Water Quality Information Center of the National Agricultural Library
Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture


Irrigating Efficiently

 January 1988 - February 1994
 Quick Bibliography Series:  QB 94-35
 264 citations from AGRICOLA
 
 Joe Makuch and Bonnie Emmert
 Water Quality Information Center
 
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 Irrigating Efficiently
 
 1                      NAL Call. No.: S612.2.N38 1990
 AGWATER--irrigation management and planning expert system.
 Hawkins, T.; Burt, C.M.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural Engineers; 1990.
 Visions of the future : proceedings of the Third National
 Irrigation Symposium
 held in conjunction with the 11th Annual International Irrigation
 Exposition, October 28-November 1, 1990, Phoenix Civic Plaza, Phoenix, Arizona.
 p. 64-68; 1990. (ASAE publication ; 04-90).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Irrigation; Computer software; Water use
 efficiency
 
 
 2                            NAL Call. No.: 64.8 C883
 Alfalfa yield and plant water relations with variable irrigation.
 Grimes, D.W.; Wiley, P.L.; Sheesley, W.R.
 Madison, Wis. : Crop Science Society of America; 1992 Nov.
 Crop science v. 32 (6): p. 1381-1387; 1992 Nov.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Medicago sativa; Arid climate; Semiarid climate;
 Cultivars; Varietal reactions; Water use efficiency; Irrigation scheduling;
 Sprinkler irrigation; Evapotranspiration; Water potential; Water stress; Crop
 yield; Yield losses
 
 Abstract:  In the arid and semiarid western USA, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)
 grown for forage requires large amounts of water for high productivity.
 Managing alfalfa to achieve the best possible water-use efficiency (WUE) is
 essential for the crop to remain competitive for water supplies both within and
 outside agriculture. This study was conducted in the San Joaquin Valley of
 California, to define alfalfa forage yield and plant water relation responses
 of three alfalfa cultivars (CUF 101, Moapa 69, and WL 318) to contrasting
 irrigation intensities and establish critical plant water-status values for
 irrigation scheduling. A single line-source sprinkler system provided a
 variable water supply. The soil was a Hanford sandy loam, silty substratum
 (coarse-loamy, mixed, nonacid, thermic typic xerorthent). Maximum total season
 crop evapotranspiration (ET(c)) of 1000 mm gave 26.3 Mg ha-1 of hay yield that
 was similar for the three cultivars. A linear hay yield (Y(h))-ET(c)
 relationship was defined as Y(h) = -0.212 + 0.0265 ET(c) (r2 = 0.82). Water-use
 efficiency, 23.1 Mg ha-1 dry matter per meter of water used as ET(c), was
 comparable with other C(3) species. As midday plant water potential declined
 below -1 MPa, yield reductions were observed for all cultivars. Increased crop
 water stress index (CWSI) was correlated (r = 0.84) with declining midday plant
 water potential below the -1 MPa yield-limiting midday plant water potential
 threshold. Absolute values of midday plant water potential or CWSI associated
 with a given yield reduction were cultivar-dependent; Moapa 69 and WL 318
 responded alike, but each differed from CUF 101. Plant-based water-status
 measurements provided a practical and reliable index for assessing the adequacy
 of supplied irrigation water.
 
 
 3                            NAL Call. No.: TD930.A32
 Anaerobic digestion of wastes containing pyrolignitic acids.
 Andreoni, V.; Bonfanti, P.; Daffonchio, D.; Sorlini, C.; Villa, M.
 Essex : Elsevier Applied Science Publishers; 1990.
 Biological wastes v. 34 (3): p. 203-214; 1990.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Wood; Pyrolysis; Residues; Waste treatment; Anaerobic digestion;
 Removal; Efficiency; Methane production
 
 
 4                               NAL Call. No.: SB1.H6
 Analysis of efficiency of overhead irrigation in container production.
 Beeson, R.C. Jr; Knox, G.W.
 Alexandria, Va. : American Society for Horticultural Science; 1991
 Jul.
 HortScience v. 26 (7): p. 848-850; 1991 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Rhododendron; Pittosporum tobira; Sprinkler irrigation;
 Container grown plants; Irrigation; Efficiency; Overhead sprayers; Leaf area;
 Canopy; Density; Spacing; Containers; Size
 
 Abstract:  Volume of water captured in a container as a function of sprinkler
 type, spacing, plant type, and container size was measured for marketable-sized
 plants. Percent water captured was calculated and a model to predict this value
 derived. Percent water captured was inversely related to the leaf area
 contained in the cylinder over the container when containers were separated,
 and with total plant leaf area at a pot-to-pot spacing. This relationship was
 independent of leaf curvature (concave vs. convex). Canopy densities were less
 related to percent water captured than leaf areas. Irrigation application
 efficiencies separated by spacing ranged from 37% at a close spacing to 25% at
 a spacing of 7.6 cm between containers. Container spacing, canopy shedding, and
 possibly some canopy retention of water later lost by evaporation were
 determined to be the main factors associated with the low efficiencies. The
 results suggest that higher irrigation application efficiencies would be
 maintained only if plants were transplanted to larger containers before
 reaching maximum canopy size rather than spacing existing containers to achieve
 more room for canopy growth.
 
 
 5                              NAL Call. No.: 10 EX72
 Analysis of experiments involving line source sprinkler irrigation.
 Morgan, D.D.V.; Carr, M.K.V.
 Cambridge : Cambridge University Press; 1988 Apr.
 Experimental agriculture v. 24 (2): p. 169-176; 1988 Apr.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sprinkler irrigation; Water use efficiency; Rate of wetting;
 Performance testing; Analysis of covariance; Coverage; Dispersion; Spraylines
 
 
 6                            NAL Call. No.: 75.8 P842
 Antitranspirant effects on yield, quality and water use efficiency
 of Russet
 Burbank potatoes.
 Stark, J.C.; Dwelle, R.B.
 Orono, Me. : Potato Association of America; 1989 Sep.
 American potato journal v. 66 (9): p. 563-574; 1989 Sep.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Idaho; Solanum tuberosum; Antitranspirants; Crop management; Crop
 quality; Crop yield; Drought resistance; Evapotranspiration; Irrigation
 systems; Water stress; Water use efficiency
 
 
 7                               NAL Call. No.: SB1.H6
 Application method affects water application efficiency of spray
 stake-irrigated containers.
 Lamack, W.F.; Niemiera, A.X.
 Alexandria, Va. : The American Society for Horticultural Science; 1993 Jun.
 HortScience : a publication of the American Society for
 Horticultural Science
 v. 28 (6): p. 625-627; 1993 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Tagetes erecta; Container grown plants; Trickle irrigation;
 Application methods; Application rates; Water use efficiency; Water deficit;
 Irrigation scheduling; Pine bark
 
 Abstract:  Studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of water application
 medium moisture deficit, water application rate, and intermittent application
 on water application efficiency {[(amount applied - amount leached)/amount
 applied] X 100} of spray stake-irrigated, container-grown plants. Pine bark-
 filled containers were irrigated to replace moisture deficits of 600, 1200, or
 1800 ml; deficits were returned in single, continuous applications of 148, 220,
 or 270 ml-min-1. Efficiency was unaffected by medium at a 600-ml deficit was
 irrigated with 400 or 600 ml (65% and 100% water replacement, respectively);
 deficits were returned in a single, continuous application or in intermittent
 100-ml applications with 30-min intervals between irrigations. Application
 efficiency was greater with intermittent irrigation (95% and 84% for 400- and
 600-ml replacement, respectively) than with continuous 100-, or 150-ml aliquots
 with 20, 40, or 60 min between applications in a factorial design. Efficiency
 increased with decreasing application volume and increasing time between
 applications. Highest efficiency (86%) was achieved with an irrigation regimen
 of 50-ml applications with at least 40 min between applications, compared to
 62% for the control treatment (a single, continuous application of 600 ml). Our
 results suggest that growers using spray stakes would waste less water by
 applying water intermittently rather than continuously.
 
 
 8                     NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM3PS (IR)
 Applying partial irrigation in Pakistan.
 Trimmer, W.L.
 New York, N.Y. : American Society of Civil Engineers; 1990 May.
 Journal of irrigation and drainage engineering v. 116 (3): p. 342-353; 1990
 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pakistan; Irrigation systems; Crop yield; Water conservation;
 Water management; Cost benefit analysis; Optimization
 
 
 9                            NAL Call. No.: TC801.I66
 Automatic dam management and river regulation for irrigation purposes.
 Tardieu, H.
 Dordrecht : Martinus Nijhoff Publishers; 1988.
 Irrigation and drainage systems : an international journal v. 2
 (1): p. 53-61.
 maps; 1988.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: France; Irrigation; Canals; Dams; Rivers; Water management; Water
 use efficiency
 
 
 10                           NAL Call. No.: TC801.I66
 Automation of border irrigation in South-East Australia: an overview.
 Malano, H.M.; Patto, M.
 Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1992 Feb.
 Irrigation and drainage systems : an international journal v. 6
 (1): p. 9-26; 1992 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Australia; Border irrigation; Irrigated farming; Automatic
 irrigation systems; Irrigation equipment; Hydraulics; Performance; Application;
 Efficiency
 
 
 11                             NAL Call. No.: 81 C128
 Avocado irrigation.
 Bender, G.S.; Engle, M.M.
 Saticoy, Calif. : The Society; 1988.
 California Avocado Society yearbook v. 72: p. 183-191; 1988.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Persea Americana; Irrigation systems; Water use
 efficiency; Irrigation scheduling
 
 
 12                           NAL Call. No.: 282.8 J82
 Bargaining rules for a thin spot water market.
 Saleth, R.M.; Braden, J.B.; Eheart, J.W.
 Madison, Wis. : University of Wisconsin Press; 1991 Aug.
 Land economics v. 67 (3): p. 326-339; 1991 Aug.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Illinois; Maize; Irrigation water; Markets; Efficiency; Crop
 yield; Farm size; Watersheds; Right of access; Game theory; Simulation models
 
 
 13                          NAL Call. No.: 100 C12CAG
 Benefits and costs of improving pumping efficiency.
 Hanson, B.R.
 Berkeley, Calif. : The Station; 1988 Jul.
 California agriculture - California Agricultural Experiment Station
 v. 42 (4):
 p. 21-22; 1988 Jul.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation systems; Pumps; Efficiency; Cost benefit analysis;
 Energy conservation; Performance
 
 
 14                          NAL Call. No.: 292.9 AM34
 Benefits of transferring streamflow priority from agricultural to non-
 agricultural use.
 Bosch, D.J.
 Bethesda, Md. : American Water Resources Association; 1991 May.
 Water resources bulletin v. 27 (3): p. 397-405; 1991 May.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Virginia; River water; Irrigation; Irrigation water; Water
 reservoirs; Watersheds; Stream flow; Water allocation; Water use efficiency;
 Yields; Simulation models
 
 A
 bstract:  In Virginia, as in many states, priority to streamflow is held by
 riparian landowners who are predominantly agricultural users. The streamflow
 may also have a high potential value to nonagricultural users who do not have
 riparian rights. The potential benefits of transferring streamflow priority
 rights from agricultural to non-agricultural use were evaluated using
 simulation for an eastern Virginia watershed. Lowering irrigators' priority to
 streamflow reduced crop yields and irrigated returns in some years because of
 inadequate water supplies. However, the transfer of priorities increased the
 likelihood that the urban reservoir would be able to withdraw water from the
 stream without interruption. As a result, priority trades reduced the size of
 reservoir needed to meet a given water requirement by municipal users. The
 resulting savings in reservoir construction and maintenance costs more than
 offset the losses to irrigators. Net savings could be achieved even if the
 reservoir were required to release water periodically to maintain a minimum
 level of instream flow. The conclusion is that the state should encourage
 trading of access to streamflow in order to increase the use efficiency of
 streamflows. Alternative means by which the state can facilitate water
 exchanges are discussed.
 
 
 15                             NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Bermuda grass response to leaching fractions, irrigation salinity, and soil
 types.
 Devitt, D.A.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1989 Nov.
 Agronomy journal v. 81 (6): p. 893-901; 1989 Nov.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cynodon dactylon; Water uptake; Saline water; Water reuse;
 Irrigation water; Root distribution; Sandy loam soils; Silt; Loam soils; Clay
 soils; Leaching; Water use efficiency
 
 Abstract:  Reuse of wastewater as an irrigation source for turfgrass is
 becoming a more viable and appealing option in arid environments where
 competition for good-quality water is increasing. The objective of this
 research was to determine the impact that varied leaching fractions, irrigation
 salinity, and soil types had on root growth and distribution, and fractional
 water uptake of bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.]. Bermudagrass was
 grown for a 2-yr period in large columns packed with three different soil types
 (sandy loam, silt loam, and clay). Saline water was synthesized and applied at
 three different salinity levels (electrical conductivities of 1.5, 3.0, and 6.0
 dS m-1). Irrigations were applied 3 d wk-1 at a rate beyond measured
 evapotranspiration (ET) to establish three different leaching fractions (0.09,
 0.18, and 0.27). The soil salinity (ECe), soil solution chloride (CI-), root
 density, and volumetric water contents were measured in soil cores taken with
 depth and time. Dry matter of weekly grass clippings was measured and recorded
 throughout the 2-yr period. Plant water status was monitored by measuring
 canopy temperatures and leaf xylem water potentials. Results indicated that
 bermudagrass was very tolerant to the range of salinity-leaching conditions
 imposed. However, differences were noted by treatments, with the sandy soil
 showing as much as a 25% yield decrement at the highest salinity level.
 Salinity of the irrigation water (EC1), rather than soil salinity (ECe), was
 more highly correlated with most of the soil-plant-water relationships
 observed. Root length density was best described by a hyperbolic function. Only
 limited success was found in correlating root length density with fractional
 water uptake. In addition, poor correlations were found between soil salinity
 with depth and fractional water uptake. These findings indicate that the
 ability to predict water uptake based on root distribution and/or soil salinity
 would be poor and that great
 
 
 16                         NAL Call. No.: 275.29 C76B
 Capillary irrigation--an overview.
 Corbett, E.G.
 Storrs, Conn. : The Service; 1990 Dec.
 Cooperative Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University
 of
 Connecticut : [bulletin] v. 2 (6): p. 5-6; 1990 Dec.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Planting stock; Trickle irrigation; Water conservation;
 Groundwater pollution
 
 
 17                           NAL Call. No.: 64.8 C883
 Carbon isotope discrimination, water relations, and photosynthesis in tall
 fescue.
 Johnson, R.C.
 Madison, Wis. : Crop Science Society of America; 1993 Jan.
 Crop science v. 33 (1): p. 169-174; 1993 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Washington; Festuca arundinacea; Genotypes; Water use efficiency;
 Carbon; Isotopes; Water relations; Gas exchange; Photosynthesis; Irrigated
 conditions
 
 Abstract:  Carbon isotope discrimination (delta) shows promise for estimating
 water-use efficiency (WUE) in crop species. Research was undertaken to examine
 delta and water relations of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.)
 accessions and to determine if low delta is associated with high gas exchange
 WUE as predicted by theory. The accession PI 438522 had lower a than the
 accession PI 231522 in both a dryland and an irrigated field environment and at
 two sampling dates. Correlations among delta, water potential, solute
 potential, and turgor pressure were not significant under irrigation. Under
 dryland conditions, correlations among these factors were generally significant
 and positive for PI 49522, but not significant for PI 231561. In a greenhouse
 experiment, plants selected for low delta from the irrigated field environment
 had lower delta and internal leaf [CO2] (Ci), and a higher ratio of CO2
 assimilation rate (A) to transpiration than high-delta selections. This was
 true for both well-watered plants and plants stressed with a -0.38 MPa
 polyethylene glycol solution. Stomatal conductance and A were positively
 correlated with delta, suggesting that lower stomatal conductance was a factor
 leading to lower Ci and delta. The results suggest that associations between
 water relations and delta vary depending on accession and environment, but
 selecting tall fescue plants for low delta does identify genotypes with low Ci
 and high WUE. Using delta for germplasm enhancement of WUE in tall fescue
 appears promising.
 
 
 18                           NAL Call. No.: TC801.I66
 Case study on an integrated operation planning of multiple reservoirs for
 irrigation in Japan.
 Kakudo, H.; Senga, Y.
 Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1991 May.
 Irrigation and drainage systems : an international journal v. 5
 (2): p.
 115-128; 1991 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Japan; Reservoirs; Operation; Planning; Irrigation water; Drought;
 Simulation; Water conservation; Water use; Case studies; Equations
 
 
 19                            NAL Call. No.: 55.9 SP8
 Centrifugal pump selection considerations.
 O'Brien, R.
 Arlington, Va. : The Association; 1988.
 Technical conference proceedings - Irrigation Association. p.
 67-73. ill; 1988.  Paper presented at the "Conference on Conserving Energy,
 Water and Other Resources Through Irrigation," October 25-28, 1987, Orlando,
 Florida.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation equipment; Hydraulic systems; Centrifugal pumps;
 Selection criteria; Design criteria; Performance traits; Efficiency
 
 
 20                            NAL Call. No.: SB476.G7
 Checklist of water conservation strategies.
 Beard, J.B.
 Overland Park, Kan. : Intertec Publishing Corporation; 1988 Apr.
 Grounds maintenance v. 23 (4): p. IR-6, IR-8, IR-9, IR-18; 1988
 Apr.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Lawns and turf; Irrigated conditions; Water conservation
 
 
 21                     NAL Call. No.: 1 Ag84Ab no.608
 Chemigation, a technology for the future?.
 Gollehon, Noel R.
 United States, Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service
 Washington, DC : U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research
 Service,; 1990; A 1.75:608.
 16 p. : ill., map ; 28 cm. (Agriculture information bulletin ; no.
 608).
 Caption title.  Shipping list no.: 90-453-P.  July 1990.  Includes
 bibliographical references (p. 15).
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Agricultural chemicals; United States; Fertilizer-pesticide
 mixtures; United States; Application; Fertilizers; Government policy; United
 States; Irrigation efficiency; United States
 
 
 22                     NAL Call. No.: S612.2.N38 1990
 Chemigation with LEPA center pivots.
 New, L.; Knutson, A.; Fipps, G.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural Engineers; 1990.
 Visions of the future : proceedings of the Third National
 Irrigation Symposium held in conjunction with the 11th Annual International
 Irrigation Exposition, October 28-November 1, 1990, Phoenix Civic Plaza,
 Phoenix, Arizona.
 p. 453-458; 1990. (ASAE publication ; 04-90).  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Center pivot irrigation; Fertigation; Insecticides; Mite
 control
 
 
 23                       NAL Call. No.: SB369.I5 1988
 Citrus irrigation in Israel--making do with less water.
 Goell, A.
 Rehovot, Israel : Balaban; 1988.
 Citriculture : proceedings of the Sixth International Citrus
 Congress : Middle-East, Tel Aviv, Israel, March 6-11, 1988 / scientific
 editors, R. Goren and K. Mendel, editor, N. Goren. p. 699-706; 1988.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Israel; Citrus; Orchards; Irrigation; Water conservation;
 Irrigation scheduling; Water requirements; Technology; Innovation adoption;
 Water stress
 
 
 24                         NAL Call. No.: SB317.5.H68
 A comparative cost analysis of vegetable irrigation systems.
 Prevatt, J.W.; Clark, G.A.; Stanley, C.D.
 Alexandria, VA : American Society for Horticultural Science; 1992
 Jan.
 HortTechnology v. 2 (1): p. 91-94; 1992 Jan.  Proceedings of the Workshop,
 "Impact of Runoff Water Quality on Future Nursery Crop Production," held at the
 87th ASHS Annual Meeting, November 8, 1990, Tucson, Arizona. Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Irrigation systems; Subsurface irrigation; Trickle
 irrigation; Cost analysis; Fixed costs; Variable costs; Sandy soils; High water
 tables; Water use efficiency; Crop production
 
 
 25                             NAL Call. No.: 80 AC82
 Comparison of drip and basin irrigation systems in banana orchards on the
 southern coast of Turkey.
 Cevik, B.; Kaska, N.; Tekinel, O.; Pekmezci, M.; Yaylali, N.; Paydas, S.
 Wageningen : International Society for Horticultural Science; 1988 Sep.
 Acta horticulturae (228): p. 213-218. ill; 1988 Sep.  Paper presented at the
 Fourth International Symposium on Water Supply and Irrigation in the Open and
 Under Protected Cultivation, August 26-28, 1985, Padova, Italy. Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Turkey; Musa; Orchards; Basin irrigation; Trickle irrigation;
 Water use efficiency; Yield response functions; Fruit; Chemical composition;
 Crop quality
 
 
 26                             NAL Call. No.: 81 SO12
 Comparison of subsurface trickle and furrow irrigation on plastic-mulched and
 bare soil for tomato production.
 Bogle, C.R.; Hartz, T.K.; Nunez, C.
 Alexandria, Va. : The Society; 1989 Jan.
 Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science v. 114 (1): p. 40-43;
 1989 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Lycopersicon esculentum; Trickle irrigation; Subsurface
 irrigation; Furrow irrigation; Plastic mulches; Mulching; Water use efficiency;
 Crop yield
 
 Abstract:  Subsurface trickle and furrow irrigation of fresh-market tomato
 (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), with or without plastic mulch, were compared
 for three consecutive growing seasons. Plots were irrigated when available soil
 water was 40% depleted. Marketable tomato yield was 22% greater for plants
 grown with trickle irrigation than with furrow irrigation. Use of black plastic
 mulch resulted in 31% and 16% greater marketable tomato yield in Spring 1983
 and 1984, than similar bare-soil (unmulched) treatments, respectively. In Fall
 1983, use of white/black (top/bottom) laminated plastic mulch reduced yields by
 12% compared to similar unmulched treatments. Total water (irrigation plus
 precipitation) applied to furrow-irrigated plots nearly equalled pan
 evaporation (Epan). Trickle-irrigated plots received less than 45% of Epan in
 all seasons, resulting in increased water-use efficiency with drip irrigation.
 Trickle irrigation as applied did not affect soluble salts concentration in the
 soils.
 
 
 27                          NAL Call. No.: FICHE S-72
 Comparison of surge and cablegation to continuous furrow irrigation.
 Israeli, I.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1988.
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers (Microfiche collection)
 (fiche no.
 88-2014): 15 p. ill., maps; 1988.  Paper presented at the 1988
 Summer Meeting of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Available for
 purchase from: The American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Order Dept.,
 2950 Niles Road, St. Joseph, Michigan 49085. Telephone the Order Dept. at (616)
 429-0300 for information and prices.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Colorado; Irrigation systems; Energy conservation; Water
 conservation
 
 
 28                             NAL Call. No.: 80 G85W
 Computer irrigation scheduling.
 Zoldoske, D.
 Willoughby, Ohio : Meister Pub. Co; 1988 Apr.
 Western fruit grower v. 108 (4): p. 6-7. ill; 1988 Apr.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation scheduling; Computer applications; Water use
 efficiency; Computer software; Soil moisture; Evapotranspiration
 
 
 29                            NAL Call. No.: aS622.S6
 Conserving Colorado's Ogallala Aquifer.
 Peavy, L.
 Washington, D.C. : The Service; 1992 Jul.
 Soil & water conservation news - U.S. Deptartment of Agriculture, Soil
 Conservation Service v. 13 (2): p. 20; 1992 Jul.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Colorado; Water management; Irrigation; Gypsum blocks; Water
 conservation; Aquifers
 
 
 30                           NAL Call. No.: TC801.I66
 Considerations for sizing water delivery systems.
 Tod, I.C.; Wallender, W.W.; Henderson, D.W.; Devries, J.J.
 Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1990 May.
 Irrigation and drainage systems : an international journal v. 4
 (2): p. 171-179; 1990 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation systems; Design; Irrigation water; Water distribution;
 Systems; Water requirements; Water use; Efficiency; Farms; Models; Costs 
 
 
 31                     NAL Call. No.: S612.2.N38 1990
 Constant hole spacing trail tubes.
 Chu, S.T.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural Engineers; 1990.
 Visions of the future : proceedings of the Third National Irrigation Symposium
 held in conjunction with the 11th Annual International Irrigation Exposition,
 October 28-November 1, 1990, Phoenix Civic Plaza, Phoenix, Arizona. p. 121-126;
 1990. (ASAE publication ; 04-90).  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sprinkler irrigation; Tubes; Water conservation
 
 
 32                             NAL Call. No.: HC55.N3
 Constraints to improved energy efficiency in agricultural pumpsets: the case of
 India.
 Sadaphal, P.M.; Natarajan, B.
 Oxford : Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd; 1992 Aug.
 Natural resources forum v. 16 (3): p. 221-225; 1992 Aug.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: India; Irrigation equipment; Pumps; Electricity; Energy
 consumption; Efficiency; Agricultural sector; Constraints
 
 
 33                         NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32T
 Cotton irrigation management with LEPA systems.
 Bordovsky, J.P.; Lyle, W.M.; Lascano, R.J.; Upchurch, D.R.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural Engineers; 1992 May.
 Transactions of the ASAE v. 35 (3): p. 879-884; 1992 May.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Gossypium; Irrigation scheduling; Irrigation systems; Soil
 water; Water use
 
 Abstract:  Irrigations were applied to short-season cotton at Halfway, Texas,
 using a LEPA irrigation system at intervals of 2, 4, 8, and 12 days in 1986 and
 at 3, 6, 9, and 18 days in 1987 and 1988. The four interval treatments were
 grouped for analysis and referred to as 3D, 5D, 9D, and 15D. Irrigation
 quantities at each interval were 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 times a base irrigation
 amount (BI) which equalled estimated cotton evapotranspiration (ET) less
 rainfall. The DRY treatments received preplant irrigations only. The 3D
 treatments resulted in higher cotton lint yield and seasonal irrigation water
 use efficiencies than other irrigation intervals. Root length densities in the
 3D treatments were higher than in the 15D treatment at both the 0.4BI and 1.OBI
 irrigation quantities. Irrigation interval treatments caused small detectable
 differences in seasonal soil water content at the 0.4BI irrigation level.
 Average cotton lint yields were reduced as irrigation amounts increased. The
 0.4BI and 0.6BI treatment yields were significantly higher than those of the
 0.8BI and the 1.OBI quantities. The 3D X 0.4BI treatment produced the highest
 annual lint yield of 1134 kg/ha from average irrigations totaling 81 mm/yr
 compared to the 15D X 1.OBI (traditional) treatment which yielded 945 kg/ha
 from 202 mm/yr of seasonal irrigation. Deficit irrigation of short-season
 cotton using a LEPA system and a 3D interval can enhance lint yield and
 conserve groundwater on the Southern High Plains of Texas.
 
 
 34                             NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Cotton management strategies for a short growing season environment: water-
 nitrogen considerations.
 Morrow, M.R.; Krieg, D.R.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1990 Jan.
 Agronomy journal v. 82 (1): p. 52-56; 1990 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Gossypium hirsutum; Water use efficiency; Water supplies;
 Dry farming; Irrigated farming; Nitrogen fertilizers; Timing; Nitrogen uptake;
 Heat sums; Crop yield; Yield components; Boll; Lint; Yield response functions;
 Interactions
 
 Abstract:  The Southern High Plains of Texas represents the largest contiguous
 cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production area in the USA. Water supply
 represents the greatest limitation to production under rainfed conditions.
 Where supplemental irrigation is used, growing season length represents a major
 limitation to attainment of high yields of desirable quality fiber and seed.
 The primary objective of this research project was to determine the inter-
 relationships between H2O, N, and heat unit supplies as they affect lint yield
 of cotton. Field experiments were conducted during a 4-yr period at a sandy
 soil (fine, loamy, mixed, thermic family of Aridic Paleustalf) site. Water
 supply was varied through irrigation with treatments ranging from dryland to
 fully irrigated. Superimposed on the water supplies were N rate treatments
 applied preplant and sidedress in a factorial design. Lint yield (LY) was
 defined as a function of components including plant density, bolls per plant
 and average boll size. Regression analysis was used to determine LY response to
 treatments. Lint yield was most highly correlated with boll number per unit
 ground area with equal contribution from plant density and bolls per plant.
 Water supply was most responsible for boll number; however, increasing N supply
 within each H2O regime resulted in a positive response in boll number per
 plant. Multiple regression analysis revealed that LY responded to H2O and N
 supplies during the fruiting period to a greater extent than to preflower
 supplies. Within any heat unit regime, LY was maximized as water supply
 increased by maintaining a constant ratio of 0.2 kg N ha-1 mm-1 H2O.
 
 
 35                           NAL Call. No.: TC823.P52
 Cotton response to high frequency irrigation.
 Bordovsky, J.P.; Lyle, W.M.
 New York, N.Y. : The Society; 1988.
 Planning now for irrigation and drainage in the 21st century : proc of a
 conference : Lincoln, Nebraska, July 18-21, 1988 / sponsored by the Irrig and
 Drain Div of the American Soc of Civil Engineers ; edited by D.R. Hay. p.
 297-304; 1988.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Gossypium hirsutum; Crop yield; Irrigation systems; Tests 
 
 36                           NAL Call. No.: S612.I756
 Crop coefficients and water requirements of irrigated wheat (Triticum aestivum
 L.) in the Nigerian savannah zone.
 Abdulmumin, S.
 Berlin, W. Ger. : Springer International; 1988.
 Irrigation science v. 9 (3): p. 177-186. maps; 1988.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Nigeria; Triticum aestivum; Irrigation; Savannas; Water
 requirements; Coefficient of determination; Water use efficiency; Projects;
 Hydraulic systems; Lysimeters
 
 
 37                    NAL Call. No.: SB185.6.C74 1992
 Crop production function in relation to irrigation methods, limited water and
 variability.
 Bresler, E.
 United States-Israel Binational Agricultural Research and
 Development Fund
 Bet Dagan, Israel : BARD,; 1992. 123 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.  Final report.  Project
 no. IS-1309-87. Includes bibliographical references (p. 111-116).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Crops and water; Crop yields; Irrigation efficiency
 
 
 38                             NAL Call. No.: 81 SO12
 Crop-water production functions for sweet corn.
 Braunworth, W.S. Jr; Mack, H.J.
 Alexandria, Va. : The Society; 1989 Mar.
 Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science v. 114
 (2): p.
 210-215; 1989 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Oregon; Zea mays; Water requirements; Water use efficiency;
 Evapotranspiration; Yield components; Yield response functions; Crop yield;
 Available water capacity; Field capacity; Maximum yield; Irrigated farming;
 Mathematical models
 
 Abstract:  Sweet corn (Zea mays L.) was irrigated using randomized complete
 block and line source experimental designs in 1984 and 1985 on a mixed, mesic
 Cumulic Ultic Haploxeroll soil. Irrigations were scheduled when approximately
 50% of the available water was depleted in the root zone of the 100% treatment
 to refill the zone to 0% to 100% of field capacity (five irrigation levels).
 Four yield parameters were measured for all plots: yield of all ears before
 husking, yield of good husked ears, kernel yield (fresh), and total dry matter
 production of plants and ears. Maximum relative total unhusked ear yield and
 near-maximum evapotranspiration (ET) were obtained at 85% of maximum water
 applied, indicating that high yields can be maintained with deficit irrigation.
 Without irrigation, only 44% of maximum yield was obtained. Maximum water use
 efficiency (WUE), defined as the total unhusked ear yield in kg.ha-1.mm-1ET,
 occurred between 407 and 418 mm of ET. The maximum WUE corresponded to
 approximately 313 mm water applied (WA); maximum yield, however, occurred
 within the range of 449 to 518 mm WA. Irrigation treatments to achieve maximum
 WUE were predicted to result in a 10% yield reduction.
 
 
 39                    NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM3Ps (IR)
 Design and operation of on-farm irrigation ponds.
 Mehta, B.K.; Goto, A.
 New York, N.Y. : American Society of Civil Engineers, c1983-; 1992 Sep.
 Journal of irrigation and drainage engineering v. 118 (5): p. 659-673; 1992
 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Thailand; Cabt; Irrigation water; Ponding; Farm storage; Water use
 efficiency; Diurnal variation; Simulation models
 
 
 40                           NAL Call. No.: HD1750.W4
 Determinants of irrigation technology choice.
 Negri, D.H.; Brooks, D.H.
 Lincoln, Neb. : Western Agricultural Economics Association; 1990 Dec.
 Western journal of agricultural economics v. 15 (2): p. 213-223; 1990 Dec.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Irrigated farming; Sprinkler irrigation; Runoff
 irrigation; Technology; Decision making; Water conservation; Groundwater;
 Profit functions; Probability analysis; Water costs; Labor costs; Topography;
 Soil; Characteristics; Climate
 
 
 41                         NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32T
 Development and testing of a water management model (WATRCOM):
 field testing.
 Parsons, J.E.; Doty, C.W.; Skaggs, R.W.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural Engineers; 1991 Jul.
 Transactions of the ASAE v. 34 (4): p. 1674-1682; 1991 Jul.
 Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North Carolina; Drainage; Hydraulics; Water conservation; Water
 management; Water table; Watersheds; Simulation models
 
 Abstract:  Water table observations from the 1000 ha watershed of Mitchell
 Creek near Tarboro, NC, were used to field test the water management model,
 WATRCOM. Soil properties and channel boundary conditions from three sections of
 the watershed along with weather data from years 1983 and 1984 were used to
 simulate the hydrology of the area with and without channel water level
 control. Six transects containing 27 water table observation wells were
 selected for testing. All simulations were based on measured field parameters
 and no calibration simulations were made to optimize parameters to fit observed
 data. A total of 14,000 daily water table observations were compared with
 simulated data. The root mean square error in simulated water tables at each
 well ranged from 0.05 to 0.24 m. When the data were pooled by section, the root
 mean square error ranged from 0.10 to 0. 17 m.
 
 
 42                          NAL Call. No.: FICHE S-72
 Drainage efficiency and cracking clay soils.
 Tod, I.C.; Grismer, M.E.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1988.
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers (Microfiche collection) (fiche no.
 88-2588): 16 p.; 1988.  Paper presented at the 1988 Winter Meeting of the
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Available for purchase from: The
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Order Dept., 2950 Niles Road, St.
 Joseph, Michigan 49085. Telephone the Order Dept. at (616) 429-0300 for
 information and prices.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Irrigation; Subsurface drainage; Efficiency; Deep
 percolation; Soil water movement; Drain pipes; Spacing; Cracking; Clay soils;
 Numerical analysis
 
 
 43                           NAL Call. No.: aZ5071.N3
 Drip and trickle irrigation for water conservation--January
 1987-August 1990.
 MacLean, J.T.
 Beltsville, Md. : The Library; 1990 Nov.
 Quick bibliography series - U.S. Department of Agriculture, National
 Agricultural Library (U.S.). (91-23): 80 p.; 1990 Nov.  Updates QB 89-35.
 Bibliography.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Trickle irrigation; Water conservation; Water requirements;
 Bibliographies
 
 
 44                       NAL Call. No.: SB319.2.N6G84
 Drip irrigation for pecan trees.
 Hohn, C.
 Las Cruces, NM : The Service; 1988 Mar.
 Guide H - New Mexico State University, Cooperative Extension Service (611): 1
 p.; 1988 Mar.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Carya illinoensis; Orchards; Trickle irrigation; Water
 requirements; Efficiency
 
 
 45                           NAL Call. No.: SB245.B42
 Drip irrigation: lowering installation costs, increasing yields and improving
 water-use efficiency.
 Henggeler, J.C.
 Memphis, Tenn. : National Cotton Council; 1988.
 Proceedings of the...Beltwide Cotton Production Conference. p.
 31-32; 1988.
 Meeting held January 3-8, 1988, New Orleans, Louisiana.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Gossypium; Trickle irrigation; Installations; Costs; Crop
 yield; Water use efficiency
 
 
 46                              NAL Call. No.: SB1.H6
 Drip-irrigation scheduling for fresh-market tomato production.
 Hartz, T.K.
 Alexandria, Va. : American Society for Horticultural Science; 1993 Jan.
 HortScience v. 28 (1): p. 35-37; 1993 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Lycopersicon esculentum; Trickle irrigation;
 Irrigation scheduling; Irrigated conditions; Water use efficiency; Crop yield;
 Fruits; Size
 
 Abstract:  Drip-irrigation scheduling techniques for fresh-market tomato
 (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) production were compared in three growing
 seasons (1989-91). Three regimes were evaluated: EPK [reference
 evapotranspiration (ET, corrected Penman) X programmed crop coefficients], ECC
 (ET X a crop coefficient based on estimated percent canopy coverage), and SMD
 (irrigation at 20% available soil moisture depletion). EPK coefficients ranged
 from 0.2 (crop establishment) to 1.1 (full canopy development). Percent canopy
 coverage was estimated from average canopy width + row width. Irrigation in the
 SMD treatment was initiated at -24 kPa soil matric tension, with recharge
 limited to 80% of daily ET(o). The EPK and ECC regimes gave similar fresh fruit
 yields and size distributions in all years. With the EPK scheduling technique,
 there was no difference in crop response between daily irrigation and
 irrigation three times per week. In all seasons, ECC scheduling resulted in
 less total water applied than EPK scheduling and averaged 76% of seasonal ET(o)
 vs. 86% for EPK. Irrigating at 20% SMD required an average of only 64% of
 seasonal ET(o); marketable yield was equal to the other scheduling techniques
 in 1989 and 1991, but showed a modest yield reduction in 1990. Using an SMD
 regime to schedule early season irrigation and an ECC system to guide
 application from mid-season to harvest may be the most appropriate approach for
 maximizing water-use efficiency and crop production productivity.
 
 
 47                           NAL Call. No.: HD1750.W4
 A dynamic analysis of water savings from advanced irrigation technology.
 Hornbaker, R.H.; Mapp, H.P.
 Lincoln, Neb. : Western Agricultural Economics Association; 1988
 Dec.
 Western journal of agricultural economics v. 13 (2): p. 307-315; 1988 Dec.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sorghum; Irrigation scheduling; Technology; Growth models;
 Recursive programming; Innovation adoption; Sprinkler irrigation; Decision
 making; Computer simulation; Simulation models 
 
 
 48                              NAL Call. No.: S1.N32
 Early to bed, early to harvest.
 Cramer, C.
 Emmaus, Pa. : Regenerative Agriculture Association; 1988 Feb.
 The New farm v. 10 (2): p. 14-17; 1988 Feb.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Kansas; Zea mays; Glycine max; Minimum tillage systems; Furrow
 irrigation; Soil and water conservation; Energy conservation   
 
 
 49                         NAL Call. No.: aHD1735.C76
 Economic and technical adjustments in irrigation due to declining
 ground
 water.
 Crosswhite, William M.; Dickason, Clifford; Pfeiffer, Robert
 United States, Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Resources and
 Technology Division
 Washington : D.C. (1301 New York Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C.
 20005-4788) :
 U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Resources and
 Technology
 Division,; 1990.
 vi, 35 p. : ill., map ; 28 cm. (ERS staff report ; AGES-9018.).
 Cover title.
 "February 1990"--p. iii.  Includes bibliographical references (p.
 34-35).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation; Economic aspects; United States; Water, Underground;
 United States; Water conservation; United States   
 
 
 50                              NAL Call. No.: S1.T49
 Economic feasibility of conversion to a lower energy precision
 application
 irrigation system in the Texas High Plains.
 Hutton, J.D.; Segarra, E.; Ervin, R.T.; Graves, J.W.
 Canyon, Tex. : The Consortium; 1989.
 Texas journal of agriculture and natural resources : a publication
 of the
 Agricultural Consortium of Texas v. 3: p. 11-14; 1989.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Zea mays; Center pivot irrigation; Sprinkler irrigation;
 Economic viability; Returns; Costs; Crop production; Water use efficiency; Crop
 yield; Feasibility studies   
 
 
 51                          NAL Call. No.: 292.9 AM34
 Economic impacts of the limited irrigation-dryland (LID) furrow
 irrigation
 system.
 Harman, W.L.; Stewart, B.A.; Musick, J.T.; Dusek, D.A.
 Minneapolis, Minn. : American Water Resources Association; 1989
 Apr.
 Water resources bulletin v. 25 (2): p. 367-376; 1989 Apr.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Sorghum; Dry farming; Irrigation systems; Furrow
 irrigation; Economic impact; Water resource management; Yields; Water use
 efficiency   
 
 
 52                          NAL Call. No.: 100 C12CAG
 Economic incentives for irrigation drainage reduction.
 Letey, J.; Dinar, A.; Knapp, K.C.
 Berkeley, Calif. : The Station; 1988 May.
 California agriculture - California Agricultural Experiment Station
 v. 42 (3):
 p. 12-13; 1988 May.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Irrigation systems; Irrigation water; Water
 management; Drainage water; Water use efficiency; Economic factors; Incentives;
 Water costs; Price policy; Fees   
 
 
 53                          NAL Call. No.: 281.8 AU74
 Economic optimisation of sprinkler irrigation considering
 uncertainty of
 spatial water distribution.
 Feinerman, E.; Shani, Y.; Bresler, E.
 Victoria : Australian Agricultural Economics Society; 1989 Aug.
 The Australian journal of agricultural economics v. 33 (2): p.
 88-107; 1989
 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Maize; Irrigation water; Sprinkler irrigation; Physical planning;
 Water use efficiency; Farmers' attitudes; Decision making; Risks; Economic
 evaluation; Water costs; Production functions; Coefficient of relationship;
 Stochastic processes; Optimization methods; Econometric models   
 
 
 54                             NAL Call. No.: 80 AC82
 Effect of different irrigation systems on yield of tomatoes grown
 under
 plastic greenhouses.
 Kaniszewski, S.; Dysko, J.
 Wageningen : International Society for Horticultural Science; 1988
 Sep.
 Acta horticulturae (228): p. 105-107; 1988 Sep.  Paper presented at
 the Fourth
 International Symposium on Water Supply and Irrigation in the Open
 and Under
 Protected Cultivation, August 26-28, 1985, Padova, Italy.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Lycopersicon esculentum; Greenhouse experimentation; Plastic
 cladding; Irrigation systems; Yield response functions; Water use efficiency   
 
 
 55                      NAL Call. No.: S592.17.A73A74
 Effect of irrigation intervals on yield and water use efficiency of
 sunflower
 (Helianthus annuus L.) in Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia.
 Al-Ghamdi, A.S.; Hussain, G.; Al-Noaim, A.A.
 Washington, DC : Taylor & Francis; 1991 Oct.
 Arid soil research and rehabilitation v. 5 (4): p. 289-296; 1991
 Oct.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Saudi arabia; Helianthus annuus; Irrigation scheduling; Crop
 yield; Water use efficiency   
 
 
 56                             NAL Call. No.: 10 EX72
 Effect of irrigation regimes on the water status, vegetative growth
 and rubber
 production of guayule plants.
 Benzioni, A.; Mills, D.; Forti, M.
 Cambridge : Cambridge University Press; 1989 Apr.
 Experimental agriculture v. 25 (2): p. 189-197; 1989 Apr.  This
 record
 corrects ID No. ADL 89050716 which was entered under the wrong
 journal
 citation.  Includes references.
 
 Language: 
 English  Descriptors: Israel; Parthenium argentatum; Irrigation systems;
 Trickle irrigation; Water use efficiency; Growth; Rubber; Yields; Water stress;
 Soil water content   
 
 
 57                         NAL Call. No.: S596.53.S69
 The effect of seeding rate, timing of nitrogen application and
 frequency of
 irrigation on wheat growth, yield and water use.
 Nel, A.A.; Dijkhuis, F.J.
 Pretoria : Bureau for Scientific Publications, Foundation for
 Education, Science and Technology; 1990 Aug.
 South African journal of plant and soil; Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif
 vir plant en
 grond v. 7 (3): p. 163-166; 1990 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Triticum aestivum; Seeding; Nitrogen; Fertilizers; Application;
 Sprinkler irrigation; Growth rate; Plant density; Crop yield; Water use
 efficiency; Timing   
 
 
 58                             NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Effect of soil surface treatments of runoff and wheat yields under
 irrigation.
 Stern, R.; Van Der Merwe, A.J.; Laker, M.C.; Shainberg, I.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 Jan.
 Agronomy journal v. 84 (1): p. 114-119; 1992 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Triticum aestivum; Irrigation water; Runoff; Infiltration; Clay
 loam soils; Soil treatment; Polyacrylamide; Phosphogypsum; Surface treatment;
 Dikes; Soil structure; Irrigation scheduling; Water use efficiency; Soil water
 content; Crop yield; Grain; Growth rate  
 
 Abstract:  In arid and semi-arid regions, where soil structure is unstable,
 surface runoff due to seal formation reduces irrigation water use efficiency.
 This study was conducted to determine the efficiency of surface treatments in
 reducing runoff and increasing wheat crop productivity. Surface runoff from
 wheat plots on a non-sodic, silty clay loam soil (Rhodudalf silty clay loam),
 sprinkler irrigated with a good quality irrigation water, was collected using
 flumes and collection boxes. Percentages runoff were 36.1% of the total
 irrigation during the growing season for the control (Ct), 12.8% for
 phosphogypsum (PG), 1.4% for polyacrylamide plus PG (PAM), and 1.1% for pitting
 plus PG (Pt) treatments. The mulching effect of the growing canopy did not
 reduce runoff during consecutive irrigations as the season progressed. Water
 content in the profile was correlated with the amount of water that infiltrated
 into the soil. The crop biomass production in the Pt and PAM treatments was
 significantly higher than the PG and Ct treatments (8.81 and 7.91 vs. 6.41 and
 5.47 Mg ha-1, respectively). The Pt and PAM treatments also gave significantly
 higher grain yield (3.66 and 3.02 vs. 2.25 and 2.12 Mg ha-1, respectively). The
 Pt, PAM, and PG treatments resulted in significantly higher irrigation water
 use efficiency (IWUE) than the Ct. The PAM is the least known treatment and is
 given special attention in this study. In regions where water is scarce and
 costly, improving the efficiency of irrigation by tillage or soil ameliorants
 should be considered.   
 
 
 59                            NAL Call. No.: HD101.S6
 The effect of spatial variability of irrigation applications on
 risk-efficient
 irrigation strategies.
 Bernardo, D.J.
 Experiment, Ga. : The Association; 1988 Jul.
 Southern journal of agricultural economics - Southern Agricultural
 Economics
 Association v. 20 (1): p. 77-86; 1988 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Oklahoma; Sorghum; Crop yield; Irrigation scheduling; Risks; Water
 use efficiency; Application depth; Spacing; Stochastic processes; Simulation
 models      
 
 
 60                             NAL Call. No.: 10 J822
 Effect of supplementary irrigation during reproductive growth on
 winter and
 spring chickpea (Cicer arietinum) in a Mediterranean environment.
 Saxena, M.C.; Silim, S.N.; Singh, K.B.
 Cambridge : Cambridge University Press; 1990 Jun.
 The Journal of agricultural science v. 114 (pt.3): p. 285-293; 1990
 Jun.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Syria; Cicer arietinum; Cultivars; Irrigation; Reproductive
 physiology; Leaf water potential; Water deficit; Water use efficiency; Sowing
 date; Seed production; Yield increases   
 
 
 61                           NAL Call. No.: S612.I756
 Effect of tillage and furrow irrigation timing on efficiency of
 preplant
 irrigation.
 Undersander, D.J.; Regier, C.
 Berlin, W. Ger. : Springer International; 1988.
 Irrigation science v. 9 (1): p. 57-67; 1988.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Sorghum bicolor; Plant production; Preplanting treatment;
 Tillage; Furrow irrigation; Irrigation scheduling; Water use efficiency   
 
 
 62                            NAL Call. No.: S612.I49
 Effect of varying soil moisture regimes on seeds yield, water use
 and water
 use efficiency of some Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern
 and Coss)
 genotypes.
 Chaudhry, N.; Singh, T.; Singh, H.; Faroda, A.S.
 Jodhpur : The Society; 1988.
 Transactions of Indian Society of Desert Technology and University
 Centre of
 Desert Studies v. 13: p. 33-40; 1988.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Haryana; Brassica juncea; Genotypes; Seed production; Water use
 efficiency; Yields; Soil moisture; Dry conditions; Irrigated conditions; Water
 use; Arid zones   
 
 
 63                          NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 Effect of water supply on performance of alfalfa.
 Jensen, E.H.; Miller, W.W.; Mahannah, C.N.; Read, J.J.; Kimbell, M.K.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1988 Apr.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 1 (2): p. 152-155; 1988 Apr.
 Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Medicago sativa; Irrigation requirements; Water use efficiency   
 
 
 64                           NAL Call. No.: S612.I756
 Effects of irrigation regimes on the yield and water use of
 strawberry.
 Serrano, L.; Carbonell, X.; Save, R.; Marfa, O.; Penuelas, J.
 Berlin, W. Ger. : Springer International; 1992.
 Irrigation science v. 13 (1): p. 45-48; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Spain; Fragaria ananassa; Crop yield; Fruits; Weight; Soil water
 potential; Fertigation; Irrigation scheduling; Water use efficiency; Water
 deficit; Yield response functions  
 
 Abstract:  Strawberry plants (Fragaria X annanasa D. cv Chandler) were grown in
 field plots and in drainage lysimeters under controlled soil moisture regimes.
 Four irrigation treatments were established by watering the plants when soil
 water potential reached -0.01, -0.03, -0.05 and -0.07 MPa. The maximum yield
 was attained at -0.01 MPa soil water potential. Differences in yield were
 caused by both changes in the number of fruits per plant and in the fresh
 weight per fruit. Yield reductions were associated with reductions in total
 assimilation rate resulting from the decreased assimilatory surface area in
 plants irrigated at lower soil water potentials. The crop water production
 function calculated on a fruit fresh weight basis resulted in a yield response
 factor (Ky) of 1.01.   
 
 
 65                          NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 Effects of nitrogen source, application timing, and dicyandiamide
 on
 furrow-irrigated rice.
 Hefner, S.G.; Tracy, P.W.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Oct.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 4 (4): p. 536-540; 1991 Oct.
 Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Missouri; Oryza sativa; Flooded rice; Furrow irrigation; Nitrogen
 metabolism; Nutrient sources; Urea ammonium nitrate; Urea; Ammonium sulfate;
 Sulfur coated urea; Application date; Dicyandiamide; Denitrification;
 Nitrification; Volatilization; Losses from soil systems; Crop yield; Grain;
 Panicles; Cell differentiation; Tillering; Heading; Plant analysis; Soil
 analysis; Nutrient content; Nitrate nitrogen; Ammonium nitrogen; Soil
 chemistry; Nutrient deficiencies; Water management; Water conservation   
 
 
 66                             NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Effects of ozone and water stress on canopy temperature, water use, and water
 use efficiency of alfalfa.
 Temple, P.J.; Benoit, L.F.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1988 May.
 Agronomy journal v. 80 (3): p. 439-447; 1988 May.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Medicago sativa; Ozone; Water stress; Canopy; Temperature
 relations; Water use; Water use efficiency; Irrigation; Soil water deficit;
 Evapotranspiration; Thermometers   
 
 
 67                          NAL Call. No.: 280.8 J822
 The effects of pricing policies on water conservation and drainage.
 Caswell, M.; Lichtenberg, E.; Zilberman, D.
 Ames, Iowa : American Agricultural Economics Association; 1990 Nov.
 American journal of agricultural economics v. 72 (4): p. 883-890; 1990 Nov.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Cotton; Irrigated farming; Trickle irrigation;
 Drainage; Innovation adoption; Water conservation; Farm management; Farmland;
 Farm inputs; Water costs; Price policy; Environmental policy; Pollution;
 Profitability; Simulation models  
 
 Abstract:  A general model of adoption of input-conserving technologies by
 competitive firms is introduced using drip irrigation as an example. An
 environmental regulation such as a drainage effluent charge is shown to
 influence adoption. Early adopters are likely to be producers with less
 efficient fixed assets (land of low quality or antiquated capital), higher
 input costs (higher water prices or greater depth to groundwater), and in more
 environmentally sensitive regions. Simulations show that drainage regulations
 can be expected to play a major role in adoption of more efficient irrigation
 technologies in California. Thus, conservation may be a key to solving resource
 scarcity problems and reducing external environmental costs.   
 
 
 68                       NAL Call. No.: SB319.2.F6F56
 Effects of reclaimed wastewater on leaf and soil mineral
 composition and fruit
 quality of citrus.
 Zekri, M.; Koo, R.C.J.
 S.l. : The Society; 1991 Jun.
 Proceedings of the ... annual meeting of the Florida State
 Horticulture
 Society v. 103: p. 38-41; 1991 Jun.  Meeting held December 17-19, 1990, Lake
 Buena Vista, Florida.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Citrus; Irrigation; Waste water; Water conservation; Crop
 quality; Foliar diagnosis; Mineral nutrition; Soil water   
 
 
 69                            NAL Call. No.: 100 OR3M
 Effects of straw mulch and irrigation rate on soil loss and runoff.
 Shock, C.; Futter, H.; Perry, R.; Swisher, J.; Hobson, J.
 Corvallis, Or. : The Station; 1988 Feb.
 Special report - Oregon State University, Agricultural Experiment
 Station
 (816): p. 38-47; 1988 Feb.  In the series analytic: Potato, onion, and sugar
 beet research.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Oregon; Solanum tuberosum; Straw mulches; Soil and water
 conservation; Furrow irrigation; Operation on slopes; Erosion control; Runoff
 water   
 
 
 70                          NAL Call. No.: 292.8 W295
 Effects of uncertainties on the limits of on-farm improvement in
 irrigation
 rehabilitation.
 Sritharan, S.I.; Clyma, W.
 Washington, D.C. : American Geophysical Union; 1992 Oct.
 Water resources research v. 28 (10): p. 2559-2567; 1992 Oct.
 Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Egypt; Developing countries; Surface irrigation;
 Application date; Application depth; Water use efficiency; Water flow;
 Hydraulics; Water yield  
 
 Abstract:  Procedures for analyzing the effects of uncertainties on the on-farm
 time of application and applied depth of irrigation have been presented using
 two parameter-gamma densities for the different variables. The critical
 coefficient of variation (CV) in delivered farm flow rate beyond which
 variations in targeted depths cause more deviations in time of application is
 found to be 0.25. For a typical set of values for on-farm variables, reducing
 the CV of farm flow below 0.12 does not improve the variance in applied depth
 for the case of fixed CV values of 0.10 for farm area and time of application.
 A distribution function for time of application has been derived which will
 enable the computation of reliable levels of application time. Solving the
 yield problems considering the application system hydraulics in a deterministic
 mode does not lead to large errors when the variances in the on-farm variables
 do not exceed 0.20. Generally, for shorter basins which are common in many
 countries, higher efficiencies can be achieved. Efficiencies less than 85%
 begin to occur when the length of the basin exceeds 275 ft (84 m) for typical
 values of field parameters in soils belonging to the Soil Conservation Service
 infiltration family of 3.0.   
 
 
 71                            NAL Call. No.: 55.9 SP8
 Efficiency in irrigation, a key to water conservation.
 Craw, G.
 Arlington, Va. : The Association; 1988.
 Technical conference proceedings - Irrigation Association. p.
 150-161. ill; 1988.  Paper presented at the "Conference on Conserving Energy,
 Water and
 Other Resources Through Irrigation," October 25-28, 1987, Orlando, Florida.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Water conservation; Irrigation systems; Efficiency; Coverage;
 Distribution; Patterns; Spacing; Pressure; Nozzles   
 
 
 72                         NAL Call. No.: SB317.5.H68
 Efficiency of fertigation programs for Baltic Ivy and Asiatic lily.
 Holcomb, E.J.; Gamez, S.; Beattie, D.; Elliott, G.C.
 Alexandria, VA : American Society for Horticultural Science; 1992
 Jan.
 HortTechnology v. 2 (1): p. 43-46; 1992 Jan.  Proceedings of the
 Short Course
 " Drip Irrigation of Vegetable Crops" held at the 88th ASHS Annual
 Meeting, July 25, 1991, Pennsylvania State University, University Park.
 Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Hedera helix; Lilium; Irrigation; Irrigation systems; Growth;
 Fertigation; Npk fertilizers; Application rates; Nutrient requirements; Water
 use efficiency; Water conservation; Greenhouse culture   
 
 
 73                          NAL Call. No.: SB379.A9A9
 Efficient irrigation saves water.
 Engle, M.M.
 Fallbrook, Calif. : Rancher Publications; 1988 Aug.
 California grower v. 12 (8): p. 12-13, 21, 28. ill; 1988 Aug.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Irrigation systems; Efficiency; Evaluation; Water;
 Distribution; Fruit trees; Water conservation   
 
 
 74                          NAL Call. No.: 280.8 J822
 Efficient spatial allocation of irrigation water.
 Chakravorty, U.; Roumasset, J.
 Ames, Iowa : American Agricultural Economics Association; 1991 Feb.
 American journal of agricultural economics v. 73 (1): p. 165-173; 1991 Feb.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation water; Water allocation; Spatial variation; Marginal
 analysis; Water costs; Water use efficiency; Taxes; Location theory; Simulation
 models; Demand functions  
 
 Abstract:  In the presence of conveyance losses, the efficient quantity of
 water applied falls with distance from the water source, but the amount of
 water "sent" (including conveyance losses) actually increases with distance
 from the source, except toward the tail end of the irrigation system. This
 implies that if marginal cost pricing were implemented, farmers at the middle
 and lower reaches of the system would have to pay more money for less water
 received. The model is illustrated and alternative financing schemes compared
 for an empirically derived demand function for irrigation water.   
 
 
 75                     NAL Call. No.: S612.2.N38 1990
 Efficient turf water management: a step by step approach.
 Kah, G.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural Engineers; 1990.
 Visions of the future : proceedings of the Third National
 Irrigation Symposium
 held in conjunction with the 11th Annual International Irrigation
 Exposition, October 28-November 1, 1990, Phoenix Civic Plaza, Phoenix, Arizona.
 p. 77-81; 1990. (ASAE publication ; 04-90).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Lawns and turf; Irrigation systems; Water use
 efficiency; Cost control   
 
 
 76                        NAL Call. No.: 100 T31S (1)
 Efficient use of water in the garden and landscape.
 Parsons, J.; Cotner, S.; Roberts, R.; Finch, C.; Welsh, D.
 College Station, Tex. : The Station; 1990 Jun.
 B - Texas Agricultural Experiment Station v.): 23 p.; 1990 Jun.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Irrigation water; Water use efficiency; Landscape;
 Gardening; Vegetables   
 
 
 77                           NAL Call. No.: HD1750.W4
 Energy and agriculture in Utah: responses to water shortages.
 Keith, J.E.; Martinez Gerstl, G.A.; Snyder, D.L.; Glover, T.F.
 Lincoln, Neb. : Western Agricultural Economics Association; 1989
 Jul.
 Western journal of agricultural economics v. 14 (1): p. 85-97.
 maps; 1989 Jul.
  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Utah; Water allocation; Irrigation; Drought; Energy resources;
 Water use efficiency; Water availability; Probabilistic models; Shadow prices;
 Energy cost of production   
 
 
 78                            NAL Call. No.: S601.A34
 Energy budget studies of some multiple cropping patterns of the
 Central
 Himalaya.
 Sharma, S.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier; 1991 Aug.
 Agriculture, ecosystems and environment v. 36 (3/4): p. 199-206; 1991 Aug.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: India; Rice; Wheat; Soybeans; Millets; Multiple cropping; Energy
 consumption; Efficiency; Rain; Irrigated farming; Input output analysis; Crop
 yield   
 
 
 79                           NAL Call. No.: 60.18 J82
 Ermelo weeping lovegrass response to clipping, fertilization, and
 watering.
 Masters, R.A.; Britton, C.M.
 Denver, Colo. : Society for Range Management; 1990 Sep.
 Journal of range management v. 43 (5): p. 461-465; 1990 Sep.
 Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Eragrostis curvula; Shoot pruning; Plant height; Regrowth;
 Herbage; Npk fertilizers; Growth rate; Irrigation scheduling; Dry matter
 accumulation; Crude protein; Crop yield; Crop quality; Water use efficiency;
 Root systems; Biomass   
 
 
 80                        NAL Call. No.: 275.29 OR32C
 Estimating water flow rates.
 Trimmer, W.L.
 Corvallis, Or. : The Service; 1991 Oct.
 Extension circular EC - Oregon State University, Extension Service
 (1369): 3
 p.; 1991 Oct.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Oregon; Water flow; Estimation; Statistics; Methodology; Water
 conservation; Irrigation   
 
 
 81                             NAL Call. No.: 26 AG87
 Evaluacion del riego por surcos en San Juan de Lagunillas, estado
 Merida
 [Evaluation of furrow irrigation in San Juan de Lagunilla, Merida
 State, Venezuela].
 Solorzano, G.I.R. de; Grassi, C.J.
 Maracay, Venezuela : Centro Nacional de Investigaciones
 Agropecuarias; 1988
 Jan.
 Agronomia tropical v. 38 (1/3): p. 47-72; 1988 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  Spanish
 
 Descriptors: Venezuela; Furrow irrigation; Water management; Water use
 efficiency   
 
 
 82                              NAL Call. No.: HD1.A3
 Evaluating the performance of tank irrigation systems.
 Palanisami, K.
 Essex : Elsevier Applied Science Publishers; 1988.
 Agricultural systems v. 28 (3): p. 161-177. ill; 1988.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Tamil nadu; Tanks; Irrigation systems; Cost benefit analysis;
 Simulation models; Water use efficiency; Water management   
 
 
 83                         NAL Call. No.: S544.3.C2C3
 Evaluating turfgrass sprinkler irrigation systems.
 Schwankl, L.J.; Shaw, D.A.; Harivandi, M.A.; Snyder, R.L.
 Berkeley, Calif. : The Service; 1992 Sep.
 Leaflet - University of California, Cooperative Extension Service
 (21503): 18
 p.; 1992 Sep.
 
 Language: 
 English  Descriptors: Lawns and turf; Sprinkler irrigation; Irrigation systems;
 Application rates; Irrigation water; Water use efficiency; Evaluation   
 
 
 84                          NAL Call. No.: S539.5.A77
 Evaluation of a subsurface "pop-up" sprinkler.
 Miller, W.W.; Mahannah, C.N.; Shane, R.L.; Jensen, E.H.; Finke, W.W. Jr
 New York, N.Y. : Springer; 1990.
 Applied agricultural research v. 5 (1): p. 56-62. ill; 1990.
 Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Nevada; Irrigation equipment; Sprinkler irrigation; Design;
 Automation; Water use efficiency; Labor costs; Operating costs  
 
 Abstract:  Most agricultural sprinkler irrigated acreage today is under hand-
 move or motor driven systems. The present trend is toward alternatives that are
 less labor intensive. Permanent highly automated systems in which all
 components are deeply buried are attractive because of the low labor use and in
 the retraction mode the entire system is removed from potential damage during
 tillage, harvesting, grazing of livestock, or from vandalism. One unique
 system, AGRI-POP, in which the riser and rotating sprinklers are completely
 retractable and extensible was recently developed. Initial field experience in
 this study exposed several design problems. Correcting design flaws resulted in
 a fully functional system. However, at an investment cost of about $5,601/ha
 ($2,268/A) greater than the closest solid-set alternative and about $7,000/ha
 ($2,835/A) greater than the least expensive hand-line system, AGRI-POP
 presently is not an economically viable alternative for most commercial
 agricultural applications. Improved economics would result if the system were
 mass produced and if relative costs of labor increase. In addition, the system
 could be particularly useful where strict environmental and water management
 controls are desired. Several unique recreational and horticultural
 applications are noted.   
 
 
 85                           NAL Call. No.: TC801.I66
 Evaluation of irrigation systems in the irrigated area of Chanza
 (Huelva).
 Rodrigo, J.; Gonzalez, J.F.; Borrachero, L.M.
 Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1992 Feb.
 Irrigation and drainage systems : an international journal v. 6
 (1): p. 37-53; 1992 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Spain; Irrigation systems; Irrigated farming; Trickle irrigation;
 Fragaria ananassa; Performance appraisals; Surveys; Farms; Water use
 efficiency; Crop yield; Problem analysis; Problem solving   
 
 
 86                     NAL Call. No.: S612.2.N38 1990
 Evaluation of LEPA on center pivot machines.
 Buchleiter, G.W.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural Engineers; 1990.
 Visions of the future : proceedings of the Third National
 Irrigation Symposium
 held in conjunction with the 11th Annual International Irrigation
 Exposition, October 28-November 1, 1990, Phoenix Civic Plaza, Phoenix, Arizona.
 p.
 720-724; 1990. (ASAE publication ; 04-90).  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Colorado; Center pivot irrigation; Energy conservation; Water
 management   
 
 
 87                             NAL Call. No.: 10 EX72
 Evapotranspiration, water use efficiency, moisture extraction
 pattern and
 plant water relations of rape (Brassica campestris) genotypes in
 relation to
 root development under varying irrigation schedules.
 Raja, V.; Bishnoi, K.C.
 Cambridge : Cambridge University Press; 1990 Apr.
 Experimental agriculture v. 26 (2): p. 227-233; 1990 Apr.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Haryana; Brassica campestris; Evapotranspiration; Irrigation
 scheduling; Plant development; Plant water relations; Rooting; Water uptake;
 Water use efficiency   
 
 
 88                             NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Evapotransportation, crop coefficients, and leaching fractions of
 irrigated
 desert turfgrass systems.
 Devitt, D.A.; Morris, R.L.; Bowman, D.C.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 Jul.
 Agronomy Journal v. 84 (4): p. 717-723; 1992 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Nevada; Cynodon dactylon; Lolium perenne; Lawns and turf;
 Irrigation scheduling; Arid climate; Irrigated conditions; Evapotranspiration;
 Leaching; Soil water content; Soil water balance; Water conservation; Water
 management  
 
 Abstract:  Reducing irrigation volumes on turfgrass in an arid environment
 requires close attention to environmental demand. The objective of this
 research was to quantify the water balances of three turfgrass sites controlled
 by an evapotranspiration (ET) feedback system and local management. Additional
 objectives included calculating leaching fractions (LF), crop coefficients
 (Kc), water savings, and quantifying the variability in potential
 evapotranspiration (ETo). A 2-yr study was conducted on three turfgrass sites
 in southern Nevada growing common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.]
 overseeded with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Two vacuum-drained
 lysimeters and one automated weather station were placed at each location. One
 lysimeter was irrigated by input from an ET feedback system while the other was
 left to local management. The daily Penman combination equation was used to
 calculate ETo. Hydrologic water balances were maintained on each lysimeter on a
 weekly basis. A neutron probe was used to measure changes in soil water content
 in the lysimeters. Actual ET (ETa.) varied according to management, with the
 two golf courses having an average ETa 29% higher than the park site.
 Differences in ETa between the park site and golf course sites were attributed
 to cultural management, in particular fertilizer input. Crop coefficients
 varied on a monthly basis and between high management vs low management turf. A
 4 to 6% error was observed in estimating ETo among the three sites.   
 
 
 89                         NAL Call. No.: QK938.D4P73
 Experience in developing arid lands of Saudi Arabia.
 Skaini, M.
 New York, N.Y. : Allerton Press; 1988.
 Problems of desert development (4): p. 57-61; 1988.  Translated
 from Problemy
 Osvoeniya Pustyn, (4), 1988, p. 57-61. (QK938.D4P7).  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Saudi arabia; Arid lands; Land development; Irrigation; Saline
 water; Runoff water; Wells; Agricultural development; Water use efficiency;
 Program evaluation; Water resource management   
 
 
 90                    NAL Call. No.: 1 Ag84Te no.1765
 Factor demand in irrigated agriculture under conditions of
 restricted water
 supplies.
 Bernardo, Daniel J.; Whittlesey, Norman K.
 United States, Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service
 Washington, D.C. : U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research
 Service,; 1989.
 iv, 13 p. : ill. ; 28 cm. (Technical bulletin (United States. Dept.
 of
 Agriculture) ; no. 1765.).  Cover title.  "July 1989."--P. iii.
 Includes
 bibliographical references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation efficiency; Northwest, Pacific; Irrigation scheduling;
 Northwest, Pacific; Irrigation farming; Economic aspects; Northwest, Pacific   
 
 
 91                           NAL Call. No.: TC801.I66
 Farm-level and district efforts to improve water management during
 drought.
 Wichelns, D.; Cone, D.
 Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1992.
 Irrigation and drainage systems : an international journal v. 6
 (3): p.
 189-199; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Drought; Irrigation scheduling; Water distribution;
 Water use efficiency   
 
 
 92                           NAL Call. No.: TD201.I56
 Feasibility of irrigation canal linings in Bangladesh.
 Mandal, M.A.S.; Dutta, S.C.; Khair, A.; Biswas, M.R.
 Surrey : Butterworth Scientific Ltd; 1988 Sep.
 International journal of water resources development v. 4 (3): p.
 169-175; 1988 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Bangladesh; Canals; Linings; Irrigation; Water conservation; Cost
 benefit analysis   
 
 
 93                       NAL Call. No.: SB319.2.N6G84
 Flood irrigation for pecan trees.
 Hohn, C.
 Las Cruces, NM : The Service; 1988 Mar.
 Guide H - New Mexico State University, Cooperative Extension
 Service (610): 1
 p.; 1988 Mar.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New Mexico; Carya illinoensis; Orchards; Flood irrigation;
 Efficiency   
 
 
 94                          NAL Call. No.: 100 C12CAG
 Furrow torpedoes improve irrigation water advance.
 Schwanki, L.J.; Hanson, B.R.; Panoras, A.
 Oakland, Calif. : Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of
 California; 1992 Nov.
 California agriculture v. 46 (6): p. 15-17; 1992 Nov.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Irrigation systems; Furrow irrigation; Infiltration;
 Water advance; Drainage water; Water conservation   
 
 
 95                            NAL Call. No.: S671.A66
 Furrow traffic and ripping for control of irrigation intake.
 Allen, R.R.; Musick, J.T.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural Engineers; 1992 Mar.
 Applied engineering in agriculture v. 8 (2): p. 243-248; 1992 Mar.
 Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sorghum; Water conservation; Irrigation water; Irrigation
 requirements; Soil management; Furrows; Soil compaction; Infiltration;
 Permeability; Ripping; Clay loam soils  
 
 Abstract:  Graded furrow applications of 100 to 200 mm (4 to 8 in.), which
 often exceed profile storage capacity, are common in the Southern High Plains
 for the first irrigation after primary tillage. This study evaluated furrow
 compaction by wheel traffic as a potentially low cost method of reducing
 excessive intake and conserving irrigation water. A two-year field study was
 conducted with irrigated grain sorghum on a slowly permeable Pullman clay loam
 (Torrertic Paleustoll). The objective was to determine the effects of furrow
 compaction by controlled wheel traffic on irrigation intake during the preplant
 irrigation following primary tillage. In addition, the effects of furrow
 ripping, before the second irrigation, were compared with the non-traffic
 control furrows as a means of restoring normal late-season intake. On
 relatively wide 1.5 m (5 ft) spaced furrows with a 0.15% slope, one traffic
 pass with a 6000 kg (13,200 lb) tractor increased average bulk density from 1.1
 to 1.27 Mg/m3 at the 50 mm (2 in.) depth. Furrow traffic reduced irrigation
 water advance time up to 45% to reach 400 m (1320 ft), and reduced total intake
 by about 17% during the first irrigation after tillage. Ripping traffic furrows
 before the second irrigation increased growing season irrigation intake by 10%
 compared with the non-traffic furrows. Controlled furrow traffic reduced
 average growing season irrigation water intake by 12%. Furrow traffic and
 furrow ripping treatments did not significantly affect grain sorghum yield.   
 
 
 96                           NAL Call. No.: TC903.F88
 Future directions for Indian irrigation research and policy issues.
 Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela; Svendsen, Mark, International Food Policy Research
 Institute
 Washington, D.C. : International Food Policy Research Institute,; 1991.
 xiv, 333 p. : ill., maps ; 23 cm.  January 1991.  Includes
 bibliographical
 references (p. [313-331).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation; Irrigation efficiency; Water, Underground   
 
 
 97                          NAL Call. No.: SB379.A9A9
 A global view.
 Engle, M.
 Carpinteria, Calif. : Rincon Information Management Corporation; 1992 Nov.
 California grower v. 16 (11): p. 34; 1992 Nov.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation; Water management; Agricultural production; Drought;
 Conferences; Water conservation; International cooperation   
 
 
 98                           NAL Call. No.: 1.98 AG84
 Grasp at straws, irrigators are advised.
 Corliss, J.
 Washington, D.C. : The Service; 1991 Aug.
 Agricultural research - U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research
 Service v. 39 (8): p. 25; 1991 Aug.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Furrow irrigation; Straw; Erosion; Erosion control; Water
 conservation   
 
 
 99                       NAL Call. No.: SB475.83.K687
 Gray water use in the landscape how to use gray water to save your
 landscape
 during droughts ; illustrations, design, & layout by Heidi Schmidt.
 Kourik, Robert; Schmidt, Heidi
 Santa Rosa, CA : Metamorphic Press,; 1988.
 27 p. : ill. ; 21 cm.
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Landscape architecture in water conservation; California; Water
 conservation; California; Landscape   
 
 
 100                        NAL Call. No.: S544.3.N7A4
 Growing greenhouse crops with zero run-off technology.
 Weiler, T.C.
 Middletown, N.Y. : Cornell Cooperative Ext.--Orange County
 Agriculture
 Program, Education Center; 1993 Aug.
 Agfocus : publication of Cornell Cooperative Extension--Orange
 County. p. 16; 1993 Aug.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Greenhouse culture; Irrigation; Irrigation systems; Water
 conservation   
 
 
 101                           NAL Call. No.: 23 AU792
 Growth and yield of rice cultivars under sprinkler irrigation in
 south-eastern
 Queensland. 1. Effects of sowing time.
 Fukai, S.; Inthapan, P.
 Melbourne : Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research
 Organization; 1988.
 Australian journal of experimental agriculture v. 28 (2): p.
 237-242; 1988.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Queensland; Oryza sativa; Cultivars; Yields; Growth; Sprinkler
 irrigation; Sowing date; Water use efficiency   
 
 
 102                          NAL Call. No.: S612.I756
 Growth and yield of soybeans under wet soil culture and
 conventional furrow
 irrigation in south-eastern Australia.
 Wright, G.C.; Smith, C.J.; Wilson, I.B.
 Berlin, W. Ger. : Springer International; 1988.
 Irrigation science v. 9 (2): p. 127-142; 1988.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Victoria; Glycine max; Cultivars; Plant production; Cultural
 methods; Furrow irrigation; Plant water relations; Water uptake; Water use
 efficiency; Plant development; Growth habit; Yield factors   
 
 
 103                            NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Growth, water-use efficiency, and digestibility of crested, intermediate, and
 western wheatgrass.
 Frank, A.B.; Karn, J.F.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1988 Jul.
 Agronomy journal v. 80 (4): p. 677-680; 1988 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Agropyron; Growth rate; Water use efficiency; Leaves; Stems;
 Digestibility; Quality   
 
 
 104                          NAL Call. No.: TD930.A32
 Guayule biomass production under irrigation.
 Nakayama, F.S.; Bucks, D.A.; Roth, R.L.; Gardner, B.R.
 Essex : Elsevier Applied Science Publishers; 1991.
 Bioresource technology v. 35 (2): p. 173-178; 1991.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Parthenium argentatum; Irrigated conditions; Biomass
 production; Rubber; Resins; Yields; Nitrogen fertilizers; Yield response
 functions; Evapotranspiration; Water use efficiency; Water requirements   
 
 
 105                         NAL Call. No.: SB387.V572
 A guide to irrigating the Florida grape with micro irrigation.
 Surrowitz, S.D.
 Tallahassee, Fla. : Florida A&M University, Center for Viticultural
 Science
 and Small Farm; 1991.
 Proceedings of the Florida Grape Conference. p. 1-6; 1991.  Meeting
 held
 October 25-26, 1991, Ocala, Florida.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Irrigation systems; Application methods; Application
 rates; Frequency; Pressure; Water conservation; Energy conservation   
 
 
 106                         NAL Call. No.: SB299.J6J6
 Historic 4-year test shows jojoba response to water.
 Lucas, K.
 Phoenix, Ariz. : Jojoba Growers Association; 1989 Mar.
 Jojoba happenings v. 17 (2): p. 1, 3. ill; 1989 Mar.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Simmondsia chinensis; Water use efficiency; Water
 harvesting; Soil moisture; Catchment planning; Frost; Growth   
 
 
 107                         NAL Call. No.: SB379.A9A9
 How efficient is your irrigation?.
 Haynes, M.
 Carpinteria, Calif. : Rincon Information Management Corporation; 1993 May.
 California grower v. 17 (5): p. 25-26; 1993 May.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Orchards; Irrigation systems; Water use efficiency;
 Maintenance   
 
 
 108                         NAL Call. No.: 100 C12CAG
 How to reduce water use and maximize yields in greenhouse roses.
 Tjosvold, S.A.; Schulbach, K.F.
 Oakland, Calif. : Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of
 California; 1991 May.
 California agriculture v. 45 (3): p. 31-32; 1991 May.  Third
 article in
 issue's 'Surviving the drought' series.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Rosa; Irrigation scheduling; Water conservation; Yields;
 Evaporation   
 
 
 109                        NAL Call. No.: SB317.5.H68
 Impact of microirrigation on Florida horticulture.
 Hochmuth, G.J.; Locascio, S.J.; Crocker, T.E.; Stanley, C.D.; Clark, G.A.;
 Parsons, L.R.
 Alexandria, VA : American Society for Horticultural Science, c1991-; 1993 Apr.
 HortTechnology v. 3 (2): p. 223-229; 1993 Apr.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Cabt; Citrus; Ornamental plants; Vegetables; Fruit crops;
 Horticultural crops; Microirrigation; Water conservation   
 
 
 110                         NAL Call. No.: 100 C12CAG
 Implementing CIMIS at the farm level: a grower's experience in
 walnuts.
 Fulton, A.E.; Beede, R.H.; Phene, R.C.
 Oakland, Calif. : Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of
 California; 1991 Sep.
 California agriculture v. 45 (5): p. 38-40; 1991 Sep.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Water requirements; Water conservation; Irrigation;
 Crop production; Profits; Yields   
 
 
 111                            NAL Call. No.: 80 P382
 The importance of reducing water use and runoff.
 Grumbine, A.
 Ambler, Pa. : Pennsylvania Flower Growers; 1990 Mar.
 Bulletin - Pennsylvania flower growers (398): p. 3-4; 1990 Mar.
 Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Water pollution; Irrigation water; Water use; Leaching; Runoff;
 Pollution by agriculture; Water conservation   
 
 
 112                            NAL Call. No.: 80 G85W
 Improve water penetration.
 Stockwin, W.
 Willoughby, Ohio : Meister Pub. Co; 1988 Apr.
 Western fruit grower v. 108 (4): p. 36A-36B. ill; 1988 Apr.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Prunus amygdalus; Plant production; Cultural methods;
 Irrigation; Irrigated conditions; Soil compaction; Water use efficiency;
 Discing; Water absorption   
 
 
 113                 NAL Call. No.: TD428.A37T695 1989
 An increasing block-rate pricing program to motivate water
 conservation and
 drain water reduction.
 Wichelns, D.; Cone, D.
 Denver, Colo. : U.S. Committee on Irrigation and Drainage; 1989.
 Toxic substances in agricultural water supply and drainage : an int
 environ
 perspective : papers from the Second Pan-American Regional Conf of
 the Int
 Commission on Irrigation and Drainage, Ottawa, Canada, June 8-9, 1989. p.
 137-147; 1989.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Subsurface drainage; Drainage water; Water pollution;
 Pollution by agriculture; Salt; Selenium; Concentration; Water conservation;
 Irrigation; Water; Prices; Irrigation requirements; Crops   
 
 
 114                         NAL Call. No.: 292.9 AM34
 An index for measuring the performance of irrigation management
 systems with
 an application.
 Seckler, D.; Sampath, R.K.; Raheja, S.K.
 Minneapolis, Minn. : American Water Resources Association; 1988
 Aug.
 Water resources bulletin v. 24 (4): p. 855-860; 1988 Aug.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: India; Water management; Irrigation systems; Performance;
 Efficiency; Evaluation; Measurement; Performance indexes; Management by
 objectives   
 
 
 115                            NAL Call. No.: 80 J825
 Influence of daily intermittent drip irrigation on avocado (cv.
 Fuerte) fruit
 yield and trunk growth.
 Adato, I.; Levinson, B.
 Ashford : Headley Brothers Ltd; 1988 Oct.
 The Journal of horticultural science v. 63 (4): p. 675-685; 1988
 Oct.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Israel; Persea Americana; Fruit; Yields; Trunks; Growth; Trickle
 irrigation; Irrigation scheduling; Yield response functions; Evaporation; Water
 use efficiency; Water balance   
 
 
 116                          NAL Call. No.: SB218.J67
 Influence of seasonal irrigation amount on sugarbeet yield and
 quality.
 Winter, S.R.
 Fort Collins, Colo. : American Society of Sugar Beet Technologists, Office of
 the Secretary; 1988.
 Journal of sugar beet research v. 25 (1): p. 1-10; 1988.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Beta vulgaris; Irrigation requirements; Irrigation
 scheduling; Seasonal variation; Water use efficiency; Evapotranspiration; Soil
 water content; Nitrogen fertilizers; Clay loam soils; Crop yield; Roots; Plant
 composition; Chemical composition; Sucrose; Purity; Crop quality; Sugar
 extraction quality; Molasses   
 
 
 117                             NAL Call. No.: SB1.H6
 Innovative irrigation techniques in nursery production to reduce
 water usage.
 Kabashima, J.N.
 Alexandria, Va. : The American Society for Horticultural Science; 1993 Apr.
 HortScience : a publication of the American Society for
 Horticultural Science
 v. 28 (4): p. 291-293; 1993 Apr.  Paper presented at the colloquium
 "Politics
 of water use and its effects on water research of horticultural
 crops," held
 at the 87th ASHS Annual Meeting, Nov. 8, 1990, Tucson, Arizona.
 Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Cabt; Nurseries; Crop production; Irrigation;
 Techniques; Innovations; Water use; Water conservation; Case studies   
 
 
 118                         NAL Call. No.: 286.8 N47M
 Investment in water saving technology on horticultural farms.
 Mallawaarachchi, T.; Hall, N.; Phillips, B.
 Armidale : Australian Agricultural Economics Society, Inc; 1992
 Aug.
 Review of marketing and agricultural economics v. 60 (2,pt.1): p.
 191-204; 1992 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New South Wales; Citrus; Grapes; Crop enterprises; Irrigated
 farming; Investment; Water conservation; Technology   
 
 
 119                           NAL Call. No.: 100 UT1F
 Irrigate to conserve water.
 Logan, Utah : The Station; 1990.
 Utah Science - Utah Agricultural Experiment Station v. 50 (4): p.
 154-155.
 ill; 1990.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation scheduling; Irrigation water; Water conservation;
 Guidelines   
 
 
 120                            NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Irrigation and plant spacing effects on seed production of buffalo
 and coyote
 gourds.
 Nelson, J.M.; Scheerens, J.C.; McGriff, T.L.; Gathman, A.C.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1988 Jan.
 Agronomy journal v. 80 (1): p. 60-65; 1988 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cucurbita foetidissima; Cucurbita; Oilseeds; Seed production; Row
 spacing; Irrigation requirements; Water use efficiency; Xerophytes; Crop yield;
 Yield response functions  
 
 Abstract:  Buffalo gourd (Cucurbita foetidissima HBK) and coyote gourd
 (Cucurbita digitata Gray) are xerophytic perennial cucurbits with potential as
 oilseed or starch crops for arid and semiarid lands. This study investigated
 irrigation and plant spacing effects on growth, water requirements, and oilseed
 production of these species. Irrigation of first-season buffalo gourds planted
 in 1981 at a 610-m elevation site on Pima clay loam [fine-silty, mixed
 (calcareous) thermic typic Torrifluvent], and irrigation and plant spacing were
 evaluated on first-season buffalo and coyote gourds at a 360-m site in 1983 on
 Casa Grande sandy loam (fine-loamy, mixed, hyperthermic Typic Natrargid) and
 Trix clay-clay loam [fine-loamy, mixed (calcareous), hyperthermic Typic
 Torrifluvent], respectively. Irrigation and plant spacing were evaluated on
 second-season buffalo gourds planted in 1983. Irrigation did not affect first-
 season buffalo gourd yields. Second-season yields were reduced by irrigating
 when the available soil water was 75% depleted (I2) compared to irrigating when
 soil water was 50% depleted (I1). Coyote gourd yields were reduced by the I2
 treatment in 1983 but not in 1984. Consumptive water use for first season
 buffalo gourds in the I1 treatment at the 610- and 360-m sites was 870 and 645
 mm, respectively. Consumptive water use was similar for coyote and buffalo
 gourds at the 360-m site. In the first season, these species derived up to 50%
 of water used from the top 0.4 m of soil, and extracted water to a depth of at
 least 2.6 m. Irrigation did not affect water-use efficiency (WUE) of either
 species. Buffalo gourds had higher WUE in the second season (0.09 kg seed m.3
 water) than the first season (0.04 kg m.3). Plant spacings of 0.25 to 2 m in 1-
 m spaced rows had no effect on first-season yield in 1983 but in 1984 a
 quadratic relationship indicated that the closest and widest spacings reduced
 yields. Coyote gourd cosistently out-yielded buffalo gourd at the 360-m site.
 Although   
 
 
 121                       NAL Call. No.: SB435.5.A645
 Irrigation benefits from new technology.
 Hartin, J.; Pittenger, D.
 Van Nuys, Calif. : Gold Trade Publications; 1992 Jun.
 Arbor age v. 12 (6): p. 27-28; 1992 Jun.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Trees; Irrigation; Landscape gardening; Urban areas; Irrigation
 scheduling; Water use efficiency   
 
 
 122                           NAL Call. No.: S671.A38
 Irrigation costs for tomato production in Florida.
 Pitts, D.J.; Smajstrla, A.G.; Haman, D.Z.; Clark, G.A.
 Gainesville, Fla. : The Service; 1990.
 Agricultural engineering fact sheet - Florida Cooperative Extension
 Service
 (74): 4 p.; 1990.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Lycopersicon esculentum; Irrigation; Costs; Water use
 efficiency; Irrigation systems; Subsurface irrigation; Irrigation channels;
 Trickle irrigation; Cost benefit analysis   
 
 
 123                            NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Irrigation effects on water use, and production of tap roots and
 starch of
 buffalo gourd.
 Nelson, J.M.; Scheerens, J.C.; Bucks, D.A.; Berry, J.W.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1989 May.
 Agronomy journal v. 81 (3): p. 439-442; 1989 May.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Cucurbita foetidissima; Starch crops; Root crops; Water
 use efficiency; Semiarid climates; Irrigation requirements; Irrigation
 scheduling; Water stress; Crop yield; Crop quality; Starch; Root systems;
 Growth rate  
 
 Abstract:  The buffalo gourd (Cucurbita foetidissima HBK) is a possible new
 root starch crop for semiarid regions. Information on water use relationships
 of this species is needed to determine its suitability for arid lands
 agriculture. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of water
 management on buffalo gourd tap root production and water use. Five irrigation
 levels were evaluated for an annual buffalo gourd crop in 1985 and 1986 at a
 360-m elevation field site on Casa Grande sandy loam (fine-loamy, mixed,
 hyperthermic Typic Natrargid) using plant populations of 400 000 to 450 000
 plants ha-1. Irrigating at 50% available soil water (ASW) content (I1) gave
 higher fresh tap root yields than irrigating at 75% ASW (I2) (27.8 vs. 24.1 Mg
 ha-1) in 1985 with identical starch yields. In 1986 the I2 treatment was higher
 than the I1 treatment in starch yield (3.1 vs. 2.1 Mg ha-1) and tap root starch
 concentration (47.5 vs. 38.1%). Vines of water stressed plants (I2) grew
 rapidly when irrigated. Consumptive water use was 649 and 487 mm in I1 and I2,
 respectively. Peak consumptive use rates were less than 6.5 mm d-1. As much as
 48% of seasonal water use was from the 0 to 0.4 m soil depth. Water was
 extracted to a depth of 2.6m. The I2 treatment had the highest water-use
 efficiency (WUE), 4.9 kg m-3, for fresh root production. The WUE for starch
 production was higher for the I2 treatment (0.62KG m-3) than the I1 treatment
 (0.42 kg m-3). Irrigation scheduling to provide moderate stress reduces buffalo
 gourd water use without reducing starch yield, increasing its potential as a
 semiarid starch crop.   
 
 
 124                        NAL Call. No.: aS619.E34A9
 Irrigation efficiency and regional subsurface drain flow on the
 west side of
 the San Joaquin Valley final report on contract B56488.
 Ayars, James E.; Schrale, Gerrit
 California, Office of Water Conservation, Panoche Water and
 Drainage District
 (Calif.),Water Management Research Laboratory (U.S.)
 Fresno, CA : Water Management Research Laboratory, USDA/ARS, [1990?]; 1990.
 ix, 120 leaves : ill., maps ; 28 cm.  Includes bibliographical
 references
 (leaves 118-119).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation efficiency; Subsurface drainage; Water, Underground   
 
 
 125                           NAL Call. No.: 100 UT1F
 Irrigation for highest profits.
 Logan, Utah : The Station; 1990.
 Utah Science - Utah Agricultural Experiment Station v. 50 (4): p.
 171-172; 1990.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Utah; Irrigation scheduling; Irrigation water; Water conservation;
 Cost benefit analysis; Yield response functions; Medicago sativa   
 
 
 126                   NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM3PS (IR)
 Irrigation in Midwest: lessons from Illinois.
 Bowman, J.A.; Simmons, F.W.; Kimpel, B.C.
 New York, N.Y. : American Society of Civil Engineers; 1991 Sep.
 Journal of irrigation and drainage engineering v. 117 (5): p.
 700-715; 1991
 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Illinois; Irrigation; Irrigation water; Water use; Water use
 efficiency; Irrigation scheduling; Zea mays; Glycine max; Evapotranspiration;
 Rhizosphere; Field capacity; Soil types; Climatic factors   
 
 
 127                           NAL Call. No.: 23 AU783
 Irrigation management of soybean [Glycine max. (L.) Merrill] in a
 semi-arid
 tropical environment. II. Effect of irrigation frequency on soil
 and plant
 water status and crop water use.
 Garside, A.L.; Lawn, R.J.; Muchow, R.C.; Byth, D.E.
 Melbourne : Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research
 Organization; 1992.
 Australian journal of agricultural research v. 43 (5): p.
 1019-1032; 1992.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Western australia; Glycine max; Irrigation; Frequency; Plant water
 relations; Semiarid zones; Soil water; Tropics; Water use efficiency   
 
 
 128                    NAL Call. No.: S612.2.N38 1990
 Irrigation management service's role in improving irrigation water
 use in
 Arizona.
 Haynes, C.A.; Ekholt, B.A.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural Engineers; 1990.
 Visions of the future : proceedings of the Third National
 Irrigation Symposium
 held in conjunction with the 11th Annual International Irrigation
 Exposition, October 28-November 1, 1990, Phoenix Civic Plaza, Phoenix, Arizona.
 p. 61-63; 1990. (ASAE publication ; 04-90).  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Irrigation; Water management; Water use efficiency   
 
 
 129                       NAL Call. No.: S544.3.N6N62
 Irrigation management strategies to improve water- & energy-use
 efficiencies.
 Evans, R.O.; Sneed, R.E.; Hunt, J.H.
 Raleigh, N.C. : The Service; 1991 Jun.
 AG - North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service, North Carolina
 State
 University (452-5): 8 p.; 1991 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North Carolina; Irrigation systems; Efficiency; Statistics; Water
 management; Water conservation; Energy conservation   
 
 
 130                          NAL Call. No.: S612.I756
 Irrigation of seed carrots on a sandy loam soil.
 Ayars, J.E.; Hutmacher, R.B.; Steiner, J.J.; Mantel, A.B.; Vail, S.S.
 Berlin, W. Ger. : Springer International; 1991.
 Irrigation science v. 12 (4): p. 193-198; 1991.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Daucus carota; Seed production; Trickle irrigation;
 Irrigation scheduling; Water requirements; Water use; Soil water content; Crop
 yield; Seeds; Water use efficiency  
 
 Abstract:  Little research has been reported which quantifies the response of a
 carrot (Daucus carrota L. var sativa DC.) seed crop to water management. While
 the area of seed production of this crop in the United States is less than 3
 000 ha, the return ranges from US $2 000 to $10 000 ha-1. Because of the need
 to mature and dry the seed on the plant, carrot seed is generally grown in
 areas with negligible summer rain and thus depends on irrigation to supply the
 crop water requirement. A study was conducted to determine the effect of
 irrigation water management on seed production and crop water use of carrots
 grown by the root-to-seed method. Two carrot types (Nantes and Imperator) were
 evaluated in 9 irrigation treatments over a three year study period. Irrigation
 treatments which replaced a percentage of the calculated crop
 evapotranspiration on either a daily basis or when a soil water depletion
 reached 30 mm were used. A trickle irrigation system with the laterals placed
 on the carrot bed was used to apply a uniform and accurate amount of water.
 There was a marked difference in the crop response to the water management of
 the two carrot types used. The Nantes type exhibited a positive response to
 moderate water deficits in terms of improved pure live seed (PLS) yield while
 the Imperator achieved its maximum yield when it was not stressed. Higher
 irrigation applications in the Nantes type resulted in reduced yields while the
 Imperator was not affected after its non-stress water requirement was met. Soil
 water data indicated that the most active zone of extraction of water was to a
 depth of 1.5 m in the soil profile. As the depth of applied water approached
 the crop water requirement, the depth of extraction was reduced. Increasing the
 frequency of irrigation also tended to reduce the depth of extraction of soil
 water. A total crop water use of approximately 550 to 620 mm was needed to
 achieve the best PLS yield which is roughly equal to potential
 evapotranspiration in th   
 
 
 131                    NAL Call. No.: S612.2.N38 1990
 Irrigation policy by non-agriculturalists.
 Moore, R.E.; Downing, J.D.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural Engineers; 1990.
 Visions of the future : proceedings of the Third National
 Irrigation Symposium
 held in conjunction with the 11th Annual International Irrigation
 Exposition, October 28-November 1, 1990, Phoenix Civic Plaza, Phoenix, Arizona.
 p.
 322-329; 1990. (ASAE publication ; 04-90).  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; California; Irrigation; Land ownership; Water
 conservation   
 
 
 132                           NAL Call. No.: 100 T31M
 Irrigation pumping plant efficiences--High Plains and Trans-Pecos
 areas of
 Texas.
 New, L.; Schneider, A.D.
 College Station, Tex. : The Station; 1988 Mar.
 Miscellaneous publication MP - Texas Agricultural Experiment
 Station (1643): 6
 p.; 1988 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Irrigation equipment; Thermal efficiency; Energy
 requirements; Pumps   
 
 
 133                           NAL Call. No.: S671.A66
 Irrigation pumpset efficiency in developing countries: field
 measurements in
 Pakistan.
 Reinemann, D.J.; Khalid, M.; Kah, G.F.; Saqib, G.S.
 St. Joseph, MI : American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 1985-; 1993 Jan.
 Applied engineering in agriculture v. 9 (1): p. 141-145; 1993 Jan.
 Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pakistan; Cabt; Irrigation systems; Pumps; Efficiency; Energy
 consumption  
 
 Abstract:  The mechanical efficiency of 132 privately owned irrigation pumpsets
 in Pakistan was measured The average overall efficiency was 54 and 48% of the
 Nebraska Pumping Plant Performance Criteria (NPPPC) for electric and diesel
 powered centrifugal pumpsets, respectively. Forty-four pumpsets were improved
 using local technology. This article presents details and results of this
 project.   
 
 
 134                   NAL Call. No.: S619.S33I77 1989
 Irrigation scheduling a guide for efficient on-farm water
 management.
 Goldhamer, David Alan; Snyder, Richard L.
 University of California (System), Division of Agriculture and
 Natural
 Resources
 Oakland : Calif. : University of California, Division of
 Agriculture and
 Natural Resources,; 1989.
 iv, 67 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm. (Publication (University of
 California
 (System). Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources) ; 21454.).
 Includes
 bibliographical references. (p. 65-67).
 
 Language: 
 English  Descriptors: Irrigation water; Irrigation efficiency; Irrigation
 scheduling   
 
 
 135                             NAL Call. No.: HD1.A3
 Irrigation scheduling of rice with a crop growth simulation model.
 Rao, N.H.; Rees, D.H.
 Essex : Elsevier Applied Science Publishers; 1992.
 Agricultural systems v. 39 (2): p. 115-132; 1992.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sri lanka; Oryza sativa; Irrigation scheduling; Growth models;
 Simulation models; Crop production; Rain; Utilization; Water conservation;
 Water supply; Seasonal variation; Soil water balance; Crop yield; Validity;
 Double cropping; Wet season; Dry season   
 
 
 136                        NAL Call. No.: SB317.5.H68
 Irrigation scheduling programs for cabbage and zucchini squash.
 Ells, J.E.; McSay, A.E.; Kruse, E.G.
 Alexandria, VA : American Society for Horticultural Science, c1991-; 1993 Oct.
 HortTechnology v. 3 (4): p. 448-453; 1993 Oct.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cucurbita pepo; Brassica oleracea var. capitata; Irrigation
 scheduling; Water use efficiency; Computer software; Computer analysis   
 
 
 137                       NAL Call. No.: S544.3.N6N62
 Irrigation scheduling to improve water- and energy-use
 efficiencies.
 Evans, R.O.; Sneed, R.E.; Cassel, D.K.
 Raleigh, N.C. : The Service; 1991 Jun.
 AG - North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service, North Carolina
 State
 University (452-4): 10 p.; 1991 Jun.  In subseries: Water & Energy
 Efficiency
 in Irrigation.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North Carolina; Irrigation scheduling; Energy conservation; Water
 conservation; Soil water content; Plant effects; Rain; Tensiometers   
 
 
 138                          NAL Call. No.: SB469.G76
 Irrigation: strategies to minimize water use.
 Burger, D.W.
 Novato, CA : Cooperative Extension; 1992 Aug.
 Growing points - University of California Cooperative Extension v.
 29 (1): p.
 2-3; 1992 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation; Water conservation; Irrigation systems   
 
 
 139              NAL Call. No.: Videocassette no.1373
 Irrigation the key to effective water management..  Key to
 effective water
 management No water... no future
 Irrigation Association
 Arlington, Va. : The Association ; Fairfax, Va. : Media
 Communications Corp., [1988?]; 1988.
 1 videocassette (16 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in.  Title from
 cassette label.
 Title on container: No water... no future.  3M0490.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation; Water conservation  
 
 Abstract:  Provides a basic understanding of the vital role irrigation plays in
 our lives. Teaches how to use new technologies to aid us in utilizing water
 conservatively.   
 
 
 140                   NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM3PS (IR)
 Irrigation uniformity relationships for irrigation system
 management.
 Clemmens, A.J.
 New York, N.Y. : American Society of Civil Engineers; 1991 Sep.
 Journal of irrigation and drainage engineering v. 117 (5): p.
 682-699; 1991
 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Surface irrigation; Trickle irrigation; Sprinkler irrigation;
 Irrigation water; Application to land; Infiltration; Depth; Irrigation
 requirements; Water use efficiency; Decision making; Distribution; Variance   
 
 
 141                           NAL Call. No.: 81 C1293
 Irrigation uniformity saves water.
 Engle, M.M.
 San Francisco, Calif. : Pacific Horticultural Foundation; 1988.
 Pacific horticulture v. 49 (3): p. 19-21. ill; 1988.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Water conservation; Irrigation systems   
 
 
 142                            NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Irrigation water management for guar seed production.
 Alexander, W.L.; Bucks, D.A.; Backhaus, R.A.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1988 May.
 Agronomy journal v. 80 (3): p. 447-453; 1988 May.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cyamopsis tetragonoloba; Irrigation water; Water management; Seed
 production; Irrigation scheduling; Water use efficiency; Cultivars; Sandy loam
 soils; Evapotranspiration; Plant density; Crop yield   
 
 
 143                        NAL Call. No.: HC59.7.A1W6
 Issues in irrigation pricing in developing countries.
 Sampath, R.K.
 Tarrytown, N.Y. : Pergamon Press, Inc; 1992 Jul.
 World development v. 20 (7): p. 967-977; 1992 Jul.  Literature
 review.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Developing countries; Asia; Irrigation water; Water costs; Use
 efficiency; Recovery; Cost analysis; Marginal analysis; Development projects;
 Government; Role perception   
 
 
 144                       NAL Call. No.: 100 T31S (1)
 Landscape water conservation--Xeriscape.
 Welsh, D.F.; Welch, W.C.; Duble, R.L.
 College Station, Tex. : The Station; 1990 Aug.
 B - Texas Agricultural Experiment Station v.): 12 p.; 1990 Aug.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Landscape gardening; Irrigation; Water conservation   
 
 
 145                       NAL Call. No.: 100 T31S (1)
 LEPA conversion and management.
 New, L.; Fipps, G.
 College Station, Tex. : The Station; 1990 Oct.
 B - Texas Agricultural Experiment Station (1691): 8 p.; 1990 Oct.
 Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Center pivot irrigation; Irrigation equipment   
 
 
 146                   NAL Call. No.: KF27.I5474 1988c
 Lining the All-American Canal oversight hearing before the
 Subcommittee on
 Water and Power Resources of the Committee on Interior and Insular
 Affairs, House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, second session
 ... hearing
 held in Washington, DC, February 23, 1988..  Lining the All
 American Canal
 United States. Congress. House. Committee on Interior and Insular
 Affairs.
 Subcommittee on Water and Power Resources
 Washington, [D.C.] : U.S. G.P.O. : For sale by the Supt. of Docs.,
 Congressional Sales Office, U.S. G.P.O.,; 1989; Y 4.In 8/14:100-55.
 vii, 370 p. : ill., maps ; 24 cm.  Distributed to some depository
 libraries in
 microfiche.  Serial no. 100-55.  Includes bibliographical
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation canals and flumes; United States; Linings; Water
 conservation; United States   
 
 
 147                             NAL Call. No.: SB1.H6
 Long Island vegetable production: research and implementation
 programs to
 reduce water usage.
 Wilcox, D.
 Alexandria, Va. : The American Society for Horticultural Science; 1993 Apr.
 HortScience : a publication of the American Society for
 Horticultural Science
 v. 28 (4): p. 293-294; 1993 Apr.  Paper presented at the colloquium
 "Politics
 of water use and its effects on water research of horticultural
 crops," held
 at the 87th ASHS Annual Meeting, Nov. 8, 1990, Tucson, Arizona.
 Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New York; Cabt; Vegetables; Crop production; Water use efficiency;
 Irrigation water; Water conservation; Irrigation scheduling; Trickle irrigation 
  
 
 
 148                             NAL Call. No.: S1.T49
 Low energy precision application irrigation for cotton production
 in the Texas
 Southern High Plains.
 Hill, K.; Segarra, E.; Ervin, R.T.; Lyle, W.M.
 Canyon, Tex. : The Consortium; 1990.
 Texas journal of agriculture and natural resources : a publication
 of the
 Agricultural Consortium of Texas v. 4: p. 40-42; 1990.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Gossypium hirsutum; Irrigation systems; Water use
 efficiency; Energy conservation; Water management; Sprinkler irrigation; Water
 conservation; Labor costs; Maintenance; Cost benefit analysis   
 
 
 149                          NAL Call. No.: SB245.B42
 Low energy precision application (LEPA) and multifunction
 irrigation systems.
 Lyle, W.M.
 Memphis, Tenn. : National Cotton Council; 1988.
 Proceedings of the...Beltwide Cotton Production Conference. p.
 32-36; 1988.
 Meeting held January 3-8, 1988, New Orleans, Louisiana.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Gossypium; Irrigation systems; Sprinkler irrigation; Application
 methods; Accuracy; Crop yield; Pesticide application   
 
 
 150                         NAL Call. No.: SF85.A1R32
 Low volume spring developments.
 Northup, B.K.; Goerend, D.T.; Hays, D.M.; Nicholson, R.A.
 Denver, Colo. : Society for Range Management; 1989 Feb.
 Rangelands v. 11 (1): p. 39-41. ill; 1989 Feb.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Kansas; Livestock; Rangelands; Range management; Water troughs;
 Appropriate technology; Water use efficiency; Cost analysis   
 
 
 151                          NAL Call. No.: 1.98 AG84
 Lower water pressure, less water waste.
 Comis, D.
 Washington, D.C. : The Service; 1992 May.
 Agricultural research - U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research
 Service v. 40 (5): p. 23; 1992 May.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Irrigation systems; Lysimeters; Nozzles; Calibration; Water
 conservation   
 
 
 152                         NAL Call. No.: S451.P4P45
 Make every drop count.
 Pruyne, R.
 University Park, Pa. : Pennsylvania State University; 1992.
 PennState agriculture. p. 14-19; 1992.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Greenhouses; Irrigation systems; Water use; Water conservation   
 
 
 153                        NAL Call. No.: HC59.7.A1W6
 The management of irrigation systems: How to evoke trust and avoid
 prisoners'
 dilemma.
 Wade, R.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1988 Apr.
 World development v. 16 (4): p. 489-500; 1988 Apr.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: India; East asia; Irrigation scheduling; Water use efficiency;
 Farmers' attitudes; Authority; Law enforcement; Climatic factors; Canals   
 
 
 154                           NAL Call. No.: SB249.N6
 Management strategies for maximum cotton production on the southern
 High
 Plains of Texas. III. Water use and water use efficiency
 considerations.
 Gertsis, A.C.; Krieg, D.R.; Hatfield, J.L.
 Memphis, Tenn. : National Cotton Council and The Cotton Foundation; 1988.
 Proceedings - Beltwide Cotton Production Research Conferences. p.
 73-75; 1988.
  Conference held on January 3-8, 1988, New Orleans, Louisiana.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Loam soils; Sandy soils; Clay soils; Gossypium; Row
 spacing; Irrigated conditions; Water use efficiency; Evapotranspiration; Crop
 yield; Lint; Simulation models   
 
 
 155                           NAL Call. No.: SB249.N6
 Management strategies for maximum cotton production on the southern
 High
 Plains of Texas. IV. Canopy gas exchange.
 Peng, S.; Krieg, D.R.; Gertsis, A.C.; Hopkins, H.J.; Hatfield, J.L.
 Memphis, Tenn. : National Cotton Council and The Cotton Foundation; 1988.
 Proceedings - Beltwide Cotton Production Research Conferences. p.
 76-77; 1988.
  Conference held on January 3-8, 1988, New Orleans, Louisiana.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Clay soils; Loam soils; Gossypium; Canopy; Gas exchange;
 Photosynthesis; Irrigated conditions; Water use efficiency; Row spacing;
 Evapotranspiration; Irrigation scheduling   
 
 
 156                          NAL Call. No.: TC801.I66
 Managing the water balance of The Fayoum Depression, Egypt.
 Wolters, W.; Ghobrial, N.S.; Leeuwen, H.M. van; Bos, M.G.
 Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1989.
 Irrigation and drainage systems : an international journal v. 3
 (2): p.
 103-123. maps; 1989.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Egypt; Irrigated sites; Irrigation systems; Water balance;
 Irrigation water; Water use efficiency; Lakes; Water management   
 
 
 157                           NAL Call. No.: HD101.S6
 A microcomputer model for irrigation system evaluation.
 Williams, J.R.; Buller, O.H.; Dvorak, G.J.; Manges, H.L.
 Experiment, Ga. : The Association; 1988 Jul.
 Southern journal of agricultural economics - Southern Agricultural
 Economics
 Association v. 20 (1): p. 145-151; 1988 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Irrigation systems; Computer software; Water use
 efficiency; Microcomputers; Operating costs; Pumps; Water table   
 
 
 158                        NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32P
 The Missouri extension approach to irrigation scheduling.
 Pfost, D.L.; Thompson, A.L.; Honeycutt, S.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1990.
 Paper - American Society of Agricultural Engineers (90-7015): 11
 p.; 1990.
 Paper presented at The 1990 International Summer Meeting sponsored
 by the
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers, June 24-27, 1990, Columbus Ohio.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Missouri; Irrigation; Water conservation   
 
 
 159                           NAL Call. No.: aS622.S6
 Mobile labs help farmers conserve water.
 Greenberg, A.
 Washington, D.C. : The Service; 1992 Jul.
 Soil & water conservation news - U.S. Deptartment of Agriculture, Soil
 Conservation Service v. 13 (2): p. 9-10; 1992 Jul.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Irrigation; Irrigation water; Water conservation; Water
 use efficiency; Improvement; Crop production   
 
 
 160                        NAL Call. No.: SB317.5.H68
 Monitoring irrigation at container nurseries.
 Fare, D.C.; Gilliam, C.H.; Keever, G.J.
 Alexandria, VA : American Society for Horticultural Science; 1992
 Jan.
 HortTechnology v. 2 (1): p. 75-78; 1992 Jan.  Proceedings of the
 Short Course
 " Drip Irrigation of Vegetable Crops" held at the 88th ASHS Annual
 Meeting, July 25, 1991, Pennsylvania State University, University Park.
 Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Nurseries; Container grown plants; Irrigation systems; Overhead
 irrigation; Spatial distribution; Water use efficiency   
 
 
 161                         NAL Call. No.: S624.C2S64
 New irrigation strategies help wine-grape growers cope with limited
 water
 supplies.
 Prichard, T.L.; Verdegaal, P.; Smith, R.
 Oakland, Calif. : Cooperative Extension, University of California; 1991.
 Soil and water (80): p. 1, 4; 1991.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Vitis; Irrigation; Yields; Water use efficiency; Water stress   
 
 
 162                            NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Nonionic surfactant and supplemental irrigation of soybean on
 crusting soils.
 McCauley, G.N.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1993 Jan.
 Agronomy journal v. 85 (1): p. 17-21; 1993 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Glycine max; Crop yield; Seeds; Nonionic surfactants;
 Sprinkler irrigation; Phosphorus fertilizers; Potassium fertilizers; Use
 efficiency; Application rates; Adjuvants; Crusts; Hydrophobicity  
 
 Abstract:  Agricultural land use in much of the Texas Coastal Prairie consists
 of 1 yr of rice (Oryza sativa L.) followed by 2 to 4 yr of native pasture.
 Replacing some of the native pasture with a cultivated rotational crop could
 benefit the area's agricultural base by reducing fixed costs and aiding pest
 management. Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] fits the crop rotation system well
 but yields are highly variable and marginally economical. Research was
 initiated in 1985 near Eagle Lake, TX, to evaluate the potential of a nonionic
 surfactant and supplemental irrigation to increase and stabilize soybean yields
 on the Nada soil (fine loamy, silicous, hyperthermic Typic Albaqualf). In
 addition the effect of the surfactant and irrigation on P and K fertilizer
 efficiency was evaluated. The nonionic surfactant (Amway ASPA 80, Amway Corp.,
 Ada, MI) was injected through a lateral-move irrigation system at 0.00, 0.36,
 0.71, and 1.42 L ha-1 during a 7 mm irrigation. Adjuvant rate, repeated
 adjuvant applications within 1 yr and over 3 yr, and P and K at the recommended
 and half the recommended rates were evaluated. Supplemental irrigation was
 applied so irrigation plus rainfall equalled 19 mm wk-1. No measurable yield
 differences between P and K rates were detected. The adjuvant at 0.36 L ha-1
 increased soybean yields 37% above the check. Adjuvant at the 0.71 and 1.42 L
 ha-1 rate decreased yield from the 0.36 L ha-1 rate. No phytotoxicity was
 observed. Multiple adjuvant applications during 1 yr, and repeated applications
 to the same area over years, had no additional beneficial yield effect.   
 
 
 163                           NAL Call. No.: SB249.N6
 On the econmics of cotton conservation tillage with low energy
 precision
 application irrigation.
 Triplett, C.M.; Pegarra, E.; Lyle, W.M.
 Memphis, Tenn. : National Cotton Council of America; 1992.
 Proceedings - Beltwide Cotton Production Research Conferences v. 1:
 p.
 431-435; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Gossypium; Conservation tillage; Irrigation   
 
 
 164                          NAL Call. No.: TC401.W27
 On the rationalization of water management for food production.
 Jermar, M.K.
 Hingham, Mass. : Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1990.
 Water resources management v. 4 (3): p. 205-217; 1990.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Water management; Irrigated farming; Optimization; Irrigation
 systems; Food crops; Crop yield; Cropping systems; Crop production; Irrigation
 requirements; Water use efficiency; Irrigation scheduling; Equations   
 
 
 165                   NAL Call. No.: S619.E34O66 1988
 Opportunities for drainage water reduction.
 University of California (System), Committee of Consultants on
 Drainage Water
 Reduction, University of California (System), Salinity/Drainage
 Task Force, California Water Resources Center
 Davis, Calif.? : The Task Force : The Center,; 1988.
 28 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm. (Drainage, salinity, and toxic
 constituents ; no.
 1).  Cover title.  January 1988.  Includes bibliographical
 references (leaves
 27-28).
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation efficiency; Irrigation water; Drainage; Agricultural
 pollution
 
 
 166                         NAL Call. No.: FICHE S-72
 Optimal deficit irrigation management.
 Severin, M.A.; Martin, D.L.; Supalla, R.J.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1988.
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers (Microfiche collection)
 (fiche no.
 88-2512): 29 p. ill; 1988.  Paper presented at the 1988 Winter
 Meeting of the
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Available for purchase
 from: The
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Order Dept., 2950 Niles
 Road, St.
 Joseph, Michigan 49085. Telephone the Order Dept. at (616) 429-0300
 for
 information and prices.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation scheduling; Water stress; Water conservation; Dynamic
 programming; Water use efficiency; Water allocation; Decision making; Models   
 
 
 167                        NAL Call. No.: 275.29 W27P
 Optimal irrigation management under conditions of limited water
 supply.
 Bernardo, D.J.; Whittlesey, N.K.; Saxton, K.E.; Bassett, D.L.
 Pullman, Wash. : The Service; 1988 May.
 Extension bulletin - Washington State University, Cooperative
 Extension
 Service (1498): 28 p.; 1988 May.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Washington; Irrigation systems; Water conservation; Irrigation
 scheduling; Water allocation; Computer analysis; Models   
 
 
 168                         NAL Call. No.: 292.8 W295
 Optimal reservoir operation for irrigation of multiple crops.
 Vedula, S.; Mujumdar, P.P.
 Washington, D.C. : American Geophysical Union; 1992 Jan.
 Water resources research v. 28 (1): p. 1-9; 1992 Jan.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Karnataka; Multiple cropping; Water reservoirs; Irrigation
 requirements; Irrigation scheduling; Water availability; Water allocation; Crop
 growth stage; Water use efficiency; Decision making; Mathematical models  
 
 Abstract:  A model for the optimal operating policy of a reservoir for
 irrigation under a multiple crops scenario using stochastic dynamic programming
 (SDP) is developed. Intraseasonal periods smaller than the crop growth stage
 durations form the decision intervals of the model to facilitate irrigation
 decisions in real situations. Reservoir storage, inflow to the reservoir, and
 the soil moisture in the irrigated area are treated as state variables. An
 optimal allocation process is incorporated in the model to determine the
 allocations to individual crops when a competition for water exists among them.
 The model also serves as an irrigation scheduling model in that at any given
 intraseason period it specifies whether irrigation is needed and, if it is, the
 amount of irrigation to be applied to each crop. The impact on crop yield due
 to water deficit and the effect of soil moisture dynamics on crop water
 requirements are taken into account. A linear root growth of the crop is
 assumed until the end of the vegetative stage, beyond which the root depth is
 assumed to be constant. The applicability of the model is demonstrated through
 a case study of an existing reservoir in India.   
 
 
 169                         NAL Call. No.: HC79.P55J6
 Optimization of inputs in a spatially variable natural resource:
 unconditional
 vs. conditional analysis.
 Feinerman, E.; Bresler, E.; Dagan, G.
 Orlando, Fla. : Academic Press; 1989 Sep.
 Journal of environmental economics and management v. 17 (2): p.
 140-154; 1989
 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation water; Fields; Spatial variation; Use efficiency;
 Information; Stochastic models; Optimization; Risk; Decision making; Yields  
 
 Abstract:  Stochastic optimization of inputs in a spatially variable natural
 resource is studied, with special emphasis placed on the problem faced by a
 risk-averse decision maker (DM): how to use, in the best possible way, the
 given body of information, which is embodied in one realization of the relevant
 measurements. Two approaches, unconditional and conditional, are investigated
 and compared. The unconditional and the conditional stochastic optimization
 problems are defined and an illustrative numerical example is given. The
 principal conclusion drawn is that the conditional analysis has the potential
 to increase the DM's welfare substantially, as compared with the unconditional
 one.   
 
 
 170                      NAL Call. No.: SB319.2.F6F56
 Ornamental plant growth responses to different application rates of
 reclaimed
 water.
 Parnell, J.R.
 S.l. : The Society; 1990 May.
 Proceedings of the ... annual meeting of the Florida State
 Horticulture
 Society v. 102: p. 89-92; 1990 May.  Proceedings held October
 31-November 2, 1989, Tampa, Florida.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Ornamental plants; Responses; Irrigation requirements;
 Irrigation water; Application rates; Water conservation   
 
 
 171                         NAL Call. No.: 292.9 AM34
 Patterns and trends in irrigation efficiency.
 Thompson, S.A.
 Minneapolis, Minn. : American Water Resources Association; 1988
 Feb.
 Water resources bulletin v. 24 (1): p. 57-63. maps; 1988 Feb.
 Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Water use efficiency; Irrigation; Agricultural land;
 Project appraisal; Crops; Water requirements; Surveys   
 
 
 172                           NAL Call. No.: S671.A66
 Performance of LEPA equipment on center pivot machines.
 Buchleiter, G.W.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural Engineers; 1992 Sep.
 Applied engineering in agriculture v. 8 (5): p. 631-637; 1992 Sep.
 Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Center pivot irrigation; Self propelled irrigation systems;
 Application methods; Performance testing  
 
 Abstract:  The performance of LEPA equipment on a center pivot machine was
 evaluated at three different radii at three different slopes. Application
 uniformity was best at the outer end and poorest at the middle of the pivot
 mainline pipe. No runoff occurred on 1% slope but excessive runoff occurred on
 the 3% and 8% slopes. Simulations indicated performance could be improved by
 constructing microbasins in the furrows.   
 
 
 173                         NAL Call. No.: GB705.A6H9
 Perils of progress--hydrogeological hazards in Las Vegas Valley, Clark County,
 Nevada.
 Katzer, T.; Brothers, K.
 Tucson, Ariz. : American Water Resources Association; 1989.
 Hydrology and water resources in Arizona and the Southwest v. 19:
 p. 7-18.
 ill., maps; 1989.  Paper presented at the "Meetings of the Arizona
 Section
 American Water Resources Association and the Hydrology Section
 Arizona-Nevada
 Academy of Science on Hydrology and Water Resources in Arizona and
 the
 Southwest," April 15, 1989, Las Vegas, Nevada.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Nevada; Water resources; Water use; Irrigation water; Water
 requirements; Water deficit; Aquifers; Groundwater level; Historical records;
 Water conservation   
 
 
 174                           NAL Call. No.: S671.A66
 Photovoltaic-powered water pumping for small irrigation systems.
 Whiffen, H.J.H.; Haman, D.Z.; Baird, C.D.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural Engineers; 1992 Sep.
 Applied engineering in agriculture v. 8 (5): p. 625-629; 1992 Sep.
 Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Centrifugal pumps; Photovoltaic cells; Solar energy;
 Microirrigation; Performance testing; Efficiency; Economic viability  
 
 Abstract:  A 374-peak watt(p,SOC) photovoltaic (pv) array was connected through
 a 0.4 kW (0.5 hp) DC permanent magnet motor to a single-stage centrifugal pump
 to demonstrate the water pumping capacity of this system and to analyze the
 economic competitiveness of pv power for micro-irrigation in Florida. During
 the eight-month time period in which it operated, a datalogger monitored the
 system's efficiencies under a variety of climatic conditions. These data points
 were used to create an irradiance dependent, empirical mathematical model of
 the pv system. Ten years of solar irradiance data were applied to this model to
 generate a 12-month performance curve for the system. These daily values of
 water pumped were compared to the daily potential evapotranspiration (ETp)
 calculated from the same weather data using the Penman equation. Under assumed
 soil conditions, the land area on which the pv system could replace the ET,
 with a reliability of 0.84 was 1.06 ha (2.62 ac) for the Florida vegetable
 growing season (September-May).   
 
 
 175                           NAL Call. No.: 23 AU783
 Physiological analysis of peanut cultivar response to timing and
 duration of
 drought stress.
 Wright, G.C.; Hubick, K.T.; Farquhar, G.D.
 Melbourne : Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research
 Organization; 1991.
 Australian journal of agricultural research v. 42 (3): p. 453-470; 1991.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Queensland; Arachis hypogaea; Cultivars; Crop growth stage; Growth
 rate; Harvest index; Irrigation; Pods; Rain; Transpiration; Water deficit;
 Water stress; Water use efficiency; Yield components; Soil types; Drought
 resistance   
 
 
 176                        NAL Call. No.: QK938.D4P73
 Phytomass of perko and rape on sandy soils of the arid zone
 irrigated with
 drainage waters.
 Lalymenko, L.A.; Lalymenko, N.K.
 New York, N.Y. : Allerton Press; 1988.
 Problems of desert development (1): p. 89-96; 1988.  Translated
 from Problemy
 Osvoeniya Pustyn, 1988, No. 1, p. 83-88, (QK938.D4P7).  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Turkmen ssr; Brassica campestris; Hybrids; Forage; Sandy soils;
 Dry matter; Agricultural land; Irrigated soils; Deserts; Arid zones; Rotations;
 Waste water disposal; Drainage water; Water use efficiency   
 
 
 177                            NAL Call. No.: 80 J825
 Plant water relations, canopy temperature, yield and water-use
 efficiency of
 watermelon Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum et Nakai under drip
 and furrow
 irrigation.
 Srinivas, K.; Hedge, D.M.; Havanagi, G.N.
 Ashford : Headley Brothers Ltd; 1989 Jan.
 The Journal of horticultural science v. 64 (1): p. 115-124; 1989
 Jan.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Citrullus lanatus; Trickle irrigation; Furrow irrigation; Plants;
 Water content; Yield response functions; Water use efficiency; Canopy;
 Temperature   
 
 
 178                             NAL Call. No.: 81 L95
 Plant water relations: effect on the growth of woody ornamental
 plants.
 Davies, F.T. Jr
 Weslaco, Tex. : The Society; 1988.
 Journal of the Rio Grande Valley Horticultural Society v. 41: p.
 29-31; 1988.
 This publication is not owned by the National Agricultural Library.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ornamental plants; Woody plants; Plant water relations; Growth;
 Water composition and quality; Nursery management; Overhead irrigation; Drought
 resistance; Water use efficiency   
 
 
 179                        NAL Call. No.: 290.9 Am32T
 Planting date, water management, and maturity length relations for
 irrigated
 grain sorghum.
 Allen, R.R.; Musick, J.T.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural Engineers
 1958-; 1993
 Jul.
 Transactions of the ASAE v. 36 (4): p. 1123-1129; 1993 Jul.
 Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Cabt; Sorghum bicolor; Irrigation; Hybrids; Planting date;
 Water management; Water use efficiency; Evapotranspiration  
 
 Abstract:  Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench] is produced under widely
 varying planting dates and irrigation management in the Southern High Plains.
 This study was conducted to determine optimum planting date and maturity length
 hybrid under varying irrigation levels. The effects of medium and medium-late
 maturity sorghum hybrids on yield, water use, and water use efficiency (WUE)
 were investigated for three irrigation regimes; no post-plant irrigation,
 limited irrigation (one or two growing season applications), and adequate
 irrigation (three or four growing season applications). Planting dates were
 from early May through late June of 1989, 1990, and 1991 at Bushland, Texas.
 Grain yields averaged highest (about 8.9 Mg/ha) for both hybrids under adequate
 irrigation when planted near 23 May. When planting very early (near 5 May) with
 adequate irrigation, the medium-late hybrid was slightly more productive than
 the medium hybrid, but when planting in June, the medium hybrid was slightly
 more productive. With limited irrigation, the medium hybrid was slightly more
 productive (yield of 7.2 Mg/ha and WUE of 1.3 kg/m3) than the medium-late
 hybrid (yield of 6.9 Mg/ha and WUE of 1.2 kg/m3). Under a major soil-water
 deficit without any post-plant irrigations, the medium hybrid was more
 productive. With planting dates in May and adequate irrigation, either
 maturity-length hybrid would give acceptable performance. When planting in
 June, a medium hybrid would be acceptable for both limited and adequate
 irrigation management.   
 
 
 180                             NAL Call. No.: SB1.H6
 Poinsettia irrigation based on evaporative demand and plant growth
 characteristics.
 Stanley, C.D.; Harbaugh, B.K.
 Alexandria, Va. : American Society for Horticultural Science; 1989
 Dec.
 HortScience v. 24 (6): p. 937-939; 1989 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Euphorbia pulcherrima; Irrigation requirements; Irrigation
 scheduling; Evapotranspiration; Water conservation; Capillary irrigation;
 Mathematical models; Prediction   
 
 
 181                         NAL Call. No.: FICHE S-72
 Potential benefits of controlled-subdrainage in humid regions of
 the U.S.
 Fouss, J.L.; Rogers, J.S.; Carter, C.E.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1988.
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers (Microfiche collection)
 (fiche no.
 88-2105): 15 p. ill; 1988.  Paper presented at the 1988 Summer
 Meeting of the
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Available for purchase
 from: The
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Order Dept., 2950 Niles
 Road, St.
 Joseph, Michigan 49085. Telephone the Order Dept. at (616) 429-0300
 for
 information and prices.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Subsurface drainage; Rain; Water use; Efficiency; Water
 table; Water management; Subsurface irrigation; Computer simulation   
 
 
 182                           NAL Call. No.: 21.5 Z15
 Proucevanje ucinkovitosti delovanja drenaznih filtrov z modeli  [A
 model study
 of the efficiency of drainage permeable backfill].
 Petrac, M.; Maticic, B.
 Ljubljana : Fakulteta; 1988.
 Zbornik Biotehniske fakultete univerze Edvarda Kardelja v Ljubljani
 :
 Kmetijstvo; Research reports, Biotechnical Faculty, University
 Edvarda Kardelj
 of Ljubljana : Agricultural issue (51): p. 89-93. ill; 1988.
 Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  Slovene
 
 Descriptors: Yugoslavia; Drainage; Filters; Backfilling; Efficiency;
 Permeability; Simulation models   
 
 
 183                       NAL Call. No.: S544.3.N6N62
 Pumping plant performance evaluation.
 Evans, R.O.; Hunt, J.H.; Sneed, R.E.
 Raleigh, N.C. : The Service; 1991 Jun.
 AG - North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service, North Carolina
 State
 University (452-6): 8 p.; 1991 Jun.  In subseries: Water & Energy
 Efficiency
 in Irrigation.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North Carolina; Irrigation equipment; Pumps; Efficiency; Electric
 motors; Internal combustion engines; Performance testing   
 
 
 184                             NAL Call. No.: 10 OU8
 Rainfed agriculture: water harvesting and soil water conservation.
 Laryea, K.B.
 Oxon : C.A.B. International; 1992 Dec.
 Outlook on agriculture v. 21 (4): p. 271-277. ill; 1992 Dec.
 Special issue:
 Focus on water.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Soil water; Water conservation; Water harvesting; Water
 requirements; Irrigation; Semiarid zones; Tropics   
 
 
 185                         NAL Call. No.: 100 C12CAG
 Reducing drainwater: furrow vs. subsurface drip irrigation.
 Fulton, A.E.; Oster, J.D.; Hanson, B.R.; Phene, C.J.; Goldhamer, D.A.
 Oakland, Calif. : Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of
 California; 1991 Mar.
 California agriculture v. 45 (2): p. 4-8. ill; 1991 Mar.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Water conservation; Furrow irrigation; Subsurface
 irrigation; Drainage water; Gossypium hirsutum; Crop yield; Profits; Costs   
 
 
 186                      NAL Call. No.: S13.R6 nr.107
 Regulowanie uwilgotnienia gleby za pomoca nawodnien wglebnych
 [Soil moisture
 control by subsurface irrigation]., Wyd. 1..
 Pierzgalski, Edward
 Warszawa : Wydawn. SGGW-AR,; 1990.
 111 p. : ill. ; 24 cm. (Rosprawy naukowe i monografie ; 107.).
 Summary in
 English.  Includes bibliographical references (p. [100]-109).
 
 Language:  Polish
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation efficiency; Soil moisture; Soils, Irrigated   
 
 
 187                          NAL Call. No.: TC801.I66
 The rehabilitation of an irrigation system along the Yellow River.
 Lou, P.; Hou, L.
 Dordrecht : Martinus Nijhoff Publishers; 1988.
 Irrigation and drainage systems : an international journal v. 2
 (1): p. 9-19; 1988.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: China; Irrigation systems; Surface water; Tube wells; Problem
 analysis; Salinity; Waterlogging; Water use efficiency; Water costs; Rivers   
 
 
 188                          NAL Call. No.: HT401.J68
 Reliance on sources of information for water-saving practices by
 irrigators in
 the High Plains of the U.S.A.
 Kromm, D.E.; White, S.E.
 Elmsford, N.Y. : Pergamon Press; 1991.
 Journal of rural studies v. 7 (4): p. 411-421; 1991.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Southern plains states of U.S.A.; Nebraska; Colorado; Kansas; New
 Mexico; Groundwater; Irrigation; Information services; Usage; Beliefs; Farmers'
 attitudes; Water conservation; Innovation adoption; Water management; Regional
 surveys; Farmers; Geographical distribution; Plains; Consultants; Universities;
 Experimental stations; Trade publications  
 
 Abstract:  Who do farmers trust? Irrigators in the High Plains are confronted
 with a wide range of information source's with respect to water-saving
 practices. From a survey of 709 irrigators in 10 countries the most widely
 accepted sources are identified, regional variability or information is
 examined, the role of irrigator characteristics on source selection is
 determined, and the level of association between adoption and source preference
 is analyzed. Differences in irrigators' reliance on specific sources are more
 associated with location than irrigator characteristics. Information sources
 viewed as important by many irrigators frequently influence adoption decisions
 less than sources having a wide range of preference among irrigators. Mass
 media and advisor-oriented sources are much more significantly linked to
 adoption than inter-personal sources such as friends and neighbors. The three
 sources that best discriminate adoption behavior are private agricultural
 consulting firms, university research stations, and trade magazines.   
 
 
 189                             NAL Call. No.: SB1.H6
 Research of turfgrass water use in Arizona.
 Mancino, C.F.
 Alexandria, Va. : The American Society for Horticultural Science; 1993 Apr.
 HortScience : a publication of the American Society for
 Horticultural Science
 v. 28 (4): p. 290-291; 1993 Apr.  Paper presented at the colloquium
 "Politics
 of water use and its effects on water research of horticultural
 crops," held
 at the 87th ASHS Annual Meeting, Nov. 8, 1990, Tucson, Arizona.
 Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Cabt; Lawns and turf; Irrigation water; Water use; Water
 conservation; Water requirements; Waste water; Application   
 
 
 190                    NAL Call. No.: S612.2.N38 1990
 Reservoir-tillage and controlled-traffic practices on irrigated
 crops in humid
 regions.
 Hackwell, S.G.; Rochester, E.W.; Yoo, K.H.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural Engineers; 1990.
 Visions of the future : proceedings of the Third National
 Irrigation Symposium
 held in conjunction with the 11th Annual International Irrigation
 Exposition, October 28-November 1, 1990, Phoenix Civic Plaza, Phoenix, Arizona.
 p. 47-53; 1990. (ASAE publication ; 04-90).  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Alabama; Irrigation systems; Tillage; Water conservation   
 
 
 191                            NAL Call. No.: 450 C16
 Response of winter wheat to N and water: growth, water use, yield
 and grain
 protein.
 Entz, M.H.; Fowler, D.B.
 Ottawa : Agricultural Institute of Canada; 1989 Oct.
 Canadian journal of plant science; Revue canadienne de phytotechnie
 v. 69 (4):
 p. 1135-1147; 1989 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Saskatchewan; Triticum aestivum; Nitrogen fertilizers; Irrigation
 requirements; Interactions; Cultivars; Crop yield; Yield response functions;
 Grain; Protein content; Growth rate; Varietal effects; Water use efficiency;
 Dry matter accumulation   
 
 
 192                            NAL Call. No.: 10 EX72
 Responses of tea (Camellia sinensis) to irrigation and fertilizer.
 II. Water
 use.
 Stephens, W.; Carr, M.K.V.
 Cambridge : Cambridge University Press; 1991 Apr.
 Experimental agriculture v. 27 (2): p. 193-210; 1991 Apr.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Tanzania; Camellia sinensis; Evapotranspiration; Highlands;
 Irrigation; Nitrogen fertilizers; Soil water; Water deficit; Water use
 efficiency; Yield response functions; Experimental design   
 
 
 193                          NAL Call. No.: TC801.I66
 Review of irrigation system performance with respect to initial
 objectives.
 Plusquellec, H.L.; McPhail, K.; Polti, C.
 Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1990 Nov.
 Irrigation and drainage systems : an international journal v. 4
 (4): p.
 313-327; 1990 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mexico; Morocco; Philippines; Thailand; Colombia; Sudan; Gravity;
 Irrigation systems; Performance appraisals; Water availability; Water use
 efficiency; Water distribution; Cropping systems; Intensification; Crop yield;
 Returns   
 
 
 194                            NAL Call. No.: S79 .E3
 Rice levee construction and seepage losses on Sharkey clay.
 Pringle, H.C. III; Street, J.E.
 State College, Miss. : Mississippi State University, Agricultural
 and Forestry
 Experiment Station, 1970-; 1992 Dec.
 Bulletin (991): 10 p.; 1992 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mississippi; Cabt; Flooded rice; Dikes; Clay soils; Construction;
 Seepage; Water conservation   
 
 
 195                         NAL Call. No.: 286.8 N47M
 Salinity mitigation in the Murray River system.
 Quiggin, J.
 Armidale : Australian Agricultural Economics Society, Inc; 1991
 Apr.
 Review of marketing and agricultural economics v. 59 (1): p. 53-65; 1991 Apr.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Australia; Rivers; Salinity; Farm management; Irrigation water;
 Water use efficiency; Decision making; Production functions   
 
 
 196                         NAL Call. No.: 60.18 UN33
 Save water--automatically!.
 Moore, J.F.
 Far Hills, N.J. : United States Golf Association; 1991 Mar.
 USGA Green Section record v. 29 (2): p. 20-21; 1991 Mar.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation water; Water conservation; Automatic irrigation
 systems; Innovations   
 
 
 197                             NAL Call. No.: SB1.H6
 Scheduling irrigations for carrots.
 Kruse, E.G.; Ells, J.E.; McSay, A.E.
 Alexandria, Va. : American Society for Horticultural Science; 1990
 Jun.
 HortScience v. 25 (6): p. 641-644; 1990 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Colorado; Daucus carota; Irrigation scheduling; Water use
 efficiency; Irrigation requirements; Crop yield; Growth models; Computer
 applications   
 
 
 198                             NAL Call. No.: SB1.H6
 Scheduling irrigations for cucumbers.
 Ells, J.E.; Kruse, E.G.; McSay, A.E.
 Alexandria, Va. : American Society for Horticultural Science; 1989
 Jun.
 HortScience v. 24 (3): p. 448-452; 1989 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Colorado; Cucumis sativus; Irrigation scheduling; Crop yield;
 Water use efficiency; Tensiometers   
 
 
 199                             NAL Call. No.: 6 AR44
 The second management plan: What's proposed for agricultural
 irrigation.
 Ayer, H.
 Tempe, Ariz. : Arizona Farmer-Stockman; 1988 May.
 Arizona farmer-stockman v. 67 (5): p. 14-16; 1988 May.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Groundwater; Irrigated farming; Law; Water conservation;
 Cooperation; Water resource management; Water allocation   
 
 
 200                            NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Seed yield and water-use efficiency of white lupin as influenced by
 irrigation, row spacing, and weeds.
 Putnam, D.H.; Wright, J.; Field, L.A.; Ayisi, K.K.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 Jul.
 Agronomy Journal v. 84 (4): p. 557-563; 1992 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Minnesota; Lupinus albus; Irrigation scheduling; Spring; Sprinkler
 irrigation; Row spacing; Weeds; Crop yield; Seeds; Protein content; Yield
 components; Water use efficiency; Crude protein; Seed weight  
 
 Abstract:  When grown on sandy soil, spring-seeded sweet white lupin (Lupinus
 albus L.) is usually subject to moisture stress. Late-germinating broadleaf
 weeds also compete with the crop and reduce yields. The objectives of this
 study were to determine the effects of five irrigation levels, two row spacings
 (15 and 76 cm), and late-germinating weeds on lupin seed yield, seed protein
 content, and water-use efficiency. The cultivar Ultra was grown on a loamy sand
 (Udotrantic Haploborolls) and irrigated with a line-source sprinkler system.
 Full irrigation increased seed yield an average of 553% over non-irrigated
 controls in 1988, 229% in 1989, and 52% in 1990, but seed protein concentration
 was reduced 2.5 to 7.9 percentage points. Applied water-use efficiency and
 crude protein applied water-use efficiency were maximized at 300 to 400 mm or
 less of total effective water depending upon year. Irrigation increased lupin
 seed yield primarily by increasing numbers of fertile branches and mainstem
 pods. Irrigation also increased number of seeds per pod and seed weight. Lack
 of late season weed control reduced yields by an average of 17% in 1988 and
 1989, and 28% in 1990. Yields from narrow rows were 23 to 50% higher than those
 from wide rows. Generally, weed count was reduced in narrow rows. Substantial
 benefits of irrigation to white lupin productivity were observed on these
 soils, but it is unlikely that applications of more than 350 to 400 mm of
 irrigation water plus rainfall would increase seed yield or water-use
 efficiency for spring-sown white lupin.   
 
 
 201                        NAL Call. No.: 275.29 F66C
 Selection of centrifugal pumping equipment.
 Haman, D.Z.; Zazueta, F.S.; Izuno, F.T.
 Gainesville, Fla. : The Service; 1992 May.
 Circular - Florida Cooperative Extension Service (1048): 11 p.; 1992 May.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Centrifugal pumps; Irrigation systems; Capacity; Efficiency   
 
 
 202                          NAL Call. No.: S612.I756
 Short staple cotton under micro and level-basin irrigation methods.
 Bucks, D.A.; Allen, S.G.; Roth, R.L.; Gardner, B.R.
 Berlin, W. Ger. : Springer International; 1988.
 Irrigation science v. 9 (3): p. 161-176; 1988.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Gossypium hirsutum; Cultivars; Irrigation systems; Trickle
 irrigation; Surface irrigation; Water management; Yield increases; Row spacing;
 Water use efficiency; Irrigation scheduling; Evapotranspiration   
 
 
 203                    NAL Call. No.: S612.2.N38 1990
 Six years of LEPA in Texas--less water, higher yields.
 Fipps, G.; New, L.L.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural Engineers; 1990.
 Visions of the future : proceedings of the Third National
 Irrigation Symposium
 held in conjunction with the 11th Annual International Irrigation
 Exposition, October 28-November 1, 1990, Phoenix Civic Plaza, Phoenix, Arizona.
 p.
 115-120. ill; 1990. (ASAE publication ; 04-90).  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Center pivot irrigation; Water conservation; Yield
 increases   
 
 
 204                    NAL Call. No.: S612.2.N38 1990
 Software for turfgrass water audits.
 Snyder, R.L.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural Engineers; 1990.
 Visions of the future : proceedings of the Third National
 Irrigation Symposium
 held in conjunction with the 11th Annual International Irrigation
 Exposition, October 28-November 1, 1990, Phoenix Civic Plaza, Phoenix, Arizona.
 p. 96-100; 1990. (ASAE publication ; 04-90).  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Sprinkler irrigation; Water use efficiency; Computer
 software   
 
 
 205                          NAL Call. No.: TD201.W92
 Soil watch shows sugar-cane response.
 Kirby, C.
 London : T. Telford Ltd; 1988 Oct.
 World water v. 11 (9): p. 31, 33, 35. ill; 1988 Oct.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mauritius; Saccharum; Trickle irrigation; Irrigation systems;
 Tensiometers; Soil water balance; Yield response functions; Soil water
 movement; Water use efficiency   
 
 
 206                         NAL Call. No.: 100 C12CAG
 Soluble calcium compounds may aid low-volume water application.
 Wildman, W.E.; Peacock, W.L.; Wildman, A.M.; Goble, G.G.; Pehrson, J.E.;
 O'Connell, N.V.
 Berkeley, Calif. : The Station; 1988 Nov.
 California agriculture - California Agricultural Experiment Station
 v. 42 (6):
 p. 7-9. ill; 1988 Nov.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Citrus; Orchards; Vineyards; Trickle irrigation;
 Calcium; Water soluble compounds; Water use efficiency; Infiltration; Sandy
 loam soils; Soil treatments   
 
 
 207                         NAL Call. No.: FICHE S-72
 Spatial distribution of irrigation water application in sprinkler
 irrigation.
 Wahdan, A.A.; El-Gayer, A.M.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1988.
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers (Microfiche collection)
 (fiche no.
 88-2620): 7 p.; 1988.  Paper presented at the 1988 Winter Meeting
 of the
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Available for purchase
 from: The
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Order Dept., 2950 Niles
 Road, St.
 Joseph, Michigan 49085. Telephone the Order Dept. at (616) 429-0300
 for
 information and prices.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sprinkler irrigation; Irrigation water; Distribution; Patterns;
 Application; Efficiency   
 
 
 208        NAL Call. No.: ViBlbVLD5655.V855 1992.L352
 Spray stake irrigation of container-grown plants.
 Lamack, William F., 1992; 1992.
 viii, 36 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.  Vita.  Abstract.  Includes
 bibliographical
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Plants, Effect of water levels on; Container gardening; Irrigation
 efficiency   
 
 
 209                    NAL Call. No.: S612.2.N38 1990
 Sprinkler efficiency measurement with large weighing lysimeters.
 Schneider, A.D.; Howell, T.A.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural Engineers; 1990.
 Visions of the future : proceedings of the Third National
 Irrigation Symposium
 held in conjunction with the 11th Annual International Irrigation
 Exposition, October 28-November 1, 1990, Phoenix Civic Plaza, Phoenix, Arizona.
 p. 69-76; 1990. (ASAE publication ; 04-90).  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Sprinkler irrigation; Efficiency; Lysimeters   
 
 
 210                         NAL Call. No.: FICHE S-72
 Sprinkler irrigation management for corn--southern great plains.
 Howell, T.A.; Copeland, K.S.; Schneider, A.D.; Dusek, D.A.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1988.
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers (Microfiche collection)
 (fiche no.
 88-2098): 21 p. ill; 1988.  Paper presented at the 1988 Summer
 Meeting of the
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Available for purchase
 from: The
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Order Dept., 2950 Niles
 Road, St.
 Joseph, Michigan 49085. Telephone the Order Dept. at (616) 429-0300
 for
 information and prices.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Zea mays; Sprinkler irrigation; Evapotranspiration; Water
 use efficiency; Yield response functions; Simulation models   
 
 
 211                         NAL Call. No.: 100 C12CAG
 Subsurface drip produced highest net return in Westlands area
 study.
 Smith, R.B.; Oster, J.D.; Phene, C.
 Oakland, Calif. : Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of
 California; 1991 Mar.
 California agriculture v. 45 (2): p. 8-10. ill; 1991 Mar.  Second
 part of
 three-part article: "Can farmers use water more effectively?".
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Water conservation; Subsurface irrigation; Gossypium
 hirsutum; Yields; Profits; Irrigation scheduling; Costs   
 
 
 212                        NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32T
 Sugarcane, yield, biomass, and water-use efficiency.
 Shih, S.F.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1988 Jan.
 Transactions of the ASAE - American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers v. 31
 (1): p. 142-148. ill; 1988 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Saccharum officinarum; Biomass; Lysimeters; Subsurface
 irrigation; Yields; Evapotranspiration; Water use efficiency   
 
 
 213                      NAL Call. No.: S494.5.D3C652
 Techniques for computerized irrigation management.
 Phene, C.J.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.; 1989 Mar.
 Computers and electronics in agriculture v. 3 (3): p. 189-208. ill; 1989 Mar.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Automatic irrigation; Irrigation requirements; Irrigation
 scheduling; Water use efficiency; Computer applications; Simulation models;
 Decision making   
 
 
 214                         NAL Call. No.: 292.9 AM34
 Trends in Western United States agriculture: irrigation
 organizations.
 Franklin, D.R.; Narayanan, R.
 Minneapolis, Minn. : American Water Resources Association; 1988
 Dec.
 Water resources bulletin v. 24 (6): p. 1289-1294; 1988 Dec.  Paper
 presented
 at the 24th Annual American Water Resources Association Conference, "Water for
 the Years Ahead--Quality and Quantity: 1990 and Beyond," November
 6-11, 1988, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Western states of U.S.A.; Agriculture; Trends; Irrigation;
 Organizations; Efficiency; Structure; Water resource management; History; Water
 policy   
 
 
 215                            NAL Call. No.: S51.E22
 Trickle irrigated wetted area for peach trees.
 Chesness, J.; Rieger, M.; Myers, S.
 Athens, Ga. : The Stations; 1992 Jun.
 Research report - University of Georgia, College of Agriculture, Agricultural
 Experiment Stations (607): 11 p.; 1992 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Prunus persica; Fruit trees; Trickle irrigation; Water use
 efficiency; Areas; Soil water; Crop yield   
 
 
 216                        NAL Call. No.: SB317.5.L65
 Trickle irrigation.
 Riverhead, N.Y. : Cornell Cooperative Extension; 1988 Sep.
 Long Island horticulture news. p. 3; 1988 Sep.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Trickle irrigation; Soil moisture; Fruit trees; Water
 conservation; Labor costs   
 
 
 217                    NAL Call. No.: S612.2.N38 1990
 Turfgrass water conservation in the arid southwest.
 Morris, R.L.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural Engineers; 1990.
 Visions of the future : proceedings of the Third National
 Irrigation Symposium
 held in conjunction with the 11th Annual International Irrigation
 Exposition, October 28-November 1, 1990, Phoenix Civic Plaza, Phoenix, Arizona.
 p. 107.
 ill; 1990. (ASAE publication ; 04-90).  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Lawns and turf; Irrigation systems; Water conservation   
 
 
 218                        NAL Call. No.: SB317.5.H68
 Two hundred tons per hectare of processing tomatoes--Can we reach
 it?.
 Phene, C.J.; Hutmacher, R.B.; Davis, K.R.
 Alexandria, VA : American Society for Horticultural Science; 1992
 Jan.
 HortTechnology v. 2 (1): p. 16-22; 1992 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Lycopersicon esculentum; Trickle irrigation;
 Subsurface irrigation; Evapotranspiration; Water use efficiency; Fertigation;
 Crop yield   
 
 
 219                           NAL Call. No.: 80 AM371
 Underground irrigation: more than meets the eye.
 Statham, M.L. Sr
 Chicago, Ill. : American Nurseryman Publishing Company; 1989 Jul15.
 American nurseryman v. 170 (2): p. 53-57; 1989 Jul15.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Tennessee; Subsurface irrigation; Trickle irrigation; Nurseries;
 Water use efficiency; Fertirrigation   
 
 
 220                         NAL Call. No.: 100 C12CAG
 Uniformity in pressurized irrigation systems depends on design, installation.
 Little, G.E.; Hills, D.J.; Hanson, B.R.
 Oakland, Calif. : Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of
 California; 1993 May.
 California agriculture v. 47 (3): p. 18-21; 1993 May.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Irrigation systems; Water distribution; Variation;
 Pressure; Water use efficiency   
 
 
 221                        NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32T
 Uniformity of infiltrated water under a low energy precision
 application
 (LEPA) irrigation system.
 Hanson, B.R.; Schwankl, L.; Fulton, A.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural Engineers; 1988 Oct.
 Transactions of the ASAE v. 31 (5): p. 1463-1468; 1988 Oct.
 Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Furrow irrigation; Infiltration; Water absorption
 
 
 222                        NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32T
 Uniformity of LEPA irrigation systems with furrow drops.
 Fangmeier, D.D.; Vlotman, W.F.; Eftekharzadeh, S.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural Engineers; 1990 Nov.
 Transactions of the ASAE v. 33 (6): p. 1907-1912; 1990 Nov.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Sprinkler irrigation; Computer simulation; Energy conservation;
 Furrow irrigation; Irrigation water; Water distribution
 
 Abstract:  Computer models for the movement and water delivery of low pressure
 center pivot and linear-move systems with furrow drops were used to compute
 water distribution uniformities. The models for small, 3-span, 170-m systems
 compared satisfactorily with field results. The computed results for 396 m
 systems had lower uniformities than for the 170 m systems. Uniformities were
 lowest for furrow-check spacings of 0.5 m or less. As system speed increased,
 uniformities with short check spacings increased. At check spacings of 3 m or
 greater, speed had no effect with the center pivot but varied over a 10% range
 for the linear move. To obtain a uniformity coefficient of 0.8, check spacings
 needed to be at least 2 m. Uniformities were greatly improved if the alignment
 angles between spans, which controlled tower movements, were reduced from 0.7
 degrees to 0.4 degrees or 0.25 degrees. However, this caused more frequent
 movement of the center towers which requires more expensive equipment.
 
 
 223                         NAL Call. No.: 100 C12CAG
 Uniformity of low-energy precise-application (LEPA) irrigation machines.
 Hanson, B.R.; Schwanki, L.J.; Fulton, A.
 Berkeley, Calif. : The Station; 1988 Sep.
 California agriculture - California Agricultural Experiment Station
 v. 42 (5): p. 12-14. ill; 1988 Sep.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Irrigation systems; Irrigation equipment; Energy
 conservation; Drainage; Soil water movement
 
 
 224                         NAL Call. No.: FICHE S-72
 Use of rainfall and irrigation for sorghum production.
 Allen, R.R.; Musick, J.T.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1988.
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers (Microfiche collection) (fiche no.
 88-2513): 17 p. ill; 1988.  Paper presented at the 1988 Winter Meeting of the
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Available for purchase from: The
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Order Dept., 2950 Niles Road, St.
 Joseph, Michigan 49085. Telephone the Order Dept. at (616) 429-0300 for
 information and prices.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Sorghum bicolor; Grain; Bedding; Furrow irrigation; Water
 uptake; Water use efficiency; Water requirements; Tillage; Soil water; Storage;
 Yield response functions
 
 
 225                          NAL Call. No.: HC79.E5N3
 The use of water pricing as a means for enhancing water use efficiency in
 irrigation: case studies in Mexico and the United States.
 Cummings, R.G.; Nercissiantz, V.
 Albuquerque, N.M. : University of New Mexico School of Law; 1992.
 Natural resources journal v. 32 (4): p. 731-755; 1992.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mexico; U.S.A.; Irrigation water; Water costs; Water use
 efficiency; Case studies; Water policy
 
 
 226                           NAL Call. No.: SB476.G7
 Using gray water.
 Coder, K.D.
 Overland Park, Kan. : Intertec Publishing Corporation; 1991 Mar.
 Grounds maintenance v. 26 (3): p. 16, 20, 22, 25; 1991 Mar.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Water conservation; Waste water; Irrigation water; Waste
 utilization
 
 
 227                         NAL Call. No.: FICHE S-72
 Using satellite imagery in soil and water conservation classes.
 Papritan, J.C.; Ward, A.D.; Lyon, J.G.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1988.
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers (Microfiche collection) (fiche no.
 88-5504): 18 p. ill., maps; 1988.  Paper presented at the 1988 Winter Meeting
 of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Available for purchase from:
 The American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Order Dept., 2950 Niles Road,
 St. Joseph, Michigan 49085. Telephone the Order Dept. at (616) 429-0300 for
 information and prices.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Soil; Drainage; Soil water content; Agricultural engineering; Soil
 conservation; Water conservation; Teaching materials; Satellite imagery; Remote
 sensing
 
 
 228                            NAL Call. No.: 80 G85W
 Walnut irrigation: The underground story.
 Stockwin, W.
 Willoughby, Ohio : Meister Pub. Co; 1988 May.
 Western fruit grower v. 108 (5): p. 46-47. ill; 1988 May.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Juglans; Cultivars; Plant production; Trickle
 irrigation; Equipment; Techniques; Efficiency; Performance; Water management
 
 
 229                         NAL Call. No.: SB379.A9A9
 Water agencies: an inside view.
 Engle, M.
 Carpinteria, Calif. : Rincon Information Management Corporation; 1991 Aug.
 California grower v. 15 (8): p. 36; 1991 Aug.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Water management; Local government; Water
 conservation; Irrigation; State government; Urban areas; Rural areas
 
 
 230                    NAL Call. No.: S612.2.N38 1990
 Water and energy conservation by improving irrigation practices in Colorado.
 Broner, I.; Leibrock, F.R.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural Engineers; 1990.
 Visions of the future : proceedings of the Third National Irrigation Symposium
 held in conjunction with the 11th Annual International Irrigation Exposition,
 October 28-November 1, 1990, Phoenix Civic Plaza, Phoenix, Arizona. p. 410-415;
 1990. (ASAE publication ; 04-90).  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Colorado; Surface irrigation; Trickle irrigation; Water
 conservation; Energy conservation
 
 
 231                          NAL Call. No.: TC801.I66
 Water charges and irrigation efficiencies.
 Bos, M.G.; Wolters, W.
 Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1990 Aug.
 Irrigation and drainage systems : an international journal v. 4 (3): p.
 267-278; 1990 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation water; Farmers; Charges; Costs; Water use efficiency;
 Surveys; Questionnaires
 
 
 232                         NAL Call. No.: SB379.A9A9
 Water conservation approaches for commercial nurseries.
 Engle, M.
 Carpinteria, Calif. : Rincon Information Management Corporation; 1992 Feb.
 California grower v. 16 (2): p. 33-34; 1992 Feb.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Nurseries; Water conservation; Irrigation systems;
 Trickle irrigation; Water reuse; Water use efficiency; Public relations
 
 
 233                       NAL Call. No.: HD1690.5.E53
 Water conservation in irrigated agriculture.
 Smerdon, E.T.
 New York, N.Y. : American Society of Civil Engineers; 1988. The role of social
 and behavioral sciences in water resources planning and management : proc of an
 Engineering Foundation Conf in conjunction with the Univ Council on Water
 Resources, Santa Barbara, Calif, May 3-8, 1987. p. 160-173; 1988.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Irrigated farming; Water conservation; Water supplies;
 Structural change; Economic sociology; Right of access; Water law
 
 
 234                         NAL Call. No.: 292.8 W295
 Water conservation in irrigated agriculture: a stochastic production frontier
 model.
 McGuckin, J.T.; Gollehon, N.; Ghosh, S.
 Washington, D.C. : American Geophysical Union; 1992 Feb.
 Water resources research v. 28 (2): p. 305-312; 1992 Feb.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Alaska; Zea mays; Irrigation; Water conservation; Water use
 efficiency; Production functions; Stochastic models; Surveys  
 
 Abstract:  A stochastic production frontier model of irrigation is used to
 analyze sources of economic inefficiency in irrigation practices of Nebraska
 corn producers and the extent that field information from soil moisture
 monitoring, commercial scheduling and/or weather reports increases economic
 efficiency. The results indicate that farm irrigation practices have an average
 technical efficiency of 81% (defined as the ratio of actualized production to
 maximum potential production for a level of inputs). Field information from
 moisture sensors can improve technical efficiency by 3.9%. The value of
 information provided by moisture sensors depends on the technical efficiency of
 the farmer and ranges from $58.23 per hectare for an efficient farmer to $40.29
 for an inefficient producer. The elasticity of derived demand for water is
 estimated to be -1.095.
 
 
 235                          NAL Call. No.: HD1750.W4
 Water conservation potential from irrigation technology transitions in the
 Pacific Northwest.
 Schaible, G.D.; Kim, C.S.; Whittlesey, N.K
 Lincoln, Neb. : Western Agricultural Economics Association; 1991
 Dec. Western journal of agricultural economics v. 16 (2): p. 194-206; 1991 Dec.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Idaho; Oregon; Washington; Irrigation water; Water conservation;
 Technology; Decision making; Econometric models; Agricultural prices; Water
 policy; Innovation adoption
 
 
 236                    NAL Call. No.: 1 Ag84Ab no.576
 Water conservation through irrigation technology.
 Negri, Donald H.; Hanchar, John J.
 United States, Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service
 Washington, DC : U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, [1989?];
 1989. 9 p. : ill. ; 28 cm. (Agriculture information bulletin ; 576). Caption
 title.  "November 1989"-- P. 1.  Includes bibliographical references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation farming; Water conservation; Irrigation efficiency
 
 
 237                            NAL Call. No.: 80 AC82
 Water consumptive use of greenhouse tomatoes as related to various levels of
 soil water potential under drip irrigation.
 Michelakis, N.G.; Chartzoulakis, K.S.
 Wageningen : International Society for Horticultural Science; 1988
 Sep.
 Acta horticulturae (228): p. 127-136; 1988 Sep.  Paper presented at the Fourth
 International Symposium on Water Supply and Irrigation in the Open and Under
 Protected Cultivation, August 26-28, 1985, Padova, Italy.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Lycopersicon esculentum; Greenhouse experimentation; Trickle
 irrigation; Irrigation scheduling; Tensiometers; Gypsum blocks; Soil water
 potential; Yield response functions; Water use efficiency
 
 
 238                         NAL Call. No.: 100 C12CAG
 Water efficient clover fixes soil nitrogen, provides winter forage crop.
 Williams, W.A.; Graves, W.L.; Cassman, K.G.; Miller, P.R.; Thomsen, C.D.
 Oakland, Calif. : Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of
 California; 1991 Jul. California agriculture v. 45 (4): p. 30-32; 1991 Jul.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Trifolium alexandrinum; Lolium multiflorum; Nitrogen fixation;
 Water use efficiency
 
 
 239                             NAL Call. No.: 10 OU8
 Water management.
 Carr, M.K.V.; Leeds-Harrison, P.B.; Carter, R.C.
 Oxon : C.A.B. International; 1990 Dec.
 Outlook on agriculture v. 19 (4): p. 229-235. ill; 1990 Dec. Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Water management; Water supply; Water conservation; Drainage;
 Irrigation; Reclamation; International comparisons
 
 
 240                             NAL Call. No.: 10 OU8
 Water management in relation to crop production: case study on rice.
 Bhuiyan, S.I.
 Oxon : C.A.B. International; 1992 Dec.
 Outlook on agriculture v. 21 (4): p. 293-299. ill; 1992 Dec.
 Special issue: Focus on water.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Philippines; Oryza sativa; Irrigation; Water management; Water
 requirements; Water use efficiency; Crop production
 
 
 241                         NAL Call. No.: S539.5.J68
 Water management of alfalfa through individual harvest production functions.
 Myer, G.L.; Miller, W.W.; Narayanan, R.; Jensen, E.H.; Zheng, Y.B.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1991 Oct.
 Journal of production agriculture v. 4 (4): p. 505-508; 1991 Oct.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Nevada; Medicago sativa; Water allocation; Irrigation; Application
 to land; Water use efficiency; Irrigation water; Evapotranspiration; Production
 functions; Mathematics; Seasonal growth; Crop yield; Harvesting; Application
 rates; Precipitation; Soil water content; Seasonal variation; Irrigation
 scheduling
 
 
 242                   NAL Call. No.: S543.T4T43 no.15
 Water management with conservation tillage.
 Unger, P.W.; Gerard, C.J.; Matocha, J.E.; Hons, F.M.; Bordovsky, D.G.; Wendt,
 C.W. College Station, Tex. : Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Texas A&M
 Univ System; 1988. Conservation tillage in Texas / edited by F.M. Hons. p.
 10-15; 1988. (Research monograph / Texas Agricultural Experiment Station ; 15).
 Literature review. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Gossypium; Zea mays; Sorghum; Triticum; Fallow; Irrigation;
 Semiarid soils; Soil and water conservation; Minimum tillage
 systems; Crop yield
 
 
 243                         NAL Call. No.: 280.8 J822
 Water markets and water quality.
 Weinberg, M.; Kling, C.L.; Wilen, J.E.
 Ames, Iowa : American Agricultural Economics Association; 1993 May.
 American journal of agricultural economics v. 75 (2): p. 278-291; 1993 May.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Water quality; Irrigation water; Markets; Water use
 efficiency; Water allocation; Farm management; Decision making; Drainage;
 Simulation models; Water policy
 
 Abstract:  In addition to improving the allocative efficiency of water use,
 water markets may reduce irrigation-related water quality problems. This
 potential benefit is examined with a nonlinear programming model developed to
 simulate agricultural decision-making in a drainage problem area in
 California's San Joaquin Valley. Results indicate that a 30% drainage goal is
 achievable through improvements in irrigation practices and changes in cropping
 patterns induced by a water market. Although water markets will not generally
 achieve a least-cost solution, they may be a practical alternative to
 economically efficient, but informationally intensive, environmental policies
 such as Pigouvian taxes.
 
 
 244                           NAL Call. No.: TC401.A5
 Water quality and the conservation reserve program: implications of targeting
 saline croplands.
 Aillery, M.P.
 Bethesda, Md. : The Association; 1988 Nov.
 American Water Resources Association technical publication series TPS (88-4):
 p. 261-270. maps; 1988 Nov.  In the series analytic: Nonpoint pollution: 1988--
 policy, economy, management, and appropriate technology / edited by V. Novotny. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Water conservation; Programs; Water composition and
 quality; Salinity; Irrigation; Water management; Pastures
 
 
 245                 NAL Call. No.: S494.5.W3W376 1992
 Water saving techniques for plant growth.
 Verplancke, H. J. W.; Strooper, E. B. A. de; Boodt, M. de NATO Advanced
 Research Workshop on Water Saving Techniques for Plant Growth 1990 : Ghent,
 Belgium. Dordrecht ; Boston : Kluwer Academic Publishers,; 1992. x, 241 p. :
 ill., maps ; 25 cm. (NATO ASI series. Series E, Applied sciences ; no. 217.). 
 Published in cooperation with NATO Scientific Affairs Division. "Proceedings of
 the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Water Saving Techniques for Plant
 Growth, Ghent, Belgium, September 17-19, 1990"--T.p. verso. Includes
 bibliographical references and indexes.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Crops and water; Water conservation; Irrigation farming;
 Irrigation efficiency; Conservation tillage
 
 
 246                          NAL Call. No.: 64.8 C883
 Water uptake by cotton roots during fruit filling in relation to irrigation
 frequency.
 Radin, J.W.; Mauney, J.R.; Kerridge, P.C.
 Madison, Wis. : Crop Science Society of America; 1989 Jul.
 Crop science v. 29 (4): p. 1000-1005; 1989 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Gossypium hirsutum; Fruiting; Water use efficiency;
 Trickle irrigation; Irrigation scheduling; Arid climate; Leaf water potential;
 Water uptake; Root hydraulic conductivity; Stomatal resistance; Transpiration  
 
 Abstract:  Yield of irrigated cotton (gossypium hirsutum L.) increases as the
 interval between water applications is decreased, even if the total amount of
 water applied is unchanged. Experiments were undertaken to compare season-long
 water relations of high-frequency drip-irrigated cotton (1- to 2-d intervals)
 to cotton irrigated at approximately 2-wk intervals. The crop was grown at two
 locations in central Arizona on a Mohall sandy loam (fine-loamy, mixed,
 hyperthermic Typic Haplargid) and an Avondale clay loam (fine-loamy, mixed,
 hyperthermic Typic Torrifluvent) soils. In 2-yr trials at each location,
 irrigation frequency had inconsistent effects on midday leaf water potential
 during vegetative growth. When the crop developed a heavy fruit load, however,
 leaf water potential of plants on the longer cycles was much lower than that of
 drip-irrigated plants, even after irrigation when ample soil moisture should
 have been available. Plant hydraulic conductances, estimated from regressions
 of single-leaf transpiration rate against leaf water potential, were high in
 both treatments early in the season. Hydraulic conductance decreased greatly
 during fruiting in plants on long irrigation cycles but less so in drip-
 irrigated plants. Late in the season, after fruit maturation and during plant
 regrowth, conductances were again high and similar in the two treatments. The
 results imply that during heavy fruiting, mild water stress associated with
 long irrigation cycles triggers deterioration of the root system that is very
 slow to be reversed. High-frequency drip irrigation, by preventing cyclical
 stress, apparently minimized this deterioration during fruit filling.
 
 
 247                           NAL Call. No.: 56.9 So3
 Water use characterization of wide-spaced furrow irrigation.
 Tsegaye, T.; Stone, J.F.; Reeves, H.E.
 Madison, Wis. : Soil Science Society of America; 1993 Jan.
 Soil Science Society of America journal v. 57 (1): p. 240-245; 1993
 Jan.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Oklahoma; Cabt; Sorghum bicolor; Furrow irrigation; Comparisons;
 Water requirements; Crop yield; Water uptake; Water use efficiency; Soil water
 movement; Soil depth; Evaporation; Soil water; Losses from soil
 
 Abstract:  Water extraction, depletion, and sufficiency of wide-spaced furrow
 irrigation (WSFI) are not well understood. In addition, there is little work
 showing the response of WSFI where the same seasonal amount of water was
 applied to both WSFI and every-furrow irrigation (EFI). Treatments in this
 study included two seasonal amounts of water applied to both the WSFI and EFI
 plots. We determined the yield of grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench],
 water uptake (surface evaporation, extraction, and seasonal depletion), water
 penetration depth, and water use efficiency (WUE) during a 2-yr study in the
 Oklahoma Panhandle. A given amount of water produced about a 10% higher yield
 of grain sorghum when applied as WSFI than as EFI. The WUE of plants was found
 to be 24% higher for WSFI than for EFI. Evaporation from the soil surface was
 30 mm greater for EFI than WSFI. The EFI resulted in 30 mm more water
 extraction from the soil, evidently to meet the demand of surface evaporation.
 Seasonal depletion was related to wetness of the treatment; depletion was 20 mm
 higher for the drier of the two treatments. Following any periods where water
 was not available, WSFI showed less water penetration depth than EFI. The WSFI
 appears to have benefit for irrigation of this crop.
 
 
 248               NAL Call. No.: NBUS619 E34 W28 1992
 Water use efficiency in agriculture proceedings of the binational China-Israel
 workshop : April 22-26, 1991, Beijing, China.
 Shalhevet, Joseph; Liu, Ch'ang-ming; Xu, Yuexian; Priel, Vivian R. Rehovot,
 Israel : Priel Publishers,; 1990. 297 p. : ill., maps ; 24 cm.  Includes
 bibliographical references.
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation efficiency
 
 
 249                           NAL Call. No.: 23 AU792
 Water use efficiency, nutrient uptake and productivity of micro-irrigated
 citrus.
 Grieve, A.M.
 East Melbourne : Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization;
 1989. Australian journal of experimental agriculture v. 29 (1): p. 111-118;
 1989. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New South Wales; Citrus sinensis; Irrigation systems; Nutrient
 uptake; Water uptake; Water use efficiency; Crop yield
 
 
 250                      NAL Call. No.: SB319.2.F6F56
 Water use efficiency of four species of woody ornamentals under north Florida
 winter conditions.
 Knox, G.W.; Zimet, D.
 S.l. : The Society; 1988.
 Proceedings of the ... annual meeting of the Florida State Horticulture Society
 v. 101: p. 331-333; 1988.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Ilex crenata; Ilex vomitoria; Myrica cerifera; Photinia
 fraseri; Plant water relations; Water use efficiency; Irrigation systems
 
 
 251                        NAL Call. No.: 280.28 AL62
 Water watchers.
 Whitcomb, C.
 Sacramento, Calif. : California Almond Growers Exchange; 1988 Sep.
 Almond facts v. 53 (5): p. 16-17. ill., maps; 1988 Sep.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Irrigation; Management; Information systems; Water use
 efficiency; Land use; Weather data
 
 
 252                         NAL Call. No.: SB401.A1D5
 Water wisdom.
 Fulton, A.; Beede, R.
 Pleasanton, Calif. : Sun-Diamond Growers of California; 1989.
 Sun-diamond grower v. 8 (1): p. 27, 36-38; 1989.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Juglans; Orchards; Irrigation; Water management; Water
 use efficiency; Soil water balance; Soil texture; Soil water content
 
 
 253                          NAL Call. No.: aZ5071.N3
 Water-conserving irrigation January 1986-August 1988.
 Maclean, J.T.
 Beltsville, Md. : The Library; 1989 Feb. Quick bibliography series - U.S.
 Department of Agriculure, National Agricultural Library (U.S.). (89-35): 38 p.;
 1989 Feb.  Updates QB 87-68. Bibliography.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation; Irrigation water; Water use efficiency; Water
 conservation
 
 
 254                            NAL Call. No.: 80 AC82
 Water-fertilizer management of processing tomatoes.
 Phene, C.J.; Hutmacher, R.B.; Davis, K.R.; McCormick, R.L.
 Wageningen : International Society for Horticultural Science; 1990 Aug. Acta
 horticulturae (277): p. 137-143; 1990 Aug.  Paper presented at the "Third
 International Symposium on Processing Tomatoes," November 29-December 2, 1989,
 Avignon, France.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Lycopersicon esculentum; Trickle irrigation;
 Evapotranspiration; Nitrogen fertilizers; Phosphorus fertilizers; Potassium
 fertilizers; Water use efficiency; Crop yield
 
 Abstract:  Water and fertility management of processing tomatoes were studied
 with high frequency subsurface drip (SSD), high frequency surface drip (HFSD)
 and low frequency surface drip (LFSD). In 1984 and 1985, N, and N + P were
 injected uniformly through the drip systems, respectively. In 1987 N + K were
 injected uniformly through the drip systems, and the subtreatments were 0, 15,
 and 30 mg/l P injected daily in the irrigation water. The yields for all main
 treatments increased with injected P (1985) and K 1987. The SDS out-yielded the
 HFSD and LFSD in 1985 and 1987 when P was injected with the irrigation water
 but was not different in 1984 when only N was injected.
 
 
 255                         NAL Call. No.: SB379.A9A9
 Water-saving equipment.
 White, B.
 Fallbrook, Calif. : The Tanis Group, Inc; 1990 Mar.
 California grower v. 14 (3): p. 30-33. ill; 1990 Mar.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation equipment; Water use efficiency
 
 
 256                          NAL Call. No.: 64.8 C883
 Water-use efficiency and yield of sainfoin and alfalfa.
 Bolger, T.P.; Matches, A.G.
 Madison, Wis. : Crop Science Society of America; 1990 Jan.
 Crop science v. 30 (1): p. 143-148; 1990 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Medicago sativa; Onobrychis viciifolia; Water use
 efficiency; Evapotranspiration; Crop yield; Seasonal fluctuations; Irrigation
 requirements; Sprinkler irrigation; Maximum yield; Dry farming
 
 Abstract:  Water is often the primary limiting resource for forage production
 in semiarid and arid regions. Our objective was to determine yield and water-
 use efficiency (WUE) of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) and alfalfa
 (Medicago sativa L.) as related to evapotranspiration (ET). Species were grown
 in rows under an irrigation gradient. Total seasonal yields were a linear
 function (r2 = 0.87-0.97) of ET for both species. Maximum sainfoin yields were
 85% of alfalfa (20.7 Mg ha-1). Sainfoin produced 58 to 63% of its total yield
 in the first two harvests as compared to 41 to 46% for alfalfa. When soil water
 was adequate for spring growth, sainfoin was ready to harvest 2 wk earlier than
 alfalfa. Total ET of both species was similar. Season-long WUE of alfalfa (18.3
 kg ha-1 mm-1) was greater than sainfoin (10.7 kg ha-1 mm-1) in 1986 due to a
 lack of water in spring when sainfoin yield potential and WUE is highest. In
 1987, seasonal WUE of sainfoin and alfalfa was similar (18.2 vs. 16.7 kg ha-1
 mm-1), but alfalfa had a smaller evaporation (E) component giving it greater
 overall WUE and yield. Sainfoin WUE was high in spring and declined in summer.
 Alfalfa WUE remained high throughout the spring and summer. Both species had
 low WUE in the fall due to dormancy responses. Differences in leaf area index
 (LAI) account for differences in E between sainfoin and alfalfa. Sudden death
 of sainfoin plants in summer was observed under low irrigation; therefore,
 moderate levels of summer irrigation may be necessary to prevent stand loss. In
 dryland areas, sainfoin's greatest utility is for early season irrigated
 pasture or hay.
 
 
 257                         NAL Call. No.: 100 C12CAG
 Weed control by subsurface drip irrigation.
 Grattan, S.R.; Schwankl, L.J.; Lanini, W.T.
 Berkeley, Calif. : The Station; 1988 May.
 California agriculture - California Agricultural Experiment Station v. 42 (3):
 p. 22-24. ill; 1988 May.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Weed control; Water management; Subsurface irrigation;
 Trickle irrigation; Efficiency
 
 
 258                          NAL Call. No.: 56.8 J822
 Wellton-Mohawk farmers deliver water conservation.
 Hedlund, J.D.
 Ankeny, Iowa : Soil Conservation Society of America; 1988 Nov.
 Journal of soil and water conservation v. 43 (6): p. 462-464. ill; 1988 Nov.
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Irrigation water; Water resource management;
 Salinization; Water pollution; Water conservation; Project appraisal; Law
 
 
 259                         NAL Call. No.: S619.E34R5
 Winning with water soil-moisture monitoring for efficient irrigation.
 Richardson, Gail; Mueller-Beilschmidt, Peter
 New York, NY : INFORM Inc.,; 1988.
 xvi, 173 p. : ill., maps ; 24 cm. (An INFORM report).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Irrigation efficiency; Soil moisture; Measurement; Irrigation
 efficiency; West (U.S.); Soil moisture; West (U.S.); Measurement
 
 
 260                            NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Winter wheat response to nitrogen and irrigation.
 Eck, H.V.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1988 Nov.
 Agronomy journal v. 80 (6): p. 902-908; 1988 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Triticum aestivum; Winter wheat; Fertilizer application;
 Nitrogen fertilizers; Irrigation requirements; Timing; Irrigation scheduling;
 Soil moisture; Crop yield; Grain; Yield components; Water stress; Water use
 efficiency; Heading; Crop growth stage; Tillering; Irrigated farming
 
 Abstract:  Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is grown on the Southern Great
 Plains under dryland conditions and under varying irrigation regimes.
 Relationships between water and fertilizer needs are not well defined. Field
 studies were conducted to determine: (i) the interacting effects of N
 fertilization and irrigation on N and P needs, wheat yields, and yield
 components; and (ii) the effects of timing of water deficit periods on N and P
 needs, wheat yields, and yield components. Studies were conducted on a Pullman
 clay loam (fine, mixed, thermic Torrertic Paleustoll). Respective N and P rates
 ranged from 0 to 210 kg ha-1 and 0 to 40 kg ha-1. Irrigations were applied or
 withheld to allow the crop to be nonstressed (I-1), stressed during heading and
 grain filling (I-2), stressed during tillering and jointing (I-3), and stressed
 throughout spring (I-4). Two-year average data showed that 140 kg N ha-1 was
 sufficient for maximum grain yields on treatment I-1, while 70 kg N ha-1 was
 sufficient on treatments on I-2 and I-3, and no N response occurred on
 treatment I-4. Compared to treatment I-1, grain yields were 27, 32, and 52%
 less on treatments I-3, I-2, and I-4, respectively. Water use efficiency (WUE)
 increased with increments of N through 140 kg ha-1 on treatment I-1, and
 through 70 kg ha-1 on treatments I-2, and I-3 but applied N did not affect WUE
 on treatment I-4. In 1981, WUE was highest on treatment I-1 and lowest on
 treatment I-4; in 1982, however, WUE was highest on treatment I-4 and lowest on
 treatments I-1 and I-3. For limited irrigation, irrigating during tillering and
 jointing would be preferable to allowing stress then, and irrigating during
 heading and grain filling, because there is still potential for high yields if
 precipitation occurs during heading and grain filing.
 
 
 261                    NAL Call. No.: S612.2.N38 1990
 Xeriscape: fad, fiction or state-of-the-art.
 Welsh, D.F.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural Engineers; 1990.
 Visions of the future : proceedings of the Third National Irrigation Symposium
 held in conjunction with the 11th Annual International Irrigation Exposition,
 October 28-November 1, 1990, Phoenix Civic Plaza, Phoenix, Arizona. p. 186;
 1990. (ASAE publication ; 04-90).
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Irrigation; Landscaping; Water use efficiency
 
 
 262                           NAL Call. No.: 80 AM371
 Xeriscapes wilt without teamwork: a California water official calls for
 industry cooperation in producing efficient landscapes.
 Baetz, R.L.
 Chicago, Ill. : American Nurseryman Publishing Co; 1988 Jun01.
 American nurseryman v. 167 (11): p. 46-48, 50, 52. ill; 1988 Jun01.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Landscape architecture; Xeric regimes; Water
 conservation; Irrigation systems; Water budget
 
 
 263                            NAL Call. No.: 81 SO12
 Yield and quality of processing tomatoes in response to irrigation rate and
 schedule.
 Sanders, D.C.; Howell, T.A.; Hile, M.M.S.; Hodges, L.; Meek, D.; Phene, C.J.
 Alexandria, Va. : The Society; 1989 Nov.
 Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science v. 114 (6): p.
 904-908; 1989 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Lycopersicon esculentum; Processing; Cultivars;
 Trickle irrigation; Irrigation scheduling; Yield response functions; Fruit;
 Quality; Characteristics; Water use efficiency; Furrow irrigation
 
 Abstract:  Field studies were conducted on a Typic Xerorthents Entiosols soil
 (Hanford sandy loam) to determine the response of two cultivars of processing
 tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) to trickle irrigation applied at three
 percentages of evapotranspiration (ET) to either the top of the plant row or
 between the beds using a traveling irrigation system. Irrigation was terminated
 when fruits were either 30% or 70% red 14 or 7 days before harvest). Yields of
 red tomatoes and total tomatoes increased with increasing trickle irrigation
 water. The concentrations of soluble solids (SSC) and total solids (TS) and pH
 decreased with increasing trickle irrigation rates, while color, fruit size,
 and acidity increased, as did the yield of SSC and TS per hectare. Placement of
 trickle irrigation on the plant row was more favorable than placement in the
 furrow between the beds for yield and quality characteristics. Trickle
 irrigation to 70% ET terminated 7 days before harvest produced responses
 similar to conventional furrow irrigation. Although statistically these
 treatments could not he compared directly to conventional furrow, all traveling
 trickle irrigation rates were superior in water use efficiency to that of the
 conventional furrow irrigation. Trickle irrigation rates of 35% ET, 70% ET, and
 105% ET did not differ in water use efficiency. Chemical names used: 2(a-
 naphthoxy)- N,N-diethyl propionamide (napropamide); S-propyl
 butylethiocarbamate pebulate). 
 
 264                            NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Yield enhancement in cotton by frequent irrigations during fruiting.
 Radin, J.W.; Reaves, L.L.; Mauney, J.R.; French, O.F.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 Jul.
 Agronomy Journal v. 84 (4): p. 551-557; 1992 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Gossypium hirsutum; Trickle irrigation; Irrigation
 scheduling; Crop growth stage; Fruiting; Water use efficiency; Water uptake;
 Root systems; Crop yield; Yield increases; Bolls; Leaf water potential
 
 Abstract:  Daily drip irrigation often increases yield and water-use efficiency
 of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) compared to conventional irrigations applied
 at long intervals. A 2 yr experiment was designed to test whether these
 benefits could be achieved without using an expensive drip system. Cotton was
 irrigated every 10 d in the first year and every 14 days in the second year
 (control treatment). A supplemental irrigation was applied during either one or
 two long irrigation cycles coinciding with peak fruiting. The total amount of
 water applied was minimally changed from the control because other irrigations
 were reduced to compensate for the supplementation. Another treatment was drip-
 irrigated daily throughout most of the season. One supplement increased
 seedcotton yield 15% over the control, and two supplements increased it 25%,
 compared to a 40% yield increase with drip irrigation. These three treatments
 increased crop water-use efficiency (yield per unit applied water plus
 rainfall) by 12, 22 and 50%, respectively. Yield increases were associated with
 a lengthened period of profuse flowering and a delay in the onset of cutout.
 Both drip irrigation and mid-cycle supplements increased midday leaf water
 potential and apparent hydraulic conductance of the plants for an extended
 period during fruiting, indicating enhanced water uptake and transport capacity
 compared to plants on long cycles. The results show that a drip system is not
 necessary for substantial improvements of yield and water-use efficiency.
 Doubling the number of irrigations for a short period during peak fruiting
 achieved much of the benefits of drip irrigation.
 
 
 
                                    Author Index
 
 Abdulmumin, S.  36
 Adato, I.  115
 Aillery, M.P.  244
 Al-Ghamdi, A.S.  55
 Al-Noaim, A.A.  55
 Alexander, W.L.  142
 Allen, R.R.  95, 179, 224
 Allen, S.G.  202
 Andreoni, V.  3
 Ayars, J.E.  130
 Ayars, James E.  124
 Ayer, H.  199
 Ayisi, K.K.  200
 Backhaus, R.A.  142
 Baetz, R.L.  262
 Baird, C.D.  174
 Bassett, D.L.  167
 Beard, J.B.  20
 Beattie, D.  72
 Beede, R.  252
 Beede, R.H.  110
 Beeson, R.C. Jr  4
 Bender, G.S.  11
 Benoit, L.F.  66
 Benzioni, A.  56
 Bernardo, D.J.  59, 167
 Bernardo, Daniel J.  90
 Berry, J.W.  123
 Bhuiyan, S.I.  240
 Bishnoi, K.C.  87
 Biswas, M.R.  92
 Bogle, C.R.  26
 Bolger, T.P.  256
 Bonfanti, P.  3
 Boodt, M. de  245
 Bordovsky, D.G.  242
 Bordovsky, J.P.  33, 35
 Borrachero, L.M.  85
 Bos, M.G.  156, 231
 Bosch, D.J.  14
 Bowman, D.C.  88
 Bowman, J.A.  126
 Braden, J.B.  12
 Braunworth, W.S. Jr  38
 Bresler, E.  37, 53, 169
 Britton, C.M.  79
 Broner, I.  230
 Brooks, D.H.  40
 Brothers, K.  173
 Buchleiter, G.W.  86, 172
 Bucks, D.A.  104, 123, 142, 202
 Buller, O.H.  157
 Burger, D.W.  138
 Burt, C.M.  1
 Byth, D.E.  127
 California, Office of Water Conservation, Panoche Water and
 Drainage District
 (Calif.),Water Management Research Laboratory (U.S.)  124
 Carbonell, X.  64
 Carr, M.K.V.  5, 192, 239
 Carter, C.E.  181
 Carter, R.C.  239
 Cassel, D.K.  137
 Cassman, K.G.  238
 Caswell, M.  67
 Cevik, B.  25
 Chakravorty, U.  74
 Chartzoulakis, K.S.  237
 Chaudhry, N.  62
 Chesness, J.  215
 Chu, S.T.  31
 Clark, G.A.  24, 109, 122
 Clemmens, A.J.  140
 Clyma, W.  70
 Coder, K.D.  226
 Comis, D.” 151
 Cone, D.  91, 113
 Copeland, K.S.  210
 Corbett, E.G.  16
 Corliss, J.  98
 Cotner, S.  76
 Cramer, C.  48
 Craw, G.  71
 Crocker, T.E.  109
 Crosswhite, William M.  49
 Cummings, R.G.  225
 Daffonchio, D.  3
 Dagan, G.  169
 Davies, F.T. Jr  178
 Davis, K.R.  218, 254
 Devitt, D.A.  15, 88
 Devries, J.J.  30
 Dickason, Clifford  49
 Dijkhuis, F.J.  57
 Dinar, A.  52
 Doty, C.W.  41
 Downing, J.D.  131
 Duble, R.L.  144
 Dusek, D.A.  51, 210
 Dutta, S.C.  92
 Dvorak, G.J.  157
 Dwelle, R.B.  6
 Dysko, J.  54
 Eck, H.V.  260
 Eftekharzadeh, S.  222
 Eheart, J.W.  12
 Ekholt, B.A.  128
 El-Gayer, A.M.  207
 Elliott, G.C.  72
 Ells, J.E.  136, 197, 198
 Engle, M.  97, 229, 232
 Engle, M.M.  11, 73, 141
 Entz, M.H.  191
 Ervin, R.T.  50, 148
 Evans, R.O.  129, 137, 183
 Fangmeier, D.D.  222
 Fare, D.C.  160
 Faroda, A.S.  62
 Farquhar, G.D.  175
 Feinerman, E.  53, 169
 Field, L.A.  200
 Finch, C.  76
 Finke, W.W. Jr  84
 Fipps, G.  22, 145, 203
 Forti, M.  56
 Fouss, J.L.  181
 Fowler, D.B.  191
 Frank, A.B.  103
 Franklin, D.R.  214
 French, O.F.  264
 Fukai, S.  101
 Fulton, A.  221, 223, 252
 Fulton, A.E.  110, 185
 Futter, H.  69
 Gamez, S.  72
 Gardner, B.R.  104, 202
 Garside, A.L.  127
 Gathman, A.C.  120
 Gerard, C.J.  242
 Gertsis, A.C.  154, 155
 Ghobrial, N.S.  156
 Ghosh, S.  234
 Gilliam, C.H.  160
 Glover, T.F.  77
 Goble, G.G.  206
 Goell, A.  23
 Goerend, D.T.  150
 Goldhamer, D.A.  185
 Goldhamer, David Alan  134
 Gollehon, N.  234
 Gollehon, Noel R.  21
 Gonzalez, J.F.  85
 Goto, A.  39
 Grassi, C.J.  81
 Grattan, S.R.  257
 Graves, J.W.  50
 Graves, W.L.  238
 Greenberg, A.  159
 Grieve, A.M.  249
 Grimes, D.W.  2
 Grismer, M.E.  42
 Grumbine, A.  111
 Hackwell, S.G.  190
 Hall, N.  118
 Haman, D.Z.  122, 174, 201
 Hanchar, John J.  236
 Hanson, B.R.  13, 94, 185, 220, 221, 223
 Harbaugh, B.K.  180
 Harivandi, M.A.  83
 Harman, W.L.  51
 Hartin, J.  121
 Hartz, T.K.  26, 46
 Hatfield, J.L.  154, 155
 Havanagi, G.N.  177
 Hawkins, T.  1
 Haynes, C.A.  128
 Haynes, M.  107
 Hays, D.M.  150
 Hedge, D.M.  177
 Hedlund, J.D.  258
 Hefner, S.G.  65
 Henderson, D.W.  30
 Henggeler, J.C.  45
 Hile, M.M.S.  263
 Hill, K.  148
 Hills, D.J. Š220
 Hobson, J.  69
 Hochmuth, G.J.  109
 Hodges, L.  263
 Hohn, C.  44, 93
 Holcomb, E.J.  72
 Honeycutt, S.  158
 Hons, F.M.  242
 Hopkins, H.J.  155
 Hornbaker, R.H.  47
 Hou, L.  187
 Howell, T.A.  209, 210, 263
 Hubick, K.T.  175
 Hunt, J.H.  129, 183
 Hussain, G.  55
 Hutmacher, R.B.  130, 218, 254
 Hutton, J.D.  50
 International Food Policy Research Institute  96
 Inthapan, P.  101
 Irrigation Association  139
 Israeli, I.  27
 Izuno, F.T.  201
 Jensen, E.H.  63, 84, 241
 Jermar, M.K.  164
 Johnson, R.C.  17
 Kabashima, J.N.  117
 Kah, G.  75
 Kah, G.F.  133
 Kakudo, H.  18
 Kaniszewski, S.  54
 Karn, J.F.  103
 Kaska, N.  25
 Katzer, T.  173
 Keever, G.J.  160
 Keith, J.E.  77
 Kerridge, P.C.  246
 Khair, A.  92
 Khalid, M.  133
 Kim, C.S.  235
 Kimbell, M.K.  63
 Kimpel, B.C.  126
 Kirby, C.  205
 Kling, C.L.  243
 Knapp, K.C.  52
 Knox, G.W.  4, 250
 Knutson, A.  22
 Koo, R.C.J.  68
 Kourik, Robert  99
 Krieg, D.R.  34, 154, 155
 Kromm, D.E.  188
 Kruse, E.G.  136, 197, 198
 Laker, M.C.  58
 Lalymenko, L.A.  176
 Lalymenko, N.K.  176
 Lamack, W.F.  7
 Lamack, William F.,  208
 Lanini, W.T.  257
 Laryea, K.B.  184
 Lascano, R.J.  33
 Lawn, R.J.  127
 Leeds-Harrison, P.B.  239
 Leeuwen, H.M. van  156
 Leibrock, F.R.  230
 Letey, J.  52
 Levinson, B. ª115
 Lichtenberg, E.  67
 Little, G.E.  220
 Liu, Ch'ang-ming  248
 Locascio, S.J.  109
 Lou, P.  187
 Lucas, K.  106
 Lyle, W.M.  33, 35, 148, 149, 163
 Lyon, J.G.  227
 Mack, H.J.  38
 MacLean, J.T.  43
 Maclean, J.T.  253
 Mahannah, C.N.  63, 84
 Malano, H.M.  10
 Mallawaarachchi, T.  118
 Mancino, C.F.  189
 Mandal, M.A.S.  92
 Manges, H.L.  157
 Mantel, A.B.  130
 Mapp, H.P.  47
 Marfa, O.  64
 Martin, D.L.  166
 Martinez Gerstl, G.A.  77
 Masters, R.A.  79
 Matches, A.G.  256
 Maticic, B.  182
 Matocha, J.E.  242
 Mauney, J.R.  246, 264
 McCauley, G.N.  162
 McCormick, R.L.  254
 McGriff, T.L.  120
 McGuckin, J.T.  234
 McPhail, K.  193
 McSay, A.E.  136, 197, 198
 Meek, D.  263
 Mehta, B.K.  39
 Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela  96
 Michelakis, N.G.  237
 Miller, P.R.  238
 Miller, W.W.  63, 84, 241
 Mills, D.  56
 Moore, J.F.  196
 Moore, R.E.  131
 Morgan, D.D.V.  5
 Morris, R.L.  88, 217
 Morrow, M.R.  34
 Muchow, R.C.  127
 Mueller-Beilschmidt, Peter  259
 Mujumdar, P.P.  168
 Musick, J.T.  51, 95, 179, 224
 Myer, G.L.  241
 Myers, S.  215
 Nakayama, F.S.  104
 Narayanan, R.  214, 241
 Natarajan, B.  32
 Negri, D.H.  40
 Negri, Donald H.  236
 Nel, A.A.  57
 Nelson, J.M.  120, 123
 Nercissiantz, V.  225
 New, L.  22, 132, 145
 New, L.L.  203
 Nicholson, R.A.  150
 Niemiera, A.X.  7
 Northup, B.K.  150
 Nunez, C.  26
 O'Brien, R.  19
 O'Connell, N.V.  206
 Oster, J.D.  185, 211
 Palanisami, K.  82
 Panoras, A.  94
 Papritan, J.C.  227
 Parnell, J.R.  170
 Parsons, J.  76
 Parsons, J.E.  41
 Parsons, L.R.  109
 Patto, M.  10
 Paydas, S.  25
 Peacock, W.L.  206
 Peavy, L.  29
 Pegarra, E.  163
 Pehrson, J.E.  206
 Pekmezci, M.  25
 Peng, S.  155
 Penuelas, J.  64
 Perry, R.  69
 Petrac, M.  182
 Pfeiffer, Robert  49
 Pfost, D.L.  158
 Phene, C.  211
 Phene, C.J.  185, 213, 218, 254, 263
 Phene, R.C.£ 110
 Phillips, B.  118
 Pierzgalski, Edward  186
 Pittenger, D.  121
 Pitts, D.J.  122
 Plusquellec, H.L.  193
 Polti, C.  193
 Prevatt, J.W.  24
 Prichard, T.L.  161
 Priel, Vivian R.  248
 Pringle, H.C. III  194
 Pruyne, R.  152
 Putnam, D.H.  200
 Quiggin, J.  195
 Radin, J.W.  246, 264
 Raheja, S.K.  114
 Raja, V.  87
 Rao, N.H.  135
 Read, J.J.  63
 Reaves, L.L.  264
 Rees, D.H.  135
 Reeves, H.E.  247
 Regier, C.  61
 Reinemann, D.J.  133
 Richardson, Gail  259
 Rieger, M.  215
 Roberts, R.  76
 Rochester, E.W.  190
 Rodrigo, J.  85
 Rogers, J.S.  181
 Roth, R.L.  104, 202
 Roumasset, J.  74
 Sadaphal, P.M.  32
 Saleth, R.M.  12
 Sampath, R.K.  114, 143
 Sanders, D.C.  263
 Saqib, G.S.  133
 Save, R.  64
 Saxena, M.C.  60
 Saxton, K.E.  167
 Schaible, G.D.  235
 Scheerens, J.C.  120, 123
 Schmidt, Heidi  99
 Schneider, A.D.  132, 209, 210
 Schrale, Gerrit  124
 Schulbach, K.F.  108
 Schwanki, L.J.  94, 223
 Schwankl, L.  221
 Schwankl, L.J.  83, 257
 Seckler, D.  114
 Segarra, E.  50, 148
 Senga, Y.  18
 Serrano, L.  64
 Severin, M.A.  166
 Shainberg, I.  58
 Shalhevet, Joseph  248
 Shane, R.L.  84
 Shani, Y.  53
 Sharma, S.  78
 Shaw, D.A.  83
 Sheesley, W.R.  2
 Shih, S.F.  212
 Shock, C.  69
 Silim, S.N.  60
 Simmons, F.W.  126
 Singh, H.  62
 Singh, K.B.  60
 Singh, T.  62
 Skaggs, R.W.  41
 Skaini, M.  89
 Smajstrla, A.G.  122
 Smerdon, E.T.  233
 Smith, C.J.  102
 Smith, R.  161
 Smith, R.B.  211
 Sneed, R.E. 129, 137, 183
 Snyder, D.L.  77
 Snyder, R.L.  83, 204
 Snyder, Richard L.  134
 Solorzano, G.I.R. de  81
 Sorlini, C.  3
 Srinivas, K.  177
 Sritharan, S.I.  70
 Stanley, C.D.  24, 109, 180
 Stark, J.C.  6
 Statham, M.L. Sr  219
 Steiner, J.J.  130
 Stephens, W.  192
 Stern, R.  58
 Stewart, B.A.  51
 Stockwin, W.  112, 228
 Stone, J.F.  247
 Street, J.E.  194
 Strooper, E. B. A. de  245
 Supalla, R.J.  166
 Surrowitz, S.D.  105
 Svendsen, Mark,  96
 Swisher, J.  69
 Tardieu, H.  9
 Tekinel, O.  25
 Temple, P.J.  66
 Thompson, A.L.  158
 Thompson, S.A.  171
 Thomsen, C.D.  238
 Tjosvold, S.A.  108
 Tod, I.C.  30, 42
 Tracy, P.W.  65
 Trimmer, W.L.  8, 80
 Triplett, C.M.  163
 Tsegaye, T.  247
 Undersander, D.J.  61
 Unger, P.W.  242
 United States, Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service  21, 90, 236
 United States, Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Resources and
 Technology Division  49
 United States-Israel Binational Agricultural Research and
 Development
 Fund  37
 United States. Congress. House. Committee on Interior and Insular
 Affairs.
 Subcommittee on Water and Power Resources  146
 University of California (System), Committee of Consultants on
 Drainage Water
 Reduction, University of California (System), Salinity/Drainage
 Task Force, California Water Resources Center  165
 University of California (System), Division of Agriculture and
 Natural
 Resources  134
 Upchurch, D.R.  33
 Vail, S.S.  130
 Van Der Merwe, A.J.  58
 Vedula, S.  168
 Verdegaal, P.  161
 Verplancke, H. J. W.  245
 Villa, M.  3
 Vlotman, W.F.  222
 Wade, R.  153
 Wahdan, A.A.  207
 Wallender, W.W.  30p
 Ward, A.D.  227
 Weiler, T.C.  100
 Weinberg, M.  243
 Welch, W.C.  144
 Welsh, D.  76
 Welsh, D.F.  144, 261
 Wendt, C.W.  242
 Whiffen, H.J.H.  174
 Whitcomb, C.  251
 White, B.  255
 White, S.E.  188
 Whittlesey, N.K  235
 Whittlesey, N.K.  167
 Whittlesey, Norman K.  90
 Wichelns, D.  91, 113
 Wilcox, D.  147
 Wildman, A.M.  206
 Wildman, W.E.  206
 Wilen, J.E.  243
 Wiley, P.L.  2
 Williams, J.R.  157
 Williams, W.A.  238
 Wilson, I.B.  102
 Winter, S.R.  116
 Wolters, W.  156, 231
 Wright, G.C.  102, 175
 Wright, J.  200
 Xu, Yuexian  248
 Yaylali, N.  25
 Yoo, K.H.  190
 Zazueta, F.S.  201
 Zekri, M.  68
 Zheng, Y.B.  241
 Zilberman, D.  67
 Zimet, D.  250
 Zoldoske, D.  28
 
 
                                    Subject Index
 
 Accuracy  149
 Adjuvants  162
 Agricultural chemicals  21
 Agricultural development  89
 Agricultural engineering  227
 Agricultural land  171, 176
 Agricultural pollution  165
 Agricultural prices  235
 Agricultural production  97
 Agricultural sector  32
 Agriculture  214
 Agropyron  103
 Alabama  190
 Alaska  234
 Ammonium nitrogen  65
 Ammonium sulfate  65
 Anaerobic digestion  3
 Analysis of covariance  5
 Antitranspirants  6
 Application  10, 21, 57, 189, 207
 Application date  65, 70
 Application depth  59, 70
 Application methods  7, 105, 149, 172
 Application rates  7, 72, 83, 105, 162, 170, 241
 Application to land  140, 241
 Appropriate technology  150
 Aquifers  29, 173
 Arachis hypogaea  175
 Areas  215
 Arid climate  2, 88, 246
 Arid lands  89
 Arid zones  62, 176
 Arizona  70, 104, 106, 123, 128, 131, 189, 199, 246, 258, 264
 Asia  143
 Australia  10, 195
 Authority  153
 Automatic irrigation  213
 Automatic irrigation systems  10, 196
 Automation  84
 Available water capacity  38
 Backfilling  182
 Bangladesh  92
 Basin irrigation  25
 Bedding  224
 Beliefs  188
 Beta vulgaris  116
 Bibliographies  43
 Biomass  79, 212
 Biomass production  104
 Boll  34
 Bolls  264
 Border irrigation  10d
 Brassica campestris  87, 176
 Brassica juncea  62
 Brassica oleracea var. capitata  136
 Cabt  39, 109, 117, 133, 147, 179, 189, 194, 247
 Calcium  206
 Calibration  151
 California  1, 2, 11, 42, 46, 52, 67, 73, 75, 91, 94, 99, 99, 107, 110, 112,
 113, 117, 130, 131, 185, 204, 206, 211, 218, 220, 223, 228, 229, 232, 251, 252,
 254, 257, 262, 263
 Camellia sinensis  192
 Canals  9, 92, 153
 Canopy  4, 66, 155, 177
 Capacity  201
 Capillary irrigation  180
 Carbon  17
 Carya illinoensis  44, 93
 Case studies  18, 117, 225
 Catchment planning  106
 Cell differentiation  65
 Center pivot irrigation  22, 50, 86, 145, 172, 203
 Centrifugal pumps  19, 174, 201
 Characteristics  40, 263
 Charges  231
 Chemical composition  25, 116
 China  187
 Cicer arietinum  60
 Citrullus lanatus  177
 Citrus  23, 68, 109, 118, 206
 Citrus sinensis  249
 Clay loam soils  58, 95, 116
 Clay soils  15, 42, 154, 155, 194
 Climate  40
 Climatic factors  126, 153
 Coefficient of determination  36
 Coefficient of relationship  53
 Colombia  193
 Colorado  27, 29, 86, 188, 197, 198, 230
 Comparisons  247
 Computer analysis  136, 167
 Computer applications  28, 197, 213
 Computer simulation  47, 181, 222
 Computer software  1, 28, 136, 157, 204
 Concentration  113
 Conferences  97
 Conservation tillage  163, 245
 Constraints  32
 Construction  194
 Consultants  188
 Container gardening  208
 Container grown plants  4, 7, 160
 Containers  4
 Cooperation  199
 Cost analysis  24, 143, 150
 Cost benefit analysis  8, 13, 82, 92, 122, 125, 148
 Cost control  75
 Costs  30, 45, 50, 122, 185, 211, 231
 Cotton  67
 Coverage  5, 71
 Cracking  42
 Crop enterprises  118
 Crop growth stage  168, 175, 260, 264
 Crop management  6
 Crop production  24, 50, 110, 117, 135, 147, 159, 164, 240
 Crop quality  6, 25, 68, 79, 116, 123
 Crop yield  2, 6, 8, 12, 26, 34, 35, 38, 45, 46, 50, 55, 57, 58, 59, 64, 65,
 78, 79, 85, 116, 120, 123, 130, 135, 142, 149, 154, 162, 164, 185, 191, 193,
 197, 198, 200, 215, 218, 241, 242, 247, 249, 254, 256, 260, 264
 Crop yields  37
 Cropping systems  164, 193
 Crops  113, 171
 Crops and water  37, 245
 Crude protein  79, 200
 Crusts  162
 Cucumis sativus  198
 Cucurbita  120
 Cucurbita foetidissima  120, 123
 Cucurbita pepo  136
 Cultivars  2, 60, 101, 102, 142, 175, 191, 202, 228, 263
 Cultural methods  102, 112
 Cyamopsis tetragonoloba  142
 Cynodon dactylon  15, 88
 Dams  9
 Daucus carota  130, 197
 Decision making  40, 47, 53, 140, 166, 168, 169, 195, 213, 235, 243
 
 Deep percolation  42
 Demand functions  74
 Denitrification  65
 Density  4
 Depth  140
 Deserts  176
 Design  30, 84
 Design criteria  19
 Developing countries  70, 143
 Development projects  143
 Dicyandiamide  65
 Digestibility  103
 Dikes  58, 194
 Discing  112
 Dispersion  5
 Distribution  71, 73, 140, 207
 Diurnal variation  39
 Double cropping  135
 Drain pipes  42
 Drainage  41, 67, 165, 182, 223, 227, 239, 243
 Drainage water  52, 94, 113, 176, 185
 Drought  18, 77, 91, 97
 Drought resistance  6, 175, 178Ž
 Dry conditions  62
 Dry farming  34, 51, 256
 Dry matter  176
 Dry matter accumulation  79, 191
 Dry season  135
 Dynamic programming  166
 East asia  153
 Econometric models  53, 235
 Economic aspects  49, 90
 Economic evaluation  53
 Economic factors  52
 Economic impact  51
 Economic sociology  233
 Economic viability  50, 174
 Efficiency  3, 4, 10, 12, 13, 19, 30, 32, 42, 44, 71, 73, 78, 93, 114, 129,
 133, 174, 181, 182, 183, 201, 207, 209, 214, 228, 257
 Egypt  70, 156
 Electric motors  183
 Electricity  32
 Energy conservation  13, 27, 48, 86, 105, 129, 137, 148, 222, 223, 230
 Energy consumption  32, 78, 133
 Energy cost of production  77
 Energy requirements  132
 Energy resources  77
 Environmental policy  67
 Equations  18, 164
 Equipment  228
 Eragrostis curvula  79
 Erosion  98
 Erosion control  69, 98
 Estimation  80
 Euphorbia pulcherrima  180
 Evaluation  73, 83, 114
 Evaporation  108, 115, 247
 Evapotranspiration  2, 6, 28, 38, 66, 87, 88, 104, 116, 126, 142, 154, 155,
 179, 180, 192, 202, 210, 212, 218, 241, 254, 256
 Experimental design  192
 Experimental stations  188
 Fallow  242
 Farm inputs  67
 Farm management  67, 195, 243
 Farm size  12
 Farm storage  39
 Farmers  188, 231
 Farmers' attitudes  53, 153, 188
 Farmland  67
 Farms  30, 85
 Feasibility studies  50
 Fees  52
 Fertigation  22, 64, 72, 218
 Fertilizer application  260
 Fertilizer-pesticide mixtures  21
 Fertilizers  21, 57
 Fertirrigation  219
 Festuca arundinacea  17
 Field capacity  38, 126
 Fields  169
 Filters  182
 Fixed costs  24
 Flood irrigation  93
 Flooded rice  65, 194
 Florida  4, 24, 68, 105, 109, 122, 159, 170, 174, 212, 250
 Foliar diagnosis  68
 Food crops  164
 Forage  176
 Fragaria ananassa  64, 85
 France  9
 Frequency  105, 127
 Frost a106
 Fruit  25, 115, 263
 Fruit crops  109
 Fruit trees  73, 215, 216
 Fruiting  246, 264
 Fruits  46, 64
 Furrow irrigation  26, 48, 51, 61, 65, 69, 81, 94, 98, 102, 177, 185, 221, 222,
 224, 247, 263
 Furrows  95
 Game theory  12
 Gardening  76
 Gas exchange  17, 155
 Genotypes  17, 62
 Geographical distribution  188
 Glycine max  48, 102, 126, 127, 162
 Gossypium  33, 45, 149, 154, 155, 163, 242
 Gossypium hirsutum  34, 35, 148, 185, 202, 211, 246, 264
 Government  143
 Government policy  21
 Grain  58, 65, 191, 224, 260
 Grapes  118
 Gravity  193
 Greenhouse culture  72, 100
 Greenhouse experimentation  54, 237
 Greenhouses  152
 Groundwater  40, 188, 199
 Groundwater level  173
 Groundwater pollution  16
 Growth  56, 72, 101, 106, 115, 178
 Growth habit  102
 Growth models  47, 135, 197
 Growth rate  57, 58, 79, 103, 123, 175, 191
 Guidelines  119
 Gypsum blocks  29, 237
 Harvest index  175
 Harvesting  241
 Haryana  62, 87
 Heading  65, 260
 Heat sums  34
 Hedera helix  72
 Helianthus annuus  55
 Herbage  79
 High water tables  24
 Highlands  192
 Historical records  173
 History  214
 Horticultural crops  109
 Hybrids  176, 179
 Hydraulic systems  19, 36
 Hydraulics  10, 41, 70
 Hydrophobicity  162
 Idaho  6, 235
 Ilex crenata  250
 Ilex vomitoria  250
 Illinois  12, 126
 Improvement  159
 Incentives  52
 India  32, 78, 114, 153
 Infiltration  58, 94, 95, 140, 206, 221
 Information  169
 Information services  188
 Information systems  251
 Innovation adoption  23, 47, 67, 188, 235
 Innovations  117, 196
 Input output analysis  78
 Insecticides  22
 Installations  45
 Intensification  193
 Interactions  34, 191
 Internal combustion engines  183
 International comparisons  239
 International cooperation  97
 Investment  118
 Irrigated conditions  17, 20, 46, 62, 88, 104, 112, 154, 155
 Irrigated farming  10, 34, 38, 40, 67, 78, 85, 118, 164, 199, 233, 260
 Irrigated sites  156
 Irrigated soils  176
 Irrigation  1, 4, 9, 14, 23, 29, 36, 42, 49, 60, 66, 68, 72, 77, 80, 89, 92,
 96, 97, 100, 110, 112, 113, 117, 121, 122, 126, 127, 128, 131, 138, 139, 144,
 158, 159, 161, 163, 171, 175, 179, 184, 188, 192, 214, 229, 234, 239, 240, 241,
 242, 244, 251, 252, 253, 261
 Irrigation canals and flumes  146
 Irrigation channels  122
 Irrigation efficiency  21, 37, 90, 96, 124, 134, 165, 186, 208, 236, 245, 248,
 259, 259
 Irrigation equipment  10, 19, 32, 84, 132, 145, 183, 223, 255
 Irrigation farming  90, 236, 245
 Irrigation requirements  63, 95, 113, 116, 120, 123, 140, 164, 168, 170, 180,
 191, 197, 213, 256, 260
 Irrigation scheduling  2, 7, 11, 23, 28, 33, 46, 47, 55, 58, 59, 61, 64, 79,
 87, 88, 90, 91, 108, 115, 116, 119, 121, 123, 125, 126, 130, 134, 135, 136,
 137, 142, 147, 153, 155, 164, 166, 167, 168, 180, 197, 198, 200, 202, 211, 213,
 237, 241, 246, 260, 263, 264
 Irrigation systems  6, 8, 11, 13, 24, 27, 30, 33, 35, 51, 52, 54, 56, 71, 72,
 73, 75, 82, 83, 85, 94, 100, 105, 107, 114, 122, 129, 133, 138, 141, 148, 149,
 151, 152, 156, 157, 160, 164, 167, 187, 190, 193, 201, 202, 205, 217, 220, 223,
 232, 249, 250, 262
 Irrigation water  12, 14, 15, 18, 30, 39, 52, 53, 58, 74, 76, 83, 95, 111, 119,
 125, 126, 134, 140, 142, 143, 147, 156, 159, 165, 169, 170, 173, 189, 195, 196,
 207, 222, 225, 226, 231, 235, 241, 243, 253, 258
 Isotopes  17
 Israel  23, 56, 115
 Japan  18
 Juglans  228, 252
 Kansas  48, 150, 188
 Karnataka  168
 Labor costs  40, 84, 148, 216
 Lakes  156
 Land development  89
 Land ownership  131
 Land use  251
 Landscape  76, 99
 Landscape architecture  262
 Landscape architecture in water conservation  99
 Landscape gardening  121, 144
 Landscaping  261
 Law  199, 258
 Law enforcement  153
 Lawns and turf  20, 75, 83, 88, 189, 217
 Leaching  15, 88, 111
 Leaf area  4
 Leaf water potential  60, 246, 264
 Leaves  103
 Lilium  72
 Linings  92, 146
 Lint  34, 154
 Livestock  150
 Loam soils  15, 154, 155
 Local government  229
 Location theory  74
 Lolium multiflorum  238
 Lolium perenne  88
 Losses from soil  247
 Losses from soil systems  65
 Lupinus albus  200
 Lycopersicon esculentum  26, 46, 54, 122, 218, 237, 254, 263
 Lysimeters  36, 151, 209, 212
 Maintenance  107, 148
 Maize  12, 53
 Management  251
 Management by objectives  114
 Marginal analysis  74, 143
 Markets  12, 243
 Mathematical models  38, 168, 180
 Mathematics  241
 Mauritius  205
 Maximum yield  38, 256
 Measurement  114, 259, 259
 Medicago sativa  2, 63, 66, 125, 241, 256
 Methane production  3
 Methodology  80
 Mexico  193, 225
 Microcomputers  157
 Microirrigation  109, 174
 Millets  78
 Mineral nutrition  68
 Minimum tillage systems  48, 242
 Minnesota  200
 Mississippi  194
 Missouri  65, 158
 Mite control  22
 Models  30, 166, 167
 Molasses  116
 Morocco  193
 Mulching  26
 Multiple cropping  78, 168
 Musa  25
 Myrica cerifera  250
 Nebraska  188
 Nevada  84, 88, 173, 241
 New Mexico  93, 188
 New South Wales  118, 249
 New York  147
 Nigeria  36
 Nitrate nitrogen  65
 Nitrification  65
 Nitrogen  57
 Nitrogen fertilizers  34, 104, 116, 191, 192, 254, 260
 Nitrogen fixation  238
 Nitrogen metabolism  65
 Nitrogen uptake  34
 Nonionic surfactants  162
 North Carolina  41, 129, 137, 183
 Northwest, Pacific  90, 90, 90
 Nozzles  71, 151
 Npk fertilizers  72, 79
 Numerical analysis  42
 Nurseries  117, 160, 219, 232
 Nursery management  178
 Nutrient content  65
 Nutrient deficiencies  65
 Nutrient requirements  72
 Nutrient sources  65
 Nutrient uptake  249
 Oilseeds  120
 Oklahoma  59, 247
 Onobrychis viciifolia  256
 Operating costs  84, 157
 Operation  18
 Operation on slopes  69
 Optimization  8, 164, 169
 Optimization methods  53
 Orchards  23, 25, 44, 93, 107, 206, 252
 Oregon  38, 69, 80, 235
 Organizations  214
 Ornamental plants  109, 170, 178
 Oryza sativa  65, 101, 135, 240
 Overhead irrigation  160, 178
 Overhead sprayers  4
 Ozone  66
 Pakistan  8, 133
 Panicles  65
 Parthenium argentatum  56, 104
 Pastures  244
 Patterns  71, 207
 Performance  10, 13, 114, 228
 Performance appraisals  85, 193
 Performance indexes  114
 Performance testing3 5, 172, 174, 183
 Performance traits  19
 Permeability  95, 182
 Persea Americana  11, 115
 Pesticide application  149
 Philippines  193, 240
 Phosphogypsum  58
 Phosphorus fertilizers  162, 254
 Photinia fraseri  250
 Photosynthesis  17, 155
 Photovoltaic cells  174
 Physical planning  53
 Pine bark  7
 Pittosporum tobira  4
 Plains  188
 Planning  18
 Plant analysis  65
 Plant composition  116
 Plant density  57, 142
 Plant development  87, 102
 Plant effects  137
 Plant height  79
 Plant production  61, 102, 112, 228
 Plant water relations  87, 102, 127, 178, 250
 Planting date  179
 Planting stock  16
 Plants  177
 Plants, Effect of water levels on  208
 Plastic cladding  54
 Plastic mulches  26
 Pods  175
 Pollution  67
 Pollution by agriculture  111, 113
 Polyacrylamide  58
 Ponding  39
 Potassium fertilizers  162, 254
 Precipitation  241
 Prediction  180
 Preplanting treatment  61
 Pressure  71, 105, 220
 Price policy  52, 67
 Prices  113
 Probabilistic models  77
 Probability analysis  40
 Problem analysis  85, 187
 Problem solving  85
 Processing  263
 Production functions  53, 195, 234, 241
 Profit functions  40
 Profitability  67
 Profits  110, 185, 211
 Program evaluation  89
 Programs  244
 Project appraisal  171, 258
 Projects  36
 Protein content  191, 200
 Prunus amygdalus  112
 Prunus persica  215
 Public relations  232
 Pumps  13, 32, 132, 133, 157, 183
 Purity  116
 Pyrolysis  3
 Quality  103, 263
 Queensland  101, 175
 Questionnaires  231
 Rain  78, 135, 137, 175, 181
 Range management  150
 Rangelands  150
 Rate of wetting  5
 Reclamation  239
 Recovery  143
 Recursive programming  47
 Regional surveys  188
 Regrowth  79
 Remote sensing  227
 Removal  3
 Reproductive physiology  60
 Reservoirs  18
 Residues  3
 Resins  104
 Responses  170
 Returns  50, 193
 Rhizosphere  126
 Rhododendron  4
 Rice  78
 Right of access  12, 233
 Ripping  95
 Risk  169
 Risks  53, 59
 River water  14
 Rivers  9, 187, 195
 Role perception  143
 Root crops  123
 Root distribution  15
 Root hydraulic conductivity  246
 Root systems  79, 123, 264
 Rooting  87
 Roots  116
 Rosa  108
 Rotations  176
 Row spacing  120, 154, 155, 200, 202
 Rubber  56, 104
 Runoff  58, 111
 Runoff irrigation  40
 Runoff water  69, 89
 Rural areas  229
 Saccharum  205
 Saccharum officinarum  212
 Saline water  15, 89
 Salinity  187, 195, 244
 Salinization  258
 Salt  113
 Sandy loam soils  15, 142, 206
 Sandy soils  24, 154, 176
 Saskatchewan  191
 Satellite imagery  227
 Saudi arabia  55, 89
 Savannas  36
 Seasonal fluctuations  256
 Seasonal growth  241
 Seasonal variation  116, 135, 241
 Seed production  60, 62, 120, 130, 142
 Seed weight  200
 Seeding  57
 Seeds  130, 162, 200
 Seepage  194
 Selection criteria  19
 Selenium  113
 Self propelled irrigation systems  172
 Semiarid climate  2
 Semiarid climates  123
 Semiarid soils  242
 Semiarid zones  127, 184
 Shadow prices  77
 Shoot pruning  79
 Silt  15
 Simmondsia chinensis  106
 Simulation  18
 Simulation models  12, 14, 39, 41, 47, 59, 67, 74, 82, 135, 154, 182, 210, 213,
 243
 Size  4, 46
 Soil  40, 227
 Soil analysis  65
 Soil and water conservation  48, 69, 242
 Soil chemistry  65
 Soil compaction  95, 112
 Soil conservation  227
 Soil depth  247
 Soil management  95
 Soil moisture  28, 62, 106, 186, 216, 259, 259, 260
 Soil structure  58
 Soil texture  252
 Soil treatment  58
 Soil treatmentsñ 206
 Soil types  126, 175
 Soil water  33, 68, 127, 184, 192, 215, 224, 247
 Soil water balance  88, 135, 205, 252
 Soil water content  56, 58, 88, 116, 130, 137, 227, 241, 252
 Soil water deficit  66
 Soil water movement  42, 205, 223, 247
 Soil water potential  64, 237
 Soils, Irrigated  186
 Solanum tuberosum  6, 69
 Solar energy  174
 Sorghum  47, 51, 59, 95, 242
 Sorghum bicolor  61, 179, 224, 247
 Southern plains states of U.S.A.  188
 Sowing date  60, 101
 Soybeans  78
 Spacing  4, 42, 59, 71
 Spain  64, 85
 Spatial distribution  160
 Spatial variation  74, 169
 Spraylines  5
 Spring  200
 Sprinkler irrigation  2, 4, 5, 31, 40, 47, 50, 53, 57, 83, 84, 101, 140, 148,
 149, 162, 200, 204, 207, 209, 210, 222, 256
 Sri lanka  135
 Starch  123
 Starch crops  123
 State government  229
 Statistics  80, 129
 Stems  103
 Stochastic models  169, 234
 Stochastic processes  53, 59
 Stomatal resistance  246
 Storage  224
 Straw  98
 Straw mulches  69
 Stream flow  14
 Structural change  233
 Structure  214
 Subsurface drainage  42, 113, 124, 181
 Subsurface irrigation  24, 26, 122, 181, 185, 211, 212, 218, 219, 257
 Sucrose  116
 Sudan  193
 Sugar extraction quality  116
 Sulfur coated urea  65
 Surface irrigation  70, 140, 202, 230
 Surface treatment  58
 Surface water  187
 Surveys  85, 171, 231, 234
 Syria  60
 Systems  30
 Tagetes erecta  7
 Tamil nadu  82
 Tanks  82
 Tanzania  192
 Taxes  74
 Teaching materials  227
 Techniques  117, 228
 Technology  23, 40, 47, 118, 235
 Temperature  177
 Temperature relations  66
 Tennessee  219
 Tensiometers  137, 198, 205, 237
 Tests  35
 Texas  22, 33, 34, 35, 45, 50, 51, 61, 76, 116, 132, 144, 145, 148, 151, 154,
 155, 162, 179, 203, 209, 210, 224, 242, 256, 260
 Thailand  39, 193
 Thermal efficiency  132
 Thermometers  66
 Tillage  61, 190, 224
 Tillering  65, 260
 Timing  34, 57, 260
 Topography  40
 Trade publications  188
 Transpiration  175, 246
 Trees  121
 Trends  214
 Trickle irrigation  7, 16, 24, 25, 26, 43, 44, 45, 46, 56, 67, 85, 115, 122,
 130, 140, 147, 177, 202, 205, 206, 215, 216, 218, 219, 228, 230, 232, 237, 246,
 254, 257, 263, 264
 Trifolium alexandrinum  238
 Triticum  242
 Triticum aestivum  36, 57, 58, 191, 260
 Tropics  127, 184
 Trunks  115
 Tube wells  187
 Tubes  31
 Turkey  25
 Turkmen ssr  176
 U.S.A.  40, 157, 171, 181, 225, 233, 243, 244, 261
 United States  21, 21, 21, 21, 49, 49, 49, 146, 146
 Universities  188
 Urban areas  121, 229
 Urea  65
 Urea ammonium nitrate  65
 Usage  188
 Use efficiency  143, 162, 169
 Utah  77, 125
 Utilization  135
 Validity  135
 Variable costs  24
 Variance  140
 Variation  220
 Varietal effects  191
 Varietal reactions  2
 Vegetables  76, 109, 147
 Venezuela  81
 Victoria  102
 Vineyards  206
 Virginia  14
 Vitis  161
 Volatilization  65
 Washington  17, 167, 235
 Waste treatment  3
 Waste utilization  226
 Waste water  68, 189, 226
 Waste water disposal  176
 Water  73, 113
 Water absorption  112, 221
 Water advance  94
 Water allocation  14, 74, 77, 166, 167, 168, 199, 241, 243
 Water availability  77, 168, 193
 Water balance  115, 156
 Water budget  262
 Water composition and quality  178, 244
 Water conservation  8, 16, 18, 20, 23, 27, 29, 31, 40, 41, 43, 49, 65, 67, 68,
 71, 72, 73, 80, 88, 92, 94, 95, 97, 98, 99, 100, 105, 108, 109, 110, 111, 113,
 117, 118, 119, 125, 129, 131, 135, 137, 138, 139, 141, 144, 146, 147, 148, 151,
 152, 158, 159, 166, 167, 170, 173, 180, 184, 185, 188, 189, 190, 194, 196, 199,
 203, 211, 216, 217, 226, 227, 229, 230, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 239, 244, 245,
 253, 258, 262
 Water content  177
 Water costs  40, 52, 53, 67, 74, 143, 187, 225
 Water deficit  7, 60, 64, 173, 175, 192
 Water distribution  30, 91, 193, 220, 222
 Water flow  70, 80
 Water harvesting  106, 184
 Water law  233
 Water management  8, 9, 29, 41, 52, 65, 81, 82, 86, 88, 97, 114, 128, 129, 142,
 148, 156, 164, 179, 181, 188, 202, 228, 229, 239, 240, 244, 252, 257
 Water policy  214, 225, 235, 243
 Water pollution  111, 113, 258
 Water potential  2
 Water quality  243
 Water relations  17
 Water requirements  23, 30, 36, 38, 43, 44, 104, 110, 130, 171, 173, 184, 189,
 224, 240, 247
 Water reservoirs  14, 168
 Water resource management  51, 89, 199, 214, 258
 Water resources  173
 Water reuse  15, 232
 Water soluble compounds  206
 Water stress  2, 6, 23, 56, 66, 123, 161, 166, 175, 260
 Water supplies  34, 233
 Water supply  135, 239
 Water table  41, 157, 181
 Water troughs  150
 Water uptake  15, 87, 102, 224, 246, 247, 249, 264
 Water use  18, 30, 33, 62, 66, 111, 117, 126, 130, 152, 173, 181, 189
 Water use efficiency  1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, 14, 15, 17, 24, 25, 26, 28, 34, 36,
 38, 39, 45, 46, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 66,
 70, 72, 74, 75, 76, 77, 79, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 87, 89, 91, 101, 102, 103, 104,
 106, 107, 112, 115, 116, 120, 121, 122, 123, 126, 127, 128, 130, 136, 140, 142,
 147, 148, 150, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 159, 160, 161, 164, 166, 168, 171, 175,
 176, 177, 178, 179, 187, 191, 192, 193, 195, 197, 198, 200, 202, 204, 205, 206,
 210, 212, 213, 215, 218, 219, 220, 224, 225, 231, 232, 234, 237, 238, 240, 241,
 243, 246, 247, 249, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 260, 261, 263, 264
 Water yield  70
 Water, Underground  49, 96, 124
 Waterlogging  187
 Watersheds  12, 14, 41
 Weather data  251
 Weed control  257
 Weeds  200
 Weight  64
 Wells  89
 West (U.S.)  259, 259
 Western australia  127
 Western states of U.S.A.  214
 Wet season  135
 Wheat  78
 Winter wheat  260
 Wood  3
 Woody plants  178
 Xeric regimes  262
 Xerophytes  120
 Yield components  34, 38, 175, 200, 260
 Yield factors  102
 Yield increases  60, 202, 203, 264
 Yield losses  2
 Yield response functions  25, 34, 38, 54, 64, 104, 115, 120, 125, 177, 191,
 192, 205, 210, 224, 237, 263
 Yields  14, 51, 56, 62, 101, 104, 108, 110, 115, 161, 169, 211, 212
 Yugoslavia  182
 Zea mays  38, 48, 50, 126, 210, 234, 242
 
 *************************************************************
                               Irrigating Efficiently
 
                                  SEARCH STRATEGY
                                         
 Set     Items     Description
 ===     =====   ============
 
 S1      19650     SH=P210
 
 S2      23   (LOW()ENERGY()PRECISION()APPLICATION OR 
                             LEPA)/TI,DE,ID
 
 S3      6271 (EFFICIENCY OR WATER()CONSERVATION)/DE,ID
 
 S4      6291 S2 OR S3
 
 S5      604  S1 AND S4
 
 S6      598  RD S5 (unique items)
 
 S7      279  S6 AND PY=(1988 OR 1989 OR 1990 OR 1991 OR 
                        1992 OR 1993 OR 1994)
 
 ***************************************************************
 
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