Water Quality Information Center of the National Agricultural Library
Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture


Dairy Farm Manure Management

 January 1988 - November 1994
 Quick Bibliography Series:  QB 95-02
 129 citations from AGRICOLA
 
 Joe Makuch
 Water Quality Information Center
 
  **************************************************************
 This electronic bibliography is intended primarily to
 provide awareness of investigations and discussions of a topic
 and is not intended to be in-depth and exhaustive. The inclusion
 or omission of a particular publication or citation should not be
 construed as endorsement or disapproval.
 
 Send suggestions for electronic bibliographies related to water
 resources and agriculture to wqic@ars.usda.gov
 
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                               SEARCH STRATEGY
 
 
 Set    Items   Description
 
 S1      703    DAIR?/TI,DE,ID AND (WASTE? OR EFFLUENT? ? OR
                MANURE? ? OR SLURR?)/TI,DE,ID
 S2      659    S1 NOT SH=(Q101 OR Q100 OR Q105)
 S3   492903    PY=(1988 OR 1989 OR 1990 OR 1991 OR 1992 OR
                1993 OR 1994)
 S4      194    S2 AND S3                                       
 S5      192    RD S4 (unique items)
 
                        Dairy Farm Manure Management
 
 
 
 1                                   NAL Call. No.: FICHE S-72
 Acidogenic fermentation of dairy manure.
 Krones, M.J.; Johnson, A.T.; Hao, O.J.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1988.
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers (Microfiche
 collection) (fiche no. 88-6612): 12 p. ill; 1988.  Paper
 presented at the 1988 Winter Meeting of the American Society
 of Agricultural Engineers. Available for purchase from: The
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Order Dept., 2950
 Niles Road, St. Joseph, Michigan 49085. Telephone the Order
 Dept. at (616) 429-0300 for information and prices.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy farms; Liquid manures; Anaerobic digestion;
 Analysis; Biogas; Methane production
 
 
 2                                    NAL Call. No.: TD930.A32
 Anaerobic-aerobic biological treatment of a mixture of cheese
 whey and dairy manure.
 Lo, K.V.; Liao, P.H.
 Essex : Elsevier Science Publishers; 1989.
 Biological wastes v. 28 (2): p. 91-101; 1989.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cheesemaking; Whey; Dairy cattle; Cattle manure;
 Mixtures; Waste treatment; Anaerobic treatment; Aerobic
 treatment; Biological treatment; Digesters; Methane
 production; Treatment; Efficiency
 
 
 3                           NAL Call. No.: FULD1780 1992.S664
 Analysis of the long-run financial impact of the 'Dairy Rule'
 on dairies in the Lake Okeechobee drainage basin.
 Smithwick, Robert P.,
 1992; 1992.
 ix, 98 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm.  Typescript.  Vita.  Includes
 bibliographical references (leaves 94-97).
 
 Language:  English; English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy laws; Dairy waste
 
 
 4                                  NAL Call. No.: 275.29 T313
 Animal waste management.
 Sweeten, J.M.; Baird, C.; Manning, L.
 College Station, Tex. : The Service; 1991 Sep.
 Leaflet L - Texas Agricultural Extension Service, Texas A & M
 University System (5043): 4 p.; 1991 Sep.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Animal wastes; Feedlots; Dairy farms;
 Waste disposal; Regulation; Runoff; Water pollution; Water
 quality
 
 
 5                                      NAL Call. No.: S67.P82
 Beef and dairy cattle research report 1990.
 Chapman, H.D.; Griffin, C.D.
 Baton Rouge, La.? : The Service; 1990 Jun.
 Publication - Louisiana Cooperative Extension Service v.): 35
 p.; 1990 Jun. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Louisiana; Beef cattle; Dairy cattle; Research
 projects; Parasites; Breeding; Cattle feeding; Forage; Cattle
 diseases; Animal wastes; Marketing
 
 
 6                                       NAL Call. No.: A00033
 Biofirm will treat dairy waste.
 San Francisco, Calif. : Deborah J. Mysiewicz; 1991 Apr15.
 BioEngineering news v. 12 (16): p. 4; 1991 Apr15.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Oregon; Dairy effluent; Waste utilization;
 Biogas; Anaerobic digestion
 
 
 7                                  NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32T
 Biogas production after solid-liquid separation of dairy
 manure. Haugen, V.J.; Lindley, J.A.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1988 Dec. Transactions of the ASAE v. 31 (6): p.
 1782-1786; 1988 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy effluents; Biogas slurry; Energy sources;
 Digesters; Methane production
 
 
 8                                    NAL Call. No.: TD930.A32
 Biogas production from dairy manure: the effects of
 temperature perturbations. Chayovan, S.; Gerrish, J.B.;
 Eastman, J.A.
 London : Elsevier Applied Science Publishers; 1988.
 Biological wastes v. 25 (1): p. 1-16; 1988.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy wastes; Waste utilization; Methane
 production; Digesters; Repletion; Timing; Heating; Scheduling;
 Storage; Fuel consumption; Cyclic fluctuations; Efficiency
 
 
 9                                    NAL Call. No.: QC73.6.E5
 Biogas production from diary manure using continuous mix and
 no-mix mesophilic reactors.
 Ghaly, A.E.
 New York, N.Y. : Taylor & Francis; 1989.
 Energy sources v. 11 (4): p. 221-235. ill; 1989.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Methane production; Dairy industry; Animal
 manures; Anaerobic digesters; Biodegradation
 
 
 10                                   NAL Call. No.: TD930.A32
 Bulk density and thermal properties of Moroccan dairy cattle
 manure. Achkari-Begdouri, A.; Goodrich, P.R.
 Essex : Elsevier Applied Science Publishers; 1992.
 Bioresource technology v. 40 (3): p. 225-233; 1992.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Morocco; Dairy cattle; Cattle manure; Bulk
 density; Specific heat; Thermal conductivity; Aerobic
 treatment; Anaerobic treatment; Total solids; Concentration;
 Regression; Equations
 
 
 11                                    NAL Call. No.: SF191.D3
 Center stage: ecology.
 Sauber, C.M.
 Minnetonka, Minn. : Miller Publishing Company; 1989 Aug.
 Dairy herd management v. 26 (8): p. 10-12, 14. ill; 1989 Aug.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; California; Oregon; Washington; Texas;
 Dairy farming; Manures; Waste disposal; Water pollution; Law
 enforcement; Regulations; Licenses and permits
 
 
 12                                    NAL Call. No.: 421 J828
 Colonization and response of Culicoides variipennis (Diptera:
 Ceratopogonidae) to pollution levels in experimental dairy
 wastewater ponds. Mullens, B.A.; Rodriguez, J.L.
 Lanham, Md. : The Entomological Society of America; 1988 Nov.
 Journal of medical entomology v. 25 (6): p. 441-451. ill; 1988
 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Culicoides variipennis; Aquatic
 organisms; Incidence; Dairy effluents; Water pollution; Animal
 manures
 
 
 13                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Components of dairy manure management systems.
 Van Horn, H.H.; Wilkie, A.C.; Powers, W.J.; Nordstedt, R.A.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1994
 Jul. Journal of dairy science v. 77 (7): p. 2008-2030; 1994
 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cattle manure; Dairy farms; Application to land;
 Dairy cows; Excretion; Waste treatment; Waste disposal; Waste
 utilization; Energy balance; Water use; Ammonia; Methane;
 Nitrogen; Phosphorus
 
 Abstract:  Dairy manure management systems should account for
 the fate of excreted nutrients that may be of environmental
 concern. Currently, regulatory oversight is directed primarily
 at the assurance of water quality; N is the most monitored
 element. Land application of manure at acceptable fertilizer
 levels to crops produced on the farm by hauling or by pumping
 flushed manure effluent through irrigation systems is the
 basis of most systems. Nutrient losses to surface and
 groundwaters can be avoided, and significant economic value
 can be obtained from manure as fertilizer if adequate crop
 production is possible. Dairies with insufficient crop
 production potential need affordable systems to concentrate
 manure nutrients, thereby reducing hauling costs and possibly
 producing a salable product. Precipitation of additional
 nutrients from flushed manures with sedimented solids may be
 possible. Composting of separated manure solids offers a
 possible method to stabilize solids for distribution, but,
 most often, solids separated from dairy manures are fibrous
 and low in fertility. Manure solids combined with wastes from
 other sources may have potential if a marketable product can
 be produced or if sufficient subsidy is received for
 processing supplementary wastes. Solutions to odor problems
 are needed. Energy generated from manure organic matter, via
 anaerobic digestion, reduces atmospheric emissions of methane
 and odorous compounds. Use of constructed wetlands or
 harvesting of photosynthetic biomass from wastewater has the
 potential to improve water quality, making extensive recycling
 possible.
 
 
 14                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 Am32P
 Constructed wetland site design and installation.
 Ulmer, R.; Cathcart, T.; Strong, L.; Pote, J.; Davis, S.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers,; 1992. Paper / (92-4528): 8 p.; 1992.  Paper
 presented at the "1992 International Winter Meeting sponsored
 by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers," December
 15-18, 1992, Nashville, Tennessee.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy effluent; Waste water treatment; Wetlands;
 Construction; Lagoons
 
 
 15                                   NAL Call. No.: 1.98 Ag84
 Constructed wetlands clean up: they could be an inexpensive,
 low-tech cure for farm pollution headaches.
 Becker, H.
 Washington, D.C. : Agricultural Research Service, United
 States Department of Agriculture; 1993 Dec.
 Agricultural research /. p. 20; 1993 Dec.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy farming; Waste water; Water management;
 Wetlands
 
 
 16                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 Am32P
 Constructed wetlands for dairy wastewater treatment.
 Davis, S.H.; Ulmer, R.; Strong, L.; Cathcart, T.; Pote, J.;
 Brock, W. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers,; 1992. Paper / (92-4525): 11 p.; 1992.  Paper
 presented at the "1992 International Winter Meeting sponsored
 by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers," December
 15-18, 1992, Nashville, Tennessee.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Mississippi; Cabt; Dairy effluent; Waste water
 treatment; Wetlands; Construction; Nitrification; Biochemical
 oxygen demand; Dissolved oxygen
 
 
 17                                 NAL Call. No.: QD415.A1J62
 Continuous production of biogas from dairy manure using an
 innovative no-mix reactor.
 Ghaly, A.E.; Ben-Hassan, R.M.
 Clifton, N.J. : Humana Press; 1989 Jan.
 Applied biochemistry and biotechnology v. 20/21: p. 541-559;
 1989 Jan. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Methane production; Dairy wastes; Anaerobic
 digesters
 
 
 18                                   NAL Call. No.: SF221.B26
 Cost and economic feasibility of dairy waste management:
 central Texas representative dairies.
 Allen, G.; Lovell, A.; Schwart, B.; Lacewell, R.; Schmucker,
 J.; Leatham, D.; Richardson, J.
 College Station, Tex. : The Service; 1991 May28.
 Balanced dairying : Economics - Texas Agricultural Extension
 Service v. 11 (4): 8 p.; 1991 May28.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Dairy farming; Waste disposal; Water
 pollution; Groundwater pollution; Water quality; Waste
 treatment; Cost benefit analysis; Statistics
 
 
 19                                 NAL Call. No.: HD1773.A2N6
 Cost comparisons of alternative methods for processing
 recycled waste newspapers into farm-animal bedding.
 Beierlein, J.G.; McSweeny, W.C.; Woodruff, B.A.
 Ithaca, N.Y. : The Northeastern Agricultural and Resource
 Economics Association; 1991 Oct.
 Northeastern journal of agricultural and resource economics v.
 20 (2): p. 208-213; 1991 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pennsylvania; Litter; Newspapers; Recycling;
 Waste disposal; On-farm processing; Chopping; Cost
 effectiveness analysis; Transport costs; Dairy farms
 
 
 20                                    NAL Call. No.: 421 J822
 Costs of existing and recommended manure management practices
 for house fly and stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) control on
 dairy farms. Lazarus, W.F.; Rutz, D.A.; Miller, R.W.; Brown,
 D.A.
 Lanham, Md. : Entomological Society of America; 1989 Aug.
 Journal of economic entomology v. 82 (4): p. 1145-1151; 1989
 Aug.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Maryland; New York; Farm dairies; Musca
 domestica; Stomoxys calcitrans; Insect control; Manures; Waste
 disposal; Production costs; Regression analysis
 
 Abstract:  Costs of fly control practices were estimated for
 26 New York and Maryland dairy farms. Objectives were to
 characterize existing practices, compare them with the cost of
 more frequent and complete manure removal to reduce fly
 breeding, and to compare costs of manure removal and
 insecticide application. Information was collected in scouting
 visits and personal interviews of farm operators. Equipment,
 labor, and bedding costs were included for manure removal.
 Insecticide application cost included chemicals and labor for
 application. A typical farm with a stanchion barn had manure
 removal costs of $0.348 per cow per day. Recommended changes
 would increase costs by 0.016-0.033 per cow per day.
 Insecticide costs averaged $0.021 per cow per day. It may be
 possible to eliminate many of the insecticide applications on
 the farms by using the recommended 7-d manure removal
 practice. Even if insecticides are not eliminated entirely,
 increased manure removal costs would be offset by some
 reduction in insecticide cost. This also would have the
 additional benefit of greatly slowing the development of
 insecticide resistance by the flies.
 
 
 21                                  NAL Call. No.: 100 C12CAG
 Cultural management of bluetongue virus vectors.
 Mullens, B.A.; Rodriguez, J.L.
 Oakland, Calif. : Division of Agriculture and Natural
 Resources, University of California; 1990 Jan.
 California agriculture v. 44 (1): p. 30-32. ill; 1990 Jan.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Dairy cattle; Bluetongue virus;
 Disease vectors; Culicoides variipennis; Breeding; Habitats;
 Dairy farming; Waste waters; Ponds; Surveys
 
 
 22                                   NAL Call. No.: 57.8 C734
 Dairy farmers shift to composting.
 Rynk, R.
 Emmaus, PA : JG Press, c1981-; 1994 Apr.
 BioCycle v. 35 (4): p. 58-59; 1994 Apr.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Cabt; Canada; Cabt; Composting; Cattle
 manure; Dairy farms; On-farm processing; Surveys
 
 
 23                                    NAL Call. No.: SB197.B7
 Dairy farming and river quality.
 Schofield, K.; Whitelaw, K.; Merriman, R.P.
 Hurley, Berkshire : The Society; 1989.
 Occasional symposium - British Grassland Society (23): p.
 196-198; 1989.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Wales; Dairy farming; Agricultural wastes; Water
 pollution; Rivers; Water composition and quality
 
 
 24                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Dairy manure and plant nutrient management issues affecting
 water quality and the dairy industry.
 Lanyon, L.E.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1994
 Jul. Journal of dairy science v. 77 (7): p. 1999-2007; 1994
 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Cabt; Cattle manure; Water pollution;
 Pollution control; Dairy farms; Cattle feeding; Production
 costs; Environmental policy
 
 Abstract:  Specific requirements for dairy manure management
 to protect water quality from nutrient pollution depend on the
 organization of individual farms. Further, the management
 requirements and options are different for point (farmstead)
 and nonpoint (field-applied) sources of pollution from farms.
 A formal management process can guide decisions about existing
 crop nutrient utilization potential, provide a framework for
 tracking nutrients supplied to crops, and identify future
 requirements for dairy manure management to protect water
 quality. Farm managers can use the process to plan daily
 activities, to assess annual nutrient management performance,
 and to chart future requirements as herd size increases.
 Agronomic measures of nutrient balance and tracking of inputs
 and outputs for various farm management units can provide the
 quantitative basis for management to allocate better manure to
 fields, to modify dairy rations, or to develop alternatives to
 on-farm manure application. Changes in agricultural production
 since World War II have contributed to a shift from land-based
 dairy production to a reliance on capital factors of
 production supplied by the dairy industry. Meanwhile,
 management of dairy manure to meet increasingly stringent
 water quality protection requirements is still a land-based
 activity. Involving the dairy industry and off-farm
 stakeholders as participants in the management process for
 field, farm, and regional dairy production can be the basis
 for decision-making to reconcile the sometimes conflicting
 demands of production and water quality protection.
 
 
 25                                 NAL Call. No.: 275.29 F66C
 Dairy manure management: strategies for recycling nutrients to
 recover fertilizer value and avoid environmental pollution.
 Van Horn, H.H.; Nordstedt, R.A.; Bottcher, A.V.; Hanlon, E.A.;
 Graetz, D.A.; Chambliss, C.F.
 Gainesville, Fla. : The Service; 1991 Dec.
 Circular - Florida Cooperative Extension Service (1016): 18
 p.; 1991 Dec. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Dairy herds; Dairy effluent; Cattle
 manure; Manure spreaders; Waste disposal; Waste treatment
 
 
 26                                    NAL Call. No.: 100 ID14
 Dairy waste management system planning--estimating storage.
 Falk, D.E.; Ohlensehlen, R.M.
 Moscow, Idaho : The Station; 1989 Jun.
 Bulletin - Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station v.): 16 p.
 ill; 1989 Jun. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy farming; Animal wastes; Management;
 Systems; Farm planning; Farm storage; Water pollution; Odor
 abatement; Investment; Costs; Design criteria; Handling; Waste
 water treatment; Biological techniques; Anaerobic treatment;
 Lagoons
 
 
 27                                   NAL Call. No.: aZ5071.N3
 Dairy waster: management alternatives for pollution control
 January 1980-May 1991.
 Dombrowski, J.E.
 Beltsville, Md. : The Library; 1991 Jul.
 Quick bibliography series - U.S. Department of Agriculture,
 National Agricultural Library (U.S.). (91-126): 13 p.; 1991
 Jul.  Bibliography.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy wastes; Pollution; Control; Bibliographies
 
 
 28                                  NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 Dairy wastewater treatment and reuse.
 Hadjivassilis, I.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1991.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 24 (1):
 p. 83-87; 1991.  Paper presented at the "First IAWPRC East
 African Regional Conference on Industrial Wastewaters,"
 October 25-28, 1989, Nairobi, Kenya.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cyprus; Dairy industry; Industrial wastes; Waste
 water treatment; Water reuse; Activated sludge; Irrigation
 water
 
 
 29                                   NAL Call. No.: 56.9 SO32
 Dairy-siting criteria and other options for wastewater
 management on high water-table soils.
 Allen, L.H. Jr
 S.l. : The Society; 1988.
 Proceedings - Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida v. 47:
 p. 108-127. ill., maps; 1988.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Dairy wastes; Waste waters; Ssoil types;
 Soil properties; Site requirements; Waste water treatment;
 Water table; Water composition and quality; Eutrophication;
 Phosphorus
 
 
 30                                    NAL Call. No.: S671.A66
 Design of a semi-liquid dairy cattle manure spreader/injector.
 Lague, C.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1991 Nov. Applied engineering in agriculture v. 7
 (6): p. 655-660; 1991 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Manure spreaders; Injectors; Cattle manure;
 Structural design
 
 Abstract:  Existing solid and liquid manure spreaders are not
 well adapted for surface spreading or direct subsurface
 injection of semiliquid dairy cattle manure. By taking into
 account the characteristics of this type of manure, a machine
 for either spreading or injecting semi-liquid manure was
 designed and constructed. Its manure handling system consisted
 of a tiltable tank connected to a vibrating distribution
 manifold that directed the manure to the spreading or
 injection devices. Manure was fed to the injectors by gravity
 via 152 mm (6 in.) diameter hoses. The 305 mm (12 in.) wide
 injectors were operated at depths not exceeding 203 mm (8 in.)
 in order to reduce draft requirements. Results from
 preliminary field testing of the prototype are reported along
 with the design modifications that were recommended following
 these tests.
 
 
 31                                   NAL Call. No.: S441.S855
 Development of an environmentally safe and economically
 sustainable year-round minimum tillage forage production
 system using farm animal manure as the onyl fertilizer.
 Johnson, J.C. Jr
 1988-; 1990.
 Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) or
 Agriculture in Concert with the Environment (ACE) research
 projects. 22 p.; 1990.  SARE Project Number: LS-90-205. Record
 includes 3 1/2 floppydisk and papers and articles released or
 published as a result of project.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Georgia; Cabt; Cynodon dactylon; Zea mays; Secale
 cereale; Minimum tillage; Cattle manure; Application rates;
 Soil fertility; Use efficiency; Nitrogen; Phosphorus;
 Potassium; Calcium; Magnesium; Crop yield; Soil depth; Dairy
 farming
 
 
 32                                   NAL Call. No.: 56.9 SO32
 Distributions of residual soil phosphorus along transects for
 three dairies in Okeechobee County, Florida.
 Burgoa, B.; Bottcher, A.B.; Mansell, R.S.; Allen, L.H. Jr S.l.
 : The Society; 1991.
 Proceedings - Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida v. 50:
 p. 137-144; 1991.  Paper presented at the "Symposium on
 Reality of Sustainable Agriculture in Florida, September
 26-28, 1990, Daytona Beach, FLorida.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Soil pollution; Water pollution; Dairy
 effluent; Dairy wastes; Phosphorus
 
 
 33                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 DXMAS: an expert system program providing management advice to
 dairy operators.
 Schmisseur, E.; Gamroth, M.J.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1993
 Jul. Journal of dairy science v. 76 (7): p. 2039-2049; 1993
 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Expert systems; Dairy farming; Farm management;
 Decision making; Information systems; Culling; Cattle manure;
 Replacement; Crops; Financial planning
 
 Abstract:  An expert system, or knowledge-based, microcomputer
 program, DXMAS, was designed and developed to diagnose dairy
 management problems of dairy farmers of Tillamook County,
 Oregon and, as appropriate, to advance potential farm
 reorganization and expansion options. The program provokes
 management action by projecting lost income opportunities
 attributed to major management problems and missed
 reorganization and expansion opportunities. The DXMAS program
 analyzes annual economic and production performance data
 provided by dairy operators and has demonstrated the ability,
 in field testing of nine different dairy operations, to
 emulate dairy management experts in the diagnoses of 95
 individual dairy management problems. In those field tests,
 the DXMAS program identified a variety of management problems
 and estimated annual lost income opportunities ranging from
 $25 to $450 per milk cow. Field testing suggested that the
 DXMAS program can provide a wide range of expert management
 advice to dairy operators.
 
 
 34                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32T
 Effect of anaerobic digestion on nutrient availability from
 dairy manure. Dahlberg, S.P.; Lindley, J.A.; Giles, J.F.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1988 Jul. Transactions of the ASAE v. 31 (no.4): p.
 1211-1216; 1988 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North Dakota; Triticum aestivum; Anaerobic
 digesters; Cattle; Manures; Nutrient availability; Nitrogen;
 Soils
 
 
 35                                     NAL Call. No.: 10 J822
 Effect of incorporating rolled barley in autumn-cut ryegrass
 silage on effluent production, silage fermentation and cattle
 performance. Jones, D.I.H.; Jones, R.; Moseley, G.
 Cambridge : Cambridge University Press; 1990 Dec.
 The Journal of agricultural science v. 115 (pt.3): p. 399-408;
 1990 Dec. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Wales; Steers; British friesian; Hereford;
 Crossbreds; Liveweight gain; Unrestricted feeding; Barley;
 Feed supplements; Lolium multiflorum; Lolium perenne;
 Nutritive value; Ryegrass silage; Dairy wastes; Effluents;
 Pollution
 
 
 36                                   NAL Call. No.: TD930.A32
 Effect of the organic volumetric loading rate on soluble COD
 removal in down-flow anaerobic fixed-bed reactors.
 Sanchez, E.P.; Weiland, P.; Travieso, L.
 Barking, Essex, England : Elsevier Applied Science ; New York,
 NY : Elsevier Science Publishing Co., 1991-; 1994.
 Bioresource technology v. 47 (2): p. 173-176; 1994.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Piggery effluent; Beef cattle; Cattle manure;
 Dairy cattle; Torula; Yeasts; Wastes; Anaerobic digesters;
 Chemical oxygen demand; Models
 
 
 37                                   NAL Call. No.: TD930.A32
 Effects of dairy manure application rate and timing, and
 injector spacing and type on corn silage production.
 Safley, L.M. Jr; Westerman, P.W.; King, L.D.
 Essex : Elsevier Science Publishers; 1989.
 Biological wastes v. 28 (3): p. 203-216; 1989.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Cattle manure; Liquid manures;
 Application to land; Application rates; Application date; Soil
 injection; Zea mays; Maize silage; Crop yield; Nitrogen;
 Recovery
 
 
 38                                   NAL Call. No.: TD930.A32
 Effects of diet and storage time on the concentration of
 sulphide in dairy-cow slurry.
 Stevens, R.J.; Laughlin, R.J.; Frost, J.P.
 Essex : Elsevier Science Publishers; 1993.
 Bioresource technology v. 45 (1): p. 13-16; 1993.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Cattle slurry; Hydrogen sulfide;
 Concentration; Cattle feeding; Wastes; Storage; Duration;
 Effects
 
 
 39                                  NAL Call. No.: SF55.A78A7
 The effects of operational and financial factors on the
 economics of biogas production from dairy cow feces and
 wastewater.
 Kobayashi, S.; Masuda, Y.
 Suweon, Korea : Asian-Australasian Association of Animal
 Production Societies, c1988-; 1993 Mar.
 Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences v. 6 (1): p.
 139-145; 1993 Mar. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Biogas; Feces; Waste water; Cattle
 feeding; Animal wastes; Factor analysis; Economic evaluation
 
 
 40                                   NAL Call. No.: TD930.A32
 Effects of total ammonia on anaerobic digestion and an example
 of digestor performance from cattle manure-protein mixtures.
 Robbins, J.E.; Gerhardt, S.A.; Kappel, T.J.
 Essex : Elsevier Science Publishers; 1989.
 Biological wastes v. 27 (1): p. 1-14; 1989.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Cattle manure; Cattle slurry;
 Protein; Mixtures; Waste treatment; Anaerobic digestion;
 Ammonia; Concentration; Digesters; Performance; Acetates;
 Utilization
 
 
 41                                  NAL Call. No.: QL536.J686
 Efficacy and longevity of Bacillus sphaericus 2362
 formulations for control of mosquito larvae in dairy
 wastewater lagoons.
 Mulla, M.S.; Axelrod, H.; Darwazeh, H.A.; Matanmi, B.A.
 Lake Charles, La. : The Association; 1988 Dec.
 Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association v. 4 (4):
 p. 448-452; 1988 Dec.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Culex; Bacillus sphaericus; Larvae; Dairy cattle;
 Waste waters; Lagoons; Biological control
 
 
 42                                  NAL Call. No.: QL536.J686
 Efficacy of a juvenile hormone mimic, pyriproxyfen (S-31183),
 for mosquito control in dairy wastewater lagoons.
 Mulligan, F.S. III; Schaefer, C.H.
 Lake Charles, La. : The Association; 1990 Mar.
 Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association v. 6 (1):
 p. 89-92; 1990 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Culex quinquefasciatus; Larvae;
 Insect control; Juvenile hormones; Synthetic hormones;
 Pyridines; Lagoons; Waste waters; Dairies
 
 
 43                                  NAL Call. No.: QL536.J686
 Efficacy of new insect growth regulators against mosquito
 larvae in dairy wastewater lagoons.
 Mulla, M.S.; Darwazeh, H.A.
 Lake Charles, La. : The Association; 1988 Sep.
 Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association v. 4 (3):
 p. 322-325; 1988 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Culex quinquefasciatus; Culex peus; Larvae;
 Methoprene; Dairies; Waste waters; Lagoons; Insect control
 
 
 44                                 NAL Call. No.: S494.5.E547
 Electric energy management on dairy farms.
 Brooks, L.A.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier; 1989.
 Energy in world agriculture v. 3: p. 93-120; 1989.  In the
 series analytic: Energy in World Agriculture / edited by K.L.
 McFate.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy farming; Dairy equipment; Electricity;
 Electrical energy; Milking; Milking machines; Milk production;
 Farm buildings; Ventilation; Fans; Fodder crops; Storage;
 Equipment; Silage; Electric heaters; Heat exchangers; Manures;
 Dairy effluent; Handling; Pumps
 
 
 45                         NAL Call. No.: 1  Ag84Ab no.664-64
 Environmental concerns associated with livestock, dairy, and
 poultry production..  Issues for the 1990's, environment
 Christensen, L. A.; Krause, Kenneth R.,
 United States, Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service
 Washington, D.C.? : U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic
 Research Service,; 1993.
 1 sheet (2 p.) ; 28 x 22 cm. (Agriculture information bulletin
 ; no. 664-64). Caption title.  At head of title: Issues for
 the 1990's: environment. November 1993.  Includes
 bibliographical references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Animal waste; Agricultural pollution; Nonpoint
 source pollution
 
 
 46                             NAL Call. No.: S605.5.I45 1986
 Environmental consequences of the structure of agriculture:
 the case of southeastern Pennsylvania farms.
 Sachs, C.; Bowser, T.
 Santa Cruz, CA : Agroecology Program, University of
 California; 1988. Global perspectives on agroecology and
 sustainable agricultural systems : proceedings of the sixth
 international scientific conference of the International
 Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements. p. 159-170b;
 1988. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pennsylvania; Environmental impact; Agricultural
 structure; Ecosystems; Cattle farming; Beef cattle; Dairy
 cattle; Poultry farming; Production; Regional development;
 Water pollution; Animal manures; Pollutants; Nutrient
 excesses; Water quality; Watersheds
 
 
 47                                    NAL Call. No.: SF191.D3
 Environmental count down.
 Sauber, C.M.
 Minnetonka, Minn. : Miller Publishing Co; 1988 Jun.
 Dairy herd management v. 25 (6): p. 10-12, 14, 16-17; 1988
 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Dairy wastes; Environmental
 pollution; Waste disposal; Water composition and quality;
 Environmental protection
 
 
 48                                    NAL Call. No.: QH540.J6
 The environmental impact of bovine somatotropin use in dairy
 cattle. Johnson, D.E.; Ward, G.M.; Torrent, J.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 Apr.
 Journal of environmental quality v. 21 (2): p. 157-162; 1992
 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Somatotropin; Hormone supplements;
 Genetic engineering; Environmental impact; Milk production;
 Cattle manure; Methane production; Nitrogen; Phosphorus; Feed
 requirements; Energy requirements; Erosion; Dairy farming;
 Water use
 
 Abstract:  The environmental impact of bovine somatotropin
 (bST) use in dairy cattle (Bos taurus) was analyzed with the
 following assumptions: base herd (1989) of 10.1 X 10(6) cows,
 milk production 6475 kg of 3.5% fat per 305 d; bST herd of
 8.96 X 10(6) cows, 3.5 kg/d increase during 215 d treatment
 period; 100% adoption rate, 60 d dry period, 40% replacement
 rate; all formulated diet from: alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)
 hay, corn (Zea mays L.) silage, cracked corn, soybean [Glycine
 mar (L.) Merr.] meal, and supplement to satisfy level of
 production. Using these assumptions, the analysis indicates
 that the current U.S. milk supply could be produced by 11%
 fewer cows fed 9% less feed produced on 6% less land, and soil
 loss would be 5% less. Fossil fuel requirements would be 6%
 less and irrigation water use would be reduced by 9%. Output
 of the greenhouse gas methane would be decreased 9%; manure
 production and outputs of N and P declined by 10, 8, and 10%,
 respectively.
 
 
 49                                   NAL Call. No.: TD930.A32
 Evaluation of recycled wastewater for dairy flush systems.
 Ramsey, D.S.; Megehee, D.B.
 London : Elsevier Applied Science Publishers; 1988.
 Biological wastes v. 26 (1): p. 59-64; 1988.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy wastes; Bacteria; Waste waters; Flushing;
 Recycling; Microbial water relations; Solar radiation;
 Predation; Water reuse
 
 
 50                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32P
 Experience with three anaerobic digestion systems on
 commercial dairies. Koelsch, R.K.; Fabian, E.E.; Guest, R.W.;
 Campbell, J.K.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1989.
 Paper - American Society of Agricultural Engineers (89-6550):
 17 p.; 1989. Paper presented at the 1989 International Winter
 Meeting, December 12-15, 1989, New Orleans, Louisiana. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy wastes; Anaerobic digestion
 
 
 51                                   NAL Call. No.: S441.S855
 Farmer-to-farmer compost exchange.
 Conkling, D.
 1988-; 1992.
 Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) or
 Agriculture in Concert with the Environment (ACE) research
 projects. 32 p.; 1992.  SARE Project Number: ANE92.10. Record
 includes 3 1/2 floppy disk. Includes Appendices.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Connecticut; Cabt; Composts; Leaves; Animal
 wastes; Dairy farms; Low input agriculture; Sustainability
 
 
 52                                  NAL Call. No.: QL536.J686
 Fate and persistence of Bacillus sphaericus used as a mosquito
 larvicide in dairy wastewater lagoons.
 Matanmi, B.A.; Federici, B.A.; Mulla, M.S.
 Lake Charles, La. : The Association; 1990 Sep.
 Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association v. 6 (3):
 p. 384-389; 1990 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Culex; Bacillus sphaericus; Ovicides
 and larvicides; Lagoons; Waste water; Dairy wastes; Biological
 control; Persistence
 
 
 53                                    NAL Call. No.: S671.A22
 Feedlot runoff control--demonstration site: dairy lot.
 Lorimor, J.
 Ames, Iowa : Cooperative Extension Service, Iowa State U
 niversity; 1993 Jun. AE / (3077a): 2 p.; 1993 Jun.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy effluent; Feedlot effluent; Runoff; Manures
 
 
 54                                    NAL Call. No.: 58.8 J82
 The fertilizer value of agricultural manure: simple rapid
 methods of assessment.
 Piccinini, S.; Bortone, G.
 London : Academic Press; 1991 Jul.
 Journal of agricultural engineering research v. 49 (3): p.
 197-208; 1991 Jul. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Italy; Pig manure; Dairy cattle; Cattle manure;
 Chemical analysis; Analytical methods; Equations; Accuracy;
 Instruments
 
 Abstract:  This paper presents the results of a series of
 analytical tests performed on pig and dairy cattle manure in
 order to establish the extent of the correlation between: dry
 matter (TS) and specific gravity (SG); TS and total Kjeldhal
 nitrogen (TKN) and total phosphorus (Pt); SG and TKN and Pt.
 In addition, two N-meters for field use were also used to
 estimate the ammonium (NH4-H) content. All the variables (TS,
 SG, TKN, Pt, NH4-N) show a high index of correlation for both
 the pig and dairy cattle slurry and the linear relations
 applied proved adequate in all cases. Though the precision of
 the equations is not very high, the estimate for TKN and Pt
 content, obtained from the relationship between the SG and
 these elements is nevertheless acceptable for practical farm
 use of animal manure.
 
 
 55                                    NAL Call. No.: QH540.J6
 First-year nutrient availability from injected dairy manure.
 Motavalli, P.P.; Kelling K.A.; Converse, J.C.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1989 Apr.
 Journal of environmental quality v. 18 (2): p. 180-185; 1989
 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Wisconsin; Dairy wastes; Cattle manure;
 Injections; Broadcasting; Nitrogen; Phosphorus; Potassium; Zea
 mays; Nutrient uptake; Nutrient availability; Crop yield
 
 Abstract:  Estimates of N, P, and K availability to corn (Zea
 mays L.) from injected dairy manure on three field sites in
 south central Wisconsin were make using a fertilizer
 equivalence approach. Nutrient uptake from treatments of a
 control, three rates of manure (approx. 53, 97, and 138 Mg
 ha-1 yr-1 on a wet basis), and three rates of broadcast
 fertilizer were evaluated. Crop nutrient recoveries of
 fertilizer N, P, and K were generally higher than crop
 recoveries of manure total N, P, and K. Estimates of first
 year N, P, and K availability showed substantial variability
 across rate, location, and year with standard deviations
 oftern about 50% of the mean. Ranges for N, P, or K
 availability were 12 to 63, 12 to 89, and 24 to 153%,
 respectively. These data do not identify those factors
 responsible for differences in nutrient availability from one
 site-year to another. Biological or chemical availability
 indices of a 1-wk anaerobic incubation at 40 degrees C or a
 16-h autoclaving in 0.01 M CaCl2 solution were evaluated as
 measures of N availability and compared with field results.
 Correlations between measured changes in NH4-N from these
 indices, as well as total Kjeldahl N and inorganic N levels in
 the top 30 cm of soil 4 to 6 wk after treatment application,
 and N uptake indicated inoganic N levels to be a better index
 of N availability than the other indices examined. However, to
 determine nutrient availability on a routine basis, more
 reliable biological or chemical indices are necessary. A
 simple model may help to simulate environmental effects and
 the contribution of residual nutrients in the soil.
 
 
 56                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32P
 Forage crop ranking for phosphorus recycling on Lake
 Okeechobee area dairies. Dinkler, H.D.; Fluck, R.C.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1990.
 Paper - American Society of Agricultural Engineers (90-2025):
 19 p. maps; 1990.  Paper presented at the "1990 International
 Summer Meeting sponsored by the American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers," June 24-27, Columbus, Ohio. Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Farm dairies; Phosphorus; Pollution;
 Recycling; Waste disposal; Fodder crops; Legislation
 
 
 57                                NAL Call. No.: TP248.13.S68
 Galactosyl--a biocatalyst for hydrolysis of whey lactose.
 Samoshina, N.M.; Lotmentseva, E.Yu; Nakhapetyan, L.A.
 New York, N.Y. : Allerton Press; 1989.
 Soviet biotechnology (3): p. 41-46; 1989.  Translated from:
 Biotekhnologiya (3), 1989, p. 305-310. (TP248.2.B57). 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English; Russian
 
 Descriptors: Fungi; Beta-galactosidase; Immobilization; Whey;
 Lactose; Hydrolysis; Enzyme activity; Dairy effluent; Waste
 treatment; Heat stability; Glucose syrups; Galactose; Ph
 
 Abstract:  A study has been made of the properties of
 immobilized fungal beta-galactosidase (the trademarked
 preparation Galactosyl). The pH optima at different
 temperatures, the temperature optimum for enzyme action, pH-
 stability, and thermostability were determined. Preparation
 kinetic constants were calculated. Effective biocatalyst
 activity was found to depend on degree of substrate
 hydrolysis. The Galactosyl preparation was shown to be a high-
 activity biocatalyst suitable for producing glucose-galactose
 syrup from dairy industry wastes.
 
 
 58                                      NAL Call. No.: S1.N32
 Goodbye corn, hello profits.
 McNamara, K.
 Emmaus, Pa. : Regenerative Agriculture Association; 1988 Feb.
 The New farm v. 10 (2): p. 36-37. ill; 1988 Feb.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Wisconsin; Dairy farming; Forage crops; Liquid
 manures; Protein content; Mixed pastures
 
 
 59                                      NAL Call. No.: S1.N32
 'Grass farming' beats corn!.
 Cramer, C.
 Emmaus, Pa. : Rodale Institute; 1990 Sep.
 The New farm v. 12 (6): p. 10-16. ill; 1990 Sep.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Grazing; Grasses; Pastures; Legumes;
 Liquid manures
 
 
 60                                  NAL Call. No.: S605.5.A43
 Ground water contamination from agricultural sources:
 implications for voluntary policy adherence from Iowa and
 Virginia farmers' attitudes. Halstead, J.M.; Padgitt, S.;
 Batie, S.S.
 Greenbelt, Md. : Institute for Alternative Agriculture; 1990.
 American journal of alternative agriculture v. 5 (3): p.
 126-133; 1990. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Iowa; Virginia; Groundwater pollution;
 Contamination; Agricultural chemicals; Dairy wastes; Water
 quality; Farmers' attitudes; Questionnaires; Interviews; Farm
 management; Public opinion; Risk; Health hazards;
 Environmental impact; Economic impact; Crop production; Dairy
 farming; Agricultural policy; Programs; Incentives
 
 Abstract:  Contamination of ground water from agricultural
 sources has been documented in a majority of the contiguous
 United States. In this study, we examine the potential for
 voluntary adoption of management practices that reduce risk of
 ground water contamination and discuss how farm operators'
 attitudes regarding the environment might affect the success
 of voluntary programs. Farmers' behavior and attitudes in
 Rockingham County, Virginia, and Big Spring Basin, Iowa,
 reveal that both groups consider the ground water issue to be
 a serious problem to which they are contributing. This
 awareness is a significant first step in prompting
 consideration of management practices that reduce the threat
 to ground water quality. We also found that the worst
 offenders"--that is, farmers applying nitrogen well above
 agronomic recommendations--were those with the least concern
 about the problem. If major shifts in farming practices are to
 occur voluntarily, major incentives or disincentives are
 needed Even though the concern about ground water quality is
 high, the documented risks perceived by farmers are not
 strongly convincing. The economic incentives for change are
 questionable at best. Voluntary adoption of best management
 practices is only one of several policy options. Ultimately,
 policies designed to reduce ground water contamination may
 need a mix of strategies, including economic incentives and
 disincentives, zoning and land use restrictions, environmental
 regulations, and bans on agricultural chemicals.
 
 
 61                                      NAL Call. No.: S1.N32
 He turns risk into opportunity.
 Cramer, C.
 Emmaus, Pa. : Regenerative Agriculture Association; 1989 Jan.
 The New farm v. 11 (1): p. 36-39. ill; 1989 Jan.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Minnesota; Dairy farming; Small farms; Milk
 quality; Appropriate technology; Rotary hoes; Weed control;
 Cattle manure; Soil fertility; Farm management
 
 
 62                                 NAL Call. No.: 281.9 M5842
 Impact of Michigan dairy manure handling alternatives.
 Garsow, J.D.; Connor, L.J.; Nott, S.B.
 East Lansing, Mich. : The Department; 1992 Jun.
 Agricultural economics report - Michigan State University,
 Department of Agricultural Economics (561): 36 p.; 1992 Jun. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Michigan; Animal manures; Dairy farms; Handling;
 Regulations; Air pollution; Economic impact; Capital; Farm
 comparisons; Dairy industry; Farm budgeting
 
 
 63                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Impact of Texas water quality laws on dairy income and
 viability. Leatham, D.J.; Schmucker, J.F.; Lacewell, R.D.;
 Schwart, R.B.; Lovell, A.C.; Allen, G.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1992
 Oct. Journal of dairy science v. 75 (10): p. 2846-2856; 1992
 Oct.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Dairy farms; Dairy wastes; Water quality;
 Law; Profitability; Estimated costs; Cash flow; Farm
 indebtedness; Risk; Survival; Mathematical models
 
 Abstract:  A dairy waste management spreadsheet was developed
 and applied along with partial budgets and whole firm, Monte
 Carlo simulations for Texas dairies to evaluate the impact
 that Texas water quality laws have on dairy profitability and
 survival. Results showed that representative 300- and 720-cow
 dairies will incur additional annual costs of $60 and $81 per
 cow, respectively. Compliance with water quality laws reduces
 net farm income by 27 and 63% for 720-cow dairies with low and
 high debt positions, respectively. The probability of survival
 of the dairies with low debt was not affected by compliance.
 The probability of survival of firms with high debt positions
 decreased by 47 percentage points. Under the conditions
 modeled, net farm income for representative 300-cow dairies
 would be negative after compliance with water quality laws.
 
 
 64                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 Am32P
 Impact of water quality laws on dairy profitability.
 Leatham, D.J.; Schmucker, J.F.; Lacewell, R.D.; Schwart, R.B.;
 Lovell, A.; Allen, G.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers,; 1991. Paper / (914019): 11 p.; 1991.  Paper
 presented at the "1991 International Summer Meeting sponsored
 by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers," June
 23-26, 1991, Albuquerque, New Mexico.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Cabt; Dairy wastes; Waste water; Runoff;
 Water quality; Legislation
 
 
 65                          NAL Call. No.: HD1751.A37 no.93-4
 Impacts of dairy waste management regulations.
 Outlaw, Joe L.
 Agricultural and Food Policy Center (Tex.)
 College Station, Tex. : Agricultural and Food Policy Center,
 Dept. of Agricultural Economics, Texas Agricultural Experiment
 Station, Texas Agricultural Extension Service, Texas A&M
 University,; 1993; Z TA225.7 P758 NO.93-4.
 iii, 42 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm. (AFPC working paper ; 93-4.). 
 May 1993. Includes bibliographical references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairying; Dairy waste; Dairy laws
 
 
 66                                  NAL Call. No.: 275.29 F22
 Impacts of EPA dairy waste regulations on farm profitability.
 Knutson, R.D.; Outlaw, J.L.; Miller, J.W.
 Oak Brook, Ill. : Farm Foundation; 1993.
 Increasing understanding of public problems and policies. p.
 199-206; 1993. Paper presented at the 43rd National Public
 Policy Education Conference held September 12-15, 1993
 Clearwater Beach, Florida.  p. 17-32.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Cabt; Dairy farms; Dairy wastes;
 Regulations; Economic impact; Profitability; Environmental
 policy; Federal government; Government organizations
 
 
 67                                    NAL Call. No.: 41.8 Am3
 Isolation of multiple Salmonella serovars from a dairy two
 years after a clinical salmonellosis outbreak.
 Gay, J.M.; Hunsaker, M.E.
 Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association; 1993 Nov01.
 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association v. 203
 (9): p. 1314-1320; 1993 Nov01.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Cabt; Dairy cows; Calves; Farm
 dairies; Salmonella; Serotypes; Salmonellosis; Outbreaks;
 Persistence; Feces; Waste water; Isolation
 
 
 68                                 NAL Call. No.: 275.29 W27P
 Keys to dairy manure management for water quality.
 Hermanson, R.E.
 Pullman, Wash. : The Service; 1992 Jun.
 Extension bulletin - Washington State University, Cooperative
 Extension Service (1658): 7 p.; 1992 Jun.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy wastes; Cattle manure; Farm management;
 Feces collection; Waste treatment; Water quality
 
 
 69                                   NAL Call. No.: TD930.A32
 Low-temperature digestion of dairy and swine manure.
 Safley, L.M. Jr; Westerman, P.W.
 Barking, Essex, England : Elsevier Applied Science ; New York,
 NY : Elsevier Science Publishing Co., 1991-; 1994.
 Bioresource technology v. 47 (2): p. 165-171; 1994.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cattle manure; Dairy cattle; Pig manure;
 Anaerobic digestion; Methane production; Temperature
 
 
 70                                NAL Call. No.: S544.3.N7A45
 Manage animal manure for its fertilizer value.
 Klausner, S.; Tillapaugh, B.
 Batavia, N.Y. : Agricultural Div. of Coop Extension, Four
 Western Plain Counties, N.Y. State; 1988 Apr.
 Ag impact v. 15 (4): p. 2; 1988 Apr.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New York; Cattle manure; Dairy wastes; Fertilizer
 application; Soil testing
 
 
 71                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32P
 Management and policy effects on potential groundwater
 contamination from dairy waste.
 Heatwole, C.D.; Diebel, P.L.; Halstead, J.M.; Batie, S.S.;
 Kramer, R.A.; Taylor, D.B.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1989.
 Paper - American Society of Agricultural Engineers (89-4090):
 p. 1-19; 1989. Paper presented at the 1989 International
 Summer Meeting jointly sponsored by the American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers, and the Canadian Society of
 Agricultural Engineering, June 25-28, 1989, Quebec, Canada. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy wastes; Groundwater; Water pollution;
 Economic impact
 
 
 72                                  NAL Call. No.: TD420.A1P7
 Management of dairy waste: a low cost treatment system using
 phosphorus-adsorbing materials.
 Masters, B.K.
 Oxford : Pergamon Press; 1993.
 Water science and technology : a journal of the International
 Association on Water Pollution Research and Control v. 27 (1):
 p. 159-169; 1993.  In the series analytic: Appropriate waste
 management technologies / edited by G. Ho and K. Mathew.
 Proceedings of the International Conference, held November
 27-28, 1991, Perth, Australia.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Western australia; Dairy wastes; Water pollution;
 Nutrients; Waste treatment; Anaerobic digestion; Aerobic
 treatment; Filters; Phosphorus; Adsorption
 
 
 73                                    NAL Call. No.: aS622.S6
 Managing runoff to protect lake.
 Boggs, L.
 Washington, D.C. : The Service; 1988 May.
 Soil & water conservation news - U.S. Deptartment of
 Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service v. 9 (2): p. 8-9. ill;
 1988 May.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Water pollution; Feedlot effluent; Dairy
 effluents; Inland lagoons; Lakes; Computer software; Usda;
 Eutrophication; Phosphorus
 
 
 74                                NAL Call. No.: S544.3.N7N45
 Manure management on dairy farms: are we accountable?.
 Leonard, N.
 Belmont, N.Y. : Cooperative Extension Association of Allegany
 County, 1988-; 1993 Sep.
 News & views /. p. 3-4; 1993 Sep.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy farms; Cattle manure; Farm management;
 Water quality
 
 
 75                                   NAL Call. No.: 1.98 AG84
 Manure without pollution.
 Comis, D.
 Washington, D.C. : The Service; 1989 Oct.
 Agricultural research - U.S. Department of Agriculture,
 Agricultural Research Service v. 37 (10): p. 10-12. ill; 1989
 Oct.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cattle manure; Dairy wastes; Liquid manures;
 Fertilizers; Fertigation; Rotations; Fields; Sustainability
 
 
 76                                   NAL Call. No.: TP360.B57
 Mesophilic anaerobic digestion of a mixture of cheese whey and
 dairy manure. Lo, K.V.; Liao, P.H.; Chiu, C.
 Essex : Elsevier Applied Science Publishers; 1988.
 Biomass v. 15 (1): p. 45-53; 1988.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: British Columbia; Whey; Dairy effluents;
 Anaerobic digesters; Methane production; Waste treatment;
 Chemical oxygen demand
 
 
 77                                    NAL Call. No.: 58.8 J82
 Mesophilic anaerobic digestion of dairy cow slurry on a farm
 scale: energy considerations.
 Pain, B.F.; Phillips, V.R.; West, R
 London : Academic Press; 1988 Feb.
 Journal of agricultural engineering research v. 39 (2): p.
 123-135; 1988 Feb. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy effluents; Cattle slurry; Anaerobic
 digesters; Small farms; Energy recovery; Methane; Waste heat
 utilization; Electricity; Agricultural engineering; Energy
 balance
 
 
 78                                    NAL Call. No.: 58.8 J82
 Mesophilic anaerobic digestion of dairy cow slurry on a farm
 scale: maintenance requirements and reliability.
 Chapman, J.M.; Phillips, V.R.; Pain, B.F.
 London : Academic Press; 1990 Dec.
 Journal of agricultural engineering research v. 47 (4): p.
 277-285; 1990 Dec. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Cattle slurry; Anaerobic digesters;
 Maintenance; Requirements; Reliability; Costs
 
 
 79                                   NAL Call. No.: TD930.A32
 Methane production from fresh versus dry dairy manure.
 Chen, T.H.; Steinberg, M.P.
 London : Elsevier Applied Science Publishers; 1988.
 Biological wastes v. 24 (4): p. 297-306; 1988.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Africa; Cattle manure; Dairy effluents; Drying;
 Biological value; Methane production; Digesters; Production
 potential; Bioassays; Quantitative analysis
 
 
 80                                  NAL Call. No.: S451.P4P45
 Murky water--how we farm our land has far-reaching effects.
 Weidner, K.
 University Park, Pa. : Pennsylvania State University; 1988.
 PennState agriculture. p. 2-11. ill; 1988.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pennsylvania; Dairy farming; Crop enterprises;
 Manure spreading; Pollution by agriculture; Water composition
 and quality
 
 
 81                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 SO12
 The National Rivers Authority's regulatory role in the dairy
 industry. Taylor, D.
 Cambridge : The Society; 1992 May.
 Journal of the Society of Dairy Technology v. 45 (2): p.
 53-55; 1992 May. Paper given at the symposium "The Dairy
 Industry - Clean and Green, October 22, 1991, London.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Great Britain; Dairy effluent; Regulations; Water
 pollution
 
 
 82                       NAL Call. No.: Videocassette no.1618
 Naturally fertile fields increasing dairy profits through
 proper manure management.
 United States, Soil Conservation Service, United States, Dept.
 of Agriculture, Video and Teleconference Division
 Washington, D.C. : The Division,; 1992.
 1 videocassette (15 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in.  92SCS-34.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Fertilizers
 
 Abstract:  Shows how to recycle dairy cattle manure.
 
 
 83                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32T
 Nitrogen concentration variability in dairy-cattle slurry
 stored in farm tanks.
 Patni, N.K.; Jui, P.Y.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1991 Mar. Transactions of the ASAE v. 34 (2): p.
 609-615; 1991 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Ontario; Cattle slurry; Dairy wastes; Farm
 storage; Losses; Nitrogen content; Ph; Temperature; Tanks
 
 Abstract:  Spatial and temporal variability in the
 concentration of total Kjeldahl and ammonia (NH3 + NH4+)
 nitrogen (TKN and AMN, respectively) was studied in 8 to 10%
 total solids content dairy-cattle manure slurry and its
 centrifuged supernatant during undisturbed storage in covered,
 reinforced concrete, farm storage tanks. Slurry was stored in
 two winter-filled tanks for 285 days, and in two additional
 summer-filled tanks for 146 days. Although concentration
 variability with time and space was small relative to the
 initial concentrations, slurry at depths of less than 1 m had
 consistently lower concentrations than at greater depths,
 particularly after the initital two months of storage. Mass
 balance for nitrogen (N) indicated a 9% loss in three of the
 four tanks. A lower loss (4% N) in the fourth tank was
 accompanied by a decrease in acetic acid concentration and a
 rise in slurry pH, at all depths, which was not observed in
 the other tanks. The lower loss of N from this tank than from
 the other tanks probably occurred to satisfy chemical
 equilibria that required a greater retention of ammonia (NH3)
 by the carbon dioxide (CO2) release from acetic acid
 breakdown. Considerations other than TKN and AMN concentration
 changes and equilibrium relations may also be important
 factors for N retention in slurry stored in farm tanks.
 
 
 84                                    NAL Call. No.: 56.9 SO3
 Nitrogen fertilizer and dairy manure effects of corn yield and
 soil nitrate. Jokela, W.E.
 Madison, Wis. : The Society; 1992 Jan.
 Soil Science Society of America journal v. 56 (1): p. 148-154;
 1992 Jan. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Vermont; Zea mays; Sandy loam soils; Cattle
 manure; Dairy cattle; Ammonium nitrate; Nitrogen; Nutrient
 sources; Application rates; Application date; Crop growth
 stage; Crop yield; Dry matter accumulation; Grain; Maize
 silage; Nutrient uptake; Nutrient availability; Soil analysis;
 Nitrate; Nutrient content; Losses from soil systems; Nitrate
 nitrogen; Soil solution; Soil depth; Seasonal variation;
 Precipitation
 
 Abstract:  Manure from livestock is an important source of N
 for crop production in many areas, but efficient management of
 manure is critical to improve the economics of manure use and
 to minimize the impact on water quality. A field study was
 conducted on an Enosburg fine sandy loam (sandy over loamy,
 mixed, nonacid, mesic Mollic Haplaquent) in northwestern
 Vermont to evaluate the effect of dairy-manure and N-
 fertilizer application on corn (Zea mays L.) yields and soil
 profile NO3 in a silage production system. Treatments
 consisted or a factorial arrangement of manure (0 and 9 Mg
 ha-1, dry-matter basis), N rate (56 and 112 kg ha-1 as
 NH4NO3), and time of N application (planting or six-leaf
 stage), as well as 0 and 168 kg N ha-1 rate at planting (with
 and without manure). Yields and N uptake were increased by N
 fertilizer and by manure. Without manure, grain and silage
 yields were increased by fertilizer N to the 112 kg ha-1 rate
 in all years; with manure, N fertilizer did not increase
 yields significantly. Time of application had little or no
 effect on yield. Plant uptake of N followed a similar pattern
 but with somewhat wore pronounced effects. A presidedress soil
 reflected N availability, as indicated relative yields. Manure
 application rates were equivalent, in terms of yield response,
 to 73 to 122 kg fertilizer N ha-1 in individual years, which
 represented 27 to 44% of the total manure N in the year of
 application. Sampling of the 1.5-m soil profile before
 planting and after harvest showed increases in soil NO3 that
 were related to the amounts of manure and fertilizer N
 applied. Some decreases in NO3 were measured from fall to
 spring sampling times, but net losses were minimal where <60
 kg ha-1 NO3-N was present in the fall. Application of manure
 resulted in similar or slightly lower soil profile NO3 than
 agronomincally equivalent rates of fertilizer N.
 
 
 85                                     NAL Call. No.: 10 J822
 Nitrogen in the excreta of dairy cattle: changes during short-
 term storage. Whitehead, D.C.; Raistrick, N.
 Cambridge : Cambridge University Press; 1993 Aug.
 The Journal of agricultural science v. 121 (pt.1): p. 73-81;
 1993 Aug. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: England; Dairy cattle; Feces; Urine; Storage; Air
 pollution; Ammonium; Cattle slurry; Hydrolysis; Nitrogen;
 Urea; Volatilization
 
 
 86                                    NAL Call. No.: S590.C63
 Nitrogen recovery by orchardgrass from dairy manure applied
 with or without fertilizer nitrogen.
 Kanneganti, V.R.; Klausner, S.D.
 New York, N.Y. : Marcel Dekker; 1994.
 Communications in soil science and plant analysis v. 25
 (15/16): p. 2771-2783; 1994.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dactylis glomerata; Cattle manure; Application to
 land; Nitrogen fertilizers; Application rates; Nutrient
 uptake; Crop yield; Forage; Dry matter accumulation
 
 
 87                                    NAL Call. No.: S590.C63
 Nitrogen recovery by timothy from surface application of dairy
 cattle slurry. Anderson, M.A.; McKenna, J.R.; Martens, D.C.;
 Donohue, S.J. New York, N.Y. : Marcel Dekker; 1993.
 Communications in soil science and plant analysis v. 24
 (11/12): p. 1139-1151; 1993.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Maine; Phleum pratense; Silt loam soils; Cattle
 slurry; Surface treatment; Application rates; Application
 date; Nitrogen; Nutrient uptake; Crop yield
 
 
 88                                    NAL Call. No.: 56.9 SO3
 Nitrous oxide production from injected liquid dairy manure.
 Comfort, S.D.; Kelling, K.A.; Keeney, D.R.; Converse, J.C.
 Madison, Wis. : The Society; 1990 Mar.
 Soil Science Society of America journal v. 54 (2): p. 421-427.
 ill; 1990 Mar. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Liquid manures; Dairy wastes; Slurries; Soil
 injection; Nitrous oxide; Losses from soil systems; Nitrogen
 transfer; Denitrification; Nitrification; Anaerobic
 conditions; Inorganic compounds; Carbon dioxide; Nitrapyrin;
 Acetylene
 
 Abstract:  Injection of liquid organic wastes into soil
 promotes conditions that may be conducive to denitrification
 by creating in anaerobic environment abundant in inorganic N
 and readily oxidizable C. To quantify gaseous N loss, we
 measured N2O emissions from simulated waste injections applied
 to soils in large wooden containers (71 by 42 by 44 cm). These
 containers were equipped with headspace covers for gas
 entrapment, soil-atmosphere wells, C2H2-dispersion tubes, soil
 moisture-temperature cells, and end-entry doors for soil
 sampling. Soil type was a Plano silt loam (fine-silty, mixed,
 mesic Typic Argiudoll) packed to a bulk density of 1.1 Mg m-3
 and maintained at a constant temperature of 12.0 +/- 1.4
 degrees C. Liquid dairy manure was injected into the soil at
 rates commonly used for crop production (79 000 L ha-1). The
 nitrification inhibitor nitrapyrin [2-chloro-6-
 (trichloromethyl) pyridine] was used to further evaluate
 nitrification-denitrification losses. Nitrous oxide emissions,
 with and without C2H2 treatment, were estimated by passing air
 across the soil surface above an injection zone and trapping
 emitted N2O onto a molecular sieve. The largest emission of
 N2O occurred shortly after injection, followed by a shift to
 N2. Maximum gaseous-N loss occurred 5 d after injection and
 corresponded with maximum CO2 concentrations in the soil
 atmosphere. Nitrapyrin was effective in controlling
 nitrification, but did not consistently influence the rate of
 denitrification. When we simulated 190 mm of precipitation at
 25 d after injection, increases in N2O production were
 minimal, possibly due to a limitation in readily oxidizable C.
 Total measured gaseous-N loss in the presence of C2H2 over 40
 d accounted for 2.5 to 3.2% of the slurry's NH4-N, or 1.0 to
 1.3% of the total N added.
 
 
 89                                   NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Nutrition management of dairy cows as a contribution to
 pollution control. Tamminga, S.
 Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association; 1992
 Jan. Journal of dairy science v. 75 (1): p. 345-357; 1992 Jan. 
 Paper presented at the symposium "Nutritional Factors
 Affecting Animal Water and Waste Quality", August 27, 1990. 
 Literature review.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Netherlands; Dairy cows; Agricultural wastes;
 Feeding standards; Pollution; Nitrogen; Feces; Urine; Diet;
 Phosphorus; Methane; Nutrient requirements; Literature reviews
 
 Abstract:  Dairy production causes unavoidable losses in
 respiration, feces, and urine, which may become an
 environmental burden as contributors to the "greenhouse"
 effect (CO2, CH4) or to the pollution of air (NH3), soil
 surface, and sub-soil water (NO3, P). Losses in respirations
 can be reduced by increasing feed quality and level of
 production. Increased feed quality can reduce losses in
 methane, whereas an increased level of production decreases
 the relative losses in maintenance. Fecal and urinary losses
 can be reduced by minimizing the intake of N and P relative to
 energy. Further reductions can result from increasing feed
 quality and level of production, from matching or
 synchronizing die availability of N and energy in the rumen,
 and from shifting the site of digestion of protein and starch
 from the rumen to the small intestine. Improved feed quality
 will reduce endogenous protein losses. In order to exploit
 fully the potential of nutritional management in pollution
 control, computer simulation models describing dairy
 production in a dynamic way are needed.
 
 
 90                                    NAL Call. No.: QH540.J6
 The origin and identification of macropores in an earthen-
 lined dairy manure storage basin.
 McCurdy, M.; McSweeney, K.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 Jan.
 Journal of environmental quality v. 22 (1): p. 148-154; 1992
 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Wisconsin; Dairy wastes; Animal manures; Storage;
 Waste disposal; Groundwater pollution; Macropores; Leaching;
 Contaminants; Liners; Physicochemical properties; Macropore
 flow
 
 Abstract:  Earthen-lined basins have been used to store dairy
 manure in Wisconsin since the early 1970s. Monitoring data
 indicate that many of these basins are leaking, but little
 effort has been directed toward explaining the mechanisms
 responsible for leakage. Morphological and micromorphological
 techniques were used to identify macropores in the sidewall of
 an earthen-lined manure storage basin. Laboratory and field
 dye studies provided evidence of contaminant movement via
 macropores. Results indicate that physicochemical and
 biological mechanisms were responsible for creating macropores
 capable of providing pathways for preferential flow. These
 mechanisms, and the resulting macropores, can significantly
 affect the long-term viability of earthen-lined manure storage
 basins.
 
 
 91                                  NAL Call. No.: QL461.E532
 Ovipositional response of Musca sorbens Wiedemann (Diptera:
 Muscidae) to residues of digested ground corn in feces of
 dairy cows.
 Lee, C.N.; Toyama, G.M.
 Lanham, Md. : Entomological Society of America; 1991 Oct.
 Environmental entomology v. 20 (5): p. 1447-1450; 1991 Oct. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Hawaii; Musca sorbens; Cattle manure; Feces
 composition; Maize; Oviposition
 
 Abstract:  Feces that contained residues of digested dairy
 feed supplements were offered as ovipositional substrates to
 caged Musca sorbens Wiedemann to determine preference. Results
 showed preference for residues of digested ground corn.
 Ovipositional preference for residues of digested ground corn
 over those from coarser rolled corn suggested a relationship
 between surface areas exposed to digestive fluids and
 intensity of ovipositional preference. Feces of cows that were
 fed complete rations formulated without corn were
 ovipositionally unattractive to caged M. sorbens.
 
 
 92                                    NAL Call. No.: 58.8 J82
 Passive separation and the efficiency of anaerobic digestion
 of cattle slurry. Schofield, C.P.; Rees, Y.J.
 London : Academic Press; 1988 Jul.
 Journal of agricultural engineering research v. 40 (3): p.
 175-186. ill; 1988 Jul.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy wastes; Cattle slurry; Anaerobic digesters;
 Separation; Waste treatment; Methane production; Efficiency;
 Settlement
 
 
 93                                   NAL Call. No.: QC73.6.E5
 Performance evaluation of a continuous-flow no-mix anaerobic
 reactor operating on dairy manure.
 Ghaly, A.E.; Echiegu, E.A.
 Washington, DC : Taylor & Francis; 1992 Apr.
 Energy sources v. 14 (2): p. 113-134; 1992 Apr.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy wastes; Animal manures; Animal wastes;
 Anaerobic digestion; Equipment; Biogas; Production; Biomass;
 Chemical oxygen demand; Time; Hydraulics; Ph; Nitrogen;
 Temperature; Evaluation
 
 
 94                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32P
 Performance evaluation of a no-mix continuous flow anaerobic
 digester operating on dairy manure.
 Ghaly, A.E.; Echiegu, E.A.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1989.
 Paper - American Society of Agricultural Engineers (89-4097):
 p. 1-28; 1989. Paper presented at the 1989 International
 Summer Meeting jointly sponsored by the American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers, and the Canadian Society of
 Agricultural Engineering, June 25-28, 1989, Quebec, Canada. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Anaerobic digesters; Dairy wastes; Methane
 production
 
 
 95                                   NAL Call. No.: TD930.A32
 Performance of a dairy manure anaerobic lagoon.
 Safley, L.M. Jr; Westerman, P.W.
 Essex : Elsevier Science Publishers; 1992.
 Bioresource technology v. 42 (1): p. 43-52; 1992.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: North Carolina; Dairy cattle; Cattle manure;
 Anaerobic treatment; Lagoons; Performance; Methane production
 
 
 96                                   NAL Call. No.: TD930.A32
 Performance of a low temperature lagoon digester.
 Satley, L.M. Jr; Westerman, P.W.
 Essex : Elsevier Applied Science Publishers; 1992.
 Bioresource technology v. 41 (2): p. 167-175; 1992.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Cattle manure; Liquid wastes;
 Lagoons; Digesters; Performance; Biogas; Methane production;
 Anaerobic digestion
 
 
 97                                   NAL Call. No.: TD172.J61
 Pesticides, food contaminants, and agricultural wastes.
 Khan, S.U.
 New York, N.Y. : Marcel Dekker; 1993.
 Journal of environmental science and health : Part B :
 Pesticides, food contaminants, and agricultural wastes v. B28
 (1): p. 1-18; 1993.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Georgia; Atrazine; Coastal plain soils; Dairy
 effluent; Cattle manure; Nutrient content; Application rates;
 Runoff; Flow; Leaching; Leachates; Losses from soil systems;
 Rain; Water flow; Application to land
 
 
 98                                     NAL Call. No.: 4 AM34P
 Plant nutrient flow in the managed pathways of an intensive
 dairy farm. Bacon, S.C.; Lanyon, L.E.; Schlauder, R.M. Jr
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1990 Jul.
 Agronomy journal v. 82 (4): p. 755-761. maps; 1990 Jul. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Pennsylvania; Dairy farming; Intensive livestock
 farming; Intensive cropping; Farm management; Farm inputs;
 Nitrogen; Phosphorus; Potassium; Nitrogen economy; Farmyard
 manure; Nutrient cycles; Quantitative analysis
 
 Abstract:  The magnitude, and spatial and temporal patterns of
 nutrient flow in the managed pathways of a farm are related to
 farm management decisions and interact with the biological
 processes of the farm. These descriptions of nutrient flow can
 be part of a nutrient management process that is consistent
 with the specifics of individual farm operations and
 particular farm performance goals. Nutrient flow in the
 managed pathways of a Pennsylvania dairy farm was measured at
 farm, field, and livestock unit boundaries using on-farm
 equipment scales, farm records, and material sampling and
 analysis. Farm nutrient inputs of N, P, and K were twofold or
 more greater than outputs of these nutrients in the managed
 pathways. The temporal distribution of flows was closely
 related to the livestock activities on the farm. Manure
 storage capacity and crop developmental stage were significant
 factors influencing the timing of nutrient flows to and from
 the fields. Nutrient inputs and outputs in the managed flows
 at the boundary for the set of all fields were approximately
 equal except for the negative calculated crop available N
 balance. However, the range in balances for individual fields
 was large. Manure N and potential biological N fixation were
 not used efficiently on this farm due primarily to the
 volatilization of N from manure and the application of manure
 to alfalfa. Additions of nutrients to the farm in the managed
 flows decreased by 26, 60, and 43% for N, P, and K,
 respectively, in the 2nd yr of the study due primarily to less
 purchased animal feeds.
 
 
 99                                 NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32T
 Plugging effects from livestock waste application on
 infiltration and runoff. Roberts, R.J.; Clanton, C.J.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1992 Mar. Transactions of the ASAE v. 35 (2): p.
 515-522; 1992 Mar.  Literature review. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Infiltration; Permeability; Rain; Runoff; Soil
 water; Dairy wastes; Pig slurry; Literature reviews
 
 Abstract:  A rainfall simulator was used on repacked Waukegan
 silt loam and Hubbard loamy sand soil columns to determine the
 combined effect of rainfall and livestock waste application on
 infiltration and runoff. Dairy and swine waste slurries were
 either surface-applied or incorporated. Livestock waste
 application noticeably reduced the amount of runoff during a
 series of artificial rainfall events for all cases with the
 exception of swine waste incorporated into the silt loam soil.
 Loamy sand exhibited short-term plugging when both wastes were
 surface-applied with no incorporation. Surface-application of
 dairy waste on the silt loam soil apparently prevented
 formation of a surface seal and improved the infiltration
 capacity. of the soil. Less surface-scaling in waste-applied
 columns may be attributed to increased organic matter on the
 surface of the soil that aided aggregate stability. Also. the
 waste particles protected the surface from the energy of the
 impacting raindrops.
 
 
 100                                NAL Call. No.: 290.9 Am32T
 Production and characteristics of manure from lactating dairy
 cows in Florida. Morse, D.; Nordstedt, R.A.; Head, H.H.; Van
 Horn, H.H.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural Engineers
 1958-; 1994 Jan.
 Transactions of the ASAE v. 37 (1): p. 275-279; 1994 Jan. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Cabt; Dairy cows; Manures; Total solids;
 Feed intake; Phosphorus; Excretion
 
 Abstract:  Total quantities of urine and feces excreted daily
 were collected from 12 lactating Holstein dairy cow averaging
 567 kg (1250 lb) on fixed feed intake averaging 20 kg (44 lb)
 of dry matter per day, or 16 kg (36 lb) of dry matter per day
 per 454 kg (1000 lb) of body weight. Amounts of total and
 volatile solids, acid detergent lignin phosphorus in feces,
 and phosphorus in urine were determined Cows excreted an
 average of 44.6 kg (98.1 lb) of raw waste, 6.08 kg (13.1 lb)
 of total solids in feces, and 0.16 kg (0.3 lb) of fixed solids
 in feces daily, expressed per 454 kg (1000 lb) of body weight.
 Total solids of feces represented 36.4% of the daily diet dry
 matter intake. These values are greater than table values
 developed by previous researchers and used to design dairy
 farm facilities. Feces to urine ratio (w/w) ranged from 1.4:1
 to 1.9:1. Fecal grab samples (n = 383)from cows on commercial
 dairies, for which estimated daily intake of feed was
 available, had greater acid detergent lignin content (16.9 vs.
 13.8%) and about 60% more than cows on the total collection
 trial (4.2 vs. 2.6%), perhaps due to some ingestion of sand on
 pasture. For all fecal samples fixed solids percentages were
 much less than table values developed by previous researchers.
 Differences may be due, in part, to improved genetic potential
 of cows, because of increased feed intake, climate, or
 intensive management practices. Our research also confirmed
 that the quantity of phosphorus (P) excreted in feces was
 variable, but depended on intake of dietary P.
 
 
 101                                   NAL Call. No.: SF191.D3
 Profit tips.
 Annexstad, J.
 Minnetonka, Minn. : Miller Publishing Co; 1988 Apr.
 Dairy herd management v. 25 (4): p. 8-9. ill; 1988 Apr.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: U.S.A.; Dairy farming; Profitability; Nematode
 control; Culling; Cattle manure; Coccidiosis; Disease control
 
 
 102                                     NAL Call. No.: S1.N32
 Profitable farming: the next generation.
 Kendall, D.
 Emmaus, Pa. : Regenerative Agriculture Association; 1988 Jul.
 The New farm v. 10 (5): p. 36-38; 1988 Jul.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairying; Organic farming; Cattle manure;
 Rotations; Crop yield; Alternative farming
 
 
 103                                  NAL Call. No.: TD930.A32
 Psychrophilic digestion of dairy cattle and pig manure: start-
 up procedures of batch, fed-batch and CSTR-type digesters.
 Zeeman, G.; Sutter, K.; Vens, T.; Koster, M.; Wellinger, A.
 London : Elsevier Applied Science Publishers; 1988.
 Biological wastes v. 26 (1): p. 15-31. ill; 1988.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Pigs; Farmyard manure;
 Psychrophilic bacteria; Anaerobic digesters; Fermentation;
 Temperatures; Biogas slurry; Methane
 
 
 104                                   NAL Call. No.: 421 J828
 A quantitative survey of Culicoides variipennis (Diptera:
 Ceratopogonidae) in dairy wastewater ponds in southern
 California.
 Mullens, B.A.
 Lanham, Md. : The Entomological Society of America; 1989 Nov.
 Journal of medical entomology v. 26 (6): p. 559-565. ill; 1989
 Nov.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Culicoides variipennis; Larvae;
 Disease vectors; Dairy cattle; Dairy wastes; Ponds; Bluetongue
 virus
 
 
 105                                   NAL Call. No.: S601.A34
 Reducing energy inputs to a simulated dairy farm.
 Vinten-Johansen, C.; Lanyon, L.E.; Stephenson, K.Q.
 Amsterdam : Elsevier; 1990 Jul.
 Agriculture, ecosystems and environment v. 31 (3): p. 225-242;
 1990 Jul. Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy farming; Energy intake; Energy
 requirements; No-tillage; Manure spreading; Energy
 consumption; Linear programming; Reduction
 
 
 106                                 NAL Call. No.: QL461.E532
 Relationship of microhabitat to incidence of house fly
 (Diptera: Muscidae) immatures and their parasitoids at dairy
 farms in central New York. Smith, L.; Rutz, D.A.
 Lanham, Md. : Entomological Society of America; 1991 Apr.
 Environmental entomology v. 20 (2): p. 669-674; 1991 Apr. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: New York; Dairy farms; Musca domestica; Stomoxys
 calcitrans; Ova; Larvae; Pupae; Microhabitats; Manures;
 Muscidifurax raptor; Pteromalidae; Spalangia; Phygadeuon;
 Parasites of insect pests; Biological control agents
 
 Abstract:  Weekly observations were made on the presence of
 housefly, Musca domestica L., and stable fly, Stomoxys
 calcitrans (L.), eggs, larvae, and pupae, during 21 wk at nine
 dairies in Cayuga County, New York. Laboratory-reared fly
 pupae were exposed at each site to monitor parasitoid
 activity. Incidence of fly immatures was significantly related
 to substrate, moisture, and location, but not to indoor or
 outdoor exposure. Incidence was greatest at wet sites,
 particularly in manure, bedding, and feed, and lowest at dry
 sites. Locations with the highest incidence were lean-to,
 silo, calf pen, outdoor manure pile, outdoor manure ramp, and
 manure lagoon. Incidence of Muscidifurax raptor Girault and
 Sanders, Urolepis rufipes (Ashmead), Spalangia cameroni
 Perkins (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and total parasitism were
 positively associated with the presence of fly immatures, but
 Phygadeuon fumator Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae)
 was independent. With respect to substrate, moisture, and
 exposure, parasitism was generally distributed in a pattern
 similar to that of the flies. However, incidence of parasitism
 was greater, relative to that of fly immatures, in grass and
 earth substrates, but lower in wet manure and feed. With
 respect to location, parasitism was high at manure ramps and
 low in calf pens and in manure sheds, relative to fly
 immatures. The guild of parasitoids attacking synanthropic
 muscoid pupae appears to cover all appropriate host
 microhabitats at dairies in central New York.
 
 
 107                                   NAL Call. No.: 421 J828
 Response of Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)
 to water level fluctuations in experimental dairy wastewater
 ponds.
 Mullens, B.A.; Rodriguez, J.L.
 Lanham, Md. : The Entomological Society of America; 1989 Nov.
 Journal of medical entomology v. 26 (6): p. 566-572; 1989 Nov. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Culicoides variipennis; Larvae;
 Responses; Water; Disease vectors; Dairy cattle; Dairy wastes;
 Ponds; Bluetongue virus
 
 
 108                                NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32T
 Retention and loss of nitrogen and solids from unlined earthen
 manure storages.
 Culley, J.L.B.; Phillips, P.A.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers; 1989 Mar. Transactions of the ASAE v. 32 (2): p.
 677-683. ill; 1989 Mar.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy effluents; Storage; Soil contamination;
 Nitrogen; Groundwater pollution
 
 
 109                                  NAL Call. No.: TD930.A32
 Rheological properties of Moroccan dairy cattle manure.
 Achkari-Begdouri, A.; Goodrich, P.R.
 Essex : Elsevier Applied Science Publishers; 1992.
 Bioresource technology v. 40 (2): p. 149-156; 1992.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Morocco; Dairy cattle; Cattle manure; Animal
 wastes; Anaerobic digestion; Rheological properties
 
 
 110                                  NAL Call. No.: SF221.B26
 Size and waste management costs.
 Schwart, B.; Schmucker, J.; Lacewell, R.; Leatham, D.; Lovell,
 A.; Allen, G. College Station, Tex. : The Service; 1991 Jan29.
 Balanced dairying : Economics - Texas Agricultural Extension
 Service v. 11 (1): 4 p.; 1991 Jan29.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Texas; Dairy farming; Waste disposal; Waste
 treatment; Cost benefit analysis; Water pollution; Groundwater
 pollution; Water quality; Statistics
 
 
 111                                   NAL Call. No.: 56.8 SO3
 Soil sampling and nutrient variability in dairy animal holding
 areas. Anderson, D.L.; Hanlon, E.A.; Miller, O.P.; Hoge, V.R.;
 Diaz, O.A. Baltimore, Md. : Williams & Wilkins; 1992 Apr.
 Soil science v. 153 (4): p. 314-321; 1992 Apr.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Florida; Spodosols; Sandy soils; Surface layers;
 Soil testing; Sampling; Assessment; Nutrient content;
 Phosphorus; Potassium; Calcium; Aluminum; Iron; Sodium; Soil
 organic matter; Soil ph; Soil variability; Spatial variation;
 Nutrient availability; Nutrient retention; Movement in soil;
 Spodic horizons; Dairy wastes; Population density; Topography;
 Water pollution
 
 
 112                                NAL Call. No.: SF967.M3N32
 Straw flow litter for dairy cows: experimental tests with
 different slopes and different quantities of straw.
 Chiappini, U.; Zappavigna, P.
 Arlington, Va. : The Council; 1994.
 Annual meeting /. p. 262-269; 1994.  Meeting held on January
 31-February 2, 1994, Orlando, Florida.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Straw; Litter; Thickness; Floors;
 Slopes; Hygiene; Animal behavior; Cattle manure; Density;
 Volume
 
 
 113                                  NAL Call. No.: 44.8 J822
 Survival of coliform bacteria in static compost piles of dairy
 waste solids intended for freestall bedding.
 Mote, C.R.; Emerton, B.L.; Allison, J.S.; Dowlen, H.H.;
 Oliver, S.P. Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science
 Association; 1988 Jun. Journal of dairy science v. 71 (6): p.
 1676-1681; 1988 Jun.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Farm dairies; Cattle manure; Solid waste;
 Composts; Coliform bacteria; Coliform count; Litter; Loose
 housing
 
 
 114                                  NAL Call. No.: TD930.A32
 Thermophilic methane production from dairy cattle waste.
 Wohlt, J.E.; Frobish, R.A.; Davis, C.L.; Bryant, M.P.; Mackie,
 R.I. Essex : Elsevier Applied Science Publishers; 1990.
 Biological wastes v. 32 (3): p. 193-207; 1990.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Waste treatment; Anaerobic
 digesters; Methane production; Chemical composition
 
 
 115                                     NAL Call. No.: TP1.P7
 Treatment of dairy farm wastewaters in engineered reed bed
 systems. Biddlestone, A.J.; Gray, K.R.; Job, G.D.
 New York, N.Y. : Elsevier Science Publishers; 1991 Oct.
 Process biochemistry v. 26 (5): p. 265-268; 1991 Oct. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy effluent; Dairy wastes; Waste water;
 Biological treatment; Phragmites australis; Lagoons
 
 
 116                                NAL Call. No.: SF5.A8 1990
 Treatment of dairy wastewater by modified reactor of anaerobic
 filter. Lung, S.P.; Tseng, S.K.; Suang, Y.Y.
 Chunan, Miaoli, Taiwan : The Organization Committee, Fifth
 AAAP Animal Science Congress; 1990.
 Proceedings, the 5th AAAP Animal Science Congress, May 27-June
 1, 1990, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China. v. 3 p. 209; 1990. 
 Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Waste water treatment; Dairies; Anaerobic
 treatment
 
 
 117                                  NAL Call. No.: TD930.A32
 Treatment of milking centre waste in sequencing batch
 reactors. Lo, K.V.; Tam, J.P.; Liao, P.H.; Bulley, N.R.
 London : Elsevier Applied Science Publishers; 1988.
 Biological wastes v. 25 (3): p. 193-208; 1988.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy effluents; Waste water treatment; Systems;
 Equipment; Temperature relations; Operating time; Efficiency
 
 
 118                                NAL Call. No.: 290.9 AM32P
 Triple crop forage production utilizing animal waste.
 Butler, J.L.; Johnson, J.C. Jr; Newton, G.L.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society; 1989.
 Paper - American Society of Agricultural Engineers (89-1059):
 9 p.; 1989. Paper presented at the "1989 International Summer
 Meeting jointly sponsored by the American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers and the Canadian Society of
 Agricultural Enigeering, June 25-28, Quebec, Canada.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Georgia; Fodder crops; Dairy effluent; Waste
 disposal
 
 
 119                                   NAL Call. No.: SF191.D3
 Turning dairy wastes into power and profits.
 Williams, G.B.
 Minnetonka, Minn. : Miller Publishing Company; 1989 Apr.
 Dairy herd management v. 26 (4): p. 46, 48. ill; 1989 Apr.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Arizona; Dairy wastes; Cattle manure; Methane
 production; Waste utilization; University research; Savings
 
 
 120                                  NAL Call. No.: 41.8 V643
 Update on dairy cow housing with particular reference to
 flooring. Barnes, M.M.
 London : Bailliere Tindall; 1989 Sep.
 British veterinary journal v. 145 (5): p. 436-445. ill; 1989
 Sep.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cows; Cattle housing; Floors; Concrete;
 Design; Cattle manure; Animal feeding
 
 
 121                                  NAL Call. No.: TD930.A32
 Use of mineral amendements to reduce ammonia losses from
 dairy-cattle and chicken-manure slurries.
 Termeer, W.C.; Warman, P.R.
 Essex : Elsevier Science Publishers; 1993.
 Bioresource technology v. 44 (3): p. 217-222; 1993.  Includes
 references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy cattle; Poultry manure; Slurries; Minerals;
 Amendments; Ammonia; Losses; Volatilization; Manures; Storage;
 Application
 
 
 122                              NAL Call. No.: 275.29 N811NC
 Utilization of dairy manure as fertilizer.
 Barker, J.C.
 Raleigh, N.C. : North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service;
 1988 Oct. North Carolina dairy extension newsletter. p. 3-5;
 1988 Oct.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy farming; Manure spreading
 
 
 123                                   NAL Call. No.: QH540.J6
 Vegetative filter treatment of dairy barnyard runoff in cold
 regions. Schellinger, G.R.; Clausen, J.C.
 Madison, Wis. : American Society of Agronomy; 1992 Jan.
 Journal of environmental quality v. 21 (1): p. 40-45; 1992
 Jan.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Vermont; Dairy wastes; Farmyards; Runoff;
 Biological treatment; Waste water treatment; Filter beds;
 Festuca; Poa; Lolium; Nutrient content; Phosphorus; Nitrogen
 content; Escherichia coli; Streptococcus; Water quality
 
 Abstract:  A vegetative filter strip was installed to treat
 barnyard runoff from an active dairy farm in Vermont. Runoff
 from a concrete surfaced barnyard flowed through a detention
 pond, then onto a vegetative filter strip measuring 22.9 m by
 7.6 m with a 2% slope. The water input and surface and
 subsurface outputs for the strip were continuously monitored
 from December 1984 through May 1986. Of the total barnyard
 runoff entering the strip, 65% left as surface runoff and 27%
 was measured as subsurface outflow. The average hydraulic
 loading rate was 14.7 cm wk-1 and the average overland flow
 detention time was 15 min. The filter strip did not
 significantly (P < 0.05) reduce solids, P, N and bacteria
 concentrations in the surface output. Over the period of study
 the mass retention was 33% total suspended solids, 12% total P
 and 18% total Kjeldahl N. Mass retention was highest during
 the growing season and was poorest during snowmelt periods. It
 was concluded that poor filter strip performance was due to an
 excessive hydraulic loading rate resulting in an inadequate
 detention time for proper treatment. A preferential flow path
 from the level lip spreader to the subsurface drain tiles may
 have contributed to the poor subsurface treatment performance.
 
 
 124                         NAL Call. No.: Z7914.W37W37  1994
 Waste treatment dairy, poultry, meat and seafood industry
 (Jul.72-present).. Citations from the Food Science & Tecnology
 Abstracts
 United States, National Technical Information Service
 Springfied, VA : NTIS,; 1994.
 1 v. (unpaged) ; 28 cm. (Published search).  Cover title. 
 "Jan 94"--P. [5]. AT head of title: Citations from the Food
 Science & Technology Abstracts. Includes index.  PB94-865367.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Waste products; Agricultural wastes
 
 
 125                                NAL Call. No.: 290.9 Am32P
 Wastewater treatment alternatives for a small dairy.
 Ritter, W.F.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers,; 1991. Paper / (916578): 16 p.; 1991.  Paper
 presented at the "1991 Winter Meeting sponsored by the
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers," December 17-20,
 1991, Chicago, Illinois.  Includes references.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy wastes; Costs; Waste water treatment
 
 
 126                                  NAL Call. No.: 79.9 C122
 Weed seed and dairy manure.
 Cudney, D.W.; Schultz, T.A.; Wright, S.D.
 Fremont, Calif. : California Weed Conference; 1991.
 Proceedings - California Weed Conference (43rd): p. 62-63;
 1991.  Meeting held January 21-23, 1991, Santa Barbara,
 California.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Cattle manure; Dairy cattle; Weeds; Seeds; Weed
 biology
 
 
 127                                 NAL Call. No.: 100 C12CAG
 Weed seed in dairy manure depends on collection site.
 Cudney, D.W.; Wright, S.D.; Shultz, T.A.; Reints, J.S.
 Oakland, Calif. : Division of Agriculture and Natural
 Resources, University of California; 1992 May.
 California agriculture v. 46 (3): p. 31-32. ill; 1992 May.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Manures; Weeds; Seed dispersal; Composting; Dairy
 cattle
 
 
 128                                NAL Call. No.: 290.9 Am32P
 Wetland for treating liquid dairy waste design and monitoring.
 Lanier, A.L.; Fox, D.; Smith, D.W.
 St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers,; 1991. Paper / (914020): 9 p.; 1991.  Paper
 presented at the "1991 International Summer Meeting sponsored
 by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers," June
 23-26, 1991, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: California; Cabt; Dairy wastes; Waste water
 treatment; Wetlands
 
 
 129                                     NAL Call. No.: S1.N32
 Wetlands that work for you.
 Bowman, G.; Wetlands that work for you
 Emmaus, Pa. : Rodale Institute; 1992 Nov.
 The New farm v. 14 (7): p. 50-53; 1992 Nov.
 
 Language:  English
 
 Descriptors: Dairy wastes; Biological treatment; Waste water
 treatment; Wetlands; On-farm processing
 
 
 
                          AUTHOR INDEX
 
 Achkari-Begdouri, A.  10, 109
 Agricultural and Food Policy Center (Tex.)  65
 Allen, G.  18, 63, 64, 110
 Allen, L.H. Jr  29, 32
 Allison, J.S.  113
 Anderson, D.L.  111
 Anderson, M.A.  87
 Annexstad, J.  101
 Axelrod, H.  41
 Bacon, S.C.  98
 Baird, C.  4
 Barker, J.C.  122
 Barnes, M.M.  120
 Batie, S.S.  60, 71
 Becker, H.  15
 Beierlein, J.G.  19
 Ben-Hassan, R.M.  17
 Biddlestone, A.J.  115
 Boggs, L.  73
 Bortone, G.  54
 Bottcher, A.B.  32
 Bottcher, A.V.  25
 Bowman, G.  129
 Bowser, T.  46
 Brock, W.  16
 Brooks, L.A.  44
 Brown, D.A.  20
 Bryant, M.P.  114
 Bulley, N.R.  117
 Burgoa, B.  32
 Butler, J.L.  118
 Campbell, J.K.  50
 Cathcart, T.  14, 16
 Chambliss, C.F.  25
 Chapman, H.D.  5
 Chapman, J.M.  78
 Chayovan, S.  8
 Chen, T.H.  79
 Chiappini, U.  112
 Chiu, C.  76
 Christensen, L. A.  45
 Clanton, C.J.  99
 Clausen, J.C.  123
 Comfort, S.D.  88
 Comis, D.  75
 Conkling, D.  51
 Connor, L.J.  62
 Converse, J.C.  55, 88
 Cramer, C.  59, 61
 Cudney, D.W.  126, 127
 Culley, J.L.B.  108
 Dahlberg, S.P.  34
 Darwazeh, H.A.  41, 43
 Davis, C.L.  114
 Davis, S.  14
 Davis, S.H.  16
 Diaz, O.A.  111
 Diebel, P.L.  71
 Dinkler, H.D.  56
 Dombrowski, J.E.  27
 Donohue, S.J.  87
 Dowlen, H.H.  113
 Eastman, J.A.  8
 Echiegu, E.A.  93, 94
 Emerton, B.L.  113
 Fabian, E.E.  50
 Falk, D.E.  26
 Federici, B.A.  52
 Fluck, R.C.  56
 Fox, D.  128
 Frobish, R.A.  114
 Frost, J.P.  38
 Gamroth, M.J.  33
 Garsow, J.D.  62
 Gay, J.M.  67
 Gerhardt, S.A.  40
 Gerrish, J.B.  8
 Ghaly, A.E.  9, 17, 93, 94
 Giles, J.F.  34
 Goodrich, P.R.  10, 109
 Graetz, D.A.  25
 Gray, K.R.  115
 Griffin, C.D.  5
 Guest, R.W.  50
 Hadjivassilis, I.  28
 Halstead, J.M.  60, 71
 Hanlon, E.A.  25, 111
 Hao, O.J.  1
 Haugen, V.J.  7
 Head, H.H.  100
 Heatwole, C.D.  71
 Hermanson, R.E.  68
 Hoge, V.R.  111
 Hunsaker, M.E.  67
 Job, G.D.  115
 Johnson, A.T.  1
 Johnson, D.E.  48
 Johnson, J.C. Jr  31, 118
 Jokela, W.E.  84
 Jones, D.I.H.  35
 Jones, R.  35
 Jui, P.Y.  83
 Kanneganti, V.R.  86
 Kappel, T.J.  40
 Keeney, D.R.  88
 Kelling K.A.  55
 Kelling, K.A.  88
 Kendall, D.  102
 Khan, S.U.  97
 King, L.D.  37
 Klausner, S.  70
 Klausner, S.D.  86
 Knutson, R.D.  66
 Kobayashi, S.  39
 Koelsch, R.K.  50
 Koster, M.  103
 Kramer, R.A.  71
 Krause, Kenneth R.,  45
 Krones, M.J.  1
 Lacewell, R.  18, 110
 Lacewell, R.D.  63, 64
 Lague, C.  30
 Lanier, A.L.  128
 Lanyon, L.E.  24, 98, 105
 Laughlin, R.J.  38
 Lazarus, W.F.  20
 Leatham, D.  18, 110
 Leatham, D.J.  63, 64
 Lee, C.N.  91
 Leonard, N.  74
 Liao, P.H.  2, 76, 117
 Lindley, J.A.  7, 34
 Lo, K.V.  2, 76, 117
 Lorimor, J.  53
 Lotmentseva, E.Yu  57
 Lovell, A.  18, 64, 110
 Lovell, A.C.  63
 Lung, S.P.  116
 Mackie, R.I.  114
 Manning, L.  4
 Mansell, R.S.  32
 Martens, D.C.  87
 Masters, B.K.  72
 Masuda, Y.  39
 Matanmi, B.A.  41, 52
 McCurdy, M.  90
 McKenna, J.R.  87
 McNamara, K.  58
 McSweeney, K.  90
 McSweeny, W.C.  19
 Megehee, D.B.  49
 Merriman, R.P.  23
 Miller, J.W.  66
 Miller, O.P.  111
 Miller, R.W.  20
 Morse, D.  100
 Moseley, G.  35
 Motavalli, P.P.  55
 Mote, C.R.  113
 Mulla, M.S.  41, 43, 52
 Mullens, B.A.  12, 21, 104, 107
 Mulligan, F.S. III  42
 Nakhapetyan, L.A.  57
 Newton, G.L.  118
 Nordstedt, R.A.  13, 25, 100
 Nott, S.B.  62
 Ohlensehlen, R.M.  26
 Oliver, S.P.  113
 Outlaw, J.L.  66
 Outlaw, Joe L.  65
 Padgitt, S.  60
 Pain, B.F.  77, 78
 Patni, N.K.  83
 Phillips, P.A.  108
 Phillips, V.R.  77, 78
 Piccinini, S.  54
 Pote, J.  14, 16
 Powers, W.J.  13
 Raistrick, N.  85
 Ramsey, D.S.  49
 Rees, Y.J.  92
 Reints, J.S.  127
 Richardson, J.  18
 Ritter, W.F.  125
 Robbins, J.E.  40
 Roberts, R.J.  99
 Rodriguez, J.L.  12, 21, 107
 Rutz, D.A.  20, 106
 Rynk, R.  22
 Sachs, C.  46
 Safley, L.M. Jr  37, 69, 95
 Samoshina, N.M.  57
 Sanchez, E.P.  36
 Satley, L.M. Jr  96
 Sauber, C.M.  11, 47
 Schaefer, C.H.  42
 Schellinger, G.R.  123
 Schlauder, R.M. Jr  98
 Schmisseur, E.  33
 Schmucker, J.  18, 110
 Schmucker, J.F.  63, 64
 Schofield, C.P.  92
 Schofield, K.  23
 Schultz, T.A.  126
 Schwart, B.  18, 110
 Schwart, R.B.  63, 64
 Shultz, T.A.  127
 Smith, D.W.  128
 Smith, L.  106
 Smithwick, Robert P.,  3
 Steinberg, M.P.  79
 Stephenson, K.Q.  105
 Stevens, R.J.  38
 Strong, L.  14, 16
 Suang, Y.Y.  116
 Sutter, K.  103
 Sweeten, J.M.  4
 Tam, J.P.  117
 Tamminga, S.  89
 Taylor, D.  81
 Taylor, D.B.  71
 Termeer, W.C.  121
 Tillapaugh, B.  70
 Torrent, J.  48
 Toyama, G.M.  91
 Travieso, L.  36
 Tseng, S.K.  116
 Ulmer, R.  14, 16
 United States, Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service 
 45
 United States, National Technical Information Service  124
 United States, Soil Conservation Service, United States, Dept.
 of Agriculture, Video and Teleconference Division  82
 Van Horn, H.H.  13, 25, 100
 Vens, T.  103
 Vinten-Johansen, C.  105
 Ward, G.M.  48
 Warman, P.R.  121
 Weidner, K.  80
 Weiland, P.  36
 Wellinger, A.  103
 West, R  77
 Westerman, P.W.  37, 69, 95, 96
 Wetlands that work for you  129
 Whitehead, D.C.  85
 Whitelaw, K.  23
 Wilkie, A.C.  13
 Williams, G.B.  119
 Wohlt, J.E.  114
 Woodruff, B.A.  19
 Wright, S.D.  126, 127
 Zappavigna, P.  112
 Zeeman, G.  103
 
 
                          SUBJECT INDEX
 
 Accuracy  54
 Acetates  40
 Acetylene  88
 Activated sludge  28
 Adsorption  72
 Aerobic treatment  2, 10, 72
 Africa  79
 Agricultural chemicals  60
 Agricultural engineering  77
 Agricultural policy  60
 Agricultural pollution  45
 Agricultural structure  46
 Agricultural wastes  23, 89, 124
 Air pollution  62, 85
 Alternative farming  102
 Aluminum  111
 Amendments  121
 Ammonia  13, 40, 121
 Ammonium  85
 Ammonium nitrate  84
 Anaerobic conditions  88
 Anaerobic digesters  9, 17, 34, 36, 76, 77, 78, 92, 94, 103,
 114
 Anaerobic digestion  1, 6, 40, 50, 69, 72, 93, 96, 109
 Anaerobic treatment  2, 10, 26, 95, 116
 Analysis  1
 Analytical methods  54
 Animal behavior  112
 Animal feeding  120
 Animal manures  9, 12, 46, 62, 90, 93
 Animal waste  45
 Animal wastes  4, 5, 26, 39, 51, 93, 109
 Application  121
 Application date  37, 84, 87
 Application rates  31, 37, 84, 86, 87, 97
 Application to land  13, 37, 86, 97
 Appropriate technology  61
 Aquatic organisms  12
 Arizona  119
 Assessment  111
 Atrazine  97
 Bacillus sphaericus  41, 52
 Bacteria  49
 Barley  35
 Beef cattle  5, 36, 46
 Beta-galactosidase  57
 Bibliographies  27
 Bioassays  79
 Biochemical oxygen demand  16
 Biodegradation  9
 Biogas  1, 6, 39, 93, 96
 Biogas slurry  7, 103
 Biological control  41, 52
 Biological control agents  106
 Biological techniques  26
 Biological treatment  2, 115, 123, 129
 Biological value  79
 Biomass  93
 Bluetongue virus  21, 104, 107
 Breeding  5, 21
 British Columbia  76
 British friesian  35
 Broadcasting  55
 Bulk density  10
 Cabt  16, 22, 24, 31, 51, 64, 66, 67, 100, 128
 Calcium  31, 111
 California  11, 12, 21, 42, 47, 52, 67, 104, 107, 128
 Calves  67
 Canada  22
 Capital  62
 Carbon dioxide  88
 Cash flow  63
 Cattle  34
 Cattle diseases  5
 Cattle farming  46
 Cattle feeding  5, 24, 38, 39
 Cattle housing  120
 Cattle manure  2, 10, 13, 22, 24, 25, 30, 31, 33, 36, 37, 40,
 48, 54, 55, 61, 68, 69, 70, 74, 75, 79, 84, 86, 91, 95, 96,
 97, 101, 102, 109, 112, 113, 119, 120, 126
 Cattle slurry  38, 40, 77, 78, 83, 85, 87, 92
 Cheesemaking  2
 Chemical analysis  54
 Chemical composition  114
 Chemical oxygen demand  36, 76, 93
 Chopping  19
 Coastal plain soils  97
 Coccidiosis  101
 Coliform bacteria  113
 Coliform count  113
 Composting  22, 127
 Composts  51, 113
 Computer software  73
 Concentration  10, 38, 40
 Concrete  120
 Connecticut  51
 Construction  14, 16
 Contaminants  90
 Contamination  60
 Control  27
 Cost benefit analysis  18, 110
 Cost effectiveness analysis  19
 Costs  26, 78, 125
 Crop enterprises  80
 Crop growth stage  84
 Crop production  60
 Crop yield  31, 37, 55, 84, 86, 87, 102
 Crops  33
 Crossbreds  35
 Culex  41, 52
 Culex peus  43
 Culex quinquefasciatus  42, 43
 Culicoides variipennis  12, 21, 104, 107
 Culling  33, 101
 Cyclic fluctuations  8
 Cynodon dactylon  31
 Cyprus  28
 Dactylis glomerata  86
 Dairies  42, 43, 116
 Dairy cattle  2, 5, 10, 21, 36, 37, 40, 41, 46, 54, 69, 82,
 84, 85, 95, 96, 103, 104, 107, 109, 114, 121, 126, 127
 Dairy cows  13, 38, 39, 48, 59, 67, 78, 89, 100, 112, 120 
 Dairy effluent  6, 14, 16, 25, 32, 44, 53, 57, 81, 97, 115,
 118
 Dairy effluents  7, 12, 73, 76, 77, 79, 108, 117
 Dairy equipment  44
 Dairy farming  11, 15, 18, 21, 23, 26, 31, 33, 44, 48, 58, 60,
 61, 80, 98, 101, 105, 110, 122
 Dairy farms  1, 4, 13, 19, 22, 24, 51, 62, 63, 66, 74, 106
 Dairy herds  25
 Dairy industry  9, 28, 62
 Dairy laws  3, 65
 Dairy waste  3, 65
 Dairy wastes  8, 17, 27, 29, 32, 35, 47, 49, 50, 52, 55, 60,
 63, 64, 66, 68, 70, 71, 72, 75, 83, 88, 90, 92, 93, 94, 99,
 104, 107, 111, 115, 119, 123, 125, 128, 129
 Dairying  65, 102
 Decision making  33
 Denitrification  88
 Density  112
 Design  120
 Design criteria  26
 Diet  89
 Digesters  2, 7, 8, 40, 79, 96
 Disease control  101
 Disease vectors  21, 104, 107
 Dissolved oxygen  16
 Dry matter accumulation  84, 86
 Drying  79
 Duration  38
 Economic evaluation  39
 Economic impact  60, 62, 66, 71
 Ecosystems  46
 Effects  38
 Efficiency  2, 8, 92, 117
 Effluents  35
 Electric heaters  44
 Electrical energy  44
 Electricity  44, 77
 Energy balance  13, 77
 Energy consumption  105
 Energy intake  105
 Energy recovery  77
 Energy requirements  48, 105
 Energy sources  7
 England  85
 Environmental impact  46, 48, 60
 Environmental policy  24, 66
 Environmental pollution  47
 Environmental protection  47
 Enzyme activity  57
 Equations  10, 54
 Equipment  44, 93, 117
 Erosion  48
 Escherichia coli  123
 Estimated costs  63
 Eutrophication  29, 73
 Evaluation  93
 Excretion  13, 100
 Expert systems  33
 Factor analysis  39
 Fans  44
 Farm budgeting  62
 Farm buildings  44
 Farm comparisons  62
 Farm dairies  20, 56, 67, 113
 Farm indebtedness  63
 Farm inputs  98
 Farm management  33, 60, 61, 68, 74, 98
 Farm planning  26
 Farm storage  26, 83
 Farmers' attitudes  60
 Farmyard manure  98, 103
 Farmyards  123
 Feces  39, 67, 85, 89
 Feces collection  68
 Feces composition  91
 Federal government  66
 Feed intake  100
 Feed requirements  48
 Feed supplements  35
 Feeding standards  89
 Feedlot effluent  53, 73
 Feedlots  4
 Fermentation  103
 Fertigation  75
 Fertilizer application  70
 Fertilizers  75, 82
 Festuca  123
 Fields  75
 Filter beds  123
 Filters  72
 Financial planning  33
 Floors  112, 120
 Florida  11, 25, 29, 32, 56, 73, 100, 111
 Flow  97
 Flushing  49
 Fodder crops  44, 56, 118
 Forage  5, 86
 Forage crops  58
 Fuel consumption  8
 Fungi  57
 Galactose  57
 Genetic engineering  48
 Georgia  31, 97, 118
 Glucose syrups  57
 Government organizations  66
 Grain  84
 Grasses  59
 Grazing  59
 Great Britain  81
 Groundwater  71
 Groundwater pollution  18, 60, 90, 108, 110
 Habitats  21
 Handling  26, 44, 62
 Hawaii  91
 Health hazards  60
 Heat exchangers  44
 Heat stability  57
 Heating  8
 Hereford  35
 Hormone supplements  48
 Hydraulics  93
 Hydrogen sulfide  38
 Hydrolysis  57, 85
 Hygiene  112
 Immobilization  57
 Incentives  60
 Incidence  12
 Industrial wastes  28
 Infiltration  99
 Information systems  33
 Injections  55
 Injectors  30
 Inland lagoons  73
 Inorganic compounds  88
 Insect control  20, 42, 43
 Instruments  54
 Intensive cropping  98
 Intensive livestock farming  98
 Interviews  60
 Investment  26
 Iowa  60c
 Iron  111
 Irrigation water  28
 Isolation  67
 Italy  54
 Juvenile hormones  42
 Lactose  57
 Lagoons  14, 26, 41, 42, 43, 52, 95, 96, 115
 Lakes  73
 Larvae  41, 42, 43, 104, 106, 107
 Law  63
 Law enforcement  11
 Leachates  97
 Leaching  90, 97
 Leaves  51
 Legislation  56, 64
 Legumes  59
 Licenses and permits  11
 Linear programming  105
 Liners  90
 Liquid manures  1, 37, 58, 59, 75, 88
 Liquid wastes  96
 Literature reviews  89, 99
 Litter  19, 112, 113
 Liveweight gain  35
 Lolium  123
 Lolium multiflorum  35
 Lolium perenne  35
 Loose housing  113
 Losses  83, 121
 Losses from soil systems  84, 88, 97
 Louisiana  5
 Low input agriculture  51
 Macropore flow  90
 Macropores  90
 Magnesium  31
 Maine  87
 Maintenance  78
 Maize  91
 Maize silage  37, 84
 Management  26
 Manure spreaders  25, 30
 Manure spreading  80, 105, 122
 Manures  11, 20, 34, 44, 53, 100, 106, 121, 127
 Marketing  5
 Maryland  20
 Mathematical models  63
 Methane  13, 77, 89, 103
 Methane production  1, 2, 7, 8, 9, 17, 48, 69, 76, 79, 92, 94,
 95, 96, 114, 119
 Methoprene  43
 Michigan  62
 Microbial water relations  49
 Microhabitats  106
 Milk production  44, 48
 Milk quality  61
 Milking  44
 Milking machines  44
 Minerals  121
 Minimum tillage  31
 Minnesota  61
 Mississippi  16
 Mixed pastures  58
 Mixtures  2, 40
 Models  36
 Morocco  10, 109
 Movement in soil  111
 Musca domestica  20, 106
 Musca sorbens  91
 Muscidifurax raptor  106
 Nematode control  101
 Netherlands  89
 New York  20, 70, 106
 Newspapers  19
 Nitrapyrin  88
 Nitrate  84
 Nitrate nitrogen  84
 Nitrification  16, 88
 Nitrogen  13, 31, 34, 37, 48, 55, 84, 85, 87, 89, 93, 98, 108
 Nitrogen content  83, 123
 Nitrogen economy  98
 Nitrogen fertilizers  86
 Nitrogen transfer  88
 Nitrous oxide  88
 No-tillage  105
 Nonpoint source pollution  45
 North Carolina  95
 North Dakota  34
 Nutrient availability  34, 55, 84, 111
 Nutrient content  84, 97, 111, 123
 Nutrient cycles  98
 Nutrient excesses  46
 Nutrient requirements  89
 Nutrient retention  111
 Nutrient sources  84
 Nutrient uptake  55, 84, 86, 87
 Nutrients  72
 Nutritive value  35
 Odor abatement  26
 On-farm processing  19, 22, 129
 Ontario  83
 Operating time  117
 Oregon  6, 11
 Organic farming  102
 Outbreaks  67
 Ova  106
 Ovicides and larvicides  52
 Oviposition  91
 Parasites  5
 Parasites of insect pests  106
 Pastures  59
 Pennsylvania  19, 46, 80, 98
 Performance  40, 95, 96
 Permeability  99
 Persistence  52, 67
 Ph  57, 83, 93
 Phleum pratense  87
 Phosphorus  13, 29, 31, 32, 48, 55, 56, 72, 73, 89, 98, 100,
 111, 123
 Phragmites australis  115
 Phygadeuon  106
 Physicochemical properties  90
 Pig manure  54, 69
 Pig slurry  99
 Piggery effluent  36
 Pigs  103
 Poa  123
 Pollutants  46
 Pollution  27, 35, 56, 89
 Pollution by agriculture  80
 Pollution control  24
 Ponds  21, 104, 107
 Population density  111
 Potassium  31, 55, 98, 111
 Poultry farming  46
 Poultry manure  121
 Precipitation  84
 Predation  49
 Production  46, 93
 Production costs  20, 24
 Production potential  79
 Profitability  63, 66, 101
 Programs  60
 Protein  40
 Protein content  58
 Psychrophilic bacteria  103
 Pteromalidae  106
 Public opinion  60
 Pumps  44
 Pupae  106
 Pyridines  42
 Quantitative analysis  79, 98
 Questionnaires  60
 Rain  97, 99
 Recovery  37
 Recycling  19, 49, 56
 Reduction  105
 Regional development  46
 Regression  10
 Regression analysis  20
 Regulation  4
 Regulations  11, 62, 66, 81
 Reliability  78
 Replacement  33
 Repletion  8
 Requirements  78
 Research projects  5
 Responses  107
 Rheological properties  109
 Risk  60, 63
 Rivers  23
 Rotary hoes  61
 Rotations  75, 102
 Runoff  4, 53, 64, 97, 99, 123
 Ryegrass silage  35
 Salmonella  67
 Salmonellosis  67
 Sampling  111
 Sandy loam soils  84
 Sandy soils  111
 Savings  119
 Scheduling  8
 Seasonal variation  84
 Secale cereale  31
 Seed dispersal  127
 Seeds  126
 Separation  92
 Serotypes  67
 Settlement  92
 Silage  44
 Silt loam soils  87
 Site requirements  29
 Slopes  112
 Slurries  88, 121
 Small farms  61, 77
 Sodium  111
 Soil analysis  84
 Soil contamination  108
 Soil depth  31, 84
 Soil fertility  31, 61
 Soil injection  37, 88
 Soil organic matter  111
 Soil ph  111
 Soil pollution  32
 Soil properties  29
 Soil solution  84
 Soil testing  70, 111
 Soil variability  111
 Soil water  99
 Soils  34
 Solar radiation  49
 Solid waste  113
 Somatotropin  48
 Spalangia  106
 Spatial variation  111
 Specific heat  10
 Spodic horizons  111
 Spodosols  111
 Ssoil types  29
 Statistics  18, 110
 Steers  35
 Stomoxys calcitrans  20, 106
 Storage  8, 38, 44, 85, 90, 108, 121
 Straw  112
 Streptococcus  123
 Structural design  30
 Surface layers  111
 Surface treatment  87
 Surveys  21, 22
 Survival  63
 Sustainability  51, 75
 Synthetic hormones  42
 Systems  26, 117
 Tanks  83
 Temperature  69, 83, 93
 Temperature relations  117
 Temperatures  103
 Texas  4, 11, 18, 63, 64, 110
 Thermal conductivity  10
 Thickness  112
 Time  93
 Timing  8
 Topography  111
 Torula  36
 Total solids  10, 100
 Transport costs  19
 Treatment  2
 Triticum aestivum  34
 U.S.A.  22, 24, 66, 101
 University research  119
 Unrestricted feeding  35
 Urea  85
 Urine  85, 89
 Usda  73
 Use efficiency  31
 Utilization  40
 Ventilation  44
 Vermont  84, 123
 Virginia  60
 Volatilization  85, 121
 Volume  112
 Wales  23, 35
 Washington  11
 Waste disposal  4, 11, 13, 18, 19, 20, 25, 47, 56, 90, 110,
 118
 Waste heat utilization  77
 Waste products  124
 Waste treatment  2, 13, 18, 25, 40, 57, 68, 72, 76, 92, 110,
 114
 Waste utilization  6, 8, 13, 119
 Waste water  15, 39, 52, 64, 67, 115
 Waste water treatment  14, 16, 26, 28, 29, 116, 117, 123, 125,
 128, 129
 Waste waters  21, 29, 41, 42, 43, 49
 Wastes  36, 38
 Water  107
 Water composition and quality  23, 29, 47, 80
 Water flow  97
 Water management  15
 Water pollution  4, 11, 12, 18, 23, 24, 26, 32, 46, 71, 72,
 73, 81, 110, 111
 Water quality  4, 18, 46, 60, 63, 64, 68, 74, 110, 123
 Water reuse  28, 49
 Water table  29
 Water use  13, 48
 Watersheds  46
 Weed biology  126
 Weed control  61
 Weeds  126, 127
 Western australia  72
 Wetlands  14, 15, 16, 128, 129
 Whey  2, 57, 76
 Wisconsin  55, 58, 90
 Yeasts  36
 Zea mays  31, 37, 55, 84
 
 *******************************************************************
 
                               SEARCH STRATEGY
                        
                        
 Set    Items   Description
 
 S1      703    DAIR?/TI,DE,ID AND (WASTE? OR EFFLUENT? ? OR
                MANURE? ? OR SLURR?)/TI,DE,ID
                
 S2      659    S1 NOT SH=(Q101 OR Q100 OR Q105)
 
 S3   492903    PY=(1988 OR 1989 OR 1990 OR 1991 OR 1992 OR
                1993 OR 1994)
                
 S4      194    S2 AND S3
 
 S5      192    RD S4 (unique items)
 
 

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Last update: April 27, 1998
The URL of this page is http://www.nal.usda.gov/wqic/Bibliographies/qb9502.html


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