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Animal Welfare Assessment

Canadian Council on Animal Care

These 2021 guidelines discuss why we assess animal welfare, idenify welfare indicators, and explain how to record welfare assessments. 

National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement & Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs).

This resource provides information about identifying welfare indicators, assessing and reporting actual severity, effective record keeping and review, and staff training.

National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement & Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs).

Changes in facial expression provide a reliable and rapid means of assessing pain in animals. NC3Rs provides training manuals, lists of references, and posters of grimace scales developed for the laboratory: