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A National Survey of the Nitrite/Nitrate Concentrations in Cured Meat Products and Non-meat Foods Available at Retail

Investigators
Bryan, Nathan; Osburn, Wes; Keeton, Jimmy; Hardin, Margaret
Institutions
Texas A&M University
University of Texas
Start date
2009
End date
2015
Objective
To conduct a comprehensive survey to document the actual levels of nitrite/ nitrate (NO2/NO3) in cured meats and raw vegetables offered at retail. This would establish a comprehensive database for comparison to other historic surveys and in turn, validate the limited contribution of cured meat products to the total dietary nitrite/ nitrate load.
More information
Conclusions
In general, there were no differences in nitrite levels between conventional and organic cured meat categories nor across the cities surveyed, but a few organic products surveyed in certain cities were lower in nitrate content. NO2/NO3 levels averaged 0.64/ 35.66, 0.74/ 78.81, 1.95/ 67.43, 6.86/ 27.68, 7.16/ 14.81 and 7.31/ 25.57 ppm, respectively, for fermented cooked sausage, cured dried uncooked sausage, whole-muscle dry-cured cooked, cured cooked sausage, whole-muscle brine cured cooked and whole-muscle brine cured uncooked categories. Weighted means for NO2/NO3 across all cured meat categories were 4.54 and 37.07 ppm, respectively. Thus, nitrite values observed were not appreciably different from those previously reported by Cassens 12 years ago and were substantially lower than those reported by National Academy of Sciences (1981) as well as those from other countries. Very few differences were noted in nitrite levels of conventional and organic vegetables, but the nitrate content of organic vegetables were lower. Nitrate levels of conventional broccoli, cabbage, celery, lettuce and spinach were 394.38, 417.56, 1,495.48, 850.46 and 2,797.18 ppm, respectively, while their organic counterparts averaged 204.29, 551.97, 911.94, 844.06 and 1,317.73 ppm. The fact that the nitrate contents of vegetables are variable poses a potential dilemma for determining their actual nitrate contribution to the diet. Based on this survey, regional variation may need to be taken into consideration when developing nitrate consumption predictions based on specific vegetables. This variation might be of sufficient magnitude to alter epidemiological predictions if not considered appropriately. All drinking water sources were within the allowable limits for nitrate (and nitrite if reported) established by the EPA.

Deliverable
Overall, nitrite/ nitrate contents of U.S. cured meat products have remained low since the last national survey in 1997. It appears that the current USDA regulations and manufacturer’s processing procedures are consistently controlling the levels of nitrite/ nitrate in cured meat products and continue to be effective for minimizing their contribution to the dietary nitrite/ nitrate load.

Funding Source
Fndn. for Meat and Poultry Research and Education
Pork Checkoff
Project number
07-408
Categories
Chemical Contaminants
Commodities
Meat, Poultry, Game
Produce