2010s

This section contains reports and assessments published or updated during the years 2010 - 2019.

European Food Safety Authority and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (European Union).

September 2014

Describes how a previous rapid outbreak assessment published by EFSA and ECDC at the end of August that found sporadic cases of Salmonella Enteritidis in Austria, France, Germany and the United Kingdom, as well as one case reported in Luxembourg, appear to be connected.

Food Safety Inspection Service (United States Department of Agriculture).

August 2014

Updates a 2008 risk assessment, originally presented in conjunction with a review by the National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection (NACMPI, 1,3), with new data and a modified modeling approach. This version of the risk assessment takes into consideration public and stakeholder comments.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (United States Department of Health and Human Services).

August 2014

Summarizes the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring Systems (NARMS) data on Salmonella (non-typhoidal) and Campylobacter recovered in 2011 from human clinical cases, retail meats, and food animals at federally inspected slaughter and processing plants. Includes susceptibility data for Escherichia coli recovered from retail meats and chicken carcasses. Summary data from prior years are also included

European Food Safety Authority (European Union).

August 2014

A European Union‐wide baseline survey on Listeria monocytogenes was carried out in 2010 and 2011. Packaged (not frozen) hot or cold smoked or gravad fish, soft or semi‐soft cheeses (excluding fresh cheeses) and packaged heat‐treated meat products were sampled in 26 European Union Member States and in one country not belonging to the European Union. Multiple‐factor analysis (Generalized Estimating Equations) was used to investigate the statistical association between several factors on which information was gathered during the baseline survey, and two outcomes: prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes and proportion of samples with counts exceeding 100 cfu/g, in the surveyed fish and meat products (no analysis is presented for cheese samples, owing to the small number of contaminated samples). Sparseness issues led to instability of the effect estimates for some of the factors. For fish samples, factors that exhibited a stable association with at least one of the two outcomes were ‘subtype of the fish product’ (factor related to the type of processing), ‘Number of antimicrobial preservatives and/or acidity regulators’ and ′Possible slicing′. For meat products, the corresponding factors were ′Type of the meat product′, ′Animal species of the origin of the meat product′, ′Possible slicing′ and ′Remaining shelf‐life′ (days between sampling and ′Use by date′). Furthermore, a statistical model was developed that allowed the use of estimates of the proportion of samples with an L. monocytogenes count > 100 cfu/g obtained from a single‐unit sample survey of a population of RTE foods, in order to estimate the probability that if a five‐unit sample had been taken from the same population, no individual unit, out of n = 5 units constituting the sample, would have exceeded the level of 100 cfu/g. The model was applied using data from the baseline survey for fish, cheese and meat products, at the end of shelf‐life.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (United States Department of Health and Human Services).

July 2014

Includes Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) surveillance data for 2012 for non-typhoidal Salmonella (refers to serotypes not causing typhoid fever), typhoidal Salmonella (serotypes Typhi, Paratyphi A, Paratyphi B [tartrate negative], and Paratyphi C), Shigella, Campylobacter, E. coli O157, and Vibrio species other than V. cholerae. Surveillance data include the number of isolates of each pathogen tested by National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) and the number and percentage of isolates that were resistant to each of the antimicrobial agents tested.

Canadian Food Inspection Agency (Canada).

July 2014

Describes the monitoring activities undertaken by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) from 2015 to 2016 as part of the National Chemical Residue Monitoring Program (NCRMP) regarding monitoring the food supply for chemical residues and contaminants, and determination of compliance with maximum residue limits. Foods were tested for various contaminants including melamine, mycotoxins, and bisphenol A.

European Food Safety Authority (European Union).

July 2014

Fresh meat intended for the production of minced meat may be contaminated by a range of pathogens including Salmonella spp. and verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC). These may grow if the temperatures are not maintained below 5 °C along the continuum from carcass chilling to mincing. Moreover Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica will grow at chill temperatures, albeit slowly, but significant growth may occur during prolonged storage. Current legislation (Regulation (EC) 853/2004) requires that red meat carcasses are immediately chilled after post‐mortem inspection to not more than 7 °C throughout and that this temperature be maintained until mincing which must take place not more than 6 or 15 (vacuum‐packed meat) days after slaughter. The corresponding figures for poultry are 4 °C and 3 days. The impact of storage  time between slaughter and mincing on bacterial pathogen growth was investigated using predictive modelling. Storage time‐temperature combinations that allow growth of Salmonella, VTEC, L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica equivalent to those obtained under the conditions defined by Regulation (EC) 853/2004 were identified. As the modelling assumed favourable pH and aw for bacterial growth, no microbial competition and no lag phase, the equivalent times reported are based on worst‐case scenarios. This analysis suggested, for example, that red meat, vacuum packed beef and poultry could be stored at 2 °C for up to 14, 39 and 5 days, respectively, without more bacterial pathogen growth occurring than that which would be achieved under current legislative conditions. It was therefore concluded that alternative time‐temperature combinations for the storage of fresh meat between slaughter and mincing are possible without increasing bacterial pathogen growth, and maximum times for the storage of fresh meat intended for minced meat preparation are provided for different storage temperatures. The impact of spoilage on maximum storage times was not considered.

European Food Safety Authority (European Union).

July 2014

Information on the pathogenesis and tissue distribution of Atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle through the study of field cases and experimental transmission studies is lacking. The latter are limited to transmission of Atypical BSE through intracerebral (i.c.) inoculation of cattle. All data currently available relate to the presence or absence of PrPSc, but do not quantify relative amounts of PrPSc or levels of infectivity. A laboratory protocol for further studies is recommended, to allow the assessment of the relative infectious titre, PrPSc accumulation and prion seeding activity in the tissues of cattle that developed H‐BSE or L‐BSE (using posterior brainstem as a reference). Tissues to be covered by those studies are categorised in three priorities, based on their inclusion in the list of specific risk material in cattle, on the presence of infectivity, or PrPSc presence, demonstrated in Atypical BSEs or other Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs) in ruminants, and on the importance in terms of input into the food chain in the EU. The protocol provides details in terms of the minimum number of animals to be tested, processing and preparation of tissues, and methods to be used to identify abnormal PrP and quantify infectivity, also depending on the expected level of infectivity and amount of tissue available for analysis. It is recommended that, through the implementation of the protocol, information should also be obtained on the performance of currently validated rapid tests for TSE active surveillance in cattle/bioassay for detecting H‐BSE and L‐BSE agents.

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