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Environmental Enrichment For Nonhuman Primates Resource Guide: Marmosets and Tamarins

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Marmosets and Tamarins

Bertele, M. and C. Spiezio (2009). Effects of environmental enrichment on the behaviour of a captive colony of cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus). Folia Primatologica 80(6): 383. ISSN: 0015-5713.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9F6
Descriptors: psychological well being, social environment, nutritional enrichment, olfactory enrichment, manipulative enrichment.
Notes: Meeting Information: 19th Meeting of the Italian-Primatological-Association, Asti, Italy; April 1-3, 2009.

Bjone, S.J., I.R. Price, and P.D. McGreevy (2006). Food distribution effects on the behaviour of captive common marmosets, Callithrix jacchus. Animal Welfare 15(2): 131-140. ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: common marmosets, Callithrix jacchus, environmental enrichment, foraging, space use, comparison of feeder types.

Blinco, L. (2008). Enrichment and husbandry for hospitalized white-fronted marmosets (Callithrix geoffroyi). Animal Keepers' Forum 35(4): 153-155. ISSN: 0164-9531.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.A54
Descriptors: white-fronted marmosets, environmental enrichment, cages, feeders, colony husbandry and management, zoos.

Boon, M. (2003). Goeldi's monkeys (Callimico goeldii): Olfactory enrichment to stimulate natural behaviour and greater activity. In: Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Symposium on Zoo Research,July 7, 2003-July 8, 2003, July 7-8, 2003, Marwell Zoological Park, Federation of Zoological Gardens of Great Britain and Ireland: London, England, p. 212-224.
Descriptors: Callimico goeldii, Goeldi's monkey, olfactory enrichment, chemoreception, activity patterns, feces, peppermint oil, predator recognition, Marwell Zoo, UK.

Borges, M.P., J. Byk, and K. del Claro (2011). Influence of environmental enrichment techniques in improvement of welfare of Callithrix penicillata (E. Geoffroy, 1812) (Primates: Callitrichidae). Biotemas 24(1): 83-94. ISSN: 0103-1643.
Online: https://doaj.org/article/8250ba1854e8423682e7aae380eabcc8
NAL Call Number: QH301 .B558
Descriptors: zoo animals, black-tufted marmoset, behavioral observations, sensory enrichment, feeding enrichment, animal welfare, Sabiá Municipal Park zoo, Brazil.
Language of Text: Portuguese; Summary in English.

Buchanan Smith, H.M., C. Shand, and K. Morris (2002). Cage use and feeding height preferences of captive common marmosets (Callithrix j. jacchus) in two-tier cages. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 5(2): 139-149. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Abstract: Determining appropriate feeding regimes has important welfare implications for captive primates. This study examined the preference of food bowl heights in 6 pairs of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) housed in a 2-tier cage system. Given that marmosets are arboreal and spend most of their time in the upper half of their cages, we predicted that the marmosets would prefer a food bowl positioned at the top of the cage over one positioned at the bottom. We further predicted that this would be more apparent for the marmosets housed in lower tier than upper tier cages. Given a choice regarding where to feed, marmosets did prefer the top bowl to the bottom bowl; how-ever, when only 1 food bowl was presented, its position had no significant effect on the marmosets' feeding behavior. In addition, contrary to the prediction, there were few differences in the marmosets' feeding behavior in the upper and lower tier cages. Feeding the marmosets in a bowl at the bottom of their cage did not result in greater cage use. On the basis of this study, we recommend positioning captive marmosets' food bowls high in the cage.
Descriptors: Callithrix j. jacchus, marmosets, food bowl height preference study, feeding behavior and location of food containers, animal welfare, facility design and construction, time factors.

Byron, J.K. and M.S. Bodri (2001). Environmental enrichment for laboratory marmosets. Lab Animal 30(8): 42-48. ISSN: 0093-7355.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1L33
Abstract: The authors report on using two environmental enrichment devices for marmosets, and suggest the design of five other devices that may be more successful in stimulating foraging or grooming behavior than the devices tested.
Descriptors: animal welfare, foraging behavior devices, grooming behavior, environmental enrichment in the laboratory, animal housing, Callithrix sp., marmosets.

Byron, J.K. and M.S. Bodri (2001). Resource environmental enrichment for laboratory marmosets. Lab Animal 30(8): 42-49. ISSN: 0093-7355 .
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1L33
Descriptors: animal welfare, marmosets as laboratory animals, Callithrix sp., exploratory behavior, feeding behavior, grooming, housing, play and playthings, toys.

Ceja, C. and J. White (2010). Feeding behavior of Saguinus oedipus in relation to food hardness in a zoo setting: Possibilities for enrichment? Laboratory Primate Newsletter 49(3): 10-12. ISSN: 0023-6861.
Online: https://www.brown.edu/Research/Primate/LPN49-3.pdf
Descriptors: callitrichids, Niabi Zoo, zoo animals, food hardness, potential for enrichment, feeding behavior, cotton-top tamarins.

Chamove, A.S. (2005). Environmental enrichment for monkeys using plants. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 44(2): 1-5. ISSN: 0023-6861.
Online: https://www.brown.edu/Research/Primate/lpn44-2.html#plants
Descriptors: live plants as protective cover in animal exhibits, cotton-top tamarins, Saguinus oedipus oedipus, family group housing, primates as laboratory animals, species-typical behavior, naturalistic exhibits, change in animal behavior after addition of plants to enclosure, addition of vertical mesh to enclosure for climbing, growing plants, plant maintenance costs.

Chamove, A.S. and L. Scott (2005). Forage box as enrichment in single- and group-housed Callitrichid monkeys. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 44(2): 13-17. ISSN: 0023-6861.
Online: https://www.brown.edu/Research/Primate/lpn44-2.html#box
Descriptors: common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus, cotton-top tamarin, Saguinus oedipus, motivation for foraging, forage box tax, food preference, comparison of single housing versus group housing on completion of task, promotion of species-typical behavior, primates as laboratory animals.

de Filippis, B., F. Chiarotti, and A. Vitale (2009). Severe intragroup aggressions in captive common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 12(3): 214-222. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Descriptors: social housing, marmosets, Callithrix jacchus, aggressive behavior.

de Rosa, C., A. Vitale, and M. Puopolo (2003). The puzzle feeder as feeding enrichment for common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): A pilot study. Laboratory Animals 37(2): 100-107. ISSN: 0023-6772.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1L3
Abstract: The use of a puzzle-feeder, as feeding enrichment, was investigated in three families of captive common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). The study was carried out as a simultaneous choice test between two cages: one contained the puzzle-feeder, the other contained the usual food dishes, but otherwise both were arranged similarly. The monkeys were allowed to choose whether to feed from the usual dishes, or from the puzzle-feeder which required more effort. They were observed for two sessions in which they were differently motivated to feed. The enriched cage was always visited first, the marmosets managed to extract food from the puzzle-feeder, and spent more time eating from the puzzle-feeder when less hungry. These data contribute to a wider understanding on the use, and the effects, of feeding enrichments with different captive non-human primates.
Descriptors: animal welfare, Callithrix jacchus, marmosets, choice test, controlled environment, feeding behavior, problem solving, puzzle feeders.

de Rosa, C., A. Vitale, and M. Puopolo (2001). Puzzle-feeders as environmental enrichment in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Folia Primatologica 72(3): 131. ISSN: 0015-5713.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9F6
Descriptors: Callithrix jacchus, marmosets, puzzle feeders as enrichment devices, preference tests, provision of choice, food-related behavior, age composition of social groups, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 14th Meeting of the Italian Primatological Society, Pisa-Calci, Italy; October 9-11, 2000.

de Vleeschouwer, K., K. Leus, and L. van Elsacker (2003). Stability of breeding and non-breeding groups of golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas). Animal Welfare 12(2): 251-268. ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: Leontopithecus chrysomelas, golden-headed lion tamarins in zoos, group size, aggression, population structure, contraception, age structure of groups, female fertility, sex ratio, parturition interval, effects of animal behavior on husbandry.

Ely, A., A. Freer, C. Windle, and R.M. Ridley (1998). Assessment of cage use by laboratory bred common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Laboratory Animals 32(4): 427-433. ISSN: 0023-6772.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1L3
Abstract: The way in which breeding families of laboratory-born marmosets used the space provided by their cages, and a small protruding 'veranda', was assessed in order to determine the popularity of the veranda as a form of environmental enrichment, and the extent to which the marmosets confined themselves to only part of the cage. The veranda was found to be of enduring interest to the marmosets whose occupancy of this space was an order of magnitude greater than the rest of the cage. The upper part of the cage was preferred to the bottom half. This preference was greater in larger cages and decreased when larger cages were temporarily reduced in size. It is unlikely, however, that the distribution of the occupancy of different parts of the cage resulted primarily from a fear of people in the holding room. The veranda, which was the most preferred place in the cage, was the nearest part of the cage to people in the room. Occupancy of the lower part of the cage increased when human observers sat on the floor, suggesting that some of the marmosets' behaviour comprised approaching, rather than avoiding, the observers, possibly for reasons of curiosity and social interaction.
Descriptors: species-typical behavior, Callithrix jacchus, marmosets as laboratory animals, equipment design, veranda as a cage extension, environmental enrichment, cage design, cage size, location preferences, social interaction.

Farmerie, M. (2004). Evolving a Callitrichid behavioral husbandry program into an innovative educational partnership - completing the circle: Callitrichid biology, conservation and captivity. In: Animal Behavior Management Alliance (ABMA) Conference Proceedings 2004,April 4, 2004-April 9, 2004, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, Animal Behavior Management Alliance: p. 82-85. [CD-Rom]
Descriptors: cotton-top tamarins, Callitrichid, natural history, conservation, captive management, educational programs, operant conditioning, training game.

Fontani, S., C. Fontanesi, D. Frasson, and S. Vaglio (2009). Physio-ethological analysis in captive cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) related to welfare and captive management. Folia Primatologica 80(6): 387. ISSN: 0015-5713.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9F6
Descriptors: wildlife management, environmental enrichment, stress behavior, olfactory enrichment, welfare management.
Notes: Meeting Information: 19th Meeting of the Italian Primatological Association, Asti, Italy; April 1-3, 2009.

Franks, B., D. Reiss, P. Cole, V. Friedrich, N. Thompson, and E.T. Higgins (2013). Predicting how individuals approach enrichment: Regulatory focus in cotton-top tamarins (Sanguinus oedipus). Zoo Biology 32(4): 427-435. ISSN: 0733-3188.
DOI: 10.1002/zoo.21075
Descriptors: regulatory focus theory, cotton top tamarins, zoos, behavioral interaction with enrichment, environmental enrichment.

Gaspari, F., G. Perretta, and G. Schino (2000). Effects of different housing systems on the behaviour of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Folia Primatologica 71(4): 291. ISSN: 0015-5713.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9F6
Descriptors: housing conditions, environmental enrichment, animal behavior, well-being evaluation, family groups, cage size, cage furniture, effects on play and exploration, Callithrix jacchus, marmosets, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 13th Meeting of the Italian Primatological Society, Pavia, Italy; September 17-19, 1998.

Gerber, P., C.R. Schnell, and G. Anzenberger (2002). Behavioral and cardiophysiological responses of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) to social and environmental changes. Primates 43(3): 201-216. ISSN: 0032-8332.
Abstract: Under captive conditions common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) show socially monogamous propensities. Male and female form a social bond as characterized by signs of behavioral arousal during separation of the pairmates, high levels of affiliative interactions between pairmates and agonistic responses towards strange conspecifics. In the present study behavioral and cardiophysiological responses of mated individuals of common marmosets were recorded while the animals were in an unfamiliar environment (1) alone, (2) with the pairmate, or (3) with an opposite-sexed stranger. Pairmates of 6 established pairs were tested in 3 replicates yielding a total of 36 trials per experiment. A trial was divided into three 10-min segments (baseline; unfamiliar environment; reunion). Behavioral responses were videotaped with a remote controlled camera system installed within the cage. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate (HR) as well as locomotor activity (ACT) were recorded telemetrically through peritoneally implanted transmitters. The individuals' responses measured while in an unfamiliar environment was only reduced by the pairmate, but not by an opposite-sexed stranger. No affiliative behaviors occurred between strange conspecifics, whereas aggressive and sexual behaviors were observed. During reunion with the pairmate individuals recovered physiologically. The present study shows that an individualized pair bond exists between pairmates of common marmosets. Further, it becomes evident that establishing a social bond with the pairmate is important for maintaining physiological homeostasis.
Descriptors: Callithrix jacchus, housing of captive marmosets, social behavior, psychological stress, zoo animals, effect of environment on heart rate and blood pressure, importance of social bonds, locomotion.

Gibbs, A. (2003). Enrichment timetable for Goeldi's monkeys (Callimico goeldii) at Paignton Zoo Environmental Park. In: Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Symposium on Zoo Research,July 7, 2003-July 8, 2003, Marwell Zoological Park, Federation of Zoological Gardens of Great Britain and Ireland: London, England, p. 4-8.
Descriptors: Callimico goeldii, Goeldi's monkey, provision of enrichment devices, environmental complexity, timetable, food oriented devices, non-food enrichment, activity levels, Paignton Zoo Environmental Park, UK.

Grams, K. and G. Ziegler (1997). Enrichment options. Animal Keepers' Forum 24(7): 306-307. ISSN: 0164-9531.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.A54
Descriptors: Leontopithecus rosalia, golden lion tamarins, feeding enrichment device.

Hardie, S.M. and H.M. Buchanan Smith (2000). Responses of captive single- and mixed-species groups of Saguinus to novel nonthreatening objects. International Journal of Primatology 21(4): 629-648. ISSN: 0164-0291.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9I54
Descriptors: novel objects, mixed-species groups, tamarins, behavioral responses to objects, natural conditions, placement of objects in enclosures, foraging behavior.

Hardy, A., C.P. Windle, H.F. Baker, and R.M. Ridley (2004). Assessment of preference for grid flooring and sawdust flooring by captive bred marmosets in free standing cages. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 85(1-2): 167-172. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: marmosets, Callithrix jacchus, comparison of grid and sawdust flooring in cages, environmental enrichment, video recording, behavioral needs, free standing cages, preference study.

Herron, S., E. Price, and D. Wormell (2001). Feeding gum arabic to New World monkeys: Species differences and palatability. Animal Welfare 10(3): 249-256. ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: zoos, environmental enrichment, feeding enrichment, feed gum arabic, animal welfare, species comparison study.

Hosey, G.R., M. Jacques, and M. Burton (1999). Allowing captive marmosets to choose the size and position of their nest box. Animal Welfare 8(3): 281-285. ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: Callithrix jacchus, marmosets, provision of choice, nests size and location, wood and steel cage materials, discrimination study, importance of nest box height and position.

Jackson, M.J. (2001). Environmental enrichment and husbandry of the MPTP treated common marmoset. Animal Technology 52(1): 21-28 . ISSN: 0264-4754.
NAL Call Number: QL55.I5
Descriptors: Callithrix jacchus, marmosets as laboratory animals, animal models for Parkinson's disease, neurotoxins, animal husbandry, animal welfare, body weight, group size.

Kitchen, A.M. and A.A. Martin (1996). The effects of cage size and complexity on the behaviour of captive common marmosets, Callithrix jacchus jacchus. Laboratory Animals 30(4): 317-326 . ISSN: 0023-6772.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1L3
Descriptors: Callithrix jacchus, marmosets as laboratory animals, effects of cage size, effects of environmental enrichment, behavior patterns, animal welfare, species-typical behavior.

Kozorovitskiy, Y., C.G. Gross, C. Kopil, L. Battaglia, M. McBreen, A.M. Stranahan, and E. Gould (2005). Experience induces structural and biochemical changes in the adult primate brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102(48): 17478-17482. ISSN: 0027-8424.
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0508817102
NAL Call Number: 500 N21P
Descriptors: Callithrix jacchus, marmosets, housing techniques, complex habitats, effects of enrichment on dedritic architecture, environmental complexity affects structure of adult primate brain, brain synaptic protein levels, cognition.

Lakshminarasimha, R. and V.R. Singh (2009). Environmental enrichment for common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus jacchus) at Mysore zoo. Zoos' Print 24(10): 12-14. ISSN: 0971-6378 .
Descriptors: Callithrix jacchus jacchus, tree branches, activity budget, enclosure space, social behavior, decrease in coprophagy, feeding live food, India.

Majolo, B., H.M. Buchanan Smith, and J. Bell (2003). Response to novel objects and foraging tasks by common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) female pairs. Lab Animal 32(3): 32-38. ISSN: 0093-7355.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1L33
Abstract: The authors analyze the effects of enrichment devices on the behavior of common marmoset female pairs, and determine which aspects of these devices are more likely to elicit explorative behaviors, and how their presence affects aggressive and stress-related behaviors. The results support the use of enrichment devices for captive primates and show that in marmosets, their effectiveness strongly depends on location within the enclosure and the presence of hidden food.
Descriptors: animal welfare, pair housed female marmosets, Callithrix jacchus, effects of environmental enrichment on behavior, feeding behavior, stress, decreased aggression.

Majolo, B., H.M. Buchanan Smith, and K. Morris (2003). Factors affecting the successful pairing of unfamiliar common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) females: Preliminary results. Animal Welfare 12(3): 327-337. ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: Callithrix jacchus, female marmosets, group housing laboratory primates, sexual maturity, aggression, fighting, grooming animal behavior, successful pair housing.

Manciocco, A., F. Chiarotti, and A. Vitale (2009). Effects of positive interaction with caretakers on the behaviour of socially housed common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Applied Animal Behaviour Science 120(1-2): 100-107. ISSN: 0168-1591.
DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2009.05.007
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Abstract: Every aspect of the life of the captive non-human primates should be carefully attended to, as updated refinement concept recommends. Interaction with humans as environmental enrichment for these animals is believed to be of value, but it has been subject to little quantitative evaluation. This study investigates the effects of positive interaction with humans on the behaviour of a captive colony of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). The study was composed of two phases: baseline condition, where the interaction with humans was represented by routine care and management; and a second phase (’Human Interaction Effects’), in which a familiar caretaker spent additional 20min per day with each family, interacting actively and positively with the monkeys. In order to assess potential durable effects of such interaction, data were collected only when caretaker was absent. Between the two phases, a period of interaction 4 weeks long per family took place with the caretaker. The sampling method used was a 10s scan sampling, with daily sessions 30min long. Following the period of additional interaction with caretaker, the marmosets showed an increased level of grooming and playful activities, generally considered signs of increased level of welfare; however, they also showed lower levels of self-scratching and locomotion. A trend towards reduced contact vocalizations was also observed. These results suggest that simple, unstructured positive interactions between humans and marmoset monkeys may be part of a program aimed at maximizing the level of welfare of captive non-human primates.
Descriptors: Callithrix jacchus, monkeys, human-animal relations, animal behavior, social behavior, environmental enrichment, animal welfare, animal use refinement, captive animals, group housing, human interaction, captive management.

Manciocco, A. and M.V.A. Puopolo (2004). Animal welfare and enrichment: A preference study in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Folia Primatologica 75(6): 393-394. ISSN: 0015-5713.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9F6
Descriptors: Callithrix jacchus, common marmosets, environmental enrichment, animal welfare, preference studies, foraging behavior.
Notes: Meeting Information: 16th Meeting of the Italian Primatological Society, Radicondoli, Siena, Italy; October 28-30, 2003.

Manciocco, A. and A. Vitale (2008). Effect of human interaction on the behaviour of a colony of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Folia Primatologica 79(5): 358. ISSN: 0015-5713.
Descriptors: animal behavior, environmental enrichment, human interaction, marmosets.
Notes: Meeting Information: 2nd Congress of the European Federation for Primatology, Prague, Czech Republic; September 3-7, 2007.

Manciocco, A. and A. Vitale (2006). The response to different enrichments by the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus): comparison between laboratory and zoo colonies. Folia Primatologica 77(4): 300. ISSN: 0015-5713.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9F6
Descriptors: environmental enrichment, nonhuman primates, marmosets, Zoological oological Park of Falconara, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, comparison study, puzzle-feeder.
Notes: Meeting Information: 17th Meeting of the Italian Primatological Society, Palermo, Italy, May 16-18, 2005.

McKinley, J., H.M. Buchanan Smith, L. Bassett, and K. Morris (2003). Training common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) to cooperate during routine laboratory procedures: ease of training and time investment. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 6(3): 209-220. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Abstract: The first author trained 12 laboratory-housed common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) in pairs to assess the practicality of positive reinforcement training as a technique in the management of these nonhuman animals. Behaviors taught were (a) target training to allow in homecage weighing and (b) providing urine samples. Between 2 to 13, 10-minute training sessions established desired behaviors. Training aggressive animals only after they had been fed eliminated aggression during training. Trained animals proved extremely reliable, and data collection using trained animals was considerably faster than collection using current laboratory techniques. The results suggest that positive reinforcement training is a practical option in the management of laboratory-housed marmosets. Comment In: J Appl Anim Welf Sci. 2003;6(3):221-33
Descriptors: animal behavior, Callithrix jacchus, marmosets, operant conditioning, positive reinforcement, animal welfare, husbandry, laboratory animal management.

Norcross, J.L. and J.D. Newman (1999). Effects of separation and novelty on distress vocalizations and cortisol in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). American Journal of Primatology 47(3): 209-222. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Abstract: In socially-bonding species, separation from familiar attachment figures is widely known to stimulate a physiological and behavioral stress response. This study investigated the hormonal and vocal responses of adult common marmosets to separation from familiar group members and to 24 hr of cohabitation with an unfamiliar opposite-sex conspecific. All subjects were removed from their home cages and placed into a novel environment for 20 min. In one group, marmosets were exposed to an unfamiliar, opposite-sex partner in the novel environment and remained paired with this partner for the 24 hr test period. In three other groups, marmosets experienced the novel environment alone and subsequently were returned to their original social- or single-housing condition, or kept separate from their social groups for a 24 h period. Blood samples were collected the day before, and at 30 min, 90 min, and at 24 h after separation. Cortisol responses were differentially affected by the length of separation and the presence of unfamiliar conspecifics. Brief separation followed by the return to the social group had minimal effect on plasma cortisol levels. All marmosets produced high levels of separation calls in the novel environment, but there was no apparent relationship between calling and cortisol levels. The lack of a temporal relationship between the production of distress vocalizations and serum cortisol has previously been noted in squirrel monkey and rhesus monkey infant separation studies; the behavioral and physiological responses to separation appear to be similarly dissociated in the marmoset. Further, the characteristics of a separation environment can differentially affect the hormonal response by adult marmosets without differentially affecting their behavioral response.
Descriptors: Callithrix jacchus, adult marmosets, effects of separation and novel environments on hormones, social behavior, psychological stress, vocalization, hydrocortisone levels in blood.

O'Connell, D., M. Moore, E.C. Price, A.T.C. Feistner, and A. Fidgett (2001). From enclosure to wood: Initial responses of Leontopithecus chrysomelas groups at Jersey Zoo to a change in environment. Journal of the Wildlife Preservation Trusts 37: 21-33. ISSN: 0265-5640.
Descriptors: golden-headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, wooded environment, adaptive behaviors, intraspecific interaction, foraging, animal welfare, reintroduction programs, Jersey Zoo.

Pines, M.K., G. Kaplan, and L.J. Rogers (2007). A note on indoor and outdoor housing preferences of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Applied Animal Behaviour Science 108(3-4): 348-353. ISSN: 0168-1591.
DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2006.12.001
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus, indoor housing, outdoor housing, habituation, preference, choice between home cage and indoor enriched room or outdoor cage.

Pines, M.K., G. Kaplan, and L.J. Rogers (2004). Stressors of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) in the captive environment: Effects on behaviour and cortisol levels. Folia Primatologica 75(Suppl. 1): 317-318. ISSN: 0015-5713.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9F6
Abstract: Salivary cortisol samples, collected using a cotton bud with banana on the tip, doubled following 30 minutes of exposure to playing radio (70-80 dB) or loud construction work (70-80 dB). Activity levels and time spent on the floor of the cage decreases, but there was no change in other stress-indicative behaviours.
Descriptors: Callithrix jacchus, marmosets, loud noises as stress factors, cortisol levels, stress induced behavior, captive environment.

Pines, M.K., G. Kaplan, and L.J. Rogers (2005). Use of horizontal and vertical climbing structures by captive common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Applied Animal Behaviour Science 91(3-4): 311-319. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: physical activity, gender differences, cage design, environmental enrichment, animal preferences, marmosets, Callithrix jacchus, primates in captivity.

Prescott, M.J. and H.M. Buchanan Smith (2004). Cage sizes for tamarins in the laboratory. Animal Welfare 13(2): 151-158. ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: captive animals, body size, use of cage area, species-specific behavior, aggression, Callithrix jacchus, Saguinus labiatus, Saguinus oedipus.

Queyras, A., R. Bernarducci, and A. Vitale (2001). Arricchimento ambientale e separazione nello uistiti comune (Callithrix jacchus) in cattivita: As petti comportamentali e fisiologici. [Environmental enrichment during separation in captive common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): Behavioural and physiological aspects]. Folia Primatologica 72(3): 151-152. ISSN: 0015-5713.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9F6
Descriptors: Callithrix jacchus, marmosets, environmental enrichment, behavioral responses, physiological responses, separation from social group, social effects on use of enrichment, puzzle feeders, competition, meeting abstract.
Language of Text: Italian; Summary in English.
Notes: Meeting Information: 14th Meeting of the Italian Primatological Society, Pisa-Calci, Italy; October 9-11, 2000.

Renner, M.J., A.J. Feiner, M.G. Orr, and B.A. Delaney (2000). Environmental enrichment for New World primates: Introducing food, irrelevant objects, and direct and secondary effects. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 3(1): 23-32 . ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Descriptors: New World primates, zoo animals, enrichment, animal behavior, toys, cages, stimuli, animal welfare, Callithrix geoffroyi, Cebuella pygmawa, Saginus labiatus, Leontopithecus chrysomelus.

Roberts, R.L., L.A. Roytburd, and J.D. Newman (1999). Puzzle feeders and gum feeders as environmental enrichment for common marmosets. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 38(5): 27-31. ISSN: 1060-0558.
NAL Call Number: SF405.5.A23
Abstract: Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus jacchus) are highly social New World monkeys that consume a principally gummivorous and insectivorous diet. We examined the efficacy of two types of foraging devices, Puzzle-Feeders(tm) and gum feeders, as environmental enrichment for marmosets housed singly (n = 16) or in sibling (n = 4) and heterosexual (n = 8) pairs. In experiment 1, marmosets were exposed to each of the two types of foraging devices for three hours, once per week for two weeks. Thirty-minute observations were conducted at the beginning and end of each exposure period. Marmosets in all housing conditions experienced significant reductions in the frequency of stereotyped pacing and significantly less time sitting still while exposed to the foraging devices. Marmosets experienced significantly lower levels of feeder use and significantly more time sitting still at the end of the three-hour exposure than at the beginning. Marmosets that were singly or sibling housed used the devices the most and had the largest reductions in time spent sitting still during enrichment. In experiment 2, singly housed marmosets were given two types of gum feeders, a wooden and a Gumabone(tm) gum feeder, each for a week-long period. Thirty-minute observations were conducted three times per week immediately after loading the feeders with fresh gum. The wooden gum feeders were heavily gouged during the week-long exposure, although significantly less use of both types of gum feeders was observed on the third and fifth days. These results indicated that marmosets in variable social housing conditions can benefit from environmental enrichment additional to social housing, and that foraging enrichment promotes increased non-stereotyped movement and decreased pacing in this species.
Descriptors: Callithrix jacchus, marmosets, foraging devices, housing conditions, behavioral data collection, gum and puzzle feeders, stereotypic behavior reduction.

Smith, A.S., A.K. Birnie, and J.A. French (2011-). Social isolation affects partner-directed social behavior and cortisol during pair formation in marmosets, Callithrix geoffroyi. Physiology & Behavior 104(5): 955-961. ISSN: 0031-9384.
DOI: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2011.06.014
Descriptors: pair bonding, Geoffroy's tufted-ear marmosets, social isolation, cortisol levels, social contact behaviors.

Tardif, S.D., D.A. Smucny, D.H. Abbott, K. Mansfield, N. Schultz Darken, and M.E. Yamamoto (2003). Reproduction in captive common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Comparative Medicine 53(4): 364-368. ISSN: 1532-0820.
NAL Call Number: SF77.C65
Abstract: Though sexual maturation may begin at around one year of age, first successful reproduction of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is likely to be later, and it is generally recommended that animals not be mated before 1.5 years of age. The average gestation period is estimated to be 143 to 144 days. A crown-rump length measurement taken by use of ultrasonography during the linear, rapid, prenatal growth phase (between approx. days 60 and 95) can be compared against standard growth curves to estimate delivery date to within 3 to 4 days, on average. Marmosets produce more young per delivery than does any other anthropoid primate, and have more variation in litter size. Many long-established colonies report that triplets are the most common litter size, and there is documented association between higher maternal body weight and higher ovulation numbers. Higher litter sizes generally do not generate higher numbers of viable young. Marmosets are unusual among primates in having a postpartum ovulation that typically results in conception and successful delivery; reported median inter-birth intervals range from 154 to 162 days. However, pregnancy losses are quite common; one study of a large breeding colony indicated 50 percent loss between conception and term delivery. The average life span for breeding females is around six years; the range of reported average lifetime number of litters for a breeding pair is 3.45 to 4.0. Our purpose is to provide an overview of reproduction in the common marmoset, including basic reproductive life history, lactation and weaning, social housing requirements, and common problems encountered in the captive breeding of this species. A brief comparison between marmoset and tamarin reproduction also will be provided.
Descriptors: Callithrix jacchus, marmosets, importance of social housing for reproduction, optimal breeding age, gestation period, liter size, growth rate, laboratory animals, lactation, sexual maturity, comparison between marmoset and tamarin reproduction.

Ventura, R. and H.M. Buchanan Smith (2003). Physical environmental effects on infant care and development in captive Callithrix jacchus. International Journal of Primatology 24(2): 399-413. ISSN: 0164-0291.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9I54
Descriptors: Callithrix jacchus, environmental enrichment, common marmosets, social behavior, infant care, rate of development, play and exploration, motor skills, coping ability, laboratory environment, animal welfare.

Vignes, S., J.D. Newman, and R.L. Roberts (2001). Mealworm feeders as environmental enrichment for common marmosets. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 40(3): 26-29. ISSN: 1060-0558.
NAL Call Number: SF405.5.A23
Abstract: The impact of a foraging enrichment device, the "mealworm feeder," on the behavior of the common marmoset was examined. In 3-h weekly exposures to the wormfeeder device, behavioral observations were conducted to compare the rates of feeder use, use of other enrichment devices, stereotyped behavior, and inactivity, to those of control sessions in which the enrichment device was not provided. Significantly decreased rates of pacing and time spent sitting still were observed in association with placement of the mealworm feeder. Feeder use declined over a period of 3 h, even if the feeders' contents were not fully depleted, and the effects of enrichment on activity waned in a like fashion. Use of other enrichment devices, comprised primarily of cage furniture, increased in the presence of the mealworm feeder. This effect did not change significantly over the 3 h of exposure even though use of the feeder declined. There was significant variation in feeder use among sex and housing condition, with females housed singly and in peer groups using the feeders significantly more than did males, whereas subadults used the feeder significantly more often than did either the dominant female or male in family groups. The results of this study suggest that the mealworm feeder is an effective form of environmental enrichment for the common marmoset, but interest wanes after approximately 3 h.
Descriptors: common marmosets, Callithrix jacchus, environmental enrichment, feeding behavior, housing of animals, enrichment devices, mealworm feeders, sex differences, time of use.

Vilela, J.M.V., A.L. Miranda-Vilela, E.Z. Stasieniuk, G.M. Alves, F.N. Machado, W.M. Ferreira, F.M.O.B. Saad, P.A.R. Machado, C.C.G.M. Coelho, and N.A.M. da Silva (2012). The influence of behavioral enrichment on dry food consumption by the black tufted-ear marmoset, Callithrix penicillata (Mammalia: Callithricidae): A pilot study. Zoologia 29(1): 1-6. ISSN: 1984-4670.
DOI: 10.1590/S1984-46702012000100001
Descriptors: Callithrix penicillata, black tufted-ear marmosets, environmental enrichment, consumption of food, body weight.

Vitale A. and Licata E. (2004). Refinement techniques in experimental protocols involving Callitrichids. Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore Di Sanita 40(2): 237-240. ISSN: 0021-2571.
NAL Call Number: R65 .I8
Abstract: The invasiveness of biomedical experiments on laboratory animals should be limited to the greatest extent possible yet without sacrificing the quality of the data collected. To this end, refinement techniques can be used. In the present work, we describe some of these techniques, focusing on the familiarity of the experimental environment, alternative sampling techniques (including the use of positive training), telemetry, and methods for improving ethological experiments. As a model, we have chosen the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), which is frequently used in biomedical research.
Descriptors: refinement techniques, nonhuman primates as research models, positive reinforcement training, telemetry, animal welfare, marmosets, Callithrix jacchus.
Language of Text: Summary in English, Italian.

Vitale, A. and A. Manciocco (2004). Environmental enrichment techniques in non-human primates: The case of callitrichids. Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore Di Sanita 40(2): 181-186. ISSN: 0021-2571.
Online: http://old.iss.it/publ/anna/2004/2/402181.pdf (73 KB)
NAL Call Number: R65 .I8
Abstract: In this paper, we discuss issues concerning the welfare of non-human primates used in laboratory research from an eco-ethological standpoint and suggest means of improving welfare. Following a brief review of the use of non-human primates in European countries and of the legislation that governs this use, we illustrate how a thorough eco-ethological knowledge of the species being studied can play a vital role in improving both its conditions and the quality of the experimental protocols, arguing that the animal's quality of life is closely linked to the quality of data. As a model for describing environmental enrichment techniques, we have used the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).
Descriptors: animal welfare, understanding species natural histories, environmental enrichment description, European legislation, nonhuman primates in laboratory settings, Callithrix jacchus.
Language of Text: Summary in English, Italian.

Voekl, B., E. Huber, and E. Dungl (2001). Behavioral enrichment for marmosets by a novel food dispenser. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 40(1): 1-3. ISSN: 0023-6861.
Online: https://www.brown.edu/Research/Primate/lpn40-1.html#worm
NAL Call Number: SF407.P7 L3
Descriptors: Callithrix jacchus, foraging, feeding device, shift in activity levels, animal welfare, mealworms.