USDA. NAL. Animal Welfare Information Center.
Genetically modified (GM) animals are frequently used in biomedical research, and identification and confirmation of the genotype of animals in necessary. Genotyping is a common procedure and utilizes both invasive and non-invasive methods. While invasive procedures of tail biopsy, toe clipping, ear punch and blood sampling are common procedures, there are several methods of non-invasive sampling methods for genotyping such as saliva, hair bulb and fecal pellets. Refinement of these sampling methods for obtaining DNA for genotyping can enhance animal welfare and potentially reduce costs. The selected information in this collection is divided into invasive and non-invasive procedures for sampling methods.