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Investigating the Efficacy of Natural Antimicrobials to Inhibit the Growth of Salmonella in Natural and Organic Apple Cider and Apple Juice

Investigators
Jackson-Davis, Armitra; Kassama, Lamin; Boateng, Judith; Mendonca, Aubrey; Joseph, M
Institutions
Alabama A&M University
Start date
2014
End date
2016
Objective
The long-term goal of the proposed work is to improve the microbiological safety of apple cider and apple juice with the addition of natural antimicrobials. This area of research is important to ensure that natural and organic apple cider and apple juice provide consumers with the degree of safety that they have come to expect from conventional apple cider and apple juice.
More information

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY:
There has been a steady interest among consumers in foods labeled as natural and organic. This trend has resulted in the manufacture of apple cider and apple juice labeled as natural and organic. In recent years, several types of juices including apple juice, apple cider, (unpasteurized or under-processed) have been implicated in outbreaks of salmonellosis. While some antimicrobial ingredients are allowed in conventional apple juice and apple cider to control spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms, they are not permitted in apple cider and apple juice labeled as natural or organic. To our knowledge, the efficacy of natural antimicrobials in natural and organic apple cider and apple juice when compared to conventional antimicrobials has not yet been evaluated. The long-term goal of the proposed work is to improve the microbiological safety of apple cider and apple juice with the addition of natural antimicrobials. Natural antimicrobials will be obtained and analyzed for pH and miscibility in aqueous media. Each antimicrobial will be inoculation challenged with Salmonella to assess performance when compared to conventional antimicrobials. Each antimicrobial will be validated by inoculation challenge studies using apple cider and apple juice labeled as natural and organic. This area of research is important to ensure that natural and organic apple cider and apple juice provide consumers with the degree of safety that they have come to expect from conventional apple cider and apple juice. The proposed work addresses the priority area of Food Safety.

APPROACH:
Objective 1 - Identification and evaluation of natural antimicrobials.Determination of total phenolic content. The total phenolic content sample will be analyzed by the Folin-Ciocalteu Total flavonoid content will be determined using a The antioxidant activities of these extracts will be evaluated by, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. DPPH assay will be based on the evaluation of the free radical scavenging capacity described by Brand-Williams et al. (1995). FRAP will be assayed according to the methods of Benzie and Strain (1996).
Objective 2 - Hazard analysis by inoculation challenge studyValidation of natural antimicrobials for inactivating Salmonella enterica. A hazard analysis will be conducted to assess performance of the natural antimicrobials compared to conventional antimicrobials. Various concentrations of natural antimicrobials will be will be individually evaluated to destroy pathogens in apple cider and apple juice labeled as natural and organic. Samples of each natural antimicrobial will be inoculated with Salmonella enterica. The inoculated natural and organic apple cider and apple juice will be aseptically dispensed into sterile plastic bags. The samples will be appropriately stored.Microbiological analysis of inoculated natural antimicrobials. Samples will be plated in duplicate on xylose lysine desoxycholate (XLD) agar for Salmonella using the thin agar layer (TAL) method. Typical Salmonella colonies will be counted at 48 hours after incubating agar plates at 35ºC and recorded as log CFU per sample. In instances where the target organisms are beyond detection by plating, enrichment assays will be performed to amplify low numbers of the pathogen, if present. Enrichment for Salmonella will be performed.
Objective 3 - Validation of natural antimicrobials in inoculated apple cider and apple juiceValidation of natural antimicrobials for inactivating Salmonella enterica in apple cider and apple juice. Various concentrations of natural antimicrobials will be evaluated to destroy pathogens in apple cider and apple juice using natural antimicrobials. Samples of apple juice and apple cider will be inoculated.Microbiological analysis of apple juice and apple cider. Samples will be plated in duplicate on XLD agar forSalmonellausing the thin agar layer method. TypicalSalmonellacolonies will be counted at 48 hours after incubating agar plates at 35ºC and recorded as log CFU per sample. Enrichment assays will be performed.
Objective 4 - Development of coating solution for package surfacesCellulose-based solution will be prepared. Antimicrobial substance will be assayed. The film will be inoculated with Salmonella enterica and theeffectiveness of the packaging films coated with the antimicrobial solution will be assayed. Typical Salmonella colonies will be counted at 48 hours after incubating agar plates at 35ºC and recorded as log CFU per sample.

Funding Source
Nat'l. Inst. of Food and Agriculture
Project source
View this project
Project number
ALAX-12-1014
Accession number
1002289
Categories
Salmonella
Preventive Food Safety Systems
Commodities
Produce