2010s

This section contains reports and assessments published or updated during the years 2010 - 2019.

Food and Drug Administration (United States Department of Health and Human Services).

Revised July 2015

This document provides guidance to egg producers and other persons who are covered by FDA’s final rule “Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation” (74 FR 33030 (July 9, 2009) (codified at 21 CFR part 118)). The guidance document revises our previous guidance (regarding questions FDA has received on the final rule since its publication) by removing text pertaining to Competitive Exclusion Products, providing citations for regulatory requirements, and making a few editorial changes.

Food Standards Agency (United Kingdom).

July 2015

Presents findings from secondary analyses carried out on Food and You Waves 1 and 2 and contributes to the evidence base to improve understanding of the diversity of reported food safety practices and their association with knowledge, attitudes, dietary habits and eating outside the home.

Economic Research Service (United States Department of Agriculture).
May 2015

Each year, 1 in 6 people in the United States is sickened by a foodborne illness acquired in the States. The Economic Research Service (ERS) provides an overview of recent estimates of the economic burden imposed annually by 15 leading foodborne pathogens.

International Union of Food Science and Technology (International).

March 2015

Foodborne disease may be caused by pathogenic microorganisms or by toxic chemicals. For microbial hazards, susceptibility may be increased by many factors, particularly those that reduce immune system function. For example, neonates, infants, young children are more vulnerable to certain foodborne diseases because of immaturity of their immune and physiologic systems. For the elderly, progressive weaknesses of the immune system play a major role. Another group is pregnant women because of immune tolerance to the fetus. Also vulnerable are those having poor nutritional status, existing health problems, such as HIV infection and liver disease, and drug therapies which suppress the immune system, such as those for cancer and organ transplantation. Such persons are not only more likely to acquire foodborne infections, but also are prone to more severe disease outcomes, including higher mortality rates. The main pathogens involved include bacteria (Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, Listeria monocytogenes) and viruses (norovirus, rotavirus), as well as parasites (Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Toxoplasma gondii).

Economic Research Service (United States Department of Agriculture).

October 2014

Provides a set of peer-reviewed estimates of the costs of major foodborne illnesses in the United States. Includes detailed identification of specific disease outcomes for foodborne infections caused by 15 major pathogens, associated outpatient and inpatient expenditures on medical care, associated lost wages, and estimates of individuals’ willingness to pay to reduce mortality resulting from these foodborne illnesses acquired in the United States.

Government Accountability Office (United States).

October 2014

This report examines what the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) and Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) data shows with respect to pesticide residue violations in the foods that it regulates. For each agency limitations were examined in the agencies' monitoring of foods for pesticide residues by analyzing pesticide residue data, including their reliability, reviewing agency methods for sampling foods for testing, and interviewing agency officials.

European Food Safety Authority (European Union).

October 2014

Melons and watermelons are ready‐to‐eat foods, with an internal pH of 5.1 to 6.7 and can be consumed whole, as fresh‐cut products or as fresh juices. Epidemiological data from the EU identified one salmonellosis outbreak associated with consumption of both pre‐cut and whole melon between 2007 and 2012. Risk factors for melon and watermelon contamination by Salmonella were considered in the context of the whole food chain, together with available estimates of Salmonella occurrence and mitigation options relating to prevention of contamination and the relevance of microbiological criteria. It was concluded that each farm environment represents a unique combination of risk factors that can influence occurrence and persistence of Salmonella in melon and watermelon production. Appropriate implementation of food safety management systems including Good Agricultural Practices (GAP), Good Hygiene Practices (GHP) and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), should be primary objectives of producers. It is currently not possible to assess the suitability of an EU‐wide E. coli Hygiene Criterion at primary production. The existing Process Hygiene Criterion for E. coli in pre‐cut melons and watermelons aims to indicate the degree to which GAP, GHP, GMP or Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) programmes have been implemented. There are Food Safety Criteria for the absence of Salmonella in 25g samples placed on the market during their shelf life of ready‐to‐eat pre‐cut melon and watermelon and unpasteurised melon and watermelon juices. A Food Safety Criterion for Salmonella in whole melons and watermelons could be considered as a tool to communicate to producers and processors that Salmonella should not be present in the product. Since the occurrence of Salmonella is likely to be low, testing of whole melons or watermelons for this bacteriumcould be limited to instances where other factors indicate breaches in GAP, GHP, GMP or HACCP programmes.

European Food Safety Authority (European Union).

October 2014

Identifies specific actions to address the recommendations of the Management Board and EFSA’s strategic objectives, with the vision to move beyond the operation of specific cooperation tools towards building a common risk assessment agenda, where priorities are defined on which Member States and EFSA can partner. The over-riding objectives are to share work programs, create opportunities for scientific cooperation and build towards a coherent international voice.

Food Standards Agency (United Kingdom).

October 2014

Summarizes information about reported behaviors, attitudes and knowledge relating to food issues. It provides data on people’s reported food purchasing, storage, preparation, consumption and factors that may affect these, such as eating habits, influences on where respondents choose to eat out and experiences of food poisoning.

European Food Safety Authority (European Union).

September 2014

In May 2013, Germany reported cases of hepatitis A virus (HAV) genotype IA infection in persons with a travel history and Italy reported a national increase in the number of HAV cases and declared an outbreak. Confirmed cases (outbreak strain KF182323) have been reported in Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Norway, the Netherlands, Poland, Sweden and the United Kingdom (331 in total). HAV contamination was detected in frozen mixed berries (14 lots) and mixed berry cakes/pastries (2 lots) in Italy, France and Norway. In Ireland, the Netherlands and Sweden, analysis of food histories and questionnaires identified suspect berries and berry products consumed by confirmed cases. Tracing began with 38 lots/cases from Italy, Ireland and the Netherlands, an additional 5 lots/cases were added from France, Norway and Sweden in spring 2014. The tracing data were exchanged via the European Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed. The final dataset comprises 6227 transactions among 1974 food operators. Bulgarian blackberries and Polish redcurrants were the most common ingredients in the traced lots/cases; however, Poland is the largest producer of redcurrants in Europe, and Bulgaria is a major exporter of frozen blackberries. No single point source of contamination linking all 43 lots/cases could be identified. HAV cases/lots in five countries could be linked to seven Polish freezing processors and/or to five frozen berry suppliers in Bulgaria. This indicates that HAV contamination could be occurring at the freezing processor or in primary production of berries and therefore compliance with Good Hygiene Practice, Good Manufacturing Practice and Good Agricultural Practice is recommended for countries producing berries for freezing. It is possible that contaminated product related to this outbreak could still be circulating in the food chain. Hence, for the public health domain, enhanced surveillance, risk communication, vaccination and further research are recommended.

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