992 Jul. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sandy loam soils; Unsaturated flow; Leaching;
 Soil properties; Hydraulic conductivity; Soil water retention;
 Spatial variation; Stochastic models; Statistical analysis;
 Autocorrelation; Prediction
 
 Abstract:  Core scale estimates of soil parameters of the
 Gardner-Russo and van Genuchten models of the hydraulic
 conductivity and water retention functions were obtained for
 417 undisturbed soil cores taken from a wall of a trench (20 m
 long, 2.5 m deep), using a procedure based on inverse problem
 methodology. These estimates were used to evaluate the first
 two statistical moments of the underlying random space
 functions (RSFs), using the restricted maximum likelihood
 estimation procedure, coupled with the weighted least squares
 procedure, to estimate parameters of models of the covariance
 and the drift functions of the pertinent RSFs. The fitted
 models were used to evaluate the mean and covariance functions
 of the hydraulic conductivity and water retention functions
 for given water saturations. Covariance functions of log-
 saturated conductivity (log Ks) and the "shape" parameters of
 the Gardner-Russo and van Genuchten models exhibited
 statistical anisotropy characterized by aspect ratios that
 vary between 3 to 4. Correlation scales of log Ks were larger
 than those of the "shape" parameters. Consequently, the
 product of the variance of log unsaturated conductivity and
 its correlation scale remained essentially invariant for a
 considerable range of water saturation. The implications of
 these results regarding stochastic modeling of transport in
 heterogeneous porous formations and possible applications of
 the results of this study are discussed briefly.
 
 
 129                           NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM3PS (EE)
 Statistical evaluation of mechanistic water-quality models.
 Reckhow, K.H.; Clements, J.T.; Dodd, R.C.
 New York, N.Y. : American Society of Civil Engineers,
 Environmental Engineering Division; 1990 Mar.
 Journal of environmental engineering v. 116 (2): p. 250-268;
 1990 Mar. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Water quality; Simulation models; Statistical
 methods; Statistical analysis
 
 
 130                               NAL Call. No.: TD196.P38L66
 Studies on the transport and fate of chlordane in the
 environment. Puri, R.K.; Orazio, C.E.; Kapila, S.; Clevenger,
 T.E.; Yanders, A.F.; McGrath, K.E.; Buchanan, A.C.; Czarnezki;
 J; Bush, J.
 Chelsea, Mich. : Lewis Publishers; 1990.
 Long range transport of pesticides / David A. Kurtz, editor.
 p. 271-289; 1990.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Missouri; Chlordane; Freshwater fishes; Indicator
 species; Insecticide residues; Leaching; Persistence; Rivers;
 Sampling; Sediment; Soil pollution; Water pollution; Clay
 soils; Sandy soils
 
 
 131                                    NAL Call. No.: QD1.A45
 Study design to investigate and simulate agrochemical movement
 and fate in groundwater recharge.
 Asmussen, L.E.; Smith, C.N.
 Washington, D.C. : The Society; 1991.
 ACS Symposium series - American Chemical Society (465): p.
 150-164; 1991.  In the series analytic: Groundwater residue
 sampling design / edited by R.G. Nash and A.R. Leslie. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Georgia; Groundwater; Agricultural chemicals;
 Water quality; Water pollution; Sampling; Mathematical models
 
 Abstract:  The vulnerability of aquifers to contamination by
 agrochemicals is relatively high in the southeastern Coastal
 Plain. Transport and fate of agrochemicals in either the root,
 unsaturated, or saturated zones can be simulated by existing
 mathematical models. However, a linked mathematical model is
 needed to simulate the movement and degradation from the point
 of application through the unsaturated zone, and into
 groundwater. The United States Geological Survey and
 Agricultural Research Service initiated a cooperative
 investigation in 1986. In 1988, the United States
 Environmental Protection Agency joined the research
 investigation. These agencies are sharing technical expertise
 and resources to develop an understanding of physical,
 chemical, and biological processes and to evaluate their
 spatial and temporal variability; and to develop and validate
 linked model(s) that would describe chemical transport and
 fate. Study sites have been selected in the Fall Line Hills
 district of the Coastal Plain province. The Claiborne aquifer
 recharge area is located in this district near Plains,
 Georgia. Instrumentation to measure water and chemical
 transport has been installed.
 
 
 132                             NAL Call. No.: TD223.N36 1992
 Synoptic survey of dairy farms in the Lake Okeechobee basin:
 post-BMP water quality sampling.
 Sawka, G.J.; Ritter, P.; Gunsalus, B.; Rompot, T.
 Washington, DC : U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; 1992.
 Proceedings: the National RCWP Symposium : 10 years of
 controlling agricultural nonpoint source pollution : the RCWP
 experience : Sept 13-17, 1992, Orlando, Florida. p. 393-400;
 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Water quality; Water management;
 Phosphorus; Dairy farms
 
 
 133                                 NAL Call. No.: S451.P4P45
 Targeting pesticides.
 Weidner, K.
 University Park, Pa. : Pennsylvania State University; 1989.
 PennState agriculture. p. 12-14, 16-17. ill; 1989.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pennsylvania; Pesticide residues; Monitoring;
 Analytical methods; University research; Runoff; Environmental
 pollution; Soil pollution; Water pollution
 
 
 134                                    NAL Call. No.: QD1.A45
 Tension lysimeters for collecting soil percolate.
 Angle, J.S.; McIntosh, M.S.; Hill, R.L.
 Washington, D.C. : The Society; 1991.
 ACS Symposium series - American Chemical Society (465): p.
 290-299; 1991.  In the series analytic: Groundwater residue
 sampling design / edited by R.G. Nash and A.R. Leslie. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Groundwater; Water pollution; Agricultural
 chemicals; Lysimeters; Sampling; Soil water; Movement
 
 Abstract:  Tension lysimeters are widely used to sample soil
 percolate. A vacuum is applied to the interior of a porous
 ceramic cup and soil percolate is pulled into the cup and held
 until collection. Many questions, however, exist as to the
 proper use of lysimeters. Foremost among the questions is the
 source of water which is pulled into the lysimeter. Lysimeters
 generally collect larger volumes of percolate during peak flow
 events when soil water is being retained at lower suctions,
 and thus may not accurately estimate the magnitude of solute
 losses. Problems also exist in the use of lysimeters to
 measure specific pollutants. Many pesticides are volatile,
 especially under reduced pressure, and concentrations are
 likely to be underestimated using tension lysimeters. Nutrient
 analysis of percolate collected with lysimeters is often
 skewed due to adsorption or desorption of inorganic ions. An
 additional problem exists with the analysis of resulting data.
 Since sampling times are not randomized, usual assumptions for
 analyses, such as independence of error, may not be valid.
 Measurements are often lognormally distributed and thus
 require transformation.
 
 
 135                                NAL Call. No.: QH545.A1E52
 Throughfall below grassland canopies: a comparison of
 conventional and ion exchange methods.
 Dam, D. van; Heil, G.W.; Heijne, B.; Bobbink, R.
 Essex : Elsevier Applied Science; 1991.
 Environmental pollution v. 73 (2): p. 85-99; 1991.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Netherlands; Chalk grasslands; Canopy; Stemflow;
 Throughfall; Ions; Methodology; Sampling; Ion exchange resins;
 Foliar uptake; Nitrogen; Seasonal variation; Determination;
 Comparisons
 
 
 136                                    NAL Call. No.: S583.A7
 Trace-level quantitative of sulfonylurea herbicides in natural
 water. Thompson, D.G.; MacDonald, L.M.
 Arlington, VA : AOAC International; 1992 Nov.
 Journal of AOAC International v. 75 (6): p. 1084-1090; 1992
 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sulfonylurea herbicides; Herbicide residues;
 Water quality; Quantitative analysis; Analytical methods
 
 
 137                                   NAL Call. No.: TD403.G7
 Tracer test evaluation of a drainage ditch capture zone.
 Chambers, L.W.; Bahr, J.M.
 Dublin, Ohio : Ground Water Pub. Co; 1992 Sep.
 Ground water v. 30 (5): p. 667-675; 1992 Sep.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Wisconsin; Groundwater pollution; Agricultural
 chemicals; Spread; Prevention; Drainage; Ditches; Tracers;
 Iodide; Bromide; Tests; Prediction; Capacity; Analytical
 methods; Models; Movement in soil
 
 
 138                                  NAL Call. No.: SB610.W39
 A tractor mounted sampler for obtaining large soil columns.
 Walker, D.S.; O'Dell, J.D.; Wolt, J.D.; Rhodes, G.N. Jr;
 Graveel, J.G. Champaign, Ill. : The Society; 1990 Oct.
 Weed technology : a journal of the Weed Science Society of
 America v. 4 (4): p. 913-917; 1990 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Soil; Core sampling; Pesticide residues;
 Leaching; Tractors; Hydraulic power systems
 
 
 139                                 NAL Call. No.: 292.9 AM34
 Uncertainty analysis of runoff estimates from a runoff contour
 map. Rochelle, B.P.; Stevens, D.L. Jr; Church, M.R.
 Minneapolis, Minn. : American Water Resources Association;
 1989 Jun. Water resources bulletin v. 25 (3): p. 491-498.
 maps; 1989 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Watersheds; Runoff water; Mapping; Acid rain;
 Water pollution; Uncertainties; Statistical analysis;
 Estimates; Computer analysis; Surveys
 
 
 140                              NAL Call. No.: QH545.P4P4844
 Use of solid-phase resins in pesticide monitoring.
 Bittinger, J.A.; Bishop, J.W.
 Blacksburg : Virginia Water Resources Research Center, VPI and
 State University; 1989.
 Pesticides in terrestrial and aquatic environments :
 proceedings of a national research conference, May 11-12, 1989
 / edited by Diana L. Weigmann. p. 265-269; 1989.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Atrazine; Monitoring; Pesticide residues; Resins;
 Sampling; Water pollution
 
 
 141                                 NAL Call. No.: FICHE S-72
 Using graphic interfaces to present the results of erosion
 models. Bingner, R.L.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1989.
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers (Microfiche
 collection) (89-2022): 15 p.; 1989.  Paper presented at the
 1989 International Summer Meeting of the ASAE and the CSAE
 held June 25-28, 1989, Quebec, Canada.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Erosion; Runoff; Sediment yield; Watersheds;
 Simulation models; Computer graphics; Statistical analysis
 
 
 142                            NAL Call. No.: FU101F636c 1040
 Water quality sampling and analysis instruments and
 procedures. Taylor, L. A.; Izuno, Forrest T.; Bottcher, A. B.
 Florida Cooperative Extension Service
 Gainesville, Fla. : Florida Cooperative Extension Service,
 Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of
 Florida,; 1992.
 [10] p. : ill. ; 28 cm. (Circular (Florida Cooperative
 Extension Service) ; 1040.).  Title from cover.  October 1992. 
 Includes bibliographical references (p. [10]).
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Agricultural pollution; Water quality; Water;
 Water quality management
 
 
 143                                NAL Call. No.: 275.29 F66C
 Water quality sampling and analysis instruments and
 procedures. Taylor, L.A.; Izuno, F.T.; Bottcher, A.B.
 Gainesville, Fla. : The Service; 1992 Oct.
 Circular - Florida Cooperative Extension Service (1040): 10
 p.; 1992 Oct. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Water quality; Sampling; Instruments; Ph;
 Electrical conductivity; Hardness; Nitrogen; Phosphorus
 
 
 144                                    NAL Call. No.: QD1.A45
 Water quality sampling program at low-level radioactive
 groundwater contamination site: Wood River Junction, Rhode
 Island.
 Ryan, B.J.; Healy, D.F.
 Washington, D.C. : The Society; 1991.
 ACS Symposium series - American Chemical Society (465): p.
 242-254; 1991.  In the series analytic: Groundwater residue
 sampling design / edited by R.G. Nash and A.R. Leslie. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rhode Island; Groundwater; Water pollution;
 Radioactive wastes; Sampling
 
 
 145                                 NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1E5
 The way it was: analysis of organics in water in 1967.
 Keith, L.H.
 Washington, D.C. : American Chemical Society; 1991 Apr.
 Environmental science & technology v. 25 (4): p. 564-565; 1991
 Apr.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Water pollution; Pollutants; Organic
 compounds; Research; Identification; Analytical methods
 
 
 146                                    NAL Call. No.: QD1.A45
 Well installation and sampling procedures for monitoring
 groundwater beneath agricultural fields.
 Kirkland, S.D.; Jones, R.L.; Norris, F.A.
 Washington, D.C. : The Society; 1991.
 ACS Symposium series - American Chemical Society (465): p.
 214-221; 1991.  In the series analytic: Groundwater residue
 sampling design / edited by R.G. Nash and A.R. Leslie. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Groundwater; Agricultural chemicals; Water
 pollution; Sampling; Wells
 
 Abstract:  The installation and sampling of monitoring wells
 are important components of most studies of agricultural
 chemicals in groundwater. For many agricultural chemicals,
 requirements for well materials and sampling techniques can be
 simplified compared to those often used in other types of
 groundwater monitoring programs. These simplified techniques
 allow for quicker reaction to events occurring in a study and
 installation of wells in areas inaccessible to drilling
 equipment, while reducing unnecessary expenses.
 
 
 147                                  NAL Call. No.: 57.09 F41
 Well sampling methods, costs, EPA protocols.
 Huggins, B.
 Glen Arm, Md. : Fertilizer Industry Round Table; 1989.
 Proceedings of the annual meeting - Fertilizer Industry Round
 Table (39th): p. 148-152; 1989.  Meeting held October 31 -
 November 2, 1989, Atlanta, Georgia.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Wells; Water quality; Sampling; Costs;
 Environmental legislation
 
 
 148                                   NAL Call. No.: TD403.G7
 Well-purging criteria for sampling purgeable organic
 compounds. Gibs, J.; Imbrigiotta, T.E.
 Dublin, Ohio : Water Well Journal Publishers; 1990 Jan.
 Ground water v. 28 (1): p. 68-78; 1990 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Groundwater pollution; Organic compounds;
 Sampling; Wells; Aquifers; Water composition and quality;
 Flushing
 
 
 149                                  NAL Call. No.: TD367.S75
 Wildland water quality sampling and analysis.
 Stednick, John D.
 San Diego : Academic Press,; 1991.
 xii, 217 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.  Includes bibliographical
 references and index.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Water quality; Water chemistry
 
 
                          AUTHOR INDEX
 Abdul, A.S.  24
 Ahlfeld, D.P.  57
 Al-Hadithi, S.A.  3
 Alexander, R.B.  119
 American Chemical Society, Division of Agrochemicals, American
 Chemical Society, Division of Environmental Chemistry,
 American Chemical Society, Meeting1990 :Boston, Mass.)  67
 Anderson, D.L.  123
 Angle, J.S.  134
 Arthur, C.L.  4
 Asmussen, L.E.  131
 Azpiazu, M.N.  102
 Bachman, L.J.  110
 Baek, N.H.  122
 Bahr, J.M.  137
 Bajic, S.  93
 Baker, D.B.  66
 Baker, J.  103
 Balkom, C.A.A. van  29
 Ball, W.P.  12
 Balogh, K.V.  114
 Barbour, M.T.  49
 Barringer, T.  101
 Barry, T.A.  43
 Barthel, R.  13
 Battaglin, W.  101
 Bautz, D.  31
 Bayne, C.K.  27
 Bergstrom, L.  81
 Bernhardt, H.  54
 Berthouex, P.M.  33
 Beyers, D.W.  125
 Bills, N.  94
 Bingner, R.L.  141
 Bischoff, J.H.  9
 Bishop, J.W.  140
 Bittinger, J.A.  140
 Bjorneberg, D.L.  9
 Blume, H.P.  100
 Bobbink, R.  135
 Boer, J. de  76
 Boland, J.  89
 Boll, J.  58
 Bottcher, A. B.  142
 Bottcher, A.B.  143
 Bourrie, G.  23
 Bouton, M.  128
 Bradley, B.P.  49
 Bremner, J.B.  107
 Bricker, O.P.  1
 Brouwer, H.J.  29
 Brown, D.S.  21
 Brown, G.A.  42
 Brown, L.C.  35
 Brown, M.J.  73
 Brummer, G.  100
 Buchanan, A.C.  130
 Budde, W.L.  45
 Buehler, C.  12
 Burbach, M.E.  37
 Buser, H.R.  44
 Bush, J.  130
 Bushway, R.J.  14
 Buxton, Bruce E.,  63
 Calder, J.A.  76
 Cancilla, D.A.  13
 Capone, D.G.  7
 Carey, J.H.  56
 Carlson, C.A.  125
 Carr, J.D.  11
 Carter, D.L.  73
 Chambers, L.W.  137
 Chand, T.  61
 Chieng, S.T.  41
 Chisci, G.  84
 Cho, H.J.  117
 Chou, C.C.  13
 Church, M.R.  139
 Clasen, J.  54
 Clements, J.T.  129
 Clevenger, T.E.  130
 Close, M.E.  39
 Colorado Water Resources Research Institute  59
 Contant, C.K.  48
 Cook, Nevis E.  59
 Cooper, C.M.  2
 Crespi, M.  30
 Cullen, S.J.  17
 Cullum, R.F.  121
 Curmi, P.  23
 Czarnezki  130
 D'Elia, C.F.  7
 Dam, D. van  135
 Dargie, T.C.D.  108
 De Jong, A.L.  96
 De Oude, N.T.  96
 Delaune, R.D.  72
 Denver, J.M.  69
 Deshpande, A.D.  70
 Diaz, O.A.  123
 Dodd, R.C.  129
 Doerge, D.R.  93
 Dorrance, D.W.  17
 Dowdy, R.H.  98
 Duinker, J.C.  76
 Duncan, D.  11
 Dunn, D.  101
 Eichelberger, J.W.  28
 Ekholm, P.  52
 El Demerdash, M.A.  108
 Elder, L.  41
 Elwell, H.A.  32
 Everett, L.G.  17
 Exner, M.E.  37
 Farmer, W.J.  10
 Ferguson, B.S.  14
 Fisher, A.C.  75
 Flint, A.L.  91
 Florida Cooperative Extension Service  142
 Flos, R.  30
 Force, D.  94
 Fox, R.H. Jr  47
 Frebis, C.P.  6
 Fukal, L.  14
 Furnival, G.M.  22
 Garretson, C.L.  43
 Gburek, W.J.  116
 Geerdink, R.B.  29
 Genjatulin, K.V.  36
 Geological Survey (U.S.)  19, 20
 Geological Survey (U.S.), Northern Colorado Water Conservancy
 District, United States, Bureau of Reclamation  5
 Gibbons, R.D.  62, 103
 Gibs, J.  42, 148
 Gibson, T.L.  24
 Gillham, R.W.  79, 115
 Goh, K.S.  43
 Goulder, R.  3
 Graveel, J.G.  138
 Graves, C.G.  49
 Gregoire, T.G.  22
 Grissinger, E.H.  121
 Gunsalus, B.  132
 Gutjahr, A.  64
 Hammers, W.E.  111
 Hammond, B.  71
 Hanemann, W.M.  75
 Hanlon, E.A.  123
 Harmon, T.C.  12
 Harrison, R.O.  14
 Harvey, R.W.  74
 Hau, I.  33
 Hayashi, Y.  34
 Healy, D.F.  144
 Hee, S.S.Q.  13
 Heijne, B.  135
 Heil, G.W.  135
 Helling, C.S.  68
 Helmke, P.A.  99
 Hernandez, J.  43
 Herzog, D.P.  105
 Hill, B.D.  124
 Hill, R.L.  134
 Hirsch, R.M.  119
 Hites, R.A.  45
 Ho, J.S.  28
 Hoff, J.T.  115
 Hoge, V.R.  123
 Host-Madsen, J.  80
 Hottenstein, C.S.  105
 Hsu, J.  43
 Huggins, B.  147
 Hughes, S.  50
 Huntzinger, Thomas L.  55
 Hutson, J.L.  106
 Ifft, T.H.  46
 Imbrigiotta, T.E.  148
 Inaba, D.J.  124
 Isamatov, E.E.  112
 Istok, J.D.  91
 Izuno, F.T.  143
 Izuno, Forrest T.  142
 Jaffe, P.R.  117, 122
 Jarvis, L.J.  98
 Jelinski, J.C.  42
 Jemison, J.M. Jr  47
 Jenkins, R.A.  27
 Jensen, K.H.  80
 Johansson, R.  81
 Johnson, J.A.  10
 Johnson, W.S.  71
 Jones, J.  31
 Jones, R.L.  95, 146
 Joshi, S.R.  109
 Kamari, J.  52
 Kannan, N.  65
 Kanwar, R.S.  83
 Kapila, S.  130
 Kaushik, N.K.  56
 Kawanishi, T.  34
 Kawano, M.  65
 Kazda, M.  120
 Keeler, A.G.  75
 Keith, L.H.  145
 Keith, Lawrence H.,  18
 Kia, S.F.  24
 Kihou, N.  34
 Killam, L.M.  4
 Kirkland, S.D.  146
 Kissel, D.E.  88
 Kist, A.A.  112
 Knighton, R.E.  15
 Koehnlein, S.A.  42, 117
 Korobeinik, G.S.  51
 Koskinen, W.C.  98
 Kostromin, A.N.  51
 Koterba, M.T.  110
 Krantzberg, G.  85
 Kulmatov, R.A.  112
 Kusk, K.O.  127
 LaFleur, L.E.  31
 Lawruk, T.S.  105
 Leach, L.E.  8
 LeBlanc, D.R.  74
 Lembi, C.A.  61
 Leslie, A.R.  68
 Leslie, Anne R.,  67
 Lewis, S.R.  71
 Liber, K.  56
 Lim, M.  4
 Loftis, J.C.  26
 Louch, J.R.  31
 Lowery, B.  99
 MacDonald, L.M.  136
 Mackay, D.M.  12
 MacLeod, C.L.  42, 117
 Magette, W.L.  46
 Maitre, V.  23
 Mark, M.  31
 Martin, G.R.  16
 Mason, R.E.  89
 Masscheleyn, P.H.  72
 Mastala, Z.  114
 Mathiasson, L.  82
 McBride, G.B.  92
 McGrath, K.E.  130
 McGuire, P.E.  99
 McIntosh, M.S.  134
 Meer, J van der  76
 Meisinger, J.J.  53
 Merriweather, R.  27
 Miles, C.J.  93
 Miller, G.  104
 Miller, O.P.  123
 Monke, E.J.  118
 Motes, M.L. Jr  60
 Motlagh, S.  4
 Mueller, David K.  5
 Mueller, William,  18
 Muir, D.C.G.  40
 Muller, M.D.  44
 Munch, D.J.  6
 Myers, R.G.  88
 Nash, R.G.  68, 126
 Nash, Ralph G.,  67
 Nilve, G.  82
 Noegrohati, S.  111
 Norris, F.A.  146
 Nyholm, N.  127
 O'Dell, J.D.  138
 O'Grady, B.V.  107
 Orazio, C.E.  130
 Otto, J.M.  98
 Ozaki, Y.  34
 Padgitt, S.C.  90
 Parker, M.  113
 Parkin, T.B.  53
 Parrish, R.S.  21
 Patrick, W.H. Jr  72
 Pawliszyn, J.  4
 Pederson, D.T.  11
 Peeler, J.T.  60
 Pepio, M.  30
 Perkins, L.B.  14
 Phillips, P.J.  110
 Pinder, G.F.  57
 Pionke, H.B.  116
 Pitcher, H.M.  78
 Plafkin, J.L.  49
 Platford, R.F.  109
 Posch, M.  52
 Potter, D.W.  4
 Ptacek, C.J.  79
 Puri, R.K. Š130
 Ragone, S.E.  68
 Rai, L.C.  25
 Rappe, C.  44
 Ray, M.  43
 Reckhow, K.H.  129
 Rekolainen, S.  52
 Reynolds, B.  50
 Reynolds, G.W.  115
 Rhodes, G.N. Jr  138
 Rice, K.C.  1
 Richardson, D.E.  107
 Richardson, J.L.  15
 Richman, S.J.  43
 Ritchie, J.C.  2
 Ritter, P.  132
 Riva, M.C.  30
 Roberts, P.V.  12
 Rochelle, B.P.  139
 Rogowski, A.S.  116
 Rompot, T.  132
 Ross, R.R.  8
 Rubio, F.M.  105
 Russo, D.  128
 Ryan, B.J.  144
 Salanki, J.  114
 Sanders, J.G.  7
 Sawka, G.J.  132
 Schaalje, G.B.  124
 Schnabel, R.R.  116
 Schreiber, J.D.  121
 Scott, J. C.  19, 20
 Sedova, V.K.  51
 Seelig, B.D.  15
 Seiber, J.N.  87
 Selker, J.S.  58
 Servos, M.R.  40
 Shedlock, R.J.  110
 Shenk, J.S.  97
 Shepherd, T.R.  11
 Sheridan, J.M.  38
 Shingal, N.  122
 Silverstein, JoAnn  59
 Singh, A.K.  25
 Singh, P.  83
 Smith, C.N.  21, 131
 Smith, D.G.  92
 Smith, David,  18
 Smith, J.A.  117
 Smith, R.A.  119
 Smith, R.L.  74
 Smith, S. Jr  121
 Smits, A.H.  96
 Smoot, J.L.  16
 Smyth, J.D.  91
 Sojka, R.E.  73
 Solomon, K.R.  56
 Song, Q.  35
 Sorensen, P.S.  127
 Spalding, R.F.  37
 Spoon, E.  71
 Starr, J.L.  53
 Stednick, John D.  149
 Steenhuis, T.S.  58
 Stevens, D.L. Jr  139
 Stokes, P.M.  85
 Stoltenberg, D.  77
 Stullken, Lloyd E.  55
 Swallow, C.W.  88
 Tanabe, S.  65
 Tang, P.H.  28
 Tatsukawa, R.  65
 Taylor, C.H.  26
 Taylor, L. A.  142
 Taylor, L.A.  143
 Teitzel, H.  31
 Tessari, J.D.  125
 Thompson, D.G.  136
 Thompson, M.L.  83
 Tomkins, B.A.  27
 Toxic Waste-Ground-Water Contamination Program (U.S.)  55 
 Tran, D.  43
 Troiano, J.  43
 Trufmanova, E.P.  51
 Turner, K.S.  42
 Ulen, B.  82
 United States, Dept. of Energy, Atomic Energy of Canada
 Limited  63
 Urban, J.B.  116
 Valentine, H.T.  22
 Vaughan, M.  77
 Veydovec, Bill  59
 Volz, J.  96
 Vowinkel, E.  101
 Wagenet, R.J.  106
 Walker, D.S.  138
 Weidner, K.  133
 Westerhaus, M.O.  97
 White, J.  43
 White, K.D.  16
 Whitmore, A.P.  86
 Williams, R.G.  38
 Wilson, G.  31
 Wilson, L.G.  17
 Wisseman, R.W.  49
 Wolfe, M.F.  87
 Wolt, J.D.  138
 Woodrow, D.  31
 Yamaguchi, Y.  65
 Yanders, A.F.  130
 Yoder, D.C.  118
 Yoneyama, T.  34
 Young, C.L.  48
 Zahn, D.R.  104
 
 
 
 Accuracy  14, 33, 88
 Acid rain  1, 26, 139
 Acid soils  23, 50
 Acid treatment  23
 Acids  1
 Adsorption  99
 Agricultural chemicals  8, 17, 37, 53, 67, 69, 116, 131, 134,
 137, 146
 Agricultural land  52
 Agricultural pollution  142
 Agricultural products  97
 Agricultural soils  34, 81
 Air pollutants  65
 Alachlor  105, 126
 Alfisols  10
 Algae  25, 54
 Algorithms  2
 Aluminum  23, 50, 123
 Analysis  30
 Analysis of covariance  114
 Analysis of variance  56, 114
 Analytical methods  4, 6, 7, 10, 12, 14, 27, 28, 29, 30, 40,
 44, 45, 47, 51, 70, 72, 73, 76, 78, 82, 85, 87, 93, 98, 112,
 125, 126, 133, 136, 137, 145
 Animal fat  76
 Animal tissues  44
 Antarctica  44
 Apparatus  88
 Applications  119
 Aquatic communities  49
 Aquatic environment  25, 49, 56
 Aquatic insects  49
 Aquatic organisms  3
 Aquatic weeds  61
 Aquifers  12, 24, 51, 74, 79, 91, 122, 148
 Arable land  32
 Arid zones  112
 Aromatic compounds  31
 Aromatic hydrocarbons  70
 Arsenic  72
 Assessment  47, 86, 123
 Atlantic salmon  44
 Atomic absorption spectrophotometry  72
 Atrazine  11, 14, 98, 126, 140
 Austria  120
 Autocorrelation  128
 Bacteria  74, 122
 Bacterial count  60
 Bacteriophages  36
 Baltic sea  44
 Barley  97
 Benthos  49
 Benzene  4
 Biliary system  70
 Bioassays  60
 Bioavailability  113
 Biocides  56
 Biodegradation  122
 Biology  54
 Body parts  30
 Bound water  117
 British Columbia  41
 Bromide  86, 137
 Buds  61
 Bulk density  83
 Cadmium  99
 Calcium  23, 123
 Calculation  40
 Calibration  97
 California  75
 Canada  109
 Canopy  120, 135
 Capacity  137
 Carbaryl  125
 Carbofuran  126
 Carbon  25
 Carotenoids  25
 Case studies  65
 Castor  113
 Ceramics  99
 Chalk grasslands  135
 Characterization  83
 Chemical analysis  31, 44, 65, 85, 87, 98
 Chemical composition  23
 Chironomus  85
 Chlordane  44, 130
 Chlorinated hydrocarbons  117
 Chlorophyll  25
 Chlorophyta  127
 Chromium  23, 25, 99
 Chutes  118
 Clay soils  41, 81, 84, 130
 Cleaning  99
 Clear strip felling  22
 Clearcutting  22
 Coastal plains  108
 Cobalt  99
 Coliform bacteria  77
 Collection  74
 Colorado  49
 Community ecology  49
 Comparisons  10, 47, 52, 83, 114, 135
 Component analysis  15
 Computer analysis  139
 Computer graphics  141
 Computer simulation  86
 Computer software  97
 Concentration  40, 42, 114, 120
 Congresses  63
 Conservation tillage  90
 Contaminants  57, 72, 77
 Contamination  23, 76
 Continuous cropping  83
 Control  46
 Core sampling  24, 88, 138
 Costs  147
 Crown  120
 Cyanazine  126
 Cyanobacteria  25
 Czechoslovakia  14
 Dairy farms  132
 Dairy wastes  123
 Data analysis  92
 Data bases  19
 Data collection  92
 Data processing  19
 Ddt  65
 Decision making  33
 Degradation  95, 106, 122
 Delaware  69, 110
 Deltas  75
 Demonstration farms  48, 90
 Denitrification  34, 59
 Deposition  1, 120
 Desert plants  108
 Desorption  99
 Detection  11, 30, 62, 103
 Detergents  96
 Determination  27, 28, 76, 107, 135
 Diffusion  86
 Discriminant analysis  15
 Dispersion  34
 Dissolved oxygen  35
 Dissolving  23
 Distribution  10, 85
 Ditches  137
 Dosage effect  78
 Drainage  52, 81, 137
 Drinking water  126
 Duration  99
 Dyes  30
 Dynamic models  75
 Ecosystems  108
 Effects  48, 90
 Efficiency  47
 Egypt  108
 Electrical conductivity  143
 Elisa  43, 105
 England  3
 Environmental aspects  63
 Environmental factors  108
 Environmental legislation  147
 Environmental pollution  78, 133
 Environmental protection  6, 7, 45, 93
 Enzyme activity  25
 Equations  57, 79
 Equilibration  79
 Erosion  2, 141
 Erosion control  84
 Errors  46, 86, 99
 Escherichia coli  36, 60
 Estimates  52, 96, 139
 Ethylene  23
 Eutrophication  113
 Evaluation  11, 39, 47, 60, 73, 86
 Experimental design  22, 56, 86
 Exposure  30
 Extension education  48, 90
 Extraction  4, 11, 28, 61, 125, 126
 Fagus sylvatica  120
 Farmers' attitudes  48, 90
 Farmland  16
 Fecal coliforms  60
 Fertilizers  104
 Field experimentation  79, 83
 Field moisture conditions  88
 Field tests  21, 25, 48, 84, 90
 Finland  52
 Fish  70
 Fishery management  75
 Flexibility  94
 Florida  123, 132
 Flow  52, 80
 Fluorine  23
 Flurprimidol  61
 Flushing  148
 Foliar uptake  135
 Food contamination  60
 Forest inventories  22
 Forest statistics  22
 Forest trees  22
 Forests  16, 22
 Frequency  52
 Frequency distribution  97
 Fresh water  75
 Freshwater fishes  114, 130
 Freshwater molluscs  114
 Furrow irrigation  73
 Gas chromatography  11, 29, 43, 61
 Gases  51
 Geochemistry  23, 51
 Geology  1
 Georgia  38, 131
 Gibbsite  50
 Glass  99
 Government organizations  6
 Gradients  74
 Greenhouse crops  102
 Groundwater  8, 17, 21, 37, 39, 53, 62, 64, 66, 68, 69, 77,
 89, 95, 105, 110, 116, 121, 131, 134, 144, 146
 Groundwater flow  57, 63
 Groundwater pollution  4, 6, 12, 24, 27, 34, 42, 48, 51, 57,
 58, 74, 79, 80, 90, 91, 93, 95, 99, 100, 101, 103, 115, 121,
 122, 137, 148
 Groundwater recharge  58
 Half life  61
 Halogenated hydrocarbons  79, 115
 Hapludalfs  47
 Hardness  143
 Hatcheries  75
 Hay  97
 Haylage  97
 Hch  65
 Health hazards  78
 Heavy metals  25, 100, 102, 112
 Height  41
 Herbicide residues  11, 43, 61, 82, 87, 98, 105, 136
 Herbicides  29
 Herrings  44
 Hordeum vulgare  81
 Hplc  14, 107
 Hungary  114
 Hydraulic conductivity  57, 74, 128
 Hydraulic power systems  138
 Hydraulics  80
 Hydrocarbons  51
 Identification  145
 Imagery  83
 In vitro  30
 Incubation  88
 India  25
 Indicator species  130
 Industrial sites  117
 Industrial wastes  51
 Infiltration  100
 Information  48, 90
 Infrared spectroscopy  97
 Inhibition  25
 Insecticide residues  125, 130
 Instrumentation  121
 Instruments  143
 Integrated pest management  48
 Intelligence  78
 Interface phenomena  109
 Interference  98
 Interrill erosion  32
 Iodide  137
 Ion exchange resins  135
 Ions  99, 135
 Iowa  48, 77, 90
 Iron  23, 123
 Iron oxides  100
 Irrigated soils  73
 Irrigation  43
 Irrigation water  102
 Isolation technique  3
 Italy  84
 Kansas  55
 Kentucky  16, 49
 Kinetics  122
 Laboratory methods  3, 41, 60, 79, 83, 88, 102, 122
 Laboratory tests  80
 Lakes  26, 56, 109
 Land use  19, 19, 101
 Landsat  2
 Larvae  85
 Leachates  81
 Leaching  10, 15, 21, 23, 41, 43, 47, 50, 81, 83, 86, 88, 106,
 111, 120, 128, 130, 138
 Lead poisoning  78
 Lindane  10
 Liquid chromatography  70, 82
 Literature reviews  106
 Loam soils  41, 81, 83
 Logging effects  22
 Losses from soil  73
 Losses from soil systems  32, 38
 Louisiana  72
 Lysimeters  17, 47, 81, 134
 Lysimetric chromatography  117
 Lysimetry  81, 117
 Macropores  83
 Magnesium  23
 Magnetic separation  105
 Maize  97
 Malathion  125
 Manganese  23
 Mapping  139
 Marine areas  65, 76
 Marine fouling  76
 Maryland  1, 7, 110
 Mass spectrometry  11, 61
 Massachusetts  74
 Mathematical models  26, 32, 34, 36, 52, 63, 63, 63, 80, 106,
 131
 Mathematics  33, 51, 86
 Mcpa  82
 Measurement  24, 47, 73, 83, 86, 88
 Mercury  25
 Metabolites  70
 Metal ions  100
 Metal tolerance  25
 Metals  85, 114
 Methane production  122
 Methodology  1, 135
 Michigan  24
 Microbial activities  36
 Minimum tillage  121
 Mississippi  2, 121
 Missouri  130
 Models  21, 35, 89, 120, 137
 Monitoring  2, 7, 9, 24, 26, 50, 52, 58, 62, 65, 92, 95, 99,
 103, 114, 133, 140
 Monolith sampling  81
 Monte carlo method  26, 35
 Mountain areas  49
 Movement  134
 Movement in soil  10, 12, 74, 86, 95, 106, 123, 137
 Multivariate analysis  91
 Myriophyllum spicatum  61
 Napropamide  10
 Naptalam  87
 Netherlands  96, 135
 New Jersey  42, 117
 New York  94
 New Zealand  39, 92
 Nitrate  34, 81, 121
 Nitrate fertilizers  81
 Nitrate nitrogen  86
 Nitrates  39, 41, 74, 91, 116
 Nitrogen  68, 135, 143
 Nitrogen fixation  25
 Nitrogen mineralization  88
 Nitrogenase  25
 No-tillage  83, 121
 North Dakota  15
 Northeastern states of U.S.A.  116
 Nuclear power plants  63
 Nutrient availability  123
 Nutrient content  123
 Nutrient retention  123
 Nutrient uptake  25, 102
 Nutrients  120
 Ohio  66
 Oncorhynchus  30
 Ontario  79
 Optical properties  2
 Oregon  49, 91
 Organic compounds  28, 40, 42, 45, 74, 101, 115, 122, 145, 148
 Organochlorine compounds  31, 56
 Organochlorine insecticides  111
 Organochlorine pesticides  27
 Orthophosphates  113
 Oximes  13
 Oysters  60
 Paper mill sludge  31
 Particles  113
 Peat soils  81
 Pennsylvania  47, 133
 Persistence  61, 130
 Pesticide residues  13, 27, 64, 68, 89, 91, 106, 124, 133,
 138, 140
 Pesticides  6, 21, 77, 93, 95, 106, 121
 Petroleum  78, 80
 Ph  99, 143
 Phenolic compounds  31
 Phenols  56
 Phosphates  96
 Phosphorus  52, 113, 123, 132, 143
 Physical properties of soil  41
 Physico-chemical properties  54
 Physico-chemical properties of soil  12
 Physicochemical properties  15
 Phytoplankton  25, 127
 Phytotoxicity  25, 127
 Piezometers  37
 Plains  49†
 Pollutants  4, 6, 18, 24, 28, 36, 40, 42, 45, 46, 49, 51, 70,
 74, 112, 127, 145
 Polluted soils  100
 Pollution  28, 52, 60, 63
 Polychlorinated biphenyls  76
 Polyesters  83
 Polymers  23
 Ponds  125
 Population density  123
 Populations  75
 Porosity  83
 Potassium  23, 123
 Precipitation  120
 Prediction  1, 32, 79, 97, 103, 128, 137
 Prevention  137
 Profiles  74
 Prynachlor  98
 Public agencies  45, 49, 93
 Pulp mill effluent  31, 107
 Pulping  107
 Pygoscelis  44
 Quality  97
 Quality controls  54
 Quality standards  78
 Quantitative analysis  13, 27, 34, 36, 43, 61, 75, 80, 105,
 106, 121, 136
 Radiation  109
 Radioactive pollution of water  63
 Radioactive wastes  144
 Radionuclides  109
 Rain  38
 Random sampling  57
 Rapid methods  49
 Recharge  58
 Redox potential  100
 Reference standards  13
 Reflectance  2
 Regression analysis  2, 46, 56, 94, 97, 111, 127
 Regulation  33
 Regulations  75
 Remote sensing  2
 Replication  86
 Representative sampling  97
 Research  145
 Reservoirs  54
 Residues  76
 Resin acids  107
 Resins  83, 140
 Resistance  36
 Rhode Island  144
 River valleys  49
 River water  16, 72, 112, 113
 Rivers  96, 130
 Roots  61
 Runoff  32, 38, 46, 52, 73, 84, 118, 121, 133, 141
 Runoff water  139
 Saline water  7
 Salmon  75
 Sample pretreatment  126
 Samplers  23, 50, 99
 Samples  6, 14, 74
 Sampling  1, 8, 11, 16, 17, 19, 23, 37, 42, 47, 52, 53, 55,
 58, 64, 65, 66, 68, 69, 71, 77, 82, 87, 89, 91, 92, 95, 99,
 104, 109, 110, 113, 115, 116, 117, 123, 124, 130, 131, 134,
 135, 140, 143, 144, 146, 147, 148
 Sampling techniques  39, 54
 Sandy loam soils  10, 81, 128
 Sandy soils  12, 81, 123, 130
 Scenedesmus  127
 Sea water  44, 60
 Seals  44, 76
 Seasonal variation  135
 Sediment  2, 72, 73, 76, 130
 Sediment yield  141
 Sediments  40
 Sequential sampling  50
 Sewage effluent  113
 Shoots  61
 Silica  23
 Silicon  23
 Silty soils  41
 Simazine  43, 126
 Simulation  32, 75, 103, 122
 Simulation models  80, 86, 106, 129, 141
 Site factors  108
 Site types  16
 Sodic soils  15
 Sodium  23, 123
 Soil  8, 73, 111, 124, 138
 Soil analysis  10, 23, 24, 95, 104
 Soil boundaries  15
 Soil classification  15
 Soil conservation  94
 Soil depth  43, 83
 Soil micromorphology  23, 83
 Soil morphology  15
 Soil organic matter  81, 100, 123
 Soil ph  100, 123
 Soil pollution  12, 24, 67, 72, 80, 95, 98, 100, 117, 130, 133
 Soil properties  128
 Soil salinity  15
 Soil solution  10, 23, 50, 99
 Soil surveys  15
 Soil testing  72, 86, 123
 Soil texture  100
 Soil variability  15, 123
 Soil water  23, 34, 43, 47, 58, 61, 99, 134
 Soil water content  9, 83
 Soil water movement  47, 83
 Soil water retention  128
 Solubility  50
 Solutes  34, 47, 83
 Solutions  12
 Solvents  111
 Sorption  10, 12, 79, 100, 111, 115
 Sorption isotherms  10
 Southeastern states of U.S.A.  60
 Spain  102
 Spatial distribution  15, 65
 Spatial equilibrium analysis  101
 Spatial variation  15, 123, 128
 Species diversity  49
 Spectral analysis  97
 Spectral data  2, 13, 97
 Spodic horizons  123
 Spodosols  123
 Spread  137
 Stability  6
 Stainless steel  99
 Standards  71
 Statistical analysis  15, 22, 33, 35, 38, 49, 64, 86, 89, 96,
 101, 128, 129, 139, 141
 Statistical data  22, 86
 Statistical methods  26, 33, 51, 62, 63, 103, 114, 119, 129
 Stemflow  120, 135
 Stochastic models  57, 128
 Stratified sets  20
 Streams  1, 49, 113, 119
 Sulfonylurea herbicides  136
 Surface layers  2, 123
 Surface water  92
 Surveys  6, 90, 93, 139
 Susceptibility  25
 Suspensions  40, 113
 Sweden  44
 Techniques  115, 122
 Temporal variation  86
 Testing  105, 127
 Tests  71, 127, 137
 Textiles  30
 Throughfall  135
 Tillage  83, 121
 Tissue analysis  85
 Titanium  23
 Toluene  4
 Topography  123
 Toxic substances  127
 Toxicity  36, 44, 49, 56, 70
 Trace elements  112
 Tracers  137
 Tractors  138
 Transformation  106
 Transport‹ 57
 Transport processes  34, 52
 Trends  26, 75, 119
 U.S.A.  6, 26, 45, 78, 93, 109, 119, 145
 U.S.S.R.in europe  51
 Uncertainties  139
 Uncertainty  35
 Undisturbed sampling  88
 Universal soil loss equation  38
 University research  133
 Unsaturated flow  128
 Upland soils  15
 Uptake  85, 102
 Uzbek ssr  112
 Validity  13
 Variance  89
 Variation  86, 97
 Vertical movement  74
 Virginia  110
 Viruses  36
 Volatilization  106
 Volume  11, 22, 99
 Waste disposal  63
 Waste disposal sites  62
 Waste water treatment  31
 Water  18, 42, 59, 87, 91, 142
 Water chemistry  149
 Water composition and quality  3, 7, 26, 39, 51, 54, 78, 96,
 101, 148
 Water conservation  94
 Water erosion  38, 73
 Water flow  34, 75
 Water law  7
 Water management  75, 132
 Water pollution  1, 7, 8, 13, 14, 17, 25, 29, 30, 31, 36, 37,
 40, 44, 45, 49, 53, 56, 62, 64, 65, 68, 70, 72, 76, 82, 85,
 87, 89, 96, 98, 102, 107, 109, 112, 114, 116, 117, 123, 124,
 125, 126, 127, 130, 131, 133, 134, 139, 140, 144, 145, 146
 Water quality  2, 5, 9, 11, 13, 16, 20, 22, 33, 35, 48, 58,
 61, 66, 69, 71, 75, 77, 90, 92, 94, 104, 105, 108, 110, 113,
 119, 121, 129, 131, 132, 136, 142, 143, 147, 149
 Water quality management  142
 Water reservoirs  2
 Water resources  75
 Water storage  54
 Water table  41
 Water yield  22
 Water, Underground  5, 19, 20, 55, 63, 67
 Watersheds  1, 116, 118, 121, 139, 141
 Wells  24, 42, 62, 66, 71, 77, 125, 126, 146, 147, 148
 Wetland soils  15
 Wheat  97
 Wicking property  58
 Wisconsin  137
 Wyoming  113
 Xylene  4
 Zea mays  47, 83
 Zimbabwe  32
 Zinc  99
 Zooplankton  56
 
 
 ********************************************************
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