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Shrimp Aquaculture Project,az,hi,la,ma,ms,sc,and Tx

Investigators
Moss, Shaun
Institutions
Oceanic Institute Makapuu Point
Start date
2010
End date
2012
Objective
The US Marine Shrimp Farming Program (USMSFP) was formed in 1984 to conduct shrimp aquaculture research and transfer technologies developed from this research to industry stakeholders in an effort to support a domestic shrimp farming industry. US shrimp farmers must rely on advanced technologies to offset advantages enjoyed by foreign producers. Most foreign producers have a competitive cost advantage due to cheaper land and labor, and most foreign shrimp-producing countries have less restrictive laws to protect the environment. However, production methods used by many foreign shrimp farmers are not environmentally sustainable or economically viable in the long term. Massive shrimp diseases continue to plague the global shrimp farming industry resulting in millions of dollars in lost revenue, and shrimp products exported from some foreign producers have contained antibiotics. In 1988, the USMSFP began to focus its research efforts on developing technologies that have been used successfully in other US agricultural industries, particularly the poultry and swine industries. These industries rely on the production of Specific Pathogen Free (SPF), selectively bred animals which are reared under biosecure conditions and fed diets formulated to meet their nutritional needs. The USMSFP has provided US farmers with the tools and knowledge to apply these technologies on their farms. Specifically, the USMSFP has disseminated SPF, selectively bred shrimp to US hatcheries and US broodstock suppliers. Shrimp have been selectively bred for rapid growth and disease resistance using family-based breeding strategies and disease diagnostic tools developed by USMSFP researchers. SPF status is confirmed using up-to-date disease diagnostic tools and USMSFP researchers continue to identify new shrimp pathogens and develop ways to mitigate their impact. In addition, USMSFP researchers have developed biosecure production technologies to rear shrimp under super-intensive conditions with minimal water use. These technologies will allow US shrimp farmers to grow shrimp at inland locations away from sensitive coastal areas, and with a small environmental footprint. Also, these technologies will allow US shrimp farmers to produce shrimp closer to major markets, thereby reducing transport costs and the number of "food miles". Among the USMSFP members, Oceanic Institute has the primary responsibility of managing the shrimp breeding program and in maintaining the SPF status of the breeding stocks. Tufts University is working on shrimp immunology to characterize innate immune mechanisms. The University of Arizona and the Gulf Coast Research Laboratory focus on disease research and the development of disease diagnostic tools. The Waddell Mariculture Center and Texas AgriLife Research are working on developing biosecure production systems, conducting nutritional research, and assisting local shrimp farmers. Nicholls State University is focusing on waste remediation in both pond and raceway culture systems. The integration of these advanced technologies should allow US shrimp farmers to produce high-quality shrimp at competitive prices.
More information

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY:
Shrimp are the most preferred seafood consumed in the US. However, there is a huge disparity between domestic demand and domestic supply resulting in a reliance on imported products and a growing federal trade deficit in shrimp. In addition to concerns about the quantity of shrimp imported into the US, the quality of imported shrimp may be inferior to domestically grown shrimp and there are human health concerns about antibiotic residues which may be present in some imported products. The US Food and Drug Administration is charged with inspecting seafood imported into the US, but this agency is only able to inspect a small percentage of products that make their way into US markets. In light of a growing federal trade deficit in shrimp products, and concerns about food safety, there are compelling reasons to support a US shrimp farming industry. Expanding the US shrimp farming industry using traditional approaches is not feasible due to concerns about environmental pollution, disease transmission, and cost of production. Traditionally, shrimp have been cultured in coastal ponds where flow-through water exchange is used to maintain acceptable water quality. However, influent water can serve as a vector for virulent shrimp pathogens and pond effluent can adversely affect coastal water quality. In addition, expanding shrimp farms in coastal areas may cause multiple-use conflicts and traditional shrimp farms are restricted to more southern latitudes because of the warm-water requirements of the shrimp. This restriction increases transport costs to major markets and increases the number of "food miles", which is a measure of environmental impact. In order for the US shrimp farming industry to expand, US shrimp farmers must rely on advanced technologies modeled after other successful US agribusinesses, such as the poultry and swine industries. These industries are based on the production of Specific Pathogen free (SPF), selectively bred animals which are reared under biosecure conditions and fed formulated diets designed to meet their nutritional needs. The US Marine Shrimp Farming Program (USMSFP) will focus its research efforts on developing these technologies and transferring them to US stakeholders. The USMSFP will disseminate SPF, selectively bred shrimp to US hatcheries and US broodstock suppliers. Shrimp will be selectively bred for rapid growth and disease resistance, using advanced breeding technologies and disease diagnostic tools developed by USMSFP researchers. SPF status will be confirmed using these disease diagnostic tools, and USMSFP researchers will identify new shrimp pathogens and develop ways to mitigate their impact. In addition, USMSFP researchers will develop biosecure production technologies to rear shrimp under super-intensive conditions with minimal water use. This will allow US shrimp farmers to grow shrimp at inland locations away from sensitive coastal areas, and with a small environmental footprint. The integration of these advanced technologies will allow US shrimp farmers to produce high-quality shrimp at competitive prices for a US market with a significant appetite for shrimp.

APPROACH:
The US Marine Shrimp Farming Program's (USMSFP) FY10 Implementation Plan supports research which addresses challenges constraining the US shrimp farming industry. The Plan targets three major objectives: Stock Improvement, Disease Control, and Sustainable Culture Technology. Stock improvement efforts will focus on improving growth and survival of shrimp reared in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) under super-intensive conditions, and improving shrimp survival after exposure to Taura syndrome virus (TSV), Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), and Necrotizing Hepatopancreatitis (NHP). Disease control efforts will include research to better understand the non-specific immune response in shrimp by characterizing the role of hemocytes in defense against bacterial pathogens. USMSFP researchers will continue to work with national and international organizations to disseminate information about shrimp health and disease, provide disease diagnostic services to industry stakeholders, and develop and refine disease diagnostic procedures for viral and bacterial pathogens. In addition, USMSFP researchers will study the genetic diversity of major shrimp viruses, refine epidemiological models for a variety of shrimp pathogens, evaluate the efficacy of purported immunostimulants and feed additives, and conduct passive surveillance of commodity shrimp and other aquatic animal products for major OIE-listed viral pathogens. Efforts will be made to quantify the density of Vibrio bacteria in relation to total bacteria in super-intensive RAS and to develop a multiplex PCR assay for the identification of Vibrio spp. of interest in these production systems. USMSFP researchers have been developing RAS technologies for super-intensive shrimp production using different system configurations and management strategies, as well as different system inputs. In FY10, a comparative growout trial will be conducted to compare production costs of shrimp reared in super-intensive RAS at four USMSFP institutions. Each institution will use similar system inputs (seed, feed, and stocking density) but different system designs and management protocols. Summary data and important inferences made from the comparative growout trial will be included in a draft manual which will provide guidance on the design and operation of super-intensive RAS for US shrimp farmers. In addition to information from the comparative growout trial, the manual will contain summary information based on the collective experiences of USMSFP researchers. The manual will be developed in FY10 and competed and published in FY11. Additional research will focus on trying to better understand the structure and function of microbial communities in RAS systems, and studies will be conducted on the nitrogen cycle to help define the role of microbes in the management of solid wastes generated by RAS. Finally, in support of the emerging U.S. bait shrimp industry, USMSFP researchers will continue to develop SPF stocks of Litopenaeus setiferus and will produce a fourth generation of SPF broodstock.

PROGRESS: 2010/08 TO 2012/07

OUTPUTS:
During the FY10 No Cost Extension period, the USMSFP distributed 143,160 Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, to U.S. industry stakeholders, as well as to research and educational organizations in the U.S. These shrimp consisted of postlarvae, juveniles, and broodstock from the Growth, TSV-Resistant, and Kona Reference lines. Shrimp from the Growth line have been selected for rapid growth and high survival when grown at super-intensive densities in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS), whereas shrimp from the TSV-Resistant line have been selectively bred for high survival after exposure to different isolates of Taura syndrome virus (TSV), as well as for rapid growth. Shrimp from the Kona line represent an important research tool as a "control" animal. Of the shrimp that were distributed, 60,000 went to U.S. industry stakeholders, whereas 83,160 shrimp went to research and education organizations, including USMSFP members. In addition, during the FY10 No Cost Extension period, USMSFP Technical Committee members and the USMSFP Director met with members of the Industry Stakeholder Group (ISG) in Las Vegas, Nevada the day before the WAS-sponsored Aquaculture America conference. ISG members included: 1) Mr. Russ Allen (owner of Seafood Systems, Inc. and President of the United States Shrimp Farming Association), 2) Dr. Jim Anderson (formerly with Magnolia, an indoor RAS company in Kentucky), and 3) Dr. Tom Zeigler (Ziegler Brothers, Inc.). During the meeting, there were discussions between ISG members and members of the USMSFP Technical Committee covering a range of issues including summaries of the comparative growout trials conducted by USMSFP Technical Committee members, the status of federal funding to support shrimp aquaculture research, opportunities for collaborative research, and the status of the U.S. marine shrimp farming industry.

PARTICIPANTS:
The U.S. Marine Shrimp Farming Consortium was formed in 1984 to identify and solve problems that constrain the profitability and expansion of the U.S. marine shrimp farming industry. The Consortium oversees the USDA/NIFA-sponsored U.S. Marine Shrimp Farming Program (USMSFP). This program allows leading investigators and their institutions, working in partnership with industry, to engage in focused, results-oriented projects directed at developing profitable and environmentally sustainable shrimp farming in the U.S. Member institutions and Principle Investigators include: Dr. Jeff Lotz from the University of Southern Mississippi, Gulf Coast Research Laboratory (GCRL); Mr. Dustin Moss from Oceanic Institute (OI); Dr. Abhineet Sheoran from Tufts University (Tufts); Dr. John Leffler from the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources, Waddell Mariculture Center (SCDNR); Dr. Addison Lawrence from Texas AgriLife Research, Texas A&M System (TALR); Dr. Donald Lightner from the University of Arizona (UAZ); and Dr. Quenton Fontenot from Nicholls State University (NSU). Dr. Shaun Moss (OI) was the project director, with responsibility for coordination of research activities and planning, and overall technical and financial oversight of the Consortium. The USMSFP, through work of the seven Consortium institutions, has provided U.S. stakeholders with direct access to high health, genetically improved shrimp, as well as advanced disease diagnostic and treatment methods. OI had primary responsibility for shrimp genetic improvement, including selection for fast growth and TSV resistance, as well as the development of super-intensive, recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Tufts conducted work on molecular immunology, including the characterization of shrimp hemocytes in preventing disease. UAZ and GCRL were involved primarily in disease research, including developing diagnostic tools and providing disease diagnostic services. SCDNR and TALR worked on a variety of issues directly relevant to shrimp production, including RAS management and feeds development, and NSU focused on solid waste disposal issues and on the characterization and control of pathogenic bacteria. The Principal Investigators are recognized as world leaders in their respective fields and have numerous peer-reviewed publications. In addition, Dr. Donald Lightner has taken a leadership role in his service to the global shrimp community as a member of the Aquatic Animals Health Standards Commission, Office des International Epizootics (OIE), of Paris, France. Support for and maintenance of the OIE reference lab at UAZ has been crucial to meeting global needs in terms of the management of existing and emerging pathogens. Opportunities for training and professional development included the UAZ Shrimp Pathology Workshop and the training of graduate students from member universities.

TARGET AUDIENCES:
Traditionally, the USMSFP has focused its research efforts on the U.S. shrimp farmer as the primary target audience. However, due to the globalization of shrimp aquaculture, it has become necessary to expand the list of stakeholders to include feed manufacturers, U.S. grain producers, aquaculture equipment suppliers, broodstock suppliers, U.S. investors in foreign shrimp farms, and the U.S. seafood industry. The U.S. consumer also has benefited from USMSFP research via the global shrimp market. This global view has encompassed and fostered the development of a U.S. shrimp broodstock industry where the primary business is to export broodstock shrimp to foreign hatcheries. The USMSFP has supported the U.S. shrimp broodstock industry by providing SPF, selectively bred shrimp to relevant U.S. stakeholders. Importantly, the USMSFP has continued to develop shrimp families which perform well in biosecure, recirculating aquaculture systems. It is recognized that the dissemination of information, publications, and other outputs from the USMSFP reach a global market, and it is not practical to limit the flow of information, technologies, and products to the U.S. alone. Nevertheless, information dissemination is to the U.S. industry first, prior to publication, through workshops and special sessions conducted yearly at the World Aquaculture Society-sponsored Aquaculture America conferences. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

PROGRESS: 2010/08/01 TO 2011/07/31

OUTPUTS:
An important goal of the U.S. Marine Shrimp Farming Program (USMSFP) is to provide products, technologies, and services to the U.S. shrimp farming industry. During the reporting period, the USMSFP distributed 1,114,986 Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, to U.S. industry stakeholders, as well as to research and educational organizations in the U.S. These shrimp consisted of nauplii, postlarvae, juveniles, and broodstock from the Growth, TSV-Resistant, and Kona Reference lines. Shrimp from the Growth line have been selected for rapid growth and high survival when grown at super-intensive densities in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS), whereas shrimp from the TSV-Resistant line have been selectively bred for high survival after exposure to different isolates of Taura syndrome virus (TSV), as well as for rapid growth. Shrimp from the Kona line represent an important research tool as a "control" animal. Of the shrimp that were distributed, 106,320 went to U.S. industry stakeholders, including broodstock producers and shrimp farmers, whereas 1,008,666 shrimp went to research and education organizations, including USMSFP members. The USMSFP continued to provide disease-challenge services to U.S. shrimp breeding companies in an effort to improve selectively bred lines for disease resistance. A scientist from the USMSFP participated in the development of codes and policies about shrimp health and disease for the World Organization for Animal Health (formerly OIE) and drafted chapters for the revised Aquatic Animal Health Code and for a diagnostic manual. A USMSFP lab continued to serve as an OIE Reference laboratory for Crustacean (Penaeid) Diseases and as a USDA APHIS Approved Diagnostic Laboratory for Shrimp Diseases. During the reporting period, this lab processed 426 disease diagnostic and/or surveillance cases from domestic and foreign clients. In addition, because this lab is an OIE Reference Laboratory and an APHIS designated laboratory for crustacean pathogens, it has been implementing "Ring tests" since 2003. During the reporting period, 21 labs from eight countries participated in these tests and most exhibited high proficiency in diagnosing shrimp diseases. Also, during the reporting period, 11 participants from nine countries enrolled in the University of Arizona's annual Shrimp Pathology Short Course. The USMSFP continued to interact with the Industry Stakeholder Group (ISG) which consisted of six members representing various sectors of the U.S. shrimp farming industry. USMSFP and ISG members met at a WAS-sponsored Aquaculture America conference to discuss ways to make USMSFP research more relevant to the U.S. shrimp farming industry. The USMSFP's commitment to information dissemination to U.S. stakeholders was reflected in its publications and workshops. The USMSFP also maintained contact with the industry through a special session conducted at the World Aquaculture Society conference.

PARTICIPANTS:
The U.S. Marine Shrimp Farming Consortium was formed in 1984 to identify and solve problems that constrain the profitability and expansion of the U.S. marine shrimp farming industry. The Consortium oversees the USDA/NIFA-sponsored U.S. Marine Shrimp Farming Program (USMSFP). This program allows leading investigators and their institutions, working in partnership with industry, to engage in focused, results-oriented projects directed at developing profitable and environmentally sustainable shrimp farming in the U.S. Member institutions and Principle Investigators include: Dr. Jeff Lotz from the University of Southern Mississippi, Gulf Coast Research Laboratory (GCRL); Mr. Dustin Moss from Oceanic Institute (OI); Dr. Abhineet Sheoran from Tufts University (Tufts); Dr. John Leffler from the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources, Waddell Mariculture Center (SCDNR); Dr. Addison Lawrence from Texas AgriLife Research, Texas A&M System (TALR); Dr. Donald Lightner from the University of Arizona (UAZ); and Dr. Quenton Fontenot from Nicholls State University (NSU). Dr. Shaun Moss (OI) was the project director, with responsibility for coordination of research activities and planning, and overall technical and financial oversight of the Consortium. The USMSFP, through work of the seven Consortium institutions, has provided U.S. stakeholders with direct access to high health, genetically improved shrimp, as well as advanced disease diagnostic and treatment methods. OI had primary responsibility for shrimp genetic improvement, including selection for fast growth and TSV resistance. Tufts conducted work on molecular immunology, including the characterization of shrimp hemocytes. UAZ and GCRL were involved primarily in disease research, including developing diagnostic tools and providing disease diagnostic services. SCDNR and TALR worked on a variety of issues directly relevant to shrimp production, such as Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS) management and feeds development, and NSU focused on solid waste disposal issues and on characterization/control of pathogenic bacteria. The Principal Investigators are all recognized world leaders in their respective fields and have numerous peer-reviewed publications. In addition, Dr. Donald Lightner has taken a leadership role in his service to the global shrimp farming community as a member of the Aquatic Animals Health Standards Commission, Office des International Epizootics (OIE), of Paris, France. Support for and maintenance of the OIE reference lab at UAZ has been crucial to meeting global needs in terms of the management of existing and emerging pathogens. Opportunities for training and professional development included the UAZ Shrimp Pathology Workshop and the training of graduate students from member universities. During the reporting period, a total of two Masters and one Ph.D. degrees were awarded among the various institutions supported by the grant.

TARGET AUDIENCES:
Traditionally, the USMSFP has focused its research efforts on the U.S. shrimp farmer as the primary target audience. However, due to the globalization of shrimp aquaculture, it has become necessary to expand the list of stakeholders to include feed manufacturers, U.S. grain producers, aquaculture equipment suppliers, broodstock suppliers, U.S. investors in foreign shrimp farms, and the U.S. seafood industry. The U.S. consumer also has benefited from USMSFP research via the global shrimp market. This global view has encompassed and fostered the development of a U.S. shrimp broodstock industry where the primary business is to export broodstock shrimp to foreign hatcheries. The USMSFP has supported the U.S. shrimp broodstock industry by providing SPF, selectively bred shrimp to relevant U.S. stakeholders. Importantly, the USMSFP has continued to develop shrimp families which perform well in biosecure, recirculating aquaculture systems. It is recognized that the dissemination of information, publications, and other outputs from the USMSFP reach a global market, and it is not practical to limit the flow of information, technologies, and products to the U.S. alone. Nevertheless, information dissemination is to the U.S. industry first, prior to publication, through workshops and special sessions conducted yearly at the World Aquaculture Society-sponsored Aquaculture America conferences. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Funding Source
Nat'l. Inst. of Food and Agriculture
Project source
View this project
Project number
HAWW-2010-02881
Accession number
222220
Categories
Bacterial Pathogens
Sanitation and Quality Standards
Commodities
Seafood
Meat, Poultry, Game