Water Quality Information Center at the National Agricultural Library
Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture

Wastewater Irrigation

104 citations from the Agricola Database
1997 - September 2001

Stuart Gagnon
Water Quality Information Center

This electronic bibliography is intended primarily to provide awareness of recent investigations and discussions of a topic and is not intended to be in-depth and exhaustive. The inclusion or omission of a particular publication or citation should not be construed as endorsement or disapproval. Citations are arranged alphabetically by title and abstracts are included where available. All citations are in English unless otherwise noted.

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1. Agricultural reuse of wastewater: nation-wide cost-benefit analysis.
Haruvy, N.
Agric-ecosyst-environ. 66: 2 pp.113-119. (Dec 1, 1997).
NAL Call #: S601.A34

Descriptors: waste-water water-reuse irrigation-water agricultural-land application-to-land waste-utilization water-purification waste-water-treatment cost-benefit-analysis water-policy decision-making israel-

2. Analysis of salt tolerance in nine leafy vegetables irrigated with saline drainage water.
Shannon, M. C., Grieve, C. M., Lesch, S. M., and Draper, J. H.
J-Am-Soc-Hortic-Sci. 125: 5 pp.658-664. (Sept 2000).
NAL Call #: 81-SO12

Descriptors: leafy-vegetables salt-tolerance saline-water irrigation-water species-differences drainage-water water-reuse application-date planting-date sowing-date electrical-conductivity salinity- biomass-production dry-matter crop-yield california-
Saline agricultural drainage water may be used as a resource to grow high value horticultural crops and reduce the volume of drainage for eventual disposal. To explore reuse options the effects of salinity and timing of application were tested on selected leafy vegetables grown in 24 sand culture plots in Riverside, Calif. The leafy winter vegetables included 'Ruby Red Chard' Swiss chard [Beta vulgaris L. var. flavescens (Lam.) Lam.], 'Space' spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), 'Vitamin Green' salad greens [Brassica rapa L. (Narinosa Group)], 'Red Giant' mustard greens [Brassica juncea L. (Czerniak)], pac choi [Brassica rapa L. (Chinensis Group)], 'Winterbor' kale [Brassica oleracea L. (Acephala Group)], tatsoi [Brassica rapa L. (Narinosa Group)], 'Salad King' curly endive (Cichorium endivia L.), and 'Red Preco No. 1' radicchio (Cichorium intybus L.). All vegetables were planted at the same time and irrigated initially with tap water and nutrients. At 3 and 7 weeks after seeding (application times), six salinity treatments were initiated by adding salts to the irrigation water to represent the chemical compositions of drainage waters found typically in the San Joaquin Valley, Calif. The six salinity treatments had electrical conductivities of 3 (control), 7, 11, 15, 19, or 23 dS(.)m-1. A randomized complete block design was used with (6 salinities x 2 application times x 2 replications). Within each plot a 1.5-m row of each of the nine vegetables was grown as split plots. Salinity reduced fresh weight (FW) yields of all species. Salt stress applied at 3 weeks after seeding reduced FWs for seven of the nine vegetables compared to salination at 7 weeks. Analyses of salt. tolerance curves, maximum yields, and the point of 50% yield reduction (C50) were conducted. Greens produced the highest biomass at 874 g/plant, but was the most affected by application time. Swiss chard and radicchio were not significantly affected by timing of salinity application, and Swiss chard was the most salt tolerant overall. Greens, kale, pac choi, and to a lesser extent, tatsoi, have potential as winter-grown, leafy vegetables in drainage water reuse systems.

3. Assessment of various control strategies for recirculation of greenhouse effluents under semi-arid conditions.
Raviv, M., Krasnovsky, A., Medina, S., and Reuveni, R.
J-hortic-sci-biotech. 73: 4 pp.485-491. (July 1998).
NAL Call #: SB317.5.J68

Descriptors: rosa- greenhouses- effluents- recycling- drainage-water irrigation- electrical-conductivity nutrient-solutions fertilizers- application-rates potassium- nitrogen- crop-yield fruits- crop-quality plant-pathogens monitoring- semiarid-climate calcium- chloride- nitrate- greenhouse-culture

4. Atrazine mineralization by indigenous and introduced Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP in sand irrigated with municipal wastewater and amended with composted sludge.
Shapir, N., Mandelbaum, R. T., and Fine, P.
Soil-biol-biochem. 32: 7 pp.887-897. (July 2000).
NAL Call #: S592.7.A1S6

Descriptors: atrazine- mineralization- sandy-soils irrigated-conditions waste-water water-reuse sewage-sludge composts- soil-bacteria pseudomonas- biological-activity-in-soil microbial-activities gene-expression waste-water-irrigation

5. Biotic and abiotic features of a deep wastewater treatment lagoon used for agricultural irrigation.
Arauzo, M.
Water-environ-res. 72: 2 pp.243-247. (Mar/Apr 2000).
NAL Call #: TD419.R47

Descriptors: waste-water-treatment lagoons- sewage-effluent water-quality chemical-composition bacteria- phytoplankton- zooplankton- water-reuse irrigation-water water-temperature spain- secondary-effluent thermal-stratification

6. Builder's greywater guide : installation of greywater systems in new construction and remodeling. v. 1.0.: Builder's gray water guide. Oasis builder's greywater guide. Installation of greywater systems in new construction and remodeling. Annotated California greywater law.
Ludwig, Art.
Santa Barbara, CA : Oasis Design, c1997. iv, 46 p. : ill.: Cover title. "Includes text of new greywater law; a supplement to the book, Create an oasis with greywater" Includes bibliographical references (p. 44) and index. NAL Call #: TD429-.L83-1997
Descriptors: Water-reuse Water-reuse-Law-and-legislation-California Water-conservation

7. Characterizing salinity limits of New Guinea Impatiens in recirculating subirrigation.
Todd, N. M. and Reed, D. W.
J-Am-Soc-Hortic-Sci. 123: 1 pp.156-160. (Jan 1998).
NAL Call #: 81-SO12

Descriptors: impatiens- salinity- subsurface-irrigation water-reuse growth- quality- application-rates sodium-chloride calcium-chloride roots- spatial-distribution electrical-conductivity growing-media leaching- wilting-

8. Chemical forms and sorption of copper and zinc in soils of central Chile.
Schalscha, E. B., Escudero, P., Salgado, P., and Ahumada, I.
Commun-soil-sci-plant-anal. 30: 3/4 pp.497-507. (1999).
NAL Call #: S590.C63

Descriptors: inceptisols- irrigated-soils water-reuse waste-water sewage-effluent irrigation-water water-quality copper- zinc- traction- soil-chemistry bioavailability- adsorption- sorption-isotherms chile- soil-copper-fractions soil-zinc-fractions
Soil samples from a field irrigated with untreated industrial and municipal wastewater for several decades and from a field not receiving wastewater (control) were analyzed for total copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) and for the amount of these elements removed in sequential extractions with MgCl(2), NaOAc, NH(2)OH(.)HCl, 6H(2)O(2)-HNO(3)-NH(4)OAc, and HNO(3)-HF-HCl. Organically-bound Cu forms predominated in the wastewater-affected soil while in the control soil both residual and organic forms yielded the same proportion of Cu. Distribution of Zn was different in the diverse fractions, and in the polluted soil the reducible and the residual forms predominated while in the control soil the residual form accounted for the highest proportion of recovered Zn. Sequential extraction of Cu from a copper sulfate-treated soil incubated for 32 days at constant temperature resulted in the same proportional distribution of Cu forms in the polluted soil. In the control soil the oxidizable form decreased and the residual one increased noticeably. The two-surface Langmuir adsorption model was used to adjust data and to interpret Cu and Zn adsorption by soils excepting Cu sorption by the polluted soil, where the one-surface model was applied.

9. Compilation of publications generated from laboratory column studies of soil aquifer treatment conducted at the University of Arizona (1994-1996).
United States Water Conservation Laboratory.
[Tucson, Ariz.? : s.n., 1997?] 1 v. (various pagings) : ill.: Cover title. Includes bibliographical references. Funding provided by USDA Water Conservation Laboratory. 58-5344-3-384. Funding provided by City of Tucson. 0331-93. NAL Call #: TD429-.C64-1997
Descriptors: Water-reuse Artificial-recharge-of-groundwater Soils-Analysis

10. Development of Australia's largest high quality effluent reuse scheme--Bolivar, S.A.
Marks, R., Wright, C., Kracman, B., and Thomas, R.
Water-supply. 17: 3/4 pp.495-501. (1999).
NAL Call #: TD201.W346

Descriptors: waste-water sewage-effluent waste-water-treatment water-reuse irrigation- irrigation-water water-quality salinity- south-australia

11. Disinfection with peracetic acid for domestic sewage re-use in agriculture.
Liberti, L., Lopez, A., and Notarnicola, M.
J-Inst-Water-Environ-Manag. 13: 4 pp.262-269. (Aug 1999).
NAL Call #: TD420.W374

Descriptors: disinfection- sewage-effluent peracetic-acid coliform-bacteria water-reuse apulia-
Abstract: This paper describes a four-month pilot study on peracetic acid disinfection of unchlorinated tertiary effluent for unrestricted re-use in agriculture carried out at West Bari (Italy) sewage-treatment works. Dosages and contact times ranging from 1 to 500 mg/l and 5 to 60 mins, respectively, indicated that 10 mg/l of peracetic acid, with a 30-min contact time, achieved the WHO faecal coliform guideline (1000 100 ml). Much higher doses (greater than or equal to 400 mg/l and 30 mins) were required to meet the corresponding Californian limit of two colony-forming units/100 ml, which has also been adopted in Italy. Efficient mixing of the disinfectant (in one shot addition) was mandatory--particularly at lower dosages (1-10 mg/l) where there was a higher concentration of suspended solids (>5 mg/l).

12. Double happiness.
Marks, J.
Or-agric-prog. 44: 1 pp.18-23. (Fall 1997).
NAL Call #: 100-Or3Or

Descriptors: waste-water-treatment biological-treatment water-reuse oregon-

13. Drainage disposal and reuse simulation in canal irrigated areas in Haryana.
Singh, J. and Kumar, R.
Irrig-drain-syst. 12: 1 pp.1-22. (Feb 1998).
NAL Call #: TC801.I66

Descriptors: simulation-models drainage-water disposal- drainage- water-reuse water-reservoirs infiltration- rain- surface-irrigation evapotranspiration- mathematical-models seepage- aquifers- water-table saline-water soil-salinity gossypium-hirsutum triticum-aestivum haryana- faids-model resbal-model drainage-effluent

14. Economic-environmental approach for optimum wastewater utilization in irrigation: a case study in Lebanon. [Erratum: Jan 2000, v. 16 (1), p. 57.].
Darwish, M. R., El Awar, F. A., Sharara, M., and Hamdar, B.
Appl-eng-agric. 15: 1 pp.41-48. (Jan 1999).
NAL Call #: S671.A66

Descriptors: agricultural-land irrigation- waste-water waste-water-treatment water-reuse application-to-land economic-evaluation environmental-impact linear-programming lebanon- secondary-treated-waste-water
Municipal wastewater of Tyre region, south Lebanon, is currently dumped into the sea without any treatment causing significant environmental damage in the area. A sewage treatment project, up to secondary level, in the area is under planning. This article proposes reusing secondary treated wastewater in crop production in the region. A linear programming model is developed to determine the cropping pattern that utilizes all or most of the region's treated effluent, consumes all effluent's nitrogen content (being the most limiting constituent), and brings in the highest revenues to the region's farmers. Three scenarios are formulated to test for the optimal cropping pattern under different restrictions and conditions. The first scenario represents optimality under the currently existing cropping pattern, while in the second and third scenarios new crops are introduced. Supplementary irrigation with fresh water is considered in some sub-scenarios to determine wastewater reuse profitability under this condition. Results reveal that utilization of treated wastewater for irrigation in the region is profitable. The lowest net return is achieved with the current cropping pattern (first scenario). Higher profits are achieved in other scenarios due to introducing new crops to the area. In addition, better results are always attained once supplementary irrigation is provided.

15. Economic feasibility of micro-irrigating container-grown landscape plants.
Haydu, J. J. and Beeson, R. C. Jr.
J-environ-hortic. 15: 1 pp.23-29. (Mar 1997).
NAL Call #: SB1.J66

Descriptors: acer-rubrum quercus-virginiana container-grown-plants seedlings- microirrigation- sprinkler-irrigation overhead-irrigation containers- size- irrigation-water water-reuse irrigation-requirements water-costs production-costs returns- economic-analysis reclaimed-water installation-costs direst-costs gross-returns net-returns

16. Effect of compression-decompression on helminth eggs present in sludge of a settling tank.
Buitron, G. and Galvan, M.
Water-res. 32: 5 pp.1708-1712. (May 1998).
NAL Call #: TD420.W3

Descriptors: sludges- waste-water irrigation-water water-reuse waste-water-treatment helminth-ova turbines- compression- viability- structure- mexico-

17. Effect of dissolved oxygen in reclaimed wastewater transformation during transportation. Case study: Tenerife, Spain.
Delgado, S., Alvarez, M., Aguiar, E., and Rodriguez Gomez, L. E.
The sewer as a physical, chemical and biological reactor II selected proceedings of the 2nd IAWQ International Conference on the Sewer as a Physical, Chemical and Biological Reactor, held in Aalborg, Denmark, 25-28 May 1997 / IAWQ International Conference on the Sewer as a Physical, Chemical and Biological Reactor. Oxford : Pergamon, 1998.. p. 123-130. pp.
NAL Call #: TD420.A1P7-v.37-no.1

Descriptors: waste-water water-purification reclamation- dissolved-oxygen pipes- nitrification- hydrogen-sulfide gas-production denitrification- water-reuse irrigation-water anoxia- fresh-water canary-islands transport-pipes

18. Effect of drinking water sources on reclaimed water quality in water reuse systems.
Drewes, J. E. and Fox, P.
Water-environ-res. 72: 3 pp.353-362. (May/June 2000).
NAL Call #: TD419.R47

Descriptors: groundwater-recharge aquifers- water-purification water-reuse water-quality drinking-water groundwater- surface-water water- organic-compounds organic-matter waste-water waste-water-treatment carbon- arizona- california- soil-aquifer-treatment reclaimed-water dissolve-organic-carbon

19. Effect of reclaimed wastewater on the growth and nutrient content of three landscape shrubs.
Gori, R., Ferrini, F., Nicese, F. P., and Lubello, C.
J-environ-hortic. 18: 2 pp.108-114. (June 2000).
NAL Call #: SB1.J66

Descriptors: abutilon- weigela-florida viburnum-tinus species-differences waste-water water-reuse growth- ornamental-woody-plants nutrient-content plant-nutrition irrigation- plant-morphology leaves- chlorophyll- plant-composition habit- sewage-effluent npk-fertilizers slow-release-fertilizers transplanting- roots- stems- leaf-area tuscany-

20. Effect of treated sewage water on the concentration of certain nutrient elements in date palm leaves and fruits.
El Mardi, M. O., Salama, S. B., Consolacion, E. C., and Al Solomi, M.
Commun-soil-sci-plant-anal. 29: 5/6 pp.763-776. (1998).
NAL Call #: S590.C63

Descriptors: phoenix-dactylifera leaves- fruits- plant-composition nutrient-content sewage-effluent water-reuse waste-water-treatment irrigation- oman-
Leaflet and fruit samples were collected from 9-year old palms irrigated with potable water and treated sewage water from two locations (the University and the city sewage effluent plant). After drying, ashing, and dissolution of ash by HCl, calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) concentrations were determined by atomic absorption photometry; sodium (Na), and potassium (K) by flame spectrophotometry and chlorine (Cl) by titration. Results of the present study were then compared with those of 1993. Unlike the 1993 results, K, Ca, Mg, and Na concentrations did not show any significant differences in leaves or fruits. Potassium, Ca, and Mg in leaves and fruits irrigated with three types of water in 1995 showed higher concentrations than in 1993. Sodium was lower in leaves and fruits during 1995 than 1993 when treated sewage water was used, but with potable water it was higher in leaves and lower in fruits. The increase in K, Ca, and Mg and the reduction in Na were related to summer rains in 1995. Fruits irrigated with potable water contained higher Na and lower Cl than leaves, however, with treated sewage water (University plant), leaves and fruits contained similar amounts of Na, but higher Cl in fruits; whereas with city plant treated sewage water fruits had lower Na and Cl than leaves. Sodium in the fruits irrigated with potable water increased at a higher rate (3.8x) than in leaves (1.6x), but it decreased at higher rate in fruits (0.66x) than in leaves (0.24x) irrigated with treated sewage water. The increased rate was related to higher K rate (53x) whereas the reduction in Na was related to lower K rate (29x). The ratios of Ca/Mg and Na/Ca showed similar patterns in leaves and fruits. irrigated with potable water or treated sewage water. Sodium/Ca ratio was always higher in fruits than in leaves, while Ca/Mg was always higher in leaves than in fruits. The ratio of K/Na tends to be greater in the leaves when their K concentration was equal to or greater than Na concentration. However, higher Na in the leaves resulted in higher K/Na ratio in the fruits, indicating that Na replaced K. The ratio Ca/K in the two seasons was higher in leaves than in fruits irrigated with potable water, but with treated sewage water, it was higher in leaves during 1995 and higher in fruits during 1993. This indicated that when either Ca or K was higher than the other in the leaves than fruits, their ratio in the leaves will also be higher. When their concentrations in the leaves were similar, then the ratio Ca/K would be higher in the fruits.

21. The effect of waste water reuse in irrigation on the contamination level of food crops by Giardia cysts and Ascaris eggs.
Amahmid, O., Asmama, S., and Bouhoum, K.
Int-j-food-microbiol. 49: 1/2 pp.19-26. (Aug 1, 1999).
NAL Call #: QR115.I57

Descriptors: giardia- cysts- ascaris- helminth-ova food-contamination vegetables- coriandrum-sativum mentha- irrigation- irrigation-water water-reuse waste-water irrigated-farming morocco-
In Marrakech, raw sewage has been used for farming purposes for several decades for many types of crops. This study aimed to determine the contamination level of Giardia cysts and Ascaris eggs for crops designated for human consumption. Collected crops in irrigated fields were turnip, marrow, squash, potatoes, pepper and eggplant. Field trials were also carried out on four crops, coriander, carrots, mint and radish, using three water types for irrigation, i.e. raw waste water, treated waste water (sedimentation and 16 days retention) and fresh water. Giardia cysts were detected at a level of 5.1 cysts/kg in potatoes, while Ascaris eggs were observed in numbers varying between 0.18 eggs/kg in potatoes and 0.27 eggs/kg in turnip. Field trials confirmed that irrigation of crops by raw waste water leads to contamination. Giardia and Ascaris were isolated in coriander at concentrations of 254 cysts/kg and 2.7 eggs/kg, respectively; mint was also highly contaminated with numbers reaching 96 cysts/kg and 4.63 eggs/kg. Carrots and radish were contaminated and respective numbers observed for Giardia were 155 and 59.1 cysts/kg; Ascaris was discovered in numbers of 0.7 and 1.64 eggs/kg, respectively, However, cultures irrigated with treated waste water and fresh water were free from contamination. Cysts and eggs on coriander persisted for a maximum of 8 days.

22. Effectiveness of natural treatment in a wastewater irrigation district of the Mexico City region: a synoptic field survey.
Downs, T. J., Cifuentes, E., Ruth, E., and Suffet, I. M.
Water-environ-res. 72: 1 pp.4-21. (Jan/Feb 2000).
NAL Call #: TD419.R47

Descriptors: waste-water sewage-effluent waste-water-treatment water-reuse irrigation-water water-quality trace-elements metals- volatile-compounds organic-compounds organochlorine-pesticides polychlorinated-biphenyls nitrate- water-reservoirs irrigation-channels infiltration- groundwater-flow groundwater- surface-water chemical-reactions sorption- chemical-precipitation biodegradation- irrigated-soils mexico- natural-waste-water-treatment

23. Effects of irrigation water quality on loquat plant nutrition: sensitivity of loquat plant to salinity.
Burlo Carbonell, F., Carbonell Barrachina, A., Vidal Roig, A., and Mataix Beneyto, J.
J-plant-nutr. 20: 1 pp.119-130. (1997).
NAL Call #: QK867.J67

Descriptors: eriobotrya-japonica phytotoxicity- saline-water irrigation-water leaves- necrosis- rootstocks- line-differences waste-water water-reuse
An investigation was conducted to study the possible use of municipal wastewater for watering loquat plants, and to determine the effects of this water on nutrient status of two-year-old loquat plants (Eriobotriae japonica L.) during two complete vegetative cycles. The plants, grafted performance and Anger stocks, were planted on major soils of the area of La Marina Baixa. Plants (grafted on franco stock), irrigated with this wastewater, suffered from foliar necrosis, and all of them died at the end of the experiment, whereas only 12.5% of the plants watered with municipal drinking water died at the same period of time. The Anger stock proved to be much more resistant to salinity than the franco stock. Therefore, medium quality waters (wastewater and saline water) can be used for the irrigation of loquat trees grafted on Anger stock, without causing damages on plant nutrition.

24. Effects of varying water quality on growth and appearance of landscape plants.
Quist, T. M., Williams, C. F., and Robinson, M. L.
J-environ-hortic. 17: 2 pp.88-91. (June 1999).
NAL Call #: SB1.J66

Descriptors: ornamental-woody-plants water-quality growth- performance- irrigation- water-reuse soil-fertility soil-structure electrical-conductivity irrigation-water landscape-gardening utah-

25. Effluent water has positive potential.
Ninemire, S.
Grounds-maint. 32: 5 pp.20, 22, 24-25. (May 1997).
NAL Call #: SB476.G7

Descriptors: waste-water waste-utilization lawns-and-turf irrigation-water reclaimed-water

26. Evaluating drainage design parameters for wastewater irrigation applications to minimize impact on surface waters.
Oztekin, T., Brown, L. C., Holdsworth, P. M., and Rector, D.
Appl-eng-agric. 15: 5 pp.449-455. (Sept 1999).
NAL Call #: S671.A66

Descriptors: waste-water water-reuse application-to-land irrigation- simulation-models optimization- subsurface-drainage design- irrigation-scheduling economic-analysis ohio- drainmod-
DRAINMOD, an agricultural water management computer model, was used to evaluate the hydrology for an irrigation scenario for an Ohio community using treating wastewater supply. This model was used to simulate the runoff potential of the proposed site under drainage and wastewater irrigation, to evaluate subsurface drainage system design parameters and irrigation interval, and to evaluate the effect of wastewater irrigation on potential crop yield. Constituent concentrations of the wastewater were within normal recommendations for agricultural irrigation, and were not the focus of the study. A 40-year climatic record and USDA Soils5 data were used as inputs to the model to evaluate hydrologic response over a range of input values of irrigation rate and interval, and drain spacing and depth. Simulation results indicate that an irrigation interval of 1 or 2 days could meet the annual irrigation application criteria of 67 cm (26 in.). Frequency analysis of runoff over the 40-year period for the 2-day irrigation interval revealed that approximately 99% of all days produced zero runoff. A response surface of average annual irrigation depth for the 2-day irrigation interval indicated that the target depth of 67 cm could be attained with a range of drain spacing (7.5 to 12.5 m; 25 to 50 ft) and depth (85 to 150 cm; 33 to 60 in.) combinations. Within the range of drain spacing and depths evaluated with wastewater irrigation at the 2-day irrigation interval, relative crop yield increase when an increase in drain depth was coupled with a decrease in drain spacing.

27. Evaluation of an experimental filter medium for water re-use systems.
Riley, John., Cole, David., Bayer, Robert., and University of Maine at Orono. Dept. of Biosystems Science and Engineering. Maine Agricultural and Forest Experiment Station.
Orono : Dept. of Biosystems Science and Engineering, University of Maine, 2000. 14 p. : ill. : "September 2000."--Cover. Includes bibliographical references (p. 14). NAL Call #: 100-M28B-no.-177
Descriptors: Water-Purification-Filtration Water-reuse

28. Fertilizing value and polluting load of reclaimed water in Tunisia.
Bahri, A.
Water-res. 32: 11 pp.3484-3489. (Nov 1998).
NAL Call #: TD420.W3

Descriptors: waste-water water-reuse irrigation-water fertigation- water-quality nutrients- pollutants- pollution- tunisia-

29. Geochemical transformation during artificial groundwater recharge: soil-water interactions of inorganic constituents.
Johnson, J. S., Baker, L. A., and Fox, P.
Water-res. 33: 1 pp.196-206. (Jan 1999).
NAL Call #: TD420.W3

Descriptors: groundwater-recharge waste-water surface-water soil- interactions- infiltration- water-quality geochemistry- arizona- vadose-zone reclaimed-waste-water

30. Geohydrologic effects on drainwater quality.
Fio, J. L.
J-irrig-drain-eng. 123: 3 pp.159-164. (May/June 1997).
NAL Call #: 290.9-AM3Ps-IR

Descriptors: drainage-water water-reuse irrigation-water groundwater-flow water-quality selenium- spatial-variation temporal-variation california- san-joaquin-valley geohydrology-

31. "Green" water treatment for the green industries: opportunities for biofiltration of greenhouse and nursery irrigation water and runoff with constructed wetlands.
Berghage, R. D., MacNeal, E. P., Wheeler, E. F., and Zachritz, W. H.
HortScience. 34: 1 pp.50-54. (Feb 1999).
NAL Call #: SB1.H6

Descriptors: wetlands- biological-filtration irrigation-water runoff-water nurseries- greenhouses- floriculture- contamination- water-reuse pesticides- pollution-control biological-treatment

32. Groundwater aspects: losses are inevitable but re-use is possible.
Rushton, K. R.
Agric-water-manage. 40: 1 pp.111-116. (Mar 1999).
NAL Call #: S494.5.W3A3

Descriptors: irrigation-water losses- aquifers- collection- groundwater- water-reuse

33. Hypertrophic reservoirs for wastewater storage and reuse : ecology, performance, and engineering design.
Juanico, Marcelo 1949 and Dor, Inka.
Berlin ; New York : Springer, c1999. xxiii, 394 p. : ill.: Includes bibliographical references and index. NAL Call #: TD429-.H95-1999
Descriptors: Water-reuse Reservoirs-Design-and-construction

34. Infiltration considerations for ground-water recharge with waste effluent.
Houston, S. L., Duryea, P. D., and Hong, R.
J-irrig-drain-eng. 125: 5 pp.264-272. (Sept/Oct 1999).
NAL Call #: 290.9-AM3Ps-IR

Descriptors: groundwater-recharge waste-water percolation- infiltration- waste-water-treatment water-reuse arid-zones arizona- soil-aquifer-treatment

35. Influence of sub- versus top-irrigation and surfactants in a recirculating system on disease incidence caused by Phytophthora spp. in potted pepper plants.
Stanghellini, M. E., Nielsen, C. J., Kim, D. H., Rasmussen, S. L., and Rorbaugh, P. A.
Plant-dis. [St. Paul, Minn., American Phytopathological Society]. Oct 2000. v. 84 (10) p. 1147-1150. pp.
NAL Call #: 1.9-P69P

Descriptors: phytophthora-capsici subsurface-irrigation pot-culture incidence- overhead-irrigation water-reuse nutrient-solutions fertigation- zoospores- disease-transmission fungus-control mortality- evaluation- techniques-
Zoospores of Phytophthora capsici spread from inoculated source plants to healthy potted pepper plants located on separate ebb-and-flow benches when the recycled nutrient solution originated from a common reservoir. Amending the recirculating nutrient solution with a surfactant, which selectively kills zoospores, resulted in 100% control of the spread of the pathogen in an ebb-and-flow and a top-irrigated cultural system. Without a surfactant in the recirculating nutrient solution, all plants in an ebb-and-flow cultural system died within 6 weeks. In contrast, all plants in a top-irrigated cultural system died within 2 weeks after inoculation of source plants. These results suggest that the use of recycled irrigation water in an ebb-and-flow cultural system is less conductive to pathogen spread than its use in a top-irrigated cultural system, but may still serve as efficient means of inoculum movement in the absence of control measures.

36. Influence of wastewater vs groundwater on young Citrus trees.
Reboll, V., Cerezo, M., Roig, A., Flors, V., Lapena, L., and Garcia Agustin, P.
J-sci-food-agric. 80: 10 pp.1441-1446. (Aug 2000).
NAL Call #: 382-So12

Descriptors: citrus-sinensis irrigation- irrigation-water water-reuse groundwater- waste-water leaves- nutrient-content mineral-content boron- plant-composition sodium- chloride- water-quality nitrate- nitrogen-content growth- crop-quality soil-chemistry crop-yield

37. Inhibiting growth of flowering crops with ancymidol and paclobutrazol in subirrigation water.
Million, J. B., Barrett, J. E., Nell, T. A., and Clark, D. G.
HortScience. 34: 6 pp.1103-1105. (Oct 1999).
NAL Call #: SB1.H6

Descriptors: petunia-hybrida begonia- dendranthema-morifolium impatiens- salvia-splendens impatiens-walleriana ancymidol- paclobutrazol- water-reuse irrigation- irrigation-water application-rates dosage-effects species-differences plant-height growth-retardants
Contamination of recirculated subirrigation water with growth retardants poses a potential problem for growers. Eight concentrations of ancymidol or paclobutrazol ranging from 0 to 100 microgram(.)L(-1) (0 to 1000 microgram(.)L(-1) for petunia) were supplied constantly in subirrigation water to potted plants to identify critical levels at which plant growth is affected. Concentrations of ancymidol resulting in 20% reduction in plant size relative to untreated controls were 3, 10, 98, 80, and 58 microgram(.)L(-1) for Begonia xsempeiflorens-cultorum Hort. 'Gin', chrysanthemum (Dendranthema xgrandiflora Kitam.) 'Nob Hill', Impatiens walleriana Hook f. 'Super Elfin Coral', Petunia x hybrida Hort. Vilm.-Andr. 'Madness Pink', and Salvia splendens Sell ex Roem. & Schult. 'Red Hot Sally', respectively. Respective values for paclobutrazol were 5, 24, 17, 390, and >100 microgram(.)L(-1). The results provide useful information for managing potential growth retardant contamination problems or for applying growth retardants in subirrigation water.

38. Integrated water management: emerging issues and challenges.
Bouwer, H.
Agric-water-manage. 45: 3 pp.217-228. (Aug 2000).
NAL Call #: S494.5.W3A3

Descriptors: water-management water-policy integrated-systems water-reuse groundwater-pollution underground-storage

39. Integrated water resource management in Windhoek, Namibia.
Van der Merwe, B.
Water-supply. 18: 1/2 pp.376-381. (2000).
NAL Call #: TD201.W346

Descriptors: waste-water water-reuse water-purification groundwater-recharge water-resources water-management aquifers- sewage-effluent irrigation-water groundwater- surface-water namibia- artificial-recharge

40. Irrigation with marginal quality waters: issue.
Tanji, K. K.
J-irrig-drain-eng. 123: 3 pp.165-169. (May/June 1997).
NAL Call #: 290.9-AM3Ps-IR

Descriptors: irrigation- irrigation-water drainage-water saline-water waste-water water-reuse water-quality municipal-waste-water food-processing-waste-water animal-lagoon-water

41. Issues in potable reuse : the viability of augmenting drinking water supplies with reclaimed water.
National Research Council (U.S.). Committee to Evaluate the Viability of Augmenting Potable Water Supplies with Reclaimed Water.
Washington, D.C. : National Academy Press, 1998. xiv, 263 p. : ill.: Includes bibliographical references and index. NAL Call #: TD429.I84-1998
Descriptors: Water-reuse Drinking-water

42. Kovalenko, Petro Ivanovych : akademiky Ukrains'koi akademii ahrarnykh nauk : biobibliografichnyi pokazhchyk naukovykh prats' za 1967-1998 roky.
Derlemenko, T. F., Poliakova, L. D., Samusova, L. F., and Slobodianyk, M. S.
Kyiv : Ahrarna nauka, 1998. 64 p. : ill.: At head of title: Ukrains'ka akademiia ahrarnykh nauk. TSentral'na naukova sil's'kohospodars'ka biblioteka. Instytut hidrotekhniky i melioratsii. Includes bibliographical references and index. NAL Call #: Z5853.H9-K68-1998
Descriptors: Kovalenko,-Petr-Ivanovich-Bibliography Hydraulic-engineering-Ukraine-Bio-bibliography Water-reuse-Ukraine-Bio-bibliography

43. Life with reclaimed water.
Horne, A. J. and Beaty, P.
Irrig-bus-technol. 5: 1 pp.26-31. (Feb 1997).
NAL Call #: TC801.I77

Descriptors: irrigation-water water-reuse aquatic-weeds algae- control-methods ponds- lakes-

44. Long-term reuse of drainage waters of varying salinities for crop irrigation in a cotton-safflower rotation system in the San Joaquin Valley of California--a nine year study. II. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.).
Goyal, S. S., Sharma, S. K., Rains, D. W., and Lauchli, A.
J-crop-prod. 2: 2 pp.215-227. (1999).
NAL Call #: SB1.J683

Descriptors: carthamus-tinctorius drainage-water salinity- saline-water water-reuse irrigation-water rotations- evaluation- long-term-experiments field-experimentation crop-yield residual-effects soil-salinity seed-output plant-composition plant-height biomass-production sodium- leaves- potassium- establishment- petioles- california-

45. Long-term reuse of drainage waters of varying salinities for crop irrigation in a cotton-safflower rotation system in the San Joaquin Valley of California--a nine year study. I. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).
Goyal, S. S., Sharma, S. K., Rains, D. W., and Lauchli, A.
J-crop-prod. 2: 2 pp.181-213. (1999).
NAL Call #: SB1.J683

Descriptors: gossypium-hirsutum drainage-water salinity- saline-water water-reuse irrigation-water rotations- evaluation- long-term-experiments field-experimentation crop-yield lint- duration- crop-quality plant-height biomass-production sodium- leaves- potassium- establishment- petioles- plant-composition california-

46. Low-tech option for wastewater treatment, water reuse and nutrient recycling.
Medina, M.
Biocycle. 41: 10 pp.66-68, 70. (Oct 2000).
NAL Call #: 57.8-C734

Descriptors: waste-water-treatment water-reuse irrigation- composting- sewage-sludge mexico- wastewater-irrigation

47. Managing water in plant nurseries : a guide to irrigation, drainage and water recycling in containerised plant nurseries. 2nd ed.
Rolfe, Chris 1943, Yiasoumi, William., Keskula, Edda., and NSW Agriculture.
[New South Wales?] : NSW Agriculture, 2000. vii, 279 p. : ill. (some col.): Includes bibliographical references (p. 265-266) and index. NAL Call #: SB118.5-.M35-2000
Descriptors: Nursery-stock-Irrigation Plants,-Potted-Irrigation Drainage-Management Water-reuse Nurseries-Horticulture-Management Nurseries-Horticulture-Environmental-aspects Water-in-agriculture Potted-plant-industry-Environmental-aspects Environmental-protection

48. Modification of the standards of wastewater reuse in Saudi Arabia.
Abu Rizaiza, O. S.
Water-res. 33: 11 pp.2601-2608. (Aug 1999).
NAL Call #: TD420.W3

Descriptors: waste-water waste-water-treatment water-reuse contaminants- water-quality quality-standards regulations- irrigation-water saudi-arabia waste-water-management ministry-of-agriculture-and-water meteorology-and-environmental-protection-administration

49. Multiple pot box for container plant production.
Haman, D. Z., Yeager, T. H., Beeson, R. c., Beeson, R. C. Jr., and Knox, G. W.
J-environ-hortic. 16: 1 pp.60-66. (Mar 1998).
NAL Call #: SB1.J66

Descriptors: viburnum-odoratissimum container-grown-plants containers- design- overhead-irrigation water-harvesting water-reuse subsurface-irrigation growth-rate

50. New approaches to water management in urban areas.
Rapinat, M.
Water-supply. 15: 1 pp.25-30. (1997).
NAL Call #: TD201.W346

Descriptors: water-resources water-management urban-areas water-policy water-reuse

51. A new sequencing batch reactor for treatment of municipal sewage wastewater for agricultural reuse.
Lin, S. H. and Cheng, K. W.
Desalination. 133: 1 pp.41-53. (Feb 10, 2001).
NAL Call #: TD478.D4

Descriptors: water-reuse waste-water-treatment irrigation-water

52. Olive tree response to irrigation with wastewater from the table olive industry.
Murillo, J. M., Lopez, R., Fernandez, J. E., and Cabrera, F.
Irrig-sci. 19: 4 pp.175-180. (Sept 2000).
NAL Call #: S612.I756

Descriptors: trickle-irrigation waste-water water-reuse nitrogen-content leaves-

53. Options for using low-quality water for vegetable crops.
Shannon, M. C. and Grieve, C. M.
HortScience. 35: 6 pp.1058-1062. (Oct 2000).
NAL Call #: SB1.H6

Descriptors: vegetables- horticultural-crops irrigation-water water-quality salinity- drainage-water saline-water water-reuse salt-tolerance susceptibility- yield-losses economic-analysis germplasm- crop-management rotations- lycopersicon-esculentum cucumis-melo soil-salinity literature-reviews

54. Phase I--assessment of the cost of supplying reclaimed water to areas of high agricultural withdrawals.: Final report, Phase I, assessment of the cost of supplying reclaimed water to areas of high agricultural withdrawals.
Jackson, Jo Ann., Morrell, Robert A., MacIntyre, David F., and St. Johns River Water Management District (Fla.).
[Gainesville, Fla.] : The District, 1996. vi, 23 p.: Includes bibliographical references (p. 23). NAL Call #: TD760-.J33-1999
Descriptors: Sewage-irrigation-Florida-Saint-Johns-River-Region-Costs Water-reuse-Florida-Saint-Johns-River-Region-Costs

55. Poplars that cope with salty water.
Wood, M.
Agric-res. 46: 6 pp.19. (June 1998).
NAL Call #: 1.98-Ag84

Descriptors: populus- hybrids- salt-tolerance irrigation-water saline-water drainage-water water-reuse

56. The production of microbiologically safe effluents for wastewater reuse in the Middle East and North Africa.
Mara, D. D.
Water-air-soil-pollut. 123: 1/4 pp.595-603. (Oct 2000).
NAL Call #: TD172.W36

Descriptors: waste-water-treatment sewage-effluent water-reuse irrigation-water biological-treatment water-reservoirs anaerobic-treatment middle-east north-africa waste-stabilization-ponds wastewater-storge-and-treatment-reservoirs anaerobic-ponds

57. Quality control of wastewater for irrigated crop production.
Westcot, D. W. and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Rome : Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1997. x, 86 p. : ill.: Includes bibliographical references (p. 85-86). NAL Call #: NBU S618.45-.W47-1997
Descriptors: Irrigation-water-Quality Sewage-irrigation-Health-aspects Water-reuse-Health-aspects

58. Quantitative near-surface remote sensing of wastewater quality in oxidation ponds and reservoirs: a case study of the Naan system.
Gitelson, A., Stark, R., and Dor, I.
Water-environ-res. 69: 7 pp.1263-1271. (Nov/Dec 1997).
NAL Call #: TD419.R47

Descriptors: waste-water water-reservoirs water-quality ponds- remote-sensing reflectance- estimation- chlorophyll- pigments- turbidity- organic-matter phytoplankton- water-reuse irrigation-water sewage-effluent algorithms- israel- bacteriochlorophyll- total-suspended-matter

59. Rainfall energy effects on runoff and interrill erosion in effluent irrigated soils.
Mamedov, A. I., Shainberg, I., and Levy, G. J.
Soil-sci. 165: 7 pp.535-544. (July 2000).
NAL Call #: 56.8-So3

Descriptors: irrigated-soils irrigation-water fresh-water sewage-effluent water-reuse water-quality interrill-erosion droplets- height- runoff- rain- kinetic-energy loess-soils loam-soils vertisols- clay-soils losses-from-soil water-erosion exchangeable-sodium soil-types israel- soil-loss smectitic-soils wash-erosion exchangeable-sodium-percentage

60. Reclaimed water: surfacing legal issues.
Thomas, A.
Irrig-bus-technol. 5: 1 pp.8. (Feb 1997).
NAL Call #: TC801.I77

Descriptors: water-reuse irrigation- law- usa-

61. Reclaiming salt-affected land through drainage in Haryana, India: a financial analysis.
Datta, K. K., Jong, C. de., and Singh, O. P.
Agric-water-manage. 46: 1 pp.55-71. (Nov 2000).
NAL Call #: S494.5.W3A3

Descriptors: saline-soils waterlogging- reclamation- subsurface-drainage surface-drainage reclaimed-soils soil-salinity soil-alkalinity agricultural-soils cost-benefit-analysis crop-production crop-yield irrigation- sewage-effluent-disposal haryana-

62. Recovery and characterization of by-products from egg processing plant wastewater using coagulants.
Xu, L. J., Sheldon, B. W., Carawan, R. E., Larick, D. K., and Chao, A. C.
Poultry-sci. 80: 1 pp.57-65. (Jan 2001).
NAL Call #: 47.8-Am33P

Descriptors: agroindustrial-byproducts waste-water-treatment poultry-industry chemical-precipitation coagulation- carboxymethylcellulose- iron- chloride- bentonite- chemical-oxygen-demand biochemical-oxygen-demand recovery- protein-digestibility egg-protein protein-content lipids- ash- water-purification water-reuse cost-analysis lignosulfonates- in-vitro-digestibility egg-processing wastewater- ferric-chloride

63. Reduction of paper machine water consumption.
Boyko, J., Anderson, J., and Lockhart, C.
Pulp-pap-Can. 100: 7 pp.42-45. (July 1999).
NAL Call #: 302.8-P96

Descriptors: pulp-and-paper-industry water-use-efficiency water-reuse papermaking-

64. Reuse of Carlton reject water. I. Effects on bermudagrass yield.
Ruple, G. J., Sarkar, D., Sartain, J. B., and O'Connor, G. A.
Proc-Soil-Crop-Sci-Soc-Fla. [S.l.] : Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida. 1999. v. 58 p. 31-38. pp.
NAL Call #: 56.9-So32

Descriptors: cynodon-dactylon cultivars- waste-water water-reuse saline-water irrigation-water salt-tolerance crop-yield florida- waste-water-irrigation

65. Reuse of Carlton reject water. II. Fate and transport of 226Ra.
Sarkar, D., O'Connor, G. A., Ruple, G. J., and Sartain, J. B.
Proc-Soil-Crop-Sci-Soc-Fla. [S.l.] : Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida. 1999. v. 58 p. 38-44. pp.
NAL Call #: 56.9-So32

Descriptors: waste-water water-reuse irrigation-water radon- radionuclides- soil-pollution leaching- water-pollution drainage-water florida- waste-water-irrigation

66. Reuse of drainage water from irrigated areas.
Willardson, L. S., Boels, D., and Smedema, L. K.
Irrig-drain-syst. 11: 3 pp.215-239. (Aug 1997).
NAL Call #: TC801.I66

Descriptors: water-reuse drainage-water irrigation- irrigated-conditions water-quality irrigated-farming simulation-models salinity- saline-water egypt- india- western-states-of-usa

67. Reuse of highly saline aquaculture effluent to irrigate a potential forage halophyte, Suaeda esteroa.
Brown, J. J. and Glenn, E. P.
Aquac-eng. 20: 2 pp.91-111. (June 1999).
NAL Call #: SH1.A66

Descriptors: suaeda- saline-water aquaculture- effluents- waste-water water-reuse irrigation- halophytes- forage- evaluation- feasibility-studies yields- water-use nitrogen- phosphorus- nutrient-uptake irrigation-water evaporation- biomass-production leachates-

68. Reuse of water in city planning.
Chawathe, S. D. and Kantawala, D.
Water-supply. 15: 1 pp.17-23. (1997).
NAL Call #: TD201.W346

Descriptors: waste-water water-reuse water-purification water-resources urban-areas industry- sewage- india-

69. Salmonella contamination of vegetables irrigated with untreated wastewater.
Melloul, A. A., Hassani, L., and Rafouk, L.
World-j-microbiol-biotechnol. 17: 2 pp.207-209. (Mar 2001).
NAL Call #: QR1.M562

Descriptors: food-contamination microbial-contamination irrigation-water waste-water water-reuse irrigation- morocco-

70. Sand and synthetic medium filtration of advanced primary treatment effluent from Mexico City.
Jimenez, B., Chavez, A., Leyva, A., and Tchobanoglous, G.
Water-res. 34: 2 pp.473-480. (Feb 2000).
NAL Call #: TD420.W3

Descriptors: waste-water waste-water-treatment water-reuse irrigation-water filtration- filters- sand- mexico- waste-water-reuse synthetic-filters sand-filters

71. Seasonal irrigation water use efficiency of multi-pot box system.
Irmak, S., Haman, D. Z., Yeager, T. H., and Larsen, C.
J-environ-hortic. 19: 1 pp.4-10. (Mar 2001).
NAL Call #: SB1.J66

Descriptors: viburnum-odoratissimum irrigation-water water-use-efficiency seasonal-variation propagation- water-reuse sprinkler-irrigation roots- shoots- biomass-production growth- container-grown-plants containers-

72. Simulation of subsurface storage and recovery of effluent using multiple wells, St. Petersburg, Florida.
Yobbi, D. K. and Saint Petersburg (Fla.). Southwest Florida Water Management District. Geological Survey (U.S.).
Tallahassee, Fla. : U.S. Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey ; Denver, CO : U.S. Geological Survey, Branch of Information Center [distributor], 1997. v, 30 p. : ill. (some col.), map: Shipping list no.: 97-0261-P. Includes bibliographical references (p. 30). SUDOCS: I 19.42/4:97-4024. NAL Call #: GB701.W375--no.97-4024
Descriptors: Water-reuse-Florida-Saint-Petersburg-Mathematical-models Groundwater-flow-Florida-Saint-Petersburg-Mathematical-models Water-supply-Florida-Saint-Petersburg-Mathematical-models Artificial-recharge-of-groundwater-Florida-Saint-Petersburg-Mathematical-models

73. Small flows quarterly : SF.: Small streams. SF.
National Small Flows Clearinghouse.
Morgantown, WV : National Small Flows Clearinghouse, 2000- v. : ill. pp.
NAL Call #: TD760-.S65

Descriptors: Sewage-disposal-plants-Periodicals Sewage-Purification-Periodicals Land-treatment-of-wastewater-Periodicals Water-reuse-Periodicals

74. Soil hydraulic conductivity changes caused by irrigation with reclaimed waste water.
Levy, G. J., Rosenthal, A., Tarchitzky, J., Shainberg, I., and Chen, Y.
J-environ-qual. 28: 5 pp.1658-1664. (Sept/Oct 1999).
NAL Call #: QH540.J6

Descriptors: hydraulic-conductivity waste-water application-to-land soil-types
Use of reclaimed waste water (RWW) in arid and semiarid regions may alleviate problems of fresh water shortage; however, it also involves some potential risks among which are degradation of soil hydraulic properties. The objectives of the current study were to study the effects or organic matter (OM) loads found in RWW obtained from a secondary treatment plant in Tel Aviv, Israel, and different size fractions of the suspended solids in the RWW on the hydraulic conductivity (HC) of three Israeli soils. The hydraulic conductivity of a clayey grumusol (Typic Chromoxerert), a typic loamy loess (Calcic Haploxeralf), and a sandy loam hamra (Typic Rhodexeralf) was determined in the laboratory using soil columns, by leaching with RWW containing zero, low, or high OM load, followed by leaching with distilled water (DW). The effects of suspended solids' size fraction on the HC was determined by filtering RWW. Leaching with high OM load RWW caused the relative HC of the grumusol, loess and hamra to drop to final values of 13.9, 24.2, and 58.8%, respectively. Filtering out suspended solids >1.2 micro in this water improved the HC of the hamra, but did not significantly affect the final relative HC of the grumusol and loess. Leaching with low OM load RWW did not significantly decrease the HC beyond the decrease attributed to the effects of the concentration and composition of the electrolytes present in the zero OM load RWW. Subsequent leaching with DW caused an additional decrease in HC, whose magnitude for a given soil did not depend on the quality of the RWW previously used. The presence of OM in the irrigation water did not seem to have significant residual effects on soil HC. Evidently, in high OM load RWW. the OM fraction determines the soils' HC, whereas in low OM load RWW, it is the electrolyte concentration and composition in the water, that seem to pose the hazard to soil hydraulic properties, especially during subsequent leaching with DW.

75. Soil treatability pilot studies to design and model soil aquifer treatment systems.: Pilot studies to design and model soil aquifer treatment systems.
Arizona State University. University of Arizona. University of Colorado, Boulder. AWWA Research Foundation. American Water Works Association.
Denver, Colo. : AWWA Research Foundation and American Water Works Association, c1998. xxxiv, 134 p. : ill.: Includes bibliographical references (p. 129). NAL Call #: TD433.S58-1998
Descriptors: Drinking-water-Purification Soil-remediation Water-reuse Sewage-Purification-Activated-sludge-process Groundwater-Purification

76. Spring recovery of constructed wetland plants affects nutrient removal from nursery runoff.
Arnold, M. A., Lesikar, B. J., Kenimer, A. L., and Wilkerson, D. C.
J-environ-hortic. 17: 1 pp.5-10. (Mar 1999).
NAL Call #: SB1.J66

Descriptors: wetlands- vegetation- nurseries- effluents- nutrient-availability runoff- demand- crop-quality water-reuse water-pollution waste-water-treatment electrical-conductivity salinity- nitrate-nitrogen ammonium- nitrite- plants- irrigation- species-differences pot-culture water-purification growing-media texas-

77. The status of wastewater reuse practice in the Mediterranean basin: need for guidelines.
Angelakis, A. N., Marecos do Monte, M. H. F., Bontoux, L., and Asano, T.
Water-res. 33: 10 pp.2201-2217. (July 1999).
NAL Call #: TD420.W3

Descriptors: waste-water reclamation- water-reuse guidelines- regulations- legislation- water-quality irrigation-water irrigation- mediterranean-region france- greece- cyprus- italy- israel- malta- morocco- portugal- spain- tunisia-

78. Subsurface drip irrigation using livestock wastewater: dripline flow rates.
Trooien, T. P., Lamm, F. R., Stone, L. R., Alam, M., Rogers, D. H., Clark, G. A., and Schlegel, A. J.
Appl-eng-agric. 16: 5 pp.505-508. (Sept 2000).
NAL Call #: S671.A66

Descriptors: trickle-irrigation microirrigation- subsurface-irrigation irrigation-equipment emitters- design- water-flow blockage- water-reuse waste-water lagoons- waste-water-treatment animal-wastes irrigation-water cleaning- beef-cattle
Using subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) with lagoon wastewater has many potential advantages. The challenge is to design and manage the SDI system to prevent emitter clogging. The objective of this study was to measure the flow rates of five types of driplines (with emitter flow rates of 0.57, 0.91, 1.5, 2.3, and 3.5 L/h/emitter) when used with lagoon wastewater. A disk filter with openings of 55 micrometer (200 mesh) was used and shock treatments of chlorine and acid were injected periodically. During the 1998 growing season, 530 mm of wastewater were applied through the SDI system and 390 mm were applied in 1999. During the growing seasons, the two lowest flow rate emitter designs decreased in flow rate, indicating that some emitter clogging had occurred. The magnitudes of the decreases were 15% and 11% of the original flow rates in 1998 and 22% and 14% in 1999 for the 0.57 L/h/emitter and 0.91 L/h/emitter driplines, respectively. After the winter idle period, the flow rates of both driplines returned to the initial flow rates. The three emitter designs with higher flow rates showed little sign of clogging; their flow rates decreased by 4% or less through both growing seasons. Observations showed that the disk filter and automatic backflush controller performed adequately in 1998 and 1999. Based on these preliminary results, the use of SDI with lagoon wastewater shows promise. However, the smaller emitter sizes (0.91 L/h/emitter or less) may be risky for use with wastewater and the long-term (greater than two growing seasons) effects are untested.

79. Tallahassee gets serious about large-scale water reuse.
Leseman, W. and Bond, R.
Irrig-bus-technol. 5: 4 pp.12-13. (Aug 1997).
NAL Call #: TC801.I77

Descriptors: irrigation- florida-

80. Technical feasibility of artificial recharge of reclaimed wastewater and its hydrologic impacts on the regional groundwater system.
Rabbani, Ghulam., Munch, Douglas A., and St. Johns River Water Management District (Fla.).
Palatka, Fla. : St. Johns River Water Management District, 2000. xvi, 60 p. : ill., maps: Includes bibliographical references (p. 57-60). NAL Call #: FU TD224.F6R72-2000
Descriptors: Water-quality-management-Floridan-Aquifer Groundwater-Florida Water-quality-Florida-Saint-Johns-River-Watershed Hydrology-Florida-Saint-Johns-River-Watershed Floridan-Aquifer

81. "Unconventional supplies" and the water dispute among the riparians of the Jordan river watershed.
Albert, J.
Water-resour-update.: 118 pp.44-59. (Jan 2001).
NAL Call #: TD201.U61

Descriptors: watershed-management water-resources water-policy international-cooperation waste-water water-reuse israel- syria- jordan-

82. The upcoming challenge: transboundary management of the hydraulic cycle.
Feitelson, E.
Water-air-soil-pollut. 123: 1/4 pp.533-549. (Oct 2000).
NAL Call #: TD172.W36

Descriptors: groundwater- surface-water water-resources water-management waste-water-treatment water-reuse international-cooperation hydrology- water-use israel- jordan- syria- lebanon-

83. Use of spent irrigation water for microbiological analysis of alfalfa sprouts.
Fu, T., Stewart, D., Reineke, K., Ulaszek, J., Schlesser, J., and Tortorello, M.
J-food-prot. 64: 6 pp.802-806. (June 2001).
NAL Call #: 44.8-J824

Descriptors: alfalfa- sprouts- food-contamination microbial-contamination aerobes- bacteria- escherichia-coli salmonella- analysis- food-microbiology water-reuse irrigation-water monitoring- bacterial-count aerobic-mesophiles
Numerous outbreaks of foodborne illness have been linked to the consumption of raw sprouts. Sprout producers have been advised by the Food and Drug Administration to include microbiological testing of spent irrigation water during production as part of an overall strategy to enhance the safety of sprouts. Alfalfa sprouts and irrigation water were analyzed to show the feasibility of using irrigation water for monitoring the microbiological safety of sprouts. Sprouts and water were produced and harvested from both commercial-scale (rotary drum) and consumer-scale (glass jars) equipment. Rapid increases of aerobic mesophiles occurred during the first 24 h of sprouting, with maximum levels achieved after 48 to 72 h. The counts in irrigation water were on average within approximately 1 log of their respective counts in the sprouts. Similar results were obtained for analysis of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in irrigation water and sprouts grown from artificially inoculated seeds. Testing of spent irrigation water indicated the contamination status of alfalfa sprouts grown from seeds associated with outbreaks of Salmonella infection.

84. Using oxidation-reduction potential as septicity control parameter during reclaimed wastewater transportation.
Delgado Diaz, S., Alvarez, M., Rodriguez Gomez, L. E., and Aguiar, E.
Water-environ-res. 72: 4 pp.455-459. (July/Aug 2000).
NAL Call #: TD419.R47

Descriptors: waste-water waste-water-treatment water-reuse water-quality redox-potential dissolved-oxygen nitrate-nitrogen anions- anaerobic-conditions anoxia- water-flow pipelines- irrigation-water canary-islands sulfide-

85. Utilizacion de aguas regeneradas y biosolidos = Beneficial reuse of water and biosolids : proceedings, April 6-9, 1997, Marbella, Malaga, Spain.
Asociacion para la Defensa de la Calidad de las Aguas (Spain). Beneficial Reuse of Water and Biosoids Specialty Conference (1997 : Marbella, Spain
Alexandria, VA : Water Environment Federation, 1997. 1 v. (various pagings) : ill., maps: "1997 Beneficial Reuse of Water and Biosoids Specialty Conference"--p. iii. Includes bibliographical references. NAL Call #: TD429-.U88-1997
Descriptors: Water-reuse-Congresses Organic-wastes-Recycling-Congresses

86. Utilization of petrochemical industry waste water for agriculture.
Aziz, O., Inam, A., and Samiullah.
Water-air-soil-pollut. 115: 1/4 pp.321-335. (Oct 1999).
NAL Call #: TD172.W36

Descriptors: zea-mays brassica-juncea irrigation- irrigation-water water-reuse waste-water factory-effluents chemical-industry growth- crop-yield agricultural-soils soil-chemistry electrical-conductivity cation-exchange-capacity soil-ph soil-organic-matter carbon- uttar-pradesh petrochemical-industry refinery-waste-water

87. Wastewater effects on montmorillonite suspensions and hydraulic properties of sandy soils.
Tarchitzky, J., Golobati, Y., Keren, R., and Chen, Y.
Soil-Sci-Soc-Am-j. [Madison, Wis.] Soil Science Society of America. May/June 1999. v. 63 (3) p. 554-560. pp.
NAL Call #: 56.9-So3

Descriptors: sandy-soils waste-water water-reuse irrigation-water water-quality organic-matter montmorillonite- flocculation- permeability- saturated-hydraulic-conductivity exchangeable-cations dissolved-organic-matter reclaimed-waste-water
Recycled wastewater effluent is an important source of irrigation water in arid and semiarid regions. In these regions, however, irrigation water quality is one of the main factors limiting plant growth. Wastewater effluents generally contain high concentrations of suspended and dissolved solids, both organic and inorganic. Inorganic dissolved solids are only minimally removed from the effluent during conventional sewage treatment (secondary or tertiary). As a result, most of the salts added during domestic and industrial usage remain in the irrigation water and may eventually reach the soil. A number of researchers have reported reduced hydraulic conductivity for soils to which treated wastewater has been applied. In this research, the influence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) contained in reclaimed wastewater effluents (mainly humic substances) on the flocculation of montmorillonite and on the hydraulic properties of soils was studied. Flocculation values (FVs) for Na-montmorillonite increased with increasing concentrations of DOM at all pH levels analyzed (5.5, 7.0, and 8.5). Maximum FV levels were exhibited for Na-montmorillonite at the highest DOM concentrations. The effect of DOM on FV can be explained by the mechanisms of edge-charge reversal and mutual flocculation. The hydraulic conductivity (HC) of a sandy soil was determined in the laboratory by leaching columns with an electrolyte solution chemically similar to that of the wastewater effluent (but without DOM). In columns treated with wastewater effluent, the HC exhibited a sharp decrease to only 20% of its initial value. The adverse effect of DOM on HC was evident for this soil despite a relatively low exchangeable sodium. percentage (ESP). The reduction in HC is likely to be the result of decreased soil pore-size, which reflects two processes: (i) retention of part of the DOM during water percolation; and (ii) a change in pore-size distribution due to swelling and dispersion of clay particles. The latter may result from a higher percentage of adsorbed sodium combined with the presence of humic substances from the wastewater effluent.

88. Wastewater irrigation-economic concerns regarding beneficiary and hazardous effects of nutrients.
Haruvy, N., Offer, R., Hadas, A., and Ravina, I.
Water-resour-manag. 13: 5 pp.303-314. (Oct 1999).
NAL Call #: TC401.W27

Descriptors: waste-water sewage-effluent water-reuse irrigation-water water-costs water-quality nitrogen- nutrients- production-costs crop-production fertilizers- farm-income profits- returns- mathematical-models crop-yield nutrient-availability field-crops fruit-growing irrigation-requirements nutrient-requirements fruit-crops israel- fertilizers-substitutes

89. Wastewater irrigation effect on soil, crop and environment: a pilot scale study at Irbid, Jordan.
Shahalam, A., Abu Zahra, B. M., and Jaradat, A.
Water-air-soil-pollut. 106: 3/4 pp.425-445. (Sept 1998).
NAL Call #: TD172.W36

Descriptors: waste-water rotating-biological-contactors sewage-effluent irrigation-water water-reuse sprinklers- medicago-sativa sprinkler-irrigation raphanus-sativus lycopersicon-esculentum coliform-bacteria fecal-coliforms microbial-contamination fruits- silt-loam-soils irrigated-soils crop-yield urea- triple-superphosphate application-date soil-physical-properties soil-chemistry water-quality jordan-

90. Wastewater quality and its reuse in agriculture in Saudi Arabia.
Hussain, G. and Al Saati, A. J.
Desalination. 123: 2/3 pp.241-251. (Oct 10, 1999).
NAL Call #: TD478.D4

Descriptors: water-reuse irrigation-water waste-water water-quality salinity- saline-water nutrient-content nitrogen-content

91. Wastewater re-use, stormwater management and the national water reform agenda : report to the Sustainable Land and Water Resources Management Committee and to the Council of Australian Governments National Water Reform Task Force.
Thomas, John F. and CSIRO Land and Water. Sustainable Land and Water Resources Management Committee. Council of Australian Governments. National Water Reform Task Force.
Canberra : CSIRO Land and Water, 1997. 16, 150, 54 p. : ill., maps: Includes bibliographical references (p. 141-150). NAL Call #: TD429.W36-1997
Descriptors: Water-reuse-Australia Water-resources-development-Australia Storm-sewers-Australia

92. Wastewater reclamation at Lake Arrowhead, California: an overview.
Madireddi, K., Babcock, R. W. Jr., Levine, B., Huo, T. L., Khan, E., Ye, Q. F., Neethling, J. B., Suffet, I. H., and Stenstrom, M. K.
Water-environ-res. 69: 3 pp.350-362. (May/June 1997).
NAL Call #: TD419.R47

Descriptors: sewage-effluent water-purification water-reuse nutrients- removal- ozone- disinfection- reverse-osmosis waste-water california-

93. Wastewater reclamation for agricultural reuse in Israel: trends and experimental results.
Brenner, A., Shandalov, S., Messalem, R., Yakirevich, A., Oron, G., and Rebhun, M.
Water-air-soil-pollut. 123: 1/4 pp.167-182. (Oct 2000).
NAL Call #: TD172.W36

Descriptors: sewage-effluent sewage- waste-water-treatment water-reuse irrigation-water bioreactors- activated-sludge biological-treatment filtration- microfiltration- mathematical-models nitrogen- phosphorus- removal- water-quality israel- sequencing-batch-reactors deep-bed-sand-filtration

94. Wastewater reclamation, recycling and reuse : selected proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Wastewater Reclamation, Recycling and Reuse, held in Paris, France, 3-6 July, 2000.
Brissaud, F. and International Symposium on Wastewater Reclamation, Recycling and Reuse 3rd 2000 Paris France
London ; IWA Publishing, 2001. x, 352 p. : ill., maps: Includes bibliographical references and index. NAL Call #: TD420.A1-P7-v.-43-no.-10
Descriptors: Water-reuse-Congresses Sewage-Purification

95. Wastewater treatment, renovation and reuse for agricultural irrigation in small communities.
Oron, G., Campos, C., Gillerman, L., and Salgot, M.
Agric-water-manage. 38: 3 pp.223-234. (Jan 1999).
NAL Call #: S494.5.W3A3

Descriptors: irrigation-water waste-water waste-water-treatment water-reuse water-supply communities- kibbutzim- cooperative-farms israel- bedouin-community druze-community

96. Water reclamation and reuse.
Van Riper, C. and Geselbracht, J.
Water-environ-res. 70: 4 pp.586-590. (June 1998).
NAL Call #: TD419.R47

Descriptors: water-purification water-reuse waste-water waste-water-treatment groundwater-recharge literature-reviews irrigation-water

97. Water reclamation and reuse.
Van Riper, C. and Geselbracht, J.
Water-environ-res. 71: 5 pp.720-728. (Aug 1999).
NAL Call #: TD419.R47

Descriptors: waste-water water-purification water-reuse reclamation- literature-reviews

98. Water resources in the GCC countries: an overview.
Al Rashed, M. F. and Sherif, M. M.
Water-resour-manag. 14: 1 pp.59-75. (Feb 2000).
NAL Call #: TC401.W27

Descriptors: water-resources groundwater-recharge surface-water waste-water waste-water-treatment water-reuse water-requirements groundwater- aquifers- desalinization- saudi-arabia oman- united-arab-emirates qatar- bahrain- kuwait- artificial-groundwater-recharge
Abstract: One of the critical problems that hinders the sustainable development in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries is the lack of renewable water resources. Rainfall in the Arabian Peninsula is scarce and infrequent. Over-exploitation of fossil groundwater resources, mostly to meet the irrigation demands and create greenery lands, has already affected the aquifer's productivity both quantitatively and qualitatively. A great portion of the freshwater demands in the GCC countries is covered by desalinated water. Recently, after the Gulf war and uncertainty of oil prices, the expansion in the construction of desalination plants may not be economically feasible. This article investigates the water availability and assesses the water demands in the GCC countries. It emphasizes the need for the adaptation of an efficient and integrated policy for water utilization and application of relevant conservation techniques in various water consumption sectors. Water of higher quality should be preserved for drinking purposes and should not be utilized for other purposes that may tolerate water of lower quality. Recycling of water and artificial recharge of groundwater by surface water and treated wastewater should be adapted at a larger scale.

99. Water reuse.
Renaud, P., Lazarova, V., Levine, B., and Manem, J.
Water-supply. 16: 1/2 pp.285-312. (1998).
NAL Call #: TD201.W346

Descriptors: water-reuse waste-water water-purification world

100. Water reuse in sequential basin irrigation.
Zapata, N., Playan, E., and Faci, J. M.
J-irrig-drain-eng. 126: 6 pp.362-370. (Nov/Dec 2000).
NAL Call #: 290.9-AM3Ps-IR

101. Water rights to return flow from urban landscape irrigation.
Oad, R. and DiSpigno, M.
J-irrig-drain-eng. 123: 4 pp.292-299. (July/Aug 1997).
NAL Call #: 290.9-AM3Ps-IR

Descriptors: water-supply water-reuse irrigation-water return-flow percolation- irrigation- lawns-and-turf urban-areas relationships- lysimeters- comparisons- colorado- lawn-irrigation applied-water deep-percolation irrigationreturn-flow-relationship

102. Water, sanitation and health : resolving conflicts between drinking-water demands and pressures from society's wastes.
Chorus, Ingrid.
London : IWA Pub., c2000. 440 p. : ill., maps: "Proceedings of the international conference held in Bad Elster, Germany, 24-28 November 1998." "World Health Organisation water series"--Cover. Includes bibliographical references.
CONTENTS NOTE: Sect. 1. Health risks potential from drinking-water polluted with domestic sewage and excreta -- sect. 2. Policy and acceptance, institutional and management aspects -- sect. 3. Protection of surface water (reservoirs, rivers, lakes) and groundwater from domestic sewage and excreta -- sect. 4. Re-use -- sect. 5. Technologies for the protection of drinking-water resources -- sect. 6. Case studies. NAL Call #: 449.9-V58-Nr.-105
Descriptors: Water-supply-Congresses Drinking-water-Contamination-Congresses Water-quality-management-Congresses Groundwater-Pollution-Congresses Water-reuse-Congresses

103. Water supply needs and sources assessment alternative water supply strategies investigation : planning level assessment of the feasibility of a regionally interconnected reuse system in Brevard and Indian River Counties.: Planning level assessment of the feasibility of a regionally interconnected reuse system in Brevard and Indian River Counties. Alternative water supply strategies investigation.
St. Johns River Water Management District. Law Engineering and Environmental Services, Inc.
Palatka, Fla. : St. Johns River Water managemnet district, 1997. ix, 45 p. : ill.: Includes bibliographical references (p. 15). NAL Call #: FU TD224.F6W3421-1997
Descriptors: Water-supply-Florida-Brevard-County Water-supply-Florida-Indian-River-County Water-resources-development-Florida-Brevard-County Water-resources-development-Florida-Indian-River-County Water-reuse-Florida-Brevard-County Water-reuse-Florida-Indian-River-County

104. Water use by the olive tree.
Fernandez, J. E. and Moreno, F.
J-crop-prod. 2: 2 pp.101-162. (1999).
NAL Call #: SB1.J683

Descriptors: olea-europaea water-use water-use-efficiency drought-resistance root-systems root-hydraulic-conductivity leaves- plant-water-relations transpiration- irrigation- irrigation-systems water-requirements mathematical-models water-stress drought- waste-water water-reuse sap-flow leaf-water-potential orchards- crop-management phenology- roots- length- density- soil-depth seasonal-variation plant-anatomy wood- canopy- gas-exchange stomata- leaf-age literature-reviews irrigation-requirements irrigation-scheduling

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