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Modulation of Receptor Cross Talk for Ruminant Innate Immunity

Investigators
Worku, Millie
Institutions
North Carolina A&T State University
Start date
2012
End date
2015
Objective

The overall goal of this project is to develop a greater understanding of the utility of natural modulators (bacterial, fly, nematode, fungal, plant extracts) on the innate ability of cows, sheep and goats to resist disease to maximize production. The objectives of this proposal are to:

Objective 1: Conduct an in vitro assessment of the modulation of gene expression, by bacterial (Probiotics, LPS, Peptidoglycan, Nystatin), fly (horn fly salivary gland extracts), nematode (Hameonchus excretory and secretory products), fungal (mushroom extracts) and plant (spent mushroom biostrata) components, in blood from sheep cows and goats.

Objective 2: Evaluate the impact of nutritional supplementation on innate immunity and the in vitro response to modulators in neonatal and adult small ruminants (sheep and goats) with respect to gene expression and biomarker analysis.

Objective 3: Determine the impact of nutritional supplementation on innate immunity and the in vitro response to modulators in calves and cows with respect to gene expression, biomarker analysis, endoparasites (flies) and mastitis causing pathogens for improved production.

More information

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY:
Concern over resistance of pathogens to existing chemicals and their impact on food safety fuels the drive to identify and understand natural modulators of disease associated receptors and their mechanism of action. The overall goal of this project is to develop a greater understanding of the utility of natural modulators (bacterial, fly, nematode, fungal, plant extracts) on the innate ability of cows, sheep and goats to resist disease to maximize production. This project examines the impact of pathogen manipulation of receptor crosstalk on innate immunity. The effect of natural modulators derived from ecto and endoparasties on cross talk between members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) and Wingless (WNT) pathway genes in cows, sheep, and goats will be evaluated. This will aid in the development of control measures based on targeting key points in conserved pathways. Implementation of this project will contribute to long term efforts to ensure food security and safety through improved strategies to control food and vector borne animal disease based on genetic selection. Strengthened linkages will help ensure a sustained effort at NC A&T.

APPROACH:
The NC A&T State University farm has Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle, sheep and meat goats that will be used in this project. We will use naturally infected sheep, goats and cows to conduct an in vitro assessment of the modulation of gene expression, by bacterial (Probiotics, LPS, Peptidoglycan, Nystatin), fly (horn fly salivary gland extracts), nematode (Hameonchus excretory and secretory products), fungal (mushroom extracts) and plant (spent mushroom biostrata) components, in whole blood and isolated neutrophils from sheep cows and goats. The impact of nutritional supplementation on innate immunity and the in vivo response to modulators will be evaluated in neonatal and adult small ruminants (sheep and goats) and in heifer calves and cows with respect to gene expression and biomarker analysis, endoparasite infestation (flies) and mastitis causing pathogens for improved production.

PROGRESS: 2012/10 TO 2013/09
Target Audience: Students, faculty animal producers, pharmaceutical and animal health professionals, extension personnel is the primary target audience. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? High school, undergraduate and graduate students, a post doctoral scientist, research technician, farm personnel and faculty have been involved in this project. Proteomic methods for the characterization of insect proteins and evaluation of the impact of treatment on probiotics have been established through graduate student training. Mushroom extracts were provided by Dr Ishekhumen. Professional development Work has been presented at the Agricultural Research Directors conference, faculty, staff and students from 1890 Institutions and guests, and American Society of Animal Science meeting. A representative from Illumina gave a seminar and discussed opportunities with Genseek. Additional opportunities included an international audience of producers and animal science professional at the National Goat Conference field day at NC A&T. Over all methodology has been optimized for use and design of further experiments and instrument training has been conducted. Further training on the Agilent microarray scanner has been scheduled, awaiting RNA quality checks. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? Work has been presented at the Agricultural Research Directors conference, joint meeting of the American Society of Animal and Dairy Science meeting and the National Goat Conference. Dr. Worku presented a seminar at Iowa State University to faculty staff and students. Abstracts have been published in proceedings. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Work will continue on all three objectives: Studies on the invitro response to modulators will continue as described above. Researchers will continue to evaluate the probiotic effect of Corpet a commercial mushroom extract used in animal feed as a supplement in goats and for invitro evaluation in blood from sheep cow and goats. Objective 3: Determine the impact of nutritional supplementation on innate immunity and the in vitro response to modulators in calves and cows with respect to gene expression, biomarker analysis, endoparasites (flies) and mastitis causing pathogens for improved production. An effort to collect cord blood samples is underway. Techniques need to be refined. We propose to purchase 26 post weaned calves (average age = 60 d). Calves will be fed commercial calf starter with no supplements (n = 6), probiotics (n = 6) and mushroom hay/corpet? (n = 6) and a combination of probiotics and mushroom hay/corpet for a 30 d trial and the animal performance. The numbers of animal used may change due to budgetary needs and on farm resources. For evaluation of probiotics in the coming year researchers hope to use probiotics developed in campus research labs or a commercial Probiotic Fast Trak in goats and sheep. Researchers are discussing the availability of mushroom hay. However based on results in goats the use of Corpet as a mushroom supplement in calves is being considered.

Funding Source
Nat'l. Inst. of Food and Agriculture
Project source
View this project
Project number
NCX-271-5-13-120-1
Accession number
230317
Categories
Food Defense and Integrity
Parasites
Natural Toxins
Viruses and Prions
Bacterial Pathogens
Chemical Contaminants
Commodities
Produce