Water Quality Information Center of the National Agricultural Library
Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture


Constructed Wetlands Bibliography, Part V:
Household Waste

This file, "Constructed Wetlands Bibliography, Part V: Household Waste" is one section of a seven-part constructed wetlands bibliography on using constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. The bibliography was compiled by United States Department of Agriculture staff from the Ecological Sciences Division of the Natural Resources Conservation Service and the Water Quality Information Center at the National Agricultural Library. The complete bibliography can be accessed as either a single large (450K) file containing more than 600 citations or in parts organized by topic.

To locate a publication cited in this bibliography, please contact your local, state, or university library. If you are unable to locate a particular publication, your library can contact the National Agricultural Library (see instructions given at the end of this file).

For WWW access to these files: point your browser at http://www.nal.usda.gov/wqic/Constructed_Wetlands_all/index.html.

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 TITLE       A new community approach to waste treatment with higher     
             water plants.                                               
 AUTHOR      Burka, U. and P.C. Lawrence.                                
 SOURCE      Constructed Wetlands in Water Pollution Control.            
 PUBLISHER   Pergamon Press, Inc.                                        
 PAGES       pp. 359-371
 DATE        1990
 CALLNUM     TD 756. 5 I57
 ANNOTATION  The success of the two sewage treatment systems based on aquatic   
             plants has attracted the attention of the industry, and            
             communities.  The industry has been impressed by the systems'      
             performances while communities are impressed by a treatment       
             systems' efficiency and aesthetics that can be an attractive      
             community amenity.                                                 
 
                                                                              
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 TITLE       An assessment of using artificial wetlands to treat sewage. 
 AUTHOR      Fisher, P.J.                                                
 SOURCE      Proceedings of the 13th annual federal convention,          
 PUBLISHER   Canberra, Australia, 1989. p. 21-31.                        
 PAGES
 DATE
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
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 TITLE       Constructed wetlands for municipal wastewater treatment.    
 AUTHOR      Watson, J.T., G.R. Steiner and D.A. Hammer.                 
 SOURCE      Proceedings, Mississippi Water Resources Conference,        
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES
 DATE        1988
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
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 TITLE       Constructed wetlands for municipal wastewater treatment:    
             prepared for presentation at the Miss. Water Resources      
             Conf., Jackson, MS, March 29-30, 1988.                      
 AUTHOR      Steiner, G.R., J.T. Watson and D.A. Hammer.                 
 SOURCE
 PUBLISHER   Chattanooga, TN: Tenn. Valley Authority, Office of Natural  
             Resources and Economic Development.                         
 PAGES       12p
 DATE        1988?
 CALLNUM     DNAL TD755.S7
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
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 TITLE       Constructed wetlands for municipal wastewater treatment:    
             state-of-the-art.                                           
 AUTHOR      Watson, J.T.                                                
 SOURCE      Presented at the Sym. Epuration Des Eaux Usees Par Les      
             Plants: Perspectives D'Avenir Au Quebec, Montreal, Quebec,  
             Canada, March 20, 1992.                                     
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES
 DATE        1992
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
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 TITLE       Constructed wetlands in effluent disposal.                  
 AUTHOR      Sfackney, B.J.                                              
 SOURCE      Sixth National Local Government Engineering Conference,     
             Hobart, Australia, August 25-30, 1991.                      
 PUBLISHER   Barton, Australia: IE                                       
 PAGES       pp 179-83.
 DATE        1991.
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
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 TITLE       Constructed wetlands in effluent disposal.                  
 AUTHOR      Mackney, B.J.                                               
 SOURCE      Effective Management of Assests and Environment National    
             Conference Publication - Institution of Engineers, Australia
             n 91 pt 14.                                                 
 PUBLISHER   Barton, Australia: IE Aust.                                 
 PAGES       pp. 179-183
 DATE        1991
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
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 TITLE       Constructed wetlands: a viable alternative to sewage        
             treatment plants?                                           
 AUTHOR      Groark, E.                                                  
 SOURCE      Splash! [A newsletter of the Save Our Streams program] 10(2)
 PUBLISHER   Izaak Walton League of America
 PAGES       p. 3
 DATE        1990, Spring
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
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 TITLE       Domestic wastewater treatment in tanks planted with rooted  
             macrophytes, case study, description of system, design      
             criteria, efficiency.                                       
 AUTHOR      Boutin, C.                                                  
 SOURCE      Post-Conference IAWPRC. Piracicaba, Brazil, 24-27 August    
             1986. Wat. Sci. Tech., 19 (12), pp 29-40                    
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES
 DATE        1986
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
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 TITLE       Ecological considerations in wetlands treatment of municipal
             wastewaters.                                                
 AUTHOR      Godfrey, P.J., et al., eds.                                 
 SOURCE
 PUBLISHER   New York: Van Rostrand Reinhold                             
 PAGES
 DATE        1985
 CALLNUM     QH545. S49E3
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
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 TITLE       Environmental protection agency municipal wastewater        
             treatment technology forum, Orlando, Florida, March 20-22   
             1990.                                                       
 AUTHOR      Environmental Protection Agency.                            
 SOURCE
 PUBLISHER   Washington: EPA                                             
 PAGES
 DATE        1990
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
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 TITLE       Etude experimentale de traitement des eaux usees par des lagunes 
             facultatives et a hydrophytes libres au Niger.
             (Experimentation of wastewater treatment in facultative pond
             and lagoons with floating macrophytes in Niger)           
 AUTHOR      Laouali, Garba et al
 SOURCE      Water Quality Research Journal Canada, Vol. 31, No.1
 PUBLISHER   
 PAGES       37-50
 DATE        1996
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION  The article is in French, with an English abstract.
 
 
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 TITLE       Gas exchange through the soil-atmosphere interphase and     
             through dead culms of Phragmites australis in a constructed 
             reed bed receiving domestic sewage.                         
 AUTHOR      Brix, H.                                                    
 SOURCE      Water Research. 1990. v. 24 p. 259-266.                     
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES
 DATE        1990
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
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 TITLE       General design, construction, and operation guidelines:     
             constructed wetlands wastewater treatment systems for small 
             users including individual residences.                      
 AUTHOR      Steiner, G.R., J.T. Watson and K.D. Choate.                 
 SOURCE      Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga. Aquatic Biology    
             Dept. Report: TVA/WR/WQ-91/2.                               
 PUBLISHER   NTIS Accession No. DE91015968XAB                            
 PAGES
 DATE        1991, March
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
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 TITLE       Inland marshes are saving dollars.                          
 AUTHOR      Birmingham, T.H.                                            
 SOURCE      Public Works, Vol. 119, No.12                               
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES       pp. 50-52
 DATE        1988
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
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 TITLE       Innovative solutions to small community wastewater problems.
 AUTHOR      Schutz, F.P.                                                
 SOURCE      Operations Forum: Water Environment Federation Vol. 9, No.  
             6, p 12-15, 1992                                            
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES       pp 12-15
 DATE        1992
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
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 TITLE       Inventory of constructed wetlands for municipal wastewater  
             treatment in the U.S.                                       
 AUTHOR      Brown, D.S. and S.C. Reed.                                  
 SOURCE      Pub. in Proc., ASCE Nat. Env. Eng Conference. Report No.    
             EPA/600/D-91/087; NTIS Accession No. PB91-191247/XAB.       
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES
 DATE        1991, July
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
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 TITLE       Natural sewage recycling systems.                           
 AUTHOR      Small, M.M.                                                 
 SOURCE      Brookhaven National Laboratory BNL-50630                    
 PUBLISHER   NTIS BNL-50630                                              
 PAGES       36p.
 DATE        1977
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION  This paper presents a review of the development of the natural     
             treatment systems, Marsh/Pond and Meadow/Marsh/Pond, which
           produces potable water from sewage.  No conventional treatment     
            plant hardware beyond aeration was used.  Experiments for the
             two prototype systems are described and performance data       
             are presented in detail for the Marsh/Pond systems. 
             
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 TITLE       Needs and problems in sewage treatment and effluent disposal
             facing small communities: the role of wetland treatment     
             alternatives.                                               
 AUTHOR      Bastian, R.K.                                               
 SOURCE      Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Sciences.  52(1/2): 
             41-49.                                                      
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES
 DATE        1991, March
 CALLNUM     500 K41
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
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 TITLE       On-site alternatives for treatment and disposal.            
 AUTHOR      Pause, S.M.                                                 
 SOURCE      Journal-Water Pollution Control Federation, Vol.61, No. 6   
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES       pp. 844-845
 DATE        1989, June
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
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 TITLE       Performance of solid-matrix wetland systems, viewed as      
             fixed-film bioreactors.                                     
 AUTHOR      Bavor, H.J., et al.                                         
 SOURCE      Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment: Municipal,   
             Industrial and Agricultural.                                
 PUBLISHER   Chelsea, MI: Lewis Publishers, Inc.                         
 PAGES       pp. 646-656
 DATE        1989
 CALLNUM     TD 756. 5 C66
 ANNOTATION  Wastewater treatment of solid-matrix constructed wetland systems  
             has been investigated during the design, operation, and
             maintenance of seven large-scale units.  Removal of
             suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand, nitrogen,         
             phosphorus, and fecal coliforms were investigated with
             respect to loading, detention  time, and temperature parameters    
             to allow predictive modeling of the system performance.   
 
 
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 TITLE       Potential replacement of septic tank drain fields by        
             artificial marsh wastewater treatment systems.              
 AUTHOR      Fetter, C.W., W.E. Sloey, and F.L. Spangler.                
 SOURCE      Ground-water. 1976. v. 14 p. 396-402.                       
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES
 DATE        1976
 CALLNUM     TD 403 G7
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
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 TITLE       Removal of nutrients from treated municipal wastewater by   
             wetland vegetation.                                         
 AUTHOR      Boyt, R.L. et al.                                           
 SOURCE      Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation. 1977. v. 
             49. p. 780.                                                 
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES
 DATE        1977
 CALLNUM     293. 8 SE8
 ANNOTATION  The town of Wildwood Florida had been releasing secondary treated 
             wastewater into a mixed hardwood swamp for 20 years.  The Florida  
             Department of Environmental Regulation was concerned that 
             nutrients from the wastewater effluent might reach Lake    
             Panasoffkee.  This paper presents a description of the study area,
             experimental design, and the results of the swamp's effectiveness
           in nutrient uptake. 
 
 
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 TITLE       Report on the use of wetlands for municipal wastewater      
             treatment and disposal.                                     
 AUTHOR      Environmental Protection Agency.                            
 SOURCE      EPA Report 430/09-88-005.                                   
 PUBLISHER   NTIS Accession No.: PB88-233481/XAB                         
 PAGES       32p.
 DATE        1987
 CALLNUM     IPM 911118407
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
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 TITLE       Revolution in wastewater treatment.                         
 AUTHOR      Gillette, B.                                                
 SOURCE      Biocycle, Vol. 29, No. 3.                                   
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES       pp. 49-51
 DATE        1988
 CALLNUM     57.8 C734
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
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 TITLE       Secondary treatment of domestic wastewater using floating   
             emergent macrophytes.                                       
 AUTHOR      Debusk, T.A., P.S. Burgoon and K.R. Reddy.                  
 SOURCE      Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment: Municipal,   
             Industrial and Agricultural.                                
 PUBLISHER   Chelsea, MI: Lewis Publishing, Inc.                         
 PAGES       pp. 525-529
 DATE        1989
 CALLNUM     TD 756.5 C66
 ANNOTATION  Studies in Florida have demonstrated that shallow ponds containing 
             large-leaved floating macrophytes, such as pennywort and water     
             hyacinth, can remove biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) from domestic 
             wastewaters.  Because pennywort and water hyacinth cannot grow
             year long in cooler climates, the authors examined BOD and         
                suspended solids removal rates from primary effluent using  
           floating and emergent macrophytes cultured in pond and gravel-bed  
                systems.      
 
 
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 TITLE       Sewage treatment in helophyte beds--first experiences with a
             new treatment procedure.                                    
 AUTHOR      Bucksteeg, K.                                               
 SOURCE      Wat. Sci. Tech. 19 (10) 1987, 1-10                          
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES
 DATE
 CALLNUM     TD420 A1P7
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
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 TITLE       Sewage treatment with plants.                               
 AUTHOR      Stott, R.F. and S.J.L. Wright.                              
 SOURCE      Letters in Applied Microbiology.  12(4): 99-105.            
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES
 DATE        April 1991.
 CALLNUM     QR1 L47
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
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 TITLE       Technical report: the effects of wastewater treatment       
             facilities on wetlands in the midwest.                      
 AUTHOR      USEPA                                                       
 SOURCE      EPA-905/3-83-002                                            
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES
 DATE        1983, Sept.
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
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 TITLE       The use of Phragmites for wastewater treatment by the root  
             zone method--the UK approach.                               
 AUTHOR      Cooper, P.F. and A.G. Boon.                                 
 SOURCE      Aqautic Plants for Water Treatment and Resource Recovery.   
 PUBLISHER   Orlando, Fl: Magnolia Publishing, Inc.                      
 PAGES       pp. 153-174
 DATE        1987
 CALLNUM     TD475 C65 1986
 ANNOTATION  The root zone method of wastewater treatment is being evaluated in
             the United Kingdom.  It may have significant benefits in relation  
             to operational costs and performance for the treatment of sewage   
             for small populations, especially in rural areas.  The treatment   
             process is described and compared with similar processes.          
 
                                                                    
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 TITLE       Treatment of wastewater using artificial wetlands:          
             Large-scale, fixed-film bioreactors.                        
 AUTHOR      Bavor, H.J., et al.                                         
 SOURCE      Austrialian Biotechnology. 1987 v. 1 (4).                   
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES
 DATE        1987
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
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 TITLE       TVA's constructed wetlands demonstration.                   
 AUTHOR      Choate, K.D., J.T. Watson and G.R. Steiner.                 
 SOURCE      Constructed Wetlands for Water Quality Improvement          
 PUBLISHER   CRC Press, Inc.                                             
 PAGES       pp 509-516
 DATE        1993
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
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 TITLE       Use of artificial wetlands for wastewater treatment.        
 AUTHOR      Wile, I., G. Palmateer, and G. Miller.                      
 SOURCE      Presented at Minnesota Water Planning Board, Wetlands Values
             & Management Conference, St. Paul, MN, June 17-19, 1981.    
 PUBLISHER   Original doc. avail. from Bowker                            
 PAGES
 DATE
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
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 TITLE       Utilization of natural ecosystems for wastewater renovation.
 AUTHOR      Burton, T.M., D.L. King, R.C. Ball and T.G. Bar.            
 SOURCE      EPA-905/3-79-003 USEPA Region V, Great Lakes National       
             Programs Office.                                            
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES       155p.
 DATE        1979, April
 CALLNUM     TD 746 U78
 ANNOTATION  Michigan State University in cooperation with the City of East     
             Lansing, Michigan, constructed a permanent facility for the        
             experimental treatment, recycle and reuse of municipal sewage
             plant effluent.  The waste flow is directed into an intensely      
           managed aquatic and terrestrial nutrient recycling system.    
             This report presents the preliminary research results.             
            
 
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 TITLE       Wastewater treatment by artificial wetlands.                
 AUTHOR      Gersberg, R.M., B.V. Elkins, and C.R. Goldman.              
 SOURCE      Water Science and Technology. 1984. v. 17 p. 443-50.        
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES
 DATE        1984
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
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 TITLE       Wastewater treatment by constructed wetlands: Using nature's
             way with an engineered constructed wetlands may be the      
             solution to your wastewater treatment problems.             
 AUTHOR      Tennessee Valley Authority.                                 
 SOURCE      TVA Water Quality Branch.                                   
 PUBLISHER   Chattanooga                                                 
 PAGES
 DATE        1987
 CALLNUM     TD756.5 W3
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
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 TITLE       Wastewater treatment using aquatic plants.                  
 AUTHOR      Fisher, P.J.                                                
 SOURCE      Alternative Waste Treatment Systems.                        
 PUBLISHER   New York: Elsevier Science Publishing Co.                   
 PAGES       pp. 34-44
 DATE        1988
 CALLNUM     TD511 A53
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
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 TITLE       Wetlands and wastewater management: questions, answers,     
             advice, and guidance.                                       
 AUTHOR      Wernstedt, K.                                               
 SOURCE      EPA, Office of Cooperative Environmental Management, Report 
             No.:EPA/600/9-89/028                                        
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES       178p.
 DATE        1988
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
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 TITLE       Wetlands wastewater treatment systems.                      
 AUTHOR      Small, M.M.                                                 
 SOURCE      Proceedings of the International Symposium, State of        
             Knowledge in Land Treatment of Wastewater, Hanover, NH,     
             August 20-25, 1978.                                         
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES
 DATE        1978, June
 CALLNUM     TD760. S8 1978 Vol. 2
 ANNOTATION  Judging from the demonstrated performance of two artificial
             wetland prototypes, it appears that these systems are technically  
             superior to conventional secondary treatment plants and can be the
             equivalent of advanced water treatment plants. Construction,       
             operating cost, design constraints of the wetlands,  and a         
             discussions of extensions for other prototype designs are
             presented in this paper.                                           
          
 
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 TITLE       Creation and management of wetlands using municipal         
             wastewater in northern Arizona: a status report.            
 AUTHOR      Wilhelm, M., S.R. Lawry and D.D. Hardy.                     
 SOURCE      Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment: Municipal,   
             Industrial and Agricultural                                 
 PUBLISHER   Chelsea, MI: Lewis Publishers, Inc.                         
 PAGES       pp. 179-185
 DATE        1989
 CALLNUM     TD 756. 5 C66
 ANNOTATION  Appropriation of water for agricultural, industrial and municipal 
             uses has decreased natural wetland habitats.  Municipal wastewater 
             used to create new wetlands in northwestern Arizona may offset     
             natural wetland losses.                                            
 
 
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 TITLE       Land treatment of municipal wastewater on Mississippi       
             Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge for wetlands/crane  
             habitat enhncement: a status report.                        
 AUTHOR      Hardy, J.W.                                                 
 SOURCE      Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment: Municipal,   
             Industrial and Agricultural                                 
 PUBLISHER   Chelsea, MI: Lewis Publishers, Inc.                         
 PAGES       pp. 186-190
 DATE        1989
 CALLNUM     TD 756. 5 C66
 ANNOTATION  One of the primary objectives for recovery and survival of the     
             Mississippi sandhill crane is to restore desirable habitats,       
             including plant communities and water regimes.  Following lengthy  
             feasibility reviews, governmental agencies signed a memorandum of
             understanding to allow land treatment of primary-treated effluent  
             on the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge.  The   
             two components of the project are a lagoon system and the land     
             treatment system.       
 
                                            
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 TITLE       Wastewater treatment/disposal in a combined marsh and forest
             system provides for wildlife habitat and recreational use.  
 AUTHOR      James, B.B. and R. Bogaert.                                 
 SOURCE      Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment: Municipal,   
             Industrial and Agricultural                                 
 PUBLISHER   Chelsea, MI: Lewis Publishers, Inc.                         
 PAGES       pp. 597-605.
 DATE        1989
 CALLNUM     TD 756. 5 C66
 ANNOTATION  The Mt. View Sanitary District treatment plant treats sewage flows 
             averaging 5300 m3/day with comminution, primary sedimentation,     
             two-stage high-rate biofiltration, secondary sedimentation,        
             chlorination, and dechlorination.  This paper presents a summary
             of 15 years of operating experience on two wetland areas  
           constructed in the 1970's and the marsh/forest pilot project,
           receiving secondary effluent from the district's wastewater        
                treatment plant as the sole water source.                          
                                        
 
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 TITLE       Aquatic plant culture for waste treatment and resoure       
             recovery.                                                   
 AUTHOR      Kingsley, J.B., J.J. Maddox and P.M. Giordano.              
 SOURCE      Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment: Municipal,   
             Industrial and Agricultural.                                
 PUBLISHER   Chelsea, MI: Lewis Publishing, Inc.                         
 PAGES       pp. 542-549
 DATE        1989
 CALLNUM     TD 756. 5 C66
 ANNOTATION  There has been limited efforts to recover useful products from     
             artificial wetland systems that treat liquid waste streams from    
             municipalities, industries, and agricultural enterprises.  Some of
             the aquatic plants with potential uses in industry and agriculture 
             are Chinese water chestnuts, cattails, and common reeds.  This     
             project demonstrated the potential of three aquatic macrophytes to 
             remove pollutants from wastewater and produce useful crops.        
 
                                                                           
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 TITLE       Assessment of aquaculture for reclamation of wastewater.    
 AUTHOR      Duffer, W.R.                                                
 SOURCE      Water Reuse.                                                
 PUBLISHER   Ann Arbor, MI: Ann Arbor Science.                           
 PAGES       pp. 349-367
 DATE        1982
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
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 TITLE       Combined artificial wetlands and high rate algal pond for   
             wastewater treatment and protein production.                
 AUTHOR      Wood, A., J. Scheepers and M. Hills.                        
 SOURCE      Water Science and Technology Vol. 2 (of 5). p659-668.       
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES       pp 659-668
 DATE        1989
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
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 TITLE       Municipal wastewater aquaculture.                           
 AUTHOR      Duffer, W.R. and J.E. Moyer.                                
 SOURCE      NTIS PB-284.  EPA-600/2-78-110                              
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES       46p
 DATE        1978, June
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
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 TITLE       Marsh-pond-meadow treatment facility.                       
 AUTHOR      Walters, D.H.                                               
 SOURCE      Case Study 1 of the Case Study Series. Small Flows. January 
             1986.                                                       
 PUBLISHER   Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University.                   
 PAGES
 DATE        1986, Jan 17.
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
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 TITLE       Analysis of gravel cell number three, Benton, KY wetlands.  
 AUTHOR      Kadlec, R. H.                                               
 SOURCE      Report prepared for the TVA.                                
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES
 DATE        1991, April
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
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 SUBCATEGOR  case studies, PA pollutant removal, N
 
 TITLE       Nitrification and denitrification at the Iselin, Pennsylvania      
             marsh/pond/meadow facility.                                 
 AUTHOR      Davido, R.L. and T.E. Conway.                               
 SOURCE      Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment: Municipal,   
             Industrial and Agricultural.                                
 PUBLISHER   Chelsea, MI: Lewis Publishing, Inc.                         
 PAGES       pp 477-83
 DATE        1989
 CALLNUM     TD756.5 C66
 ANNOTATION  Combinations of marshes, ponds and meadows can be effective       
             wastewater treatment systems.  The Iselin Marsh/Pond/Meadow is an  
             example of an active wetland system that has proven effective in   
             removing nitrogen from wastewater.  The authors intend to define   
             major zones of nitrification and denitrification and provide base  
             data for future work at the site for optimizing removal
             capacities. 
                                   
 
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 SUBCATEGOR  case studies--CA
 
 TITLE       Constructed free surface wetlands to treat and receive      
             wastewater: pilot project to full scale.                    
 AUTHOR      Gearheart, R.A., F. Klopp, and G. Allen.                    
 SOURCE      Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment: Municipal,   
             Industrial and Agricultural                                 
 PUBLISHER   Chelsea, MI: Lewis Publishers, Inc.                         
 PAGES       pp. 121-137
 DATE        1989
 CALLNUM     TD 756. 5 C66
 ANNOTATION  The city of Arcata, California has completed four years of a pilot 
             project study that polished secondary-treated wastewater with      
             constructed freshwater wetlands.  The pilot study  demonstrated    
             that a constructed wetland can provide reliable tertiary treatment 
             for municipal wastewater.  This paper presents the pilot studies   
             results and conclusions, two years of full-scale wetland
             operation. In addition the pilot's wetland management and design   
             criteria for wastewater treatment are presented.                   
                                  
 
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 TITLE       Minnesota's experience with the biologically activated soil 
             filtration unit.                                            
 AUTHOR      Tomasek, M.D., G.E. Johnson and P.J. Mulloy.                
 SOURCE      Water Quality Division, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, 
             6th Annual International Symposium, Lake and Reservoir      
             Management: Influences of Nonpoint Source Pollutants and    
             Acid Precipitation,                                         
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES
 DATE        November 1986.
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
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 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  case studies--NY
 
 TITLE       Data report, marsh/pond sewage treatment plants.            
 AUTHOR      Small, M.M.                                                 
 SOURCE      Dept. of Applied Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory,   
             Upton, NY.                                                  
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES
 DATE        1976, May
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION  The Marsh/Pond located at Brookhaven National Laboratory is a      
             prototype natural wastewater treatment facility whose purpose is
             to continuously renovate sewage to groundwater rechargeable        
           quality. Since the system is still under study, it is premature to 
             draw detailed observations; however, the purpose of this paper is  
             to present the principal data from one year of test observations.  
   
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  case studies--NY
 
 TITLE       Data report, meadow/marsh/pond system.                      
 AUTHOR      Small, M.M. and C. Wurm.                                    
 SOURCE      Brookhaven National Laboratory                              
 PUBLISHER   NTIS BNL-50675                                              
 PAGES       28p.
 DATE        1977
 CALLNUM     TD760 S7
 ANNOTATION  The Meadow/Marsh/Pond has been in various modes of continuous      
             operation since 1973 for the purpose of renovating blends of       
             septage and weak sewage to groundwater recharge quality.  The      
             system is economical to build and operate, attractive, free of     
             disease vectors, aerosols and objectionable odors.  This paper     
             presents a report that summarizes 13 months of operating data.     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  case studies--NY
 
 TITLE       Meadow/marsh systems as sewage treatment plants.            
 AUTHOR      Small, M.M.                                                 
 SOURCE      Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY.                  
 PUBLISHER   NTIS BNL-20757                                              
 PAGES
 DATE        1975
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION  For the past three years Brookhaven National Laboratory has been  
             building, operating and testing Marsh/Meadow/Pond and Marsh/Pond   
             sewage treatment systems.  Presently, there is no clear choice on  
             which system is better.  Therefore, it is expected that land       
             availability, terrain, and crop value will be the principal        
             determinants in a choosing a system.                               
                    
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  case studies--New Zealand
 
 TITLE       Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment: The New      
             Zealand experience.                                         
 AUTHOR      Bhamidimarri, R., et al.                                    
 SOURCE      Water Science and Technology. 1991. v. 24 (5) p. 247-53.    
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES
 DATE        1991
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  case studies--Ontario, CAN.
 
 TITLE       Listowel artificial marsh treatment project.                
 AUTHOR      Herskowitz, J., S. Black and W. Lewandowski.                
 SOURCE      Aquatic Plants for Water Treatment and Resource Recovery.   
 PUBLISHER   Orlando, FL: Magnolia Publishing, Inc.                      
 PAGES       pp. 247-254
 DATE        1987
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION  Complete mix aeration cell effluent and lagoon effluent were       
             treated in five separate cattail marsh treatment systems for four  
             years.  The marsh systems demonstrated large reductions in         
             biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids and bacteria on a year 
             round basis.  The marsh effluent treatment quality ranged between  
             conventional secondary and tertiary treatment levels.              
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  case studies--Ontario, CAN.
 
 TITLE       Use of artificial cattail marshes to treat sewage in        
             northern Ontario, Canada.                                   
 AUTHOR      Miller, G.                                                  
 SOURCE      Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment: Municipal,   
             Industrial and Agricultural.                                
 PUBLISHER   Chelsea, MI: Lewis Publishing, Inc.                         
 PAGES       pp. 636-642
 DATE        1989
 CALLNUM     td 796.5 c66
 ANNOTATION  A southwestern Ontario marsh project established that a properly   
             configured cattail marsh has the capacity to significantly improve 
             the quality of sewage wastewater.  This inexpensive marsh
             treatment technology seemed ideally suited for some northern       
           Ontario communities that could not afford the capital costs of
             conventional sewage treatment.  This paper presents the findings   
                of the study.  
       
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  case studies--S. Africa
 
 TITLE       Experimental investigations into the use of emergent plants 
             to treat sewage in South Africa.                            
 AUTHOR      Alexander, W.V. and A. Wood.                                
 SOURCE      Water Science and Technology, Vol. 19, No. 10.              
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES       pp. 51-59
 DATE        1987
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  case studies--S. Africa
 
 TITLE       Low-cost and low-energy wastewater treatment systems: A     
             South-African perspective.                                  
 AUTHOR      Batchelor, A. et al.                                        
 SOURCE      Water Science and Technology. 1991. v. 24 (5) p. 241-246.   
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES
 DATE
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
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 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  case studies--SE USA
 
 TITLE       Demonstration of constructed wetlands for treatment of      
             municipal wastewaters, monitoring report for the period:    
             March 1988 to October 1989.                                 
 AUTHOR      Choate, K.D., J.T. Watson and G.R. Steiner.                 
 SOURCE      TVA/WR/WQ--90/11                                            
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES       107p.
 DATE        1990, August
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION  Three full-scale wetland treatment systems were constructed for
             the purpose of investigating and promoting the feasibility and
             benefits of using constructed wetlands for treating domestic       
           wastewater. The constructed wetlands designs, operation status,    
           and performance are presented in this report.  Based on the        
                findings, changes in the monitoring and operation of each system   
                are addressed.    
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  case studies--SE USA
 
 TITLE       First semiannual monitoring report: demonstration of        
             constructed wetlands for treatment of municipal wastewater, 
             March to December 1988.                                     
 AUTHOR      Choate, K.D., G.R. Steiner and J.T. Watson.                 
 SOURCE      TVA/WR/WQ--89/5                                             
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES       36p.
 DATE        1989, July
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION  Since standardized design criteria are currently not available to  
             engineers and regulators, several governmental agencies
             implemented a demonstration to investigate and promote the         
           feasibility and benefits of using constructed wetlands for         
           treating domestic wastewater.  Three full-scale wetland treatment  
             systems were constructed and a description of the systems are      
           presented in this report. Also the initial ten months of monthly  
           monitoring data and a dye study for the Benton system is           
           presented.                    
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  case studies--FL
 
 TITLE       Community waste research at the Walt Disney World resort    
             complex.                                                    
 AUTHOR      __________.                                                 
 SOURCE      unpublished                                                 
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES
 DATE        no date
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  case studies--FL
 
 TITLE       Man-made wetlands for wastewater treatment: two case        
             studies.                                                    
 AUTHOR      Jackson, J.                                                 
 SOURCE      Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment: Municipal,   
             Industrial and Agricultural.                                
 PUBLISHER   Chelsea, MI: Lewis Publishers, Inc.                         
 PAGES       pp. 574-580
 DATE        1989
 CALLNUM     TD756. 5 C55
 ANNOTATION  State and federal agencies are discouraging the traditional        
             practice of discharging treated wastewater directly to surface     
             waters.  Wastewater treatment technologies must develop effluent   
             methods that use low-lying or otherwise less desirable lands while 
             adequately protecting surface water resources.  Two constructed    
             wetlands that meet both of these criteria are presented in this    
             paper.                                                             
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  case studies--KY
 
 TITLE       Municipal waste water treatment by constucted wetlands--a   
             TVA demonstration in western Kentucky.                      
 AUTHOR      Steiner, G.R., J.T. Watson and D.A. Hammer.                 
 SOURCE      Prepared for Presentation at the Conference on Increaseing  
             our Wetland Resources, Washington, DC, October 4-7, 1987.   
 PUBLISHER   TVA, Office of Nat. Resources and Economic Development, Div.
             of Air and Water Resources.                                 
 PAGES
 DATE        1987
 CALLNUM     GH87.4 W47 1987
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  case studies--KY
 
 TITLE       Performance of constructed wetland treatment systems at     
             Benton, Hardin, and Pembroke, Kentucky during the early     
             vegetation establishment phase.                             
 AUTHOR      Watson, J.T., K.D. Choate and G.R. Steiner.                 
 SOURCE      Constructed Wetlands in Water Pollution Control.            
 PUBLISHER   Oxford: Pergamon Press                                      
 PAGES       pp. 171-182
 DATE        1990
 CALLNUM     TD 756. 5 I57
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  case studies--SC
 
 TITLE       Performance of the boggy gut wetland treatment system,      
             Hilton Head, South Carolina.                                
 AUTHOR      Knight, R.L. and K.A. Ferda.                                
 SOURCE      Wetlands: Concerns and Successes.                           
 PUBLISHER   Bethesda, MD: Am. Water Resources Assc.                     
 PAGES       pp. 439-450
 DATE        1989
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  case studies--TN,KY
 
 TITLE       Municipal wastewater treatment with artificial wetlands--a  
             TVA/Kentucky demonstration.                                 
 AUTHOR      Steiner, G.R., et al.                                       
 SOURCE      Aquatic Plants for Water Treatment and Resource Recovery.   
 PUBLISHER   Orlando, FL: Magnolia Publishing, Inc.                      
 PAGES       pp. 923-932
 DATE        1987
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION  The use of artificial wetlands is neither widely known nor
             accepted by engineering firms and regulatory agencies.  To         
           circumvent this problem, the Tennessee Valley Authority in         
           cooperation with the Kentucky Division of Water has implemented a
           project to demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of artificial  
           wetlands sewage treatment systems.  Three full scale treatment     
           systems, marsh-pond-meadow, the root-zone method, and the gravel   
           marsh, will be constructed for technology demonstration and        
           technology transfer.  
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  case studies--NV
 
 TITLE       Constructed wetlands at Mesquite, Nevada.                   
 AUTHOR      Crites, R.W., et al.                                        
 SOURCE      Proceedings of the 1991 Specialty Conference on             
             Environmental Engineering.                                  
 PUBLISHER   New York: ASCE                                              
 PAGES       p. 390-95.
 DATE        1991.
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  case studies--CA
 
 TITLE       Final report City of Arcata marsh pilot project.            
 AUTHOR      Gearheart, R.J. et al.                                      
 SOURCE      Report C-06-2270.                                           
 PUBLISHER   Arcata, CA: City of Arcata Dept. of Public Works            
 PAGES
 DATE        1983
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  case studies--CA
 
 TITLE       Wastewater reclamation and reuse for Malibu, California.    
 AUTHOR      Stone, H. and A. Bouchard.                                  
 SOURCE      Water Resources Planning and Management and Urban Water     
             Resources.                                                  
 PUBLISHER   New York, NY: ASCE                                          
 PAGES       pp 249-253.
 DATE        1991
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  case studies--CA--ancillary benefits
 
 TITLE       Wetlands creation for habitat and treatment at Mt. View     
             sanitary district, California.                              
 AUTHOR      Demgen, F.C., et al.                                        
 SOURCE      Aquatic Systems for Wastewater Treatment: Seminar           
             Proceedings and Engineering Assessment.                     
 PUBLISHER   Washington: EPA Office of Water Programs Operaitons,        
             Municipal Division                                          
 PAGES
 DATE        pp 61-73.
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  case studies--OR
 
 TITLE       Cannon Beach, Oregon wetlands/marsh.                        
 AUTHOR      Walters, D.H.                                               
 SOURCE      Case Study 7 of the Case Study Series. Small Flows. March   
             1986.                                                       
 PUBLISHER   Morgantown, WV: West Virginia Univ.                         
 PAGES
 DATE        1986, March 6
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  Denmark
 
 TITLE       Danish experience with emergent hydrophyte treatment systems
             (EHTS) and prospects in the light of future requirements to 
             outlet water quality.                                       
 AUTHOR      Schierup H.H. and H. Brix.                                  
 SOURCE      Small Wastewater Treatment Plants, Water Science and        
             Technology. 1989. v. 22 (3/4) p. 65-72.                     
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES
 DATE        1989
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  Denmark
 
 TITLE       Danish experience with sewage treatment in constructed      
             wetlands.                                                   
 AUTHOR      Brix, H. and H.H. Schierup.                                 
 SOURCE      Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment: Municipal,   
             Industrial and Agricultural                                 
 PUBLISHER   Chelsea, MI: Lewis Publishers, Inc.                         
 PAGES       pp. 565-573
 DATE        1989
 CALLNUM     TD 756. 5 C66
 ANNOTATION  Treating wastewater with the root-zone method was introduced as a  
             low-cost, low technology decentralized solution capable of         
             producing an effluent quality equivalent to or even exceeding,     
             conventional tertiary treatment technology.  The process depends
             on a horizontal subsurface flow through the common reed            
           rhizosphere. The most important functions of macrophytes in the
           reeds beds are to supply oxygen to the aerobic microorganisms in
           the rhizosphere and to increase/stabilize the hydraulic     
           permeability of the soil.  
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  Denmark--reed beds
 
 TITLE       Sewage treatment in constructed reed beds--danish           
             experiences.                                                
 AUTHOR      Brix, H. and H.H. Schierup.                                 
 SOURCE      Water Science Technology J. Int. Assc. Water Pollut. Res.   
             Cont. Vol. 21 (12) p. 1665-1668, 1989.                      
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES       pp 1665-1668
 DATE        1989
 CALLNUM     DNAL TD420.A1P7
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  design considerations
 
 TITLE       Constructed wetlands and aquatic plant systems for municipal
             wastewater treatment process design manual.                 
 AUTHOR      Environmental Protection Agency.                            
 SOURCE      EPA Report 625/1-88/022.                                    
 PUBLISHER   Cincinnati: U. S. EPA Center for Environmental Information  
 PAGES
 DATE        1988
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  design considerations--operations
 
 TITLE       Integrated wastewater treatment using artificial wetlands: a
             gravel marsh case study.                                    
 AUTHOR      Gersberg, R.M., S.R. Lyon, R. Brenner and B.V. Elkins.      
 SOURCE      Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment: Municipal,   
             Industrial and Agricultural                                 
 PUBLISHER   Chelsea, MI: Lewis Publishers, Inc.                         
 PAGES       pp. 145-152
 DATE        1989
 CALLNUM     TD 756. 5  C66
 ANNOTATION  Artificial wetlands have the capability to perform integrated      
             wastewater treatment using natural processes, with low energy      
             input, and capital and operation and maintenance expense, make
           them very attractive for use by small to medium-sized communities
           for meeting discharge limitations.  The primary objective of this
             paper is to present design and operational data on the use of
           artificial wetlands to perform secondary treatment of municipal    
                wastewater. A second objective is to describe the mechanisms of
           nitrogen and total coliform bacteria removal.                      
             
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  design considerations--performance--reed beds
 
 TITLE       Land-treatment systems: design and performance with special 
             reference to reed beds.                                     
 AUTHOR      Bayes, C.D., D.H. Bache and R.A. Dickson.                   
 SOURCE      Journal of the Institution of Water Engineers and           
             Scientists, Vol. 3, No. 6.                                  
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES       1989, December
 DATE
 CALLNUM     TD 420 W374
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  design--construction--costs
 
 TITLE       Constructed wetlands: design, construction, and costs.      
 AUTHOR      Whalen, K.J., P.S. Lombardo, D.B. Wile, and T.H. Neel.      
 SOURCE      Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment: Municipal,   
             Industrial and Agricultural.                                
 PUBLISHER   Chelsea, MI: Lewis Publishing, Inc.                         
 PAGES       pp 590-96
 DATE        1989
 CALLNUM     TD 756. 5 C66
 ANNOTATION  The Mayo Water Reclamation Subdistrict Large Communal Water        
             Reclamation Facility will treat septic tank effluent collected
           from 2000 homes.  The reclamation facility consists of a    
           recirculating sand filters, bulrush wetlands, ultraviolet   
           disinfection, peat wetlands, a posteration aspirator, and an
           offshore wetland. Design and construction issues presented in this
           paper include process design, basin design, process control
           features, storm impact, construction, and construction costs.
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  design--performance
 
 TITLE       Design and performance of the constructed wetland wastewater
             treatment system at Phillips High School, Bear Creek,       
             Alabama.                                                    
 AUTHOR      Watson, J.T.                                                
 SOURCE      TVA/WR/WQ-90/5.                                             
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES
 DATE        1990
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  design--performance--case studies--PA
 
 TITLE       Design and performance of the artificial wetlands wastewater
             treatment plant at Iselin, Pennsylvania.                    
 AUTHOR      Watson, J.T., F.D. Diodatao and M. Luach.                   
 SOURCE
 PUBLISHER   Chatanooga, TN: Tenn. Valley Authority. Office of Natural   
             Resources and Economic Development.                         
 PAGES       15p
 DATE        1986?
 CALLNUM     TD525 P4W3
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  energy conservation
 
 TITLE       Energy conservation in municipal wastewater treatment.      
 AUTHOR      Wesner, G.M., et al.                                        
 SOURCE      MCD-32                                                      
 PUBLISHER   Washington, DC: EPA 430-9-77-011                            
 PAGES
 DATE        1978, March
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  engineering considerations
 
 TITLE       Domestic wastewater treatment using emergent plants cultured
             in gravel and plastic substrates.                           
 AUTHOR      Burgoon, P.S., K.R. Reddy and T.A. DeBusk.                  
 SOURCE      Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment: Municipal,   
             Industrial and Agricultural                                 
 PUBLISHER   Chelsea, MI: Lewis Publishers, Inc.                         
 PAGES       pp. 536-541
 DATE        1989
 CALLNUM     TD 756. 5 C66
 ANNOTATION  Wetland substrate (except in the case of a soil matrix) is         
             generally thought of as inert material that provides surface area  
             for bacteria colinization.  The use of high-specific-surface-area  
             substrates in the trickling filter process has improved
           biochemical oxygen demand removal and nitrification when compared
           to the traditional gravel substrates.  This study compared plant
           growth and wastewater treatment in two plastic substrates and in a 
                one-centimeter-diameter gravel, each subtrate had different    
             specific surface areas.                                            
                   
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  engineering considerations
 
 TITLE       Wetlands for wastewater treatment: an engineering           
             perspective.                                                
 AUTHOR      Reed, S.C. and R.K. Bastian.                                
 SOURCE      Ecological Considerations in Wetlands Treatment of Municipal
             Wastewaters.                                                
 PUBLISHER   New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.                         
 PAGES       pp. 444-450
 DATE        1985
 CALLNUM     QH 545 549 E3
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  engineering considerations--Africa
 
 TITLE       Research to develop engineering guidelines for              
             implementation of constructed wetlands for wastewater       
             treatment in southern Africa.                               
 AUTHOR      Wood, A. and L.C. Hensman.                                  
 SOURCE      Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment: Municipal,   
             Industrial and Agricultural.                                
 PUBLISHER   Chelsea, MI: Lewis Publishing, Inc.                         
 PAGES       pp. 581-589
 DATE        1989
 CALLNUM     TD 756. 5 C66
 ANNOTATION  Increasing production and disposal of domestic wastewaters have    
             caused accelerated eutrophication of many of South Africa's        
             evaluate the potential for constructed wetlands in wastewater      
             treatment.  This paper presents current research designed to       
             provide engineering data on the biological and physiogeochemical   
             constraints of the constructed wetland concept.                    
 
                                                                   
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  engineering considerations--construction
 
 TITLE       Constructing the wastewater treatment wetlands: some factors
             to consider.                                                
 AUTHOR      Tomljanovich, D.A. and O. Pereze.                           
 SOURCE      Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment: Municipal,   
             Industrial and Agricultural.                                
 PUBLISHER   Chelsea, MI: Lewis Publishing, Inc.                         
 PAGES       pp 399-404
 DATE        1989
 CALLNUM     TD 756. 5 C66
 ANNOTATION  The size of constructed wetlands treating wastewater may range
           from several square meters to several hectares.  Design parameters
           vary with size, site characteristics, hydrologic group, pollutant
           type and loading rate, geographic locale, watershed         
           characteristics, proximity to residential development, and  
           anticipated operation and maintenance requirements.  Construction
           process of wastewater treatment wetland and some important factors
           that influence success are presented in this paper.                
                       
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  engineering considerations--design--sizing
 
 TITLE       TVA's new design guidelines for constructed wetlands alter  
             size, shape, design process.                                
 AUTHOR      Schutz, F.R.                                                
 SOURCE      Small Flows. January 1992. v. 6 (1) p. 1.                   
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES
 DATE        1992, Jan
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  Germany
 
 TITLE       Treatment of domestic sewage in emergent helophyte          
             beds--German experiences and ATV-guidelines H 262.          
 AUTHOR      Bucksteeg, K.                                               
 SOURCE      Constructed Wetlands in Water Pollution Control.            
 PUBLISHER   Pergamon Press, Inc                                         
 PAGES       pp. 505-515
 DATE        1990
 CALLNUM     TD 756. 5 I57
 ANNOTATION  Approximately 300 sewage treatment plants consisting of helophyte  
             beds may be in operation in Germany.  The beds consist of either   
             gravel, sand, cohesive soil, or artificial mixtures of sand and    
             soil, and many different varieties of helophyte were used.         
             Experiences from several reed beds with cohesive soil are          
             disappointing while ones with a specific helophyte bed consisting  
             or iron-containing uniform sand shows good effluent results.       
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  gravel beds
 
 TITLE       Wastewater treatment by rooted aquatic plants in sand and   
             gravel trenches.                                            
 AUTHOR      Pope, P.                                                    
 SOURCE      Available from NTIS as PB81-213241                          
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES
 DATE        1981
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION  A process to treat municipal wastewater using a biological        
             treatment process (utilizes higher aquatic plants and a series of  
             trenches) that requires a minimal amount of mechanical equipment   
             and manpower for normal operation was evaluated.  The major goal   
             was to achieve effluent meeting the U.S. Federal Effluent          
             Standards.  This paper presents a description of the system and a  
             discussion of the results.                                         
                                                                                
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  gravel/reed beds
 
 TITLE       Reed bed treatment systems: experimental gravel beds at     
             Gravesend--the southern water experience.                   
 AUTHOR      Christian, J.N.W.                                           
 SOURCE      Constructed Wetlands in Water Pollution Control.            
 PUBLISHER   Pergamon Press, Inc.                                        
 PAGES       pp. 309-319
 DATE        1990
 CALLNUM     TD 756. 5 I57
 ANNOTATION  Various types of domestic wastewaters were treated in experimental 
             reed beds that utilized gravel as the growing medium for common    
             reeds.  The beds performed well although several lessons were      
             learned during the design, construction, planting and operational  
             stages.  With good weed control, reed beds have a pleasant         
             appearance and provide a habitat for a large bird population.      
 
                                                                               
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  monitoring
 
 TITLE       Monitoring of constructed wetlands for wastewater.          
 AUTHOR      Hicks, D.B. and Q.J. Stober.                                
 SOURCE      Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment: Municipal,   
             Industrial and Agricultural.                                
 PUBLISHER   1989.                                                       
 PAGES
 DATE        pp. 447-455.
 CALLNUM     TD 756.5 C66
 ANNOTATION  The use of constructed wetland for the disposal and treatment of   
             wastewater is emerging as an alternative to conventional
           approaches for small communities and industries.  Monitoring data
           are essential to measure the treatment levels and to indicate the  
             functional status and biological integrity of the wetland system.  
             The cost and effort of monitoring increases with chemical          
             complexity of the influent to be treated and the ecological        
             diversity of the wetlands to be maintained.                        
 
                                                                                
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  
 
 TITLE       Brookhaven's two sewage treatment systems.                  
 AUTHOR      Small, M.M.                                                 
 SOURCE      Compost Science, Autumn, 1975.                              
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES
 DATE        1975
 CALLNUM     57.8 C734
 ANNOTATION  Two novel sewage treatment systems, Marsh/Meadow/Pond and          
             Marsh/Pond, are in operation at the Brookhaven, NY.  Both systems
           return drinkable water to the ground water supply, neither  
           produces any sludge for further disposal, and both are in   
           competition with one another to determine which is the least
           expensive to build and operate.  This paper presents a description
           and the advantages and disadvantage of each system.                
                                            
                                                                                
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  
 
 TITLE       Iselin marsh pond meadow.                                   
 AUTHOR      Conway, T.E. and J.M. Murtha.                               
 SOURCE      Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment: Municipal,   
             Industrial and Agricultural                                 
 PUBLISHER   Chelsea, MI: Lewis Publishers, Inc.                         
 PAGES       pp. 139-144
 DATE        1989
 CALLNUM     TD756. 5 C66
 ANNOTATION  Pennsylvania Sewage Facilities Act of 1966 initially favored
           large, centralized regional sewage treatment systems which became  
             increasingly difficult for small communities to finance.  With
           3500 small communities unable to obtain funding, innovative
           approaches, like the Iselin, PA marsh-pond-meadow, were needed. 
           This paper presents an overview of the Iselin marsh pond system
           from planning stages to on line treatment.                         
              
                                                                               
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  NE USA
 
 TITLE       Mayo peninsula water reclamation facilities.                
 AUTHOR      Dept. of Utilities, Anne Arundel Co. Maryland.              
 SOURCE
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES
 DATE
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  nutrient removal
 
 TITLE       Nutrient removal using shallow lagoon-solid matrix          
             macrophyte systems.                                         
 AUTHOR      Bavor, H.J., W.E. Scott and A. Wood.                        
 SOURCE      Aquatic Plants for Water Treatment and Resource Recovery.   
 PUBLISHER   Orlando, FL: Magnolia Publishing, Inc.                      
 PAGES       pp. 227-235
 DATE        1987
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION  This paper presents information on the design, operation, and      
             performance of seven large-scale, shallow lagoon-macrophyte
           systems that receive secondary treated sewage effluent.  The
           systems consist of gravel filled trenches which have been designed
           to have dense macrophyte, unplanted gravel, and open water  
           sections.  Removal of the effluent components (biochemical oxygen
           demand, nitrogen, and indicator bacteria) has been effective.      
        
                                                                            
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  pathogens/vectors
 
 TITLE       Fate of microbial indicators and viruses in a forested      
             wetland.                                                    
 AUTHOR      Scheuerman, P.R., G. Bitton and S.R. Farrah.                
 SOURCE      Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment: Municipal,   
             Industrial and Agricultural.                                
 PUBLISHER   Chelsea, MI: Lewis Publishing, Inc.                         
 PAGES       pp 657-63
 DATE        1989
 CALLNUM     TD 756. 5 C66
 ANNOTATION  Wetlands have been suggested as an inexpensive means for tertiary  
             treatment of sewage effluents.  Concern regarding potential        
             contamination of ground and surface waters with heavy metals,
           trace organics, nitrates, and microbial pathogens must be   
           considered.  Little is known regarding the fate of microorganisms
           in wetland systems, more is known about the fate of bacteria than
           viruses, and improvement in bacteriological water quality of
           sewage effluents has been observed.                                
                 
                                                                               
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  pathogens/vectors
 
 TITLE       Mosquito production in constructed wetlands for treatment of
             municipal wastewater.                                       
 AUTHOR      Tennessen, K.J. and M.K. Painter.                           
 SOURCE      TVA/WR/AB--90/4, March 1990                                 
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES
 DATE        1990
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  pathogens/vectors
 
 TITLE       Survival of bacteria and viruses in municipal wastewaters   
             applied to artificial wetlands.                             
 AUTHOR      Gersberg, R.M., et al.                                      
 SOURCE      Aquatic Plants for Water Treatment and Resource Recovery.   
 PUBLISHER   Orlando: Magnolia                                           
 PAGES       pp 237-247.
 DATE        1987.
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION  This paper presents a study where the survival of indigenous total 
             coliform bacteria and seeded MS-2 bacteriophage was examined in    
             artificial wetlands which received primary municipal wastewaters.  
             The results demonstrate that artificial wetlands may serve as low- 
             cost alternatives to conventional treatment systems for reducing   
             the load of disease-causing bacteria and viruses to the aquatic    
             environment.                                                       
 
                                                                                
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  plants
 
 TITLE       Pennywort and duckweed marsh systems for upgrading          
             wastewater effluent from a mechanical package plant.        
 AUTHOR      Wolverton, B.C. and R.C. McCaleb.                           
 SOURCE      Aquatic Palnts for Water Treatment and Resource Recovery.   
 PUBLISHER   Orlando, FL: Magnolia Publishing                            
 PAGES       pp. 289-294
 DATE        1987
 CALLNUM     TD475 C65 1986
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  plants
 
 TITLE       The use of aquatic macrophytes in water-pollution control.  
 AUTHOR      Brix, H. and H.H. Schierup.                                 
 SOURCE      Ambio. 1989. v. 18 p. 100-107.                              
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES
 DATE        1989
 CALLNUM     QH 540. A52
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  plants--water hyacinths
 
 TITLE       Multiple applications for water hyacinth.                   
 AUTHOR      Joglekar, V.R. and V.G. Sonar                               
 SOURCE      BioCycle, January, 1987.                                    
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES       pp. 46-48
 DATE        1987
 CALLNUM     57.8 C734
 ANNOTATION  The rapid urbanization of thousands of Indian towns has led to an  
             urgent need to develop a financially self-sustaining composite     
             system for recycling domestic wastewater.  This paper presents a   
             description of one such system and the research associated with
           its development.                                                   
    
                                                                         
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  plants--water hyacinths
 
 TITLE       Upgrading wastewater treatment by water hyacinth in         
             developing countries.                                       
 AUTHOR      Kumar, P. and R.J. Garde.                                   
 SOURCE      Water Science and Technology, Vol. 22, No. 7/8.             
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES       pp. 153-160
 DATE        1990
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  policy
 
 TITLE       Use of wetlands for municipal wastewater treatment and      
             disposal: regulatory issues and EPA policies.               
 AUTHOR      Bastian, R.K., P.E. Shanaghan and B.P. Thompson.            
 SOURCE      Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment: Municipal,   
             Industrial and Agricultural.                                
 PUBLISHER   Chelsea, MI: Lewis Publishing, Inc.                         
 PAGES       pp. 265-278
 DATE        1989
 CALLNUM     TD756. 5 C66
 ANNOTATION  Freshwater, brackish, and saltwater wetlands have served as
           natural water treatment systems for centuries.  Studies have shown
           that wetlands are able to provide high levels of wastewater
           treatment.  However, concern has been expressed over possible
           harmful effects of toxic materials and pathogens in wastewaters
           and long-term degradation of wetlands due to the additional
           nutrient and hydraulic loadings from wastewater discharge.         
             
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  policy--regulatory issues
 
 TITLE       Regulatory and policy considerations on wetlands and        
             municipal wastewater treatment.                             
 AUTHOR      Davis, D. and J.C. Montgomery.                              
 SOURCE      Paper presented at the Conference on Aquatic Plants for     
             Water Treatment and Resource Recovery, Orlando, FL, July    
             20-24, 1986.                                                
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES       16p.
 DATE        1986
 CALLNUM     TD 475 C65 1986
 ANNOTATION  Under section 404 of the Clean Water Act The Environmental         
             Protection Agency (EPA) seeks to preserve wetlands through its     
             review of Army Corps of Engineers or state permits for discharge
           of dredged or fill material to waters of the U.S. (which includes  
             wetlands).  EPA has identified wetlands values in their ability
           to utilize nutrients which would otherwise pollute streams, rivers
           and lakes and to act as buffers for non-point source water  
           pollution.  The agency also supports artificial wetland-type
           treatment land  treatment systems as part of its Innovative and
           Alternative wastewater construction grants program.                
            
                                                                                
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  polishing
 
 TITLE       Enhancing effluent water quality of sedimentation basins    
             using constructed wetlands technology.                      
 AUTHOR      Taylor, H.N.                                                
 SOURCE      Prodeedings - National Conference on Hydraulic Engineering. 
 PUBLISHER   New York: ASCE                                              
 PAGES       pp 746-50.
 DATE        1991.
 CALLNUM     TC5 H824 1991
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  polishing
 
 TITLE       The performance of an artificial wetland for the treatment  
             of biological filter effluent.                              
 AUTHOR      Furnes, H.D., K.J. Healey, D.A. Kerdachi, and W.N. Richards.       
 SOURCE      Paper presented at the Symposium on Ecology and Conservation
             of Wetlands in South Africa,                                
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES
 DATE        October 15-16, 1987.
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  pollutant removal
 
 TITLE       Design criteria for BOD5 removal in constructed reed beds.  
 AUTHOR      Brix, H. et al.                                             
 SOURCE      Preprints of proceedings of the international conference on 
             design and operation of small wastewater treatment plants,  
 PUBLISHER   Trondheim: Lewis Publishers, Inc.                           
 PAGES       p. 565-573.
 DATE        1989.
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  pollutant removal N,P,COD--reed bed
 
 TITLE       Removal of nitrogen, phosphorus and COD from wastewater     
             using sand filtration system with Phragmites australis.     
 AUTHOR      Ariyawathie, G.                                             
 SOURCE      Water Resources, 21 1217-24                                 
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES
 DATE        1987
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  pollutant removal--Austria
 
 TITLE       Root-zone system: Mannersdorf-new results.                  
 AUTHOR      Haberl, R. and R. Perfler.                                  
 SOURCE      Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment: Municipal,   
             Industrial and Agricultural.                                
 PUBLISHER   Chelsea, MI: Lewis Publishing, Inc.                         
 PAGES       pp. 606-621
 DATE        1989
 CALLNUM     TD 756. 5 C66
 ANNOTATION  Uncertainties regarding wetland treatment of sewage led to the     
             decision to construct a full-sized experimental treatment plant
           and to manage it while allowing concurrent scientific studies.     
             Proximity to an existing municipal sewage plant and soil
           conditions that did not require an impermeable membrane were some
           of the conditions for placing the site at Mannersdorf.  This paper 
             presents experimental results on sewage technology studies,        
             hydraulic investigations, microbiological investigations, plant    
             physiology studies, and soil science investigations.               
 
                                                                                
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  pollutant removal--metals
 
 TITLE       Removal of heavy metals and sewage sludge using the mud     
             snail, Cipangopaludina chinensis malleata reeve, in paddy   
             fields as artificial wetlands.                              
 AUTHOR      Kurihara, Y. and T. Suzuki.                                 
 SOURCE      Water Science and Technology, Vol. 19, No. 12.              
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES       pp. 281-286
 DATE        1987
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  pollutant removal--plants
 
 TITLE       Comparison of plant density and growth forms related to     
             removal efficiencies in constructed wetlands treating       
             municipal wastewaters.                                      
 AUTHOR      Pullin, B.P. and D.A. Hammer.                               
 SOURCE      Tennessee Valley Authority Valley Resource Center, Waste    
             Technology Program.                                         
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES
 DATE        1989, October
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  reed beds
 
 TITLE       Purification of domestic sewage with and without faeces by  
             vertical itermittent filtration in reed and rush beds.      
 AUTHOR      Bahlo, K.E. and F.G. Wach.                                  
 SOURCE      Constructed Wetlands in Water Pollution Control.            
 PUBLISHER   Pergamon Press, Inc.                                        
 PAGES       pp. 215-221
 DATE        1990
 CALLNUM     TD 756. 5 I57
 ANNOTATION  The description of two sewage treatment plants based on hydrophyte 
             systems working under practical conditions are presented.  One     
             plant is fed with a normal domestic sewage and the other is fed    
             with household wastewater without faeces.  Both plants were        
             operated from an intermittent application and flow of sewage       
             effluent from septic tanks into this constructed wetland.          
 
                                                                                
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  reed beds--China
 
 TITLE       Reed-wetland beds for municipal wastewater treatment.       
 AUTHOR      Tang, Y., et al.                                            
 SOURCE      Journal of Environmental Science (China) 4 (1). 1992, pp    
             23-31                                                       
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES       pp 23-31
 DATE        1992
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  reed beds--design--operations
 
 TITLE       European design and operations guidelines for reed bed      
             treatment systems                                           
 AUTHOR      Cooper, P.E., (ed.)                                         
 SOURCE      EC/EWPCA Emergent Hydrophyte Treatment Systems Expert       
             Contact Group Report U1 17, Swindon, Wiltshire.             
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES
 DATE        1990
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION  Approximately 500 Reed Bed Treatment Systems have been constructed 
             in Western Europe since 1984.  Removal efficiencies range from 80- 
             90% for biochemical oxygen demand, 20-30% for nitrogen, and 30-40% 
             for phosphorous.  The purpose of this paper in not necessarily to  
             recommend how to design the best working system, since the present 
             knowledge does not allow this, but to advise constructors of items 
             that should not be incorporated into system design.                
 
                                                                              
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  reed beds--Egypt
 
 TITLE       Reed-bed system purifies sewage, British research team to   
             build full-scale test site in Egypt.                        
 AUTHOR      __________.                                                 
 SOURCE      BioCycle                                                    
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES
 DATE        1987, Feb.
 CALLNUM     57.8 C734
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  reed beds--UK
 
 TITLE       Sewage treatment by reed bed systems: the present situation 
             in the United Kingdom.                                      
 AUTHOR      Cooper, P.F. and J.A. Hobson.                               
 SOURCE      Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment: Municipal,   
             Industrial and Agricultural                                 
 PUBLISHER   Chelsea, MI: Lewis Publishers, Inc.                         
 PAGES       pp. 153-171
 DATE        1989
 CALLNUM     TD 756. 5 C66
 ANNOTATION  The United Kingdom's Water Authority agreed that reed bed
           treatment system had potential for sewage systems for small rural
           situations, but it was clear that there were several areas of
           uncertainty.  To make rapid progress and prevent duplication, a
           group was formed to coordinate research and development.  This
           paper presents principles behind reed bed technology systems and
           outline progress made to December 1987.                            
                 
                                                                               
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  reed beds--UK
 
 TITLE       Use of reed bed systems in th UK.                           
 AUTHOR      Cooper, P.F., J.A. Hobson and C. Findlater.                 
 SOURCE      Water Science and Technology, Vol. 22, No. 3/4.             
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES       pp. 57-64
 DATE        1990
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  root-zone method
 
 TITLE       The applicability of the wastewater treatment plant in      
             Otffresen as scientific documentation of the root-zone      
             method.                                                     
 AUTHOR      Brix, H.                                                    
 SOURCE      Water Science and Technology. 1987. v. 19 (10) p. 19-24.    
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES
 DATE        1987
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  secondary treatment
 
 TITLE       Constructed wetlands for secondary treatment.               
 AUTHOR      Mingee, T.J. and R.W. Crites.                               
 SOURCE      Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment: Municipal,   
             Industrial and Agricultural.                                
 PUBLISHER   Chelsea, MI, Lewis Publishers, Inc.                         
 PAGES       pp. 622-627
 DATE        1989
 CALLNUM     TD 756. 5 C66
 ANNOTATION  Constructed wetlands can provide a low-cost wastewater treatment   
             alternative to achieve secondary treatment for small to midsized   
             communities.  This paper presents a case study of a constructed    
             wetland system utilizing emergent aquatic vegetation.  The
           history, pilot-study effort, construction problems, construction
           costs, and initial performance data are included in this study.    
           
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  secondary treatment--tertiary treatment
 
 TITLE       Design, construction, establishment and operation of gravel 
             bed hydroponic (GBH) systems for secondary and tertiary     
             sewage treatment.                                           
 AUTHOR      Butler, J.E., M.G. Ford, R.F. Loveridge and E. May.         
 SOURCE      Constructed Wetlands for Water Pollution Control.           
 PUBLISHER   Pergamon Press, Inc.                                        
 PAGES       pp. 539-542
 DATE        1990
 CALLNUM     TD 756. 5 C66
 ANNOTATION  Gravel bed hydroponic (GPH) system based on features presented in  
             this paper have been operating satisfactorily for a number of
           years in both the United Kingdom and Egypt.  GPH systems can
           provide a cost-effective and environmentally acceptable     
           alternative to conventional biological sewage treatment.    
           Important design features include bed length and depth, aggregate
           size and type, channel gradient, maintenance of an adequate water
           depth and choice of hydrophyte.                                    
                 
                                                                           
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  secondary treatment--tertiary treatment
 
 TITLE       Gravel bed hydroponic systems used for secondary and        
             tertiary treatment of sewage effluent.                      
 AUTHOR      Butler, J.E., R.F. Loveridge, M.G. Ford, D.A. Bone and R.F. 
             Ashworth.                                                   
 SOURCE      Journal of the Institution of Water and Environmental       
             Management, Vol. 4, No. 3.                                  
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES       pp. 276-284.
 DATE        1990
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION  Gravel bed hydroponic (GBH) systems planted with emergent          
             hydrophytes can treat domestic sewage effluent to acceptable       
             environmental standards in an economic and efficient manner.  A    
             discussion of Portsmouth Polytechnic reed-bed sewage treatment GBH 
             projects in the UK and Egypt are presented in this paper along
           with an assessment of current progress.                            
     
                                                                              
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  septage--case studies--MA
 
 TITLE       Solar aquatic treatment of septage.                         
 AUTHOR      Spencer, R.                                                 
 SOURCE      Biocycle.  31(5):66-70 (May 1990)                           
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES
 DATE        1990. May
 CALLNUM     57.8 C734
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  septic tank effluent
 
 TITLE       Aquatic plant/microbial filters for treating septic tank    
             effluent.                                                   
 AUTHOR      Wolverton, B.C.                                             
 SOURCE      Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment: Municipal,   
             Industrial and Agricultural                                 
 PUBLISHER   Chelsea, MI: Lewis Publishers, Inc.                         
 PAGES       pp. 173-178
 DATE        1989
 CALLNUM     TD 756. 5 C66
 ANNOTATION  Problems with septic tank systems are not normally associated with 
             properly installed, sealed tanks, but with the leach fields.  The  
             authors studies indicate that septic tank effluent from single     
             homes can be treated to advanced secondary levels or better by     
             using a washed gravel filter.  If a point source discharge is      
             undesirable, a perforated leach field tubing should be used to     
             disperse the treated rock/plant filter effluent beneath the soil   
             according to soil tolerances.                                      
                                                                               
                                                                            
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  STP upgrades
 
 TITLE       Town uses constructed wetlands to upgrade treatment.        
 AUTHOR      Schutz, F.R.                                                
 SOURCE      Small Flows, Vol. 4, No. 4. may 1990                        
 PUBLISHER   West Virginia Univ.                                         
 PAGES
 DATE        1990
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  STP upgrades
 
 TITLE       Utilization of created wetlands to upgrade small municipal  
             wastewater treatment systems.                               
 AUTHOR      Pride, R.E., J.S. Nohrstedt and L.D. Benefield.             
 SOURCE      Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 50:371-385, 1990             
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES       371-3815
 DATE        1990
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  tertiary treatment
 
 TITLE       Artificial wetlands as tertiary treatment systems.          
 AUTHOR      Greiner, R.W. and G.D. Butijn.                              
 SOURCE      Water Science and Technology, Vol. 17, No. 8.               
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES       pp. 1429
 DATE        1985
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  tertiary treatment
 
 TITLE       The use of freshwater wetlands as a tertiary wastewater     
             treatment alternative.                                      
 AUTHOR      Kadlec, R.H. and D.L. Tilton.                               
 SOURCE      CRC Critical Rewiews in Environmental Control               
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES       pp. 185-201
 DATE        1979
 CALLNUM     QH 545 A1C7
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  tertiary treatment
 
 TITLE       The use of wetands as a tertiary treatment procedure.       
 AUTHOR      Kadlec, R.H. and J.A. Tilton.                               
 SOURCE      CRC Crit. Rev. Environ. Control. 1979. v. 9 p. 185-212.     
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES
 DATE        1979
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  tertiary treatment
 
 TITLE       Use of a forested wetland in South Carolina for tertiary    
             treatment of municipal wastewater.                          
 AUTHOR      Baughman, D.S., et al.                                      
 SOURCE      Water: Laws and Management.                                 
 PUBLISHER   Bethesda, Md: Am. Water Resources Assc.                     
 PAGES       pp. 7A-25--7A-37
 DATE        1989
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  tertiary treatment
 
 TITLE       Wetlands for tertiary treatment.                            
 AUTHOR      Kadlec, R.H.                                                
 SOURCE      Wetlands Functions and Values: The State of Our             
             Understanding.                                              
 PUBLISHER   Minneapolis, MN: American Water Resoruce Association        
 PAGES       pp. 490-504.
 DATE        1979.
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  upgrade--design concepts--case studies, AL
 
 TITLE       Design of the Fort Deposit, Alabama, constructed wetlands   
             treatment system.                                           
 AUTHOR      Knight, R.L. and M.E. Inverson.                             
 SOURCE      Constructed Wetlands in Water Pollution Control.            
 PUBLISHER   Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press.                                 
 PAGES       pp. 521-524
 DATE        1990
 CALLNUM     TD 756. 5 I57
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  
 
 TITLE       Small wastewater reclamation systems: a necessity in        
             drought-plagued California.                                 
 AUTHOR      Dawyot, R.A.                                                
 SOURCE      Small Flows, Vol. 5                                         
 PUBLISHER   West Virginia Univ.                                         
 PAGES
 DATE        1991, July 3.
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION                                                                     
 
 
 *******************************************************************
 
 CATEGORY    HW
 SUBCATEGOR  water hyacinths--design
 
 TITLE       Evolution and performance of city of San Diego pilot        
             wastewater treatment system using water hyacinths.          
 AUTHOR      Tchobanoglous, G., F. Maitski, K. Thompson and T.H.         
             Chadwick.                                                   
 SOURCE      Presented at the 60th Annual Conference of the Water        
             Pollution Control Federation, Philadelphia, PA, October 5-8,
             1987.                                                       
 PUBLISHER
 PAGES       36p.
 DATE        1987
 CALLNUM
 ANNOTATION  Since 1981, the city of San Diego has been experimenting with an   
             aquatic system for the secondary treatment of wastewater.  The     
             aquatic system is based on the use of water hyacinth ponds.  The   
             purpose of this paper is to chronicle the evolution and
           performance of the water hyacinth based treatment system and to
           present a discussion of the important engineering and related
           considerations that must be addressed in the design of these
           systems.             
 
                                                                                
 *******************************************************************
 
  NOTE: THE FOLLOWING CITATIONS ARE AN UPDATE, AS OF OCTOBER 24, 1995, TO THE
  ORIGINAL DOCUMENT AND THEREFORE ARE IN A DIFFERENT FORMAT.
  
  
    1     NAL Call No.: 100--M693Sp-no.457
  Design of submerged flow wetlands for individual homes and small wastewater
  flows.
  Sievers, D. M.; 
  University of Missouri  Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.
  Columbia, MO : Missouri Small Wastewater Flows Education & Research Center,
  Agriculture Experiment Station, College of Agriculture Food & Natural
  Resources, University of Missouri--Columbia, [1993] 11 p. : ill..
  Cover title.
  
  Descriptors: Constructed wetlands; Sewage Purification; Septic tanks;
  Typha; Aquatic weeds
  
    2     NAL Call No.:  TD756.5.S74--1993
  General design, construction, and operation guidelines : constructed
  wetlands wastewater treatment systems for small users including individual
  residences. 2nd ed.
  Steiner, G. R.;  Watson, J. T.;
  Tennessee Valley Authority. Water Management Resources Group. Chattanooga,
  Tenn. : Tennessee Valley Authority, Resource Group, Water Management,
  [1993] vi, 42 leaves : ill..
  "May 1993.".
  
  Descriptors: constructed wetlands; sewage Purification
  
    3     NAL Call No.: TD420.A1P7
  Investigation into the use of constructed reedbeds for municipal waste dump
  leachate treatment.
  Urbanc Bercic, O. 
  Water science and technology: a journal of the International Association on
  Water Pollution Research and Control v.29, p.289-294. (1994).
  In the series analytic: Wetlands systems in water pollution control /
  edited by H.J. Bavor and D.S. Mitchell. Australia.
  
  Descriptors: landfill leachates; biological treatment; wetlands; phragmites
  australis; gravel; biochemical oxygen demand; chemical oxygen demand; waste
  water treatment; yugoslavia; artificial wetlands; slovenia; constructed
  wetlands
  
    4     NAL Call No.: TD420.A1P7
  Factors affecting nitrogen removal in horizontal flow reed beds.
  Platzer, C.; Netter, R. 
  Water science and technology: a journal of the International Association on
  Water Pollution Research and Control v.29, p.319-324. (1994).
  In the series analytic: Wetlands systems in water pollution control /
  edited by H.J. Bavor and D.S. Mitchell. Australia.
  
  
  Descriptors: sewage effluent; waste water treatment; biological treatment;
  wetlands; nitrogen; removal; nutrient uptake; aquatic plants;
  evapotranspiration; nitrification; aquatic plants; evapotranspiration;
  nitrification; denitrification; environmental temperature; austria;
  germany; constructed wetlands; artificial wetlands
  
    5     NAL Call No.: TD420.A1P7
  Orange County Florida Eastern Service Area reclaimed water wetlands reuse
  system.
  Schwartz, L. N.; Wallace, P. M.; Gale, P. M.; Smith, W. F.; Wittig, J. T.;
  McCarty, S. L. 
  Water science and technology: a journal of the International Association on
  Water Pollution Research and Control v.29, p.273-281. (1994).
  In the series analytic: Wetlands systems in water pollution control /
  edited by H.J. Bavor and D.S. Mitchell. Australia.
  
  Descriptors: wetlands; water reuse; waste water treatment; sewage effluent;
  nutrients; removal; nutrient uptake; florida; constructed wetlands;
  artificial wetlands
  
    6     NAL Call No.:  KF27.P89632-1992
  The role of constructed wetlands and other alternative technologies in
  meeting the wastewater treatment needs of rural and small communities :
  hearing before the Subcommittee on Investigations and Oversight of the
  Committee on Public Works and Transportation, House of Representatives, One
  Hundred Second Congress, second session, August 4, 1992.
  United States. Congress. House. Committee on Public Works and
  Transportation. Subcommittee on Investigations and Oversight. Washington :
  U.S. G.P.O. : For sale by the U.S. G.P.O., Supt. of Docs., Congressional
  Sales Office, 1992 [i.e. 1993]. iii, 303 p. : ill..
  Distributed to some depository libraries in microfiche.
  
  Descriptors: constructed wetlands- United States; sewage disposal, rural
  United States- technological innovations; sewage purification technological
  innovations
  
    7     NAL Call No.: TD420.A1P7
  Treatment of nitrogen and phosphorus by a constructed upland-wetland
  wastewater treatment system.
  House, C. H.; Broome, S. W.; Hoover, M. T. 
  Water science and technology: a journal of the International Association on
  Water Pollution Research and Control  v.29, p.177-184. (1994).
  In the series analytic: Wetlands systems in water pollution control /
  edited by H.J. Bavor and D.S. Mitchell. Australia.
  
  Descriptors: sewage effluent; waste water treatment; biological treatment;
  wetlands; phosphorus; ammonium; nitrate; removal; nutrient uptake;
  nitrification; phragmites australis; typha angustifolia; north carolina;
  constructed wetlands; artificial wetlands
  
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Return to Constructed Wetlands Bibliography

Return to the Water Quality Information Center at the National Agricultural Library.
Last update: April 27, 1998
The URL of this page is http://www.nal.usda.gov/wqic/Constructed_Wetlands_all/cwhw.html


J. R. Makuch /USDA-ARS-NAL-WQIC/ wqic@ars.usda.gov