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Value-Added Grains for Local and Regional Food Systems

Investigators
Zwinger, Steve; Stone, Alexandra; Sorrells, Mark E; Russell, June; Roth, Greg; Robertson, Rebecca; Mendenhall, Kate; Kutka, Frank; Dyck, Elizabeth; Davis, Michael; Baker, Brian
Institutions
Cornell University
Start date
2011
End date
2015
Objective

The overall objective is to add value in multiple ways to wheat and specialty grain crops, thus substantially increasing their production and enhancing the diversity and sustainability of organic farms. Specifically this project will:

1) evaluate germplasm of small grain crops with potentially high market value (including heritage wheat, emmer, spelt, and einkorn) for adaptability to organic systems and for desirable grain and baking characteristics, including flavor and nutritional quality;

2) develop management recommendations for heritage wheat varieties and emmer and einkorn landraces;

3) optimize grain quality through identifying management techniques, from planting through harvest, cleaning, and storage, that are cost-effective and appropriate for small-scale (e.g., vegetable crop farms of less than 50 acres) and larger-scale production;

4) document a variety of approaches to grain dehulling and milling to provide smaller- and larger-scale growers with viable processing options; and

5) investigate multiple strategies for accessing local and regional markets. Through an outreach program that both facilitates "active" learning events and provides stakeholders with research-based information on eOrganic and our project partners' websites, at least 100 additional farmers will add value-added wheat or other small grains to their rotations and/or add value to grains through on-farm processing; 40 growers will substantially improve their grain quality, and 18 new grain enterprises (including processing facilities and cooperatives) will start up.

Expected outcomes This project will substantially increase the number of varieties and landraces of wheat with high market potential available to organic farmers. By the end of this project, farmers will have access to at least five additional varieties of heritage wheat and two additional emmer landraces, at least one robust spring spelt variety and two additional winter spelt varieties, and at least two einkorn landraces, all of which will have been tested under organic conditions. This project will characterize genetic diversity in wheat for sensory value and flavor components under organic management. Basic management practices for heritage wheat, emmer, and einkorn crops will also be identified. The work with the mobile production/processing unit will help small-scale growers become familiar with the types of equipment necessary for good grain production. A variety of processing models will be evaluated so that growers can use this information to determine the most economical method of processing their grains and whether starting a processing enterprise makes sense for their operations. This project will help growers enhance the value of wheat and other specialty grain crops in several ways. Much of the information generated by the project, including production techniques to achieve high-quality grain and processing and marketing approaches, will also be applicable to other small grain crops. As a result, farmers will have increased incentives to include these ecologically valuable crops in their rotations, thus increasing the diversity and sustainability of their farms.

More information

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY:
This project seeks to add value in to wheat and specialty grain crops, thus substantively increasing their production and enhancing the diversity, profitability, and sustainability of organic farms. Moreover, the methods and techniques developed in this work can be applied to other small grain and specialty crops. This work will involve conducting advanced on-farm research and development that emphasizes observation of, experimentation with, and innovation for organic farms, including animal and crop production and marketing and socioeconomic issues. These issues will include identification of factors reducing yields, efficiency, productivity, economic returns on organic farms and the economic and socioeconomic contributions of organic farming to producers, processors and local communities. For both plant and animal-based organic products, we will develop, improve and evaluate allowable post-harvest handling, processing and food safety practices to reduce toxins and microbial contamination, while increasing shelf-life, quality and other economically important characteristics. Also, this project will strengthen organic seed systems, including seed and transplant production and protection, and plant breeding and selection for organic production. Goals of organic seed systems can include, but are not limited to: disease and pest resistance, stress tolerance, quality and yield improvement, and genetic mechanisms to prevent inadvertent introduction of GMO traits through cross-pollination. Our on-farm research and farm, processing, and marketing case studies will add value a) through production techniques that achieve and maintain high grain quality and b) through processing and identification of high-value varieties/landraces that are well adapted to organic management. An innovative aspect of our work is developing the information necessary to implement breeding for flavor. Another innovative aspect of our work is development of scale-appropriate production and processing options. This work is particularly appropriate for the Northeast region given the large numbers of organic vegetable farmers who are seeking to rotate out of vegetable crops without losing income. Finally, a third innovative component of the project is the collaboration among researchers and farmers in North Dakota, New York, and Pennsylvania. The collaboration will be mutually beneficial. North Dakota organic growers can provide Northeast growers with potentially highly valuable landraces of emmer and heritage spring wheats. In return, the research in the Northeast on developing cost-effective methods of dehulling and processing can be adapted for use with North Dakota organic farmers, who have been constrained in their marketing of food grains by lack of such capacity (S. Zwinger, pers.com). It is also important to note that it is not uncommon for varieties that perform well in either North Dakota or New York to perform well in the other state. In fact, North Dakota and New York have co-released both a spring wheat and a spring oat variety in past years. Consequently, the alliance with NDSU and NPSAS in this project is a natural one that will benefit both regions.

APPROACH:
Objective 1: In each year of the project, germplasm will be evaluated at four locations: on certified organic land at Cornell's Willsboro and Freeville Farms, and Penn State'S Russell Larson Farm, and on certified organic farms adjacent to North Dakota State's Carrington Extension Center. For each species, a core set of varieties/landraces will be evaluated at all sites plus additional germplasm chosen at each site. Germplasm will be accessed from a wide variety of sources and includes 224 varieties and landraces. Data collected on each variety/landrace will include plant height, visual assessment of lodging and disease, days to heading, number of heads, yield, and test weight (where applicable). Twenty heritage, modern, einkorn, and emmer wheat varieties will be chosen that will provide the maximum amount of information on variation in sensory components. Two separate sensory analyses of whole wheat pancakes or cookies and whole wheat bread will be conducted using descriptive characterization of sensory attributes and a trained panel and subjected to analysis of variance and principal components analysis. Milling and baking quality traits will be evaluated by the USDA Soft Wheat Quality Laboratory, Wooster, OH. Objective 2: To determine optimum fertility and planting rates for spring and winter wheat varieties , einkorns and emmers, we will conduct experiments at two locations over two years. Data collected will include plant stand counts at two-leaf stage, visual assessment of lodging and disease incidence, spike count and weed biomass at harvest, test weight, yield, and protein content. Objective 3: We will undertake case studies of 4 farmers (1 in ND, 2 in NY, 1 in PA) who are expert in producing high-quality grains and conduct a pilot study of equipment sharing. An economic study of these enterprises will be undertaken as part of the project's market analysis. Video shot during farm visits will be edited and used as learning tools in shortcourses and posted on websites. NOFA-NY will assemble a mobile production/processing unit that will work with 2 communities of farmers. The pre and post surveys will be used to evaluate whether such a unit materially assists small-scale growers with grain production. Objective 4: To help growers evaluate current dehulling options, an economic analysis will compare 1) transporting grain to and from a rotary-screen dehulling facility, 2) buying a used, small-to-intermediate-size impact dehuller (and ancillary equipment) for use on the farm, 3) cooperatively buying an impact dehuller (as in the mobile processing unit [see objective 3 above]), and 4) building a small-scale rotary-screen dehuller using the design developed by organic grain farmer Nigel Tudor. Objective 5: Budgets for model farms will be prepared based on the four case study farms. Willingness to pay for locally grown heritage wheat and hulled wheat and their products as differentiated from commodity wheat will be estimated by hedonic price analysis. Effective demand also will be observed and estimated by sales at the New York City Greenmarket. Case studies of successful cooperatives will be used to assessing the feasibility of cooperatives

PROGRESS: 2012/09 TO 2013/08
Target Audience: Cornell: Our target audience is very diverse and includes organic growers and grain users, grain processors that mill and produce products, distilleries, consumers that purchase specialty grains and grain products, extension agents, and the seed industry. Greenmarket manages over 100 famers markets in the New York City area which includes many racial and ethnic minorities as well as disadvantaged groups. The rural community in New York, Pennsylvania and North Dakota are well served by this project and many people in those communities need the information coming from this project to be successful in their enterprises. This project has been extremely active in communicating with the public through workshops, field days, tasting events, web sites, and webminars. The project activities and progress were reported at three field days, a NOFA-NY conference, a SARE tour and at extension agent training school. NDSU: Target audience includes farmers who plant or are considering planting value added grains. The market segments include grain buyers along with processors, millers, bakers, and end users. The project also serves individuals that want to grow specialty grains on small scale for personal use. The organic community is mainly served by this project, as this group is most acceptable of growing, marketing, and eating this type of wheat. Although the project mainly serves the organic community, conventional farmers are also being served as they are looking for growing and marketing alternatives and the ancient grains appear to be a viable alternative. Efforts made to reach audiences include oral, written and electronic forms. All research data are available on NDSU website along with the Annual Report from the Carrington Research Extension Center. An article on Ancient Grains in a recent issue of Farm Show stimulated interest from readers across the nation. Many phone calls and e-mails were answered from this publication. This press release also led to a number of seed samples being sent out for farmers/gardeners to test these wheat crops in various places of the country. Much of my time spent on outreach is on a one on one basis as I receive a growing number of requests for information on the ancient grains and heritage wheat. The audience requesting information is mainly farmers, although a number of companies that include buyers, processors, and bakers are contacting me for information related to the grains. These requests are manly phone calls and e-mails along with office visits. These requests tend to be more at a regional and national level as compared to a local level. PASA: The events coordinated by PASA during the reporting period targeted farmers and growers, both experienced and novice. The acreage of land under cultivation varied, from ten acres to several hundreds of acres. Events occurred at the 2013 Farming for the Future Conference (two workshops) and also as day long, farm-based field days (two events). Promotional tactics were modified somewhat depending on the event, and consisted of a combination of direct mailing of field day postcards (see attached) and conference brochures (available on request) (3, 500 mailed, 500+ otherwise distributed; 5, 000 mailed), printed announcements in the PASA print newsletter (3,000 printed, 2500 mailed and 500 distributed at events thus far), weekly electronic newsletters (16, 125 contacts), listservs and press releases. Announcements were also shared by partner organizations (for example, PCO {Pennsylvania Certified Organic} and PAWAgN {Pennsylvania Women in Agriculture Network}). Penn State: Our target audience is organic grain producers and their advisors, who include extension educators, extension specialists and non-government association personnel. Baker: The audience is organic and sustainable farmers, millers, bakers, academics, and consumers. NOFA: Our target audience is organic farmers. One of our primary goals has been to add value to wheat and specialty grain crops to increase their production and enhance the diversity and sustainability of organic farms. During this grant year, we have reached out to our target audience in a number of ways. One venue was our 2013 Winter Conference. We devoted an entire workshop track to the topic of organic grains and field crops, which included 6 workshops and 1 intensive. In addition, during the 2013 Winter Conference we hosted a grain tasting event. The second venue was our 2013 Organic Dairy & Field Crop Conference where we organized an entire workshop track to the topic of organic grains and field crops, which included 4 workshops and 1 pre-conference intensive. We also reached organic farmers through on-farm field days that took place during the 2013 season, as well as by hosting equipment demonstrations. In addition, we have provided support to organic growers who are producing wheat and specialty grain crops through our Technical Assistance hotline, through which growers receive 1-on-1 support on growing organic grains. Greenmarket: Greenmarket is primarily working on marketing and promotion for the Value Added Grains project. Target audiences are: General consumer with an emphasis on the local foods consumer Home bakers Professional bakers, chefs, and restaurateurs Retail Food outlets, particularly specialty grocery stores. Farmers, including Greenmarket Farmers Entrepreneurs working in the food and beverage industry who are using grains to produce products. Mills, breweries, bakeries, distilleries, pasta makers, etc. Local, regional and national food media OGRIN: For the Value-Added Grains Project, OGRIN works primarily with organic growers, grain processors, and bakers. Please see products and accomplishments sections below for efforts made to reach these audiences. Changes/Problems: NDSU: Planting winter spelt into no-till seed beds was a problem. I have had problems with winter spelt and crop failures possibly due to seeding method and seedbed. I have been planting the winter spelt into untilled flax stubble. Performance has been poor with heavy weed pressure and ultimately stands that needed to be terminated, therefore a crop failure. As a result of this problem, this year I planted the winter spelt into tilled ground that led to better fall stands with better growth going into the winter. I hope this will solve the problem of poor performance of organic winter spelt in ND. PASA: Other than needing to amend the 2013 field day schedule to push an October event into November, based on the likelihood that farmers would be busy at harvest and planting, thus influencing attendance, as well as the strain on the host farm, there have been no major changes or problems in the approach to this project. Rebecca Robertson, who worked as PASA Farm Based Education Coordinator during the initial stages of this project, resigned in August of 2013. Susan Beal, PASA�s Agricultural Science Advisor and Interim Farm-Based Education Coordinator, has acquired the responsibilities for a portion of this project. She also works with Kristin Hoy, PASA Conference Coordinator, assisting Kristin in the development and planning of conference programming. Penn State: Our main challenge has been to achieve necessary weed control in spring planted organic grains. We will try to overcome this with the use of cover crops, tillage and tine weeding. Or we may consider a conventionally managed trial to obtain some usable results. We have also lagged in the development of on farm trials, but we are networking with OGRIN to determine suitable cooperators and research topics. This delay could be good as our research is now generating some conclusions that we can take to the farms for verification. Baker: Marketing studies were predicated on trial varieties being grown in sufficient quantities for the sensory analysis to take place. The market research has been delayed one year and will involve only one year of data instead of two. Money for the marketing study has been reallocated to the case studies. While there was money in the budget to provide honoraria for farmers for the case studies, there was no money for millers. Miller participation will be enhanced by receiving honoraria. As consumer level market research was delayed and reduced, the case study group (Elizabeth Dyck, June Russell, and myself) determined that bakers also are deserving of case studies. As bakers will be the final gatekeepers between farmers and final consumers in many cases, their preferences and quality requirements are likely to be big drivers of demand. Bakers will be the ones to set the price points for bread and flour, and their willingness to pay a premium for flour from heritage, heirloom and ancient grains�as well as for new breeds. Secondary markets are likely to make a difference between profitable and unprofitable operations. The ability to identify and develop secondary markets for value added products besides bread wheat is another aspect to be pursued in the marketing study. Greenmarket: The bulk of our budget was planned around conducting yearly intensive educational events and tastings. Funds were allocated under general �materials and supplies� to cover the production costs of these events. We have not conducted these tastings each year because we have not yet had the grains to work with. We requested to re-allocate funds from �materials and supplies� to video processing hardware and software. The budget originally included only $500 for video equipment. In order to edit the videos we are obligated to do in the grant, we will need editing software and a computer with a processor that has the capacity to do video editing. These changes were approved and we have purchased the necessary equipment. Case studies originally planned to be completed in years 1 & 2 will be completed in years 3 & 4. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? NDSU: Accomplishments in disseminating results to the target audience were fulfilled through a number of ways including oral settings. Most time was spent in one-on-one or small group settings. Most information requests were phone calls or e-mails, or office visits. These requests took a substantial amount of time as each request generally required an hour or more. Giving talks at conferences and field tours aided in disseminating project results. Finally publishing project data accomplished getting the results to the target audience. Publishing data on the internet reached a national audience with interest in the ancient grains, while annual reports reached a local audience with interest. PASA: Although the event has not yet occurred, there has been a request from an agriculture reporter and free-lance journalist to attend the November 5, 2013 event. If the past field-day-based articles written by this individual are any indication, I expect to see a thorough and accurate � and widely disseminated � article based on the information provided on that day. Penn State 3. We developed some network of organic grain growers in the region and have exchanged information on varieties and management. We feel our presence in the media will help to position us as a credible information source in this area. We have strengthened our relationship with OGRIN as well, and this relationship has been invaluable. Baker: I attended workshop on value added grains at the NOFA-NY Annual Conference on January 26. Actively participated as an audience member. Met with David Benscher and Michael Davis regarding production challenges. I made presentations at field days at Cherry Creek (Chautauqua County) July 8, Hudson (Columbia County) July 10, and Trumansburg (Tompkins County), August 20. I participated in the New World Foundation�s Reviving Grains in the Hudson Valley on August 15. I reported to the attendees on the project and received considerable interest. NOFA: We alerted our target audience about project results through E-news and through our quarterly magazine, New York Organic News articles. Through these means, we have reached approximately 10,000 people. Greenmarket: Participation in conferences, workshops, and panel discussions reached over 1,000 people. Promotional events at various Greenmarket locations reach hundreds of thousands of consumers throughout the year. Outreach to wholesale buyers. Greenmarket Co. sales team has conducted outreach to chefs, bakers, institutions and other potential wholesale grain buyers. Greenmarket Co has called on more than thirty different potential buyers, bringing them samples of spelt, emmer and other regional grain products and educating them on the unique qualities and benefits of these grains. Over the past eight months we have sold over $30,000 worth of regional grains to New York City establishments. Grains Blog on the GrowNYC website. Articles and updates on key topics and events. <>. The GrowNYC website had over 2,500,000 page views in the last year according to Google analytics. This general number would include exposure to blog postings, which are on the home page of the GrowNYC website. Three pages relating specifically to the grains project were viewed at roughly 1,000 views each over the past year. Greenmarket Regional Grains Project Facebook page. 170 followers: <> OGRIN: Results of variety trials and observational studies were presented to an audience of ~40 participants at the NOFA summer conference workshop. Management strategies (including use of scale-appropriate equipment) were discussed with over 60 participants at two field days. Over 75 participants learned about wheat and ancient grain management in the project webinar. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? NDSU: Accomplishments in disseminating results to the target audience were fulfilled through a number of ways including oral settings. Most time was spent in one-on-one or small group settings. Most information requests were phone calls or e-mails, or office visits. These requests took a substantial amount of time as each request generally required an hour or more. Giving talks at conferences and field tours aided in disseminating project results. Finally publishing project data accomplished getting the results to the target audience. Publishing data on the internet reached a national audience with interest in the ancient grains, while annual reports reached a local audience with interest. PASA: Although the event has not yet occurred, there has been a request from an agriculture reporter and free-lance journalist to attend the November 5, 2013 event. If the past field-day-based articles written by this individual are any indication, I expect to see a thorough and accurate � and widely disseminated � article based on the information provided on that day. Penn State 3. We developed some network of organic grain growers in the region and have exchanged information on varieties and management. We feel our presence in the media will help to position us as a credible information source in this area. We have strengthened our relationship with OGRIN as well, and this relationship has been invaluable. Baker: I attended workshop on value added grains at the NOFA-NY Annual Conference on January 26. Actively participated as an audience member. Met with David Benscher and Michael Davis regarding production challenges. I made presentations at field days at Cherry Creek (Chautauqua County) July 8, Hudson (Columbia County) July 10, and Trumansburg (Tompkins County), August 20. I participated in the New World Foundation�s Reviving Grains in the Hudson Valley on August 15. I reported to the attendees on the project and received considerable interest. NOFA: We alerted our target audience about project results through E-news and through our quarterly magazine, New York Organic News articles. Through these means, we have reached approximately 10,000 people. Greenmarket: Participation in conferences, workshops, and panel discussions reached over 1,000 people. Promotional events at various Greenmarket locations reach hundreds of thousands of consumers throughout the year. Outreach to wholesale buyers. Greenmarket Co. sales team has conducted outreach to chefs, bakers, institutions and other potential wholesale grain buyers. Greenmarket Co has called on more than thirty different potential buyers, bringing them samples of spelt, emmer and other regional grain products and educating them on the unique qualities and benefits of these grains. Over the past eight months we have sold over $30,000 worth of regional grains to New York City establishments. Grains Blog on the GrowNYC website. Articles and updates on key topics and events. <>. The GrowNYC website had over 2,500,000 page views in the last year according to Google analytics. This general number would include exposure to blog postings, which are on the home page of the GrowNYC website. Three pages relating specifically to the grains project were viewed at roughly 1,000 views each over the past year. Greenmarket Regional Grains Project Facebook page. 170 followers: <> OGRIN: Results of variety trials and observational studies were presented to an audience of ~40 participants at the NOFA summer conference workshop. Management strategies (including use of scale-appropriate equipment) were discussed with over 60 participants at two field days. Over 75 participants learned about wheat and ancient grain management in the project webinar. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Cornell Spring planting Spring wheat trial � 24 entries, 3 replicates, 3 locations (modern and heritage lines) Spring spelt trial � 6 entries, 3 replicates, 4 locations Spring Emmer and Einkorn trial - ~ 15 � 20 entries, 3 replicates, 4 locations Spring seed increase � 10 � 20 lines for milling and baking and on-farm trials NDSU: To achieve goals, I will continue to plant research trials to identify performance and best management practices. This will be done through comparing each crop�s performance and to determine the best varieties to plant within each crop type. Best management practices will be determined by the seeding rate and planting date trials. I will continue to grow and provide stock seed of einkorn, emmer, spelt and heritage wheat for the participants within the project. I will continue to disseminate results to the target audience by publishing data results in written and electronic media. I will serve as an information source related to the project to individual requests. I will also provide my services as a conference speaker and to speak at field tours on the specialty wheat project. PASA: upcoming events include: PASA Farm Based Education field days: Harvesting and Processing Value-Added Grains for Local Markets, White Frost Farm, Montour County, PA, November 5, 2013, <>. PASA Farm Based Education Programming for 2014 will include one to two field days in 2014 Farming for the Future Conference 2014: Two workshops are planned for this event, held in State College, PA February 5 - 8, 2014. Penn State: We plan to repeat the same trials we conducted in 2012/13 and will plant in fall 2013 and spring 2014. Harvest will occur in summer 2014. We plan to assist in outreach activities associated with the project as needed. Baker: Interview case studies Continue to gather budget data Work with the two pilot dehuller projects to estimate the payback cost and net present value of the prototype dehullers Identify and interview bakers for case studies Participate in the sensory training to determine what parameters need to be captured in the hedonic model for consumer demand Prepare the consumer behavioral experiment to look at consumer preferences and willingness to pay a premium for the varieties that are being trialed Draft a paper for presentation at various conferences Discuss with eOrganic about a possible webinar NOFA: During the next reporting period, we will begin planning for the upcoming 2014 field day season. In addition, planning for the 2014 Winter and Dairy and Field Crop Conferences will take place. Greenmarket: The case study on Westwind Mill will be completed. Videos accompanying the Westwind Mill case study will be completed. Quality Analysis of 2013 field trials will be conducted in January 2014 Wholesale distribution of grains will resume. We will begin marketing Red Fife, the first Heritage Wheat available at a commercial scale. We will continue to work with key taste makers to develop products made with emmer, spelt and einkorn. This includes chefs, bakers, pasta makers, brewers and distillers. Outreach to institutions serving low-income communities with an emphasis on nutritional benefits of whole grains. Work on the co-operatives case studies will commence. We will be meeting with the sub group (Brian Baker, Elizabeth Dyck), working on case studies to determine the work plan and timeline. The section of the GrowNYC website devoted to the Grains project is currently under reconstruction. Updates on the Value Added Grains project and our grant partners will be available here. http://www.grownyc.org/grains. OGRIN: The spring planting date and planting rates studies will be repeated on farm in 2014. The bulking of necessary quantities of seed will allow on-farm trials of winter heritage wheat varieties and their management to begin in 2014. An additional two farm cases studies and two mill case studies will be completed in 2014. A shortcourse on baking with local grains will be held near Ithaca, NY, in November 2013. Two additional baking shortcourses will be held at different locations in 2014. A field day demonstrating small-scale dehulling equipment will be held in November 2013 in central PA. A milling shortcourse is being planned for February 2014.

PROGRESS: 2011/09/01 TO 2012/08/31
OUTPUTS: Activities: The organizations involved in this project are Cornell Dept. of Plant Breeding & Genetics (CUPBG), Greenmarket NYC (GNMKT), North Dakota State Univ. (NDSU), Northern Plains Sustainable Agriculture Society (NPSAS), Northeast Organic Farming Assoc. of New York (NOFA-NY), Organic Growers Research and Information Network (OGRIN), Pennsylvania Association for Sustainable Agriculture (PASA), Pennsylvania State Univ. (PSU). Small grains provide multiple benefits to organic farms, but are often underutilized because of their relatively low economic value compared to other organic crops such as fresh market vegetables. This project aims to add value in multiple ways to wheat and specialty grain crops to enhance the diversity and sustainability of organic farms. Our specific objectives are to: 1) evaluate heritage wheat and spelt varieties and landraces of emmer and einkorn for adaptability to organic management and desirable grain and baking characteristics 2) develop best management practices for heritage wheat, emmer, spelt, and einkorn 3) optimize grain quality through improved management 4) investigate approaches to grain dehulling and milling that will work for small and larger-scale growers 5) explore multiple strategies for accessing local and regional markets. CUPBG and PSU evaluated 5 spelt, 39 heritage and modern winter wheat varieties and 22 heritage and modern spring wheat varieties at 2 organic farms in NY. NDSU trials included winter spelt, spring wheat, Emmer, and Emmer seeding rate. Included in were 117 emmer accessions, 97 einkorn, 67 spring spelt accessions. OGRIN conducted spring wheat and emmer trials at 2 locations and 2 planting dates. OGRIN developed a pre-survey that collected stakeholder contact information and documented current level of involvement in grain production, processing, and marketing. Events: CUPBG, OGRIN, and PASA facilitated 3 consumer preference tastings at Freeville field day, PASA conference and Doylestown workshop. OGRIN and PSU gave a day-long "Value-Added Small Grain Production & Marketing," workshop. OGRIN gave presentations at 2 field days. GNMKT conducted 6 consumer tastings. NDSU and NPSAS gave 3 workshops a Field Day and a Specialty Wheat Tour. NOFA-NY coordinated 8 organic field days, planned 6 conference workshops, planned and coordinated 2 farm visits for equipment demos, assembled the Mobile-Processing Unit and identified two communities for pre-evaluation. PSU participated in two field meetings, and a field tour at Rock Springs, PA. The Advisory Board conducted three conference calls and four meetings to discuss and plan past, current, and future activities. Products: PSU http://www.facebook.com/SmallValleyMilling OGRIN www.ogrin.org NPSAS FBC video introducing the project on YouTube which has had over 200 hits: www.youtube.com/watchv=R 2AsmGlOLI&feature=g-upl Lancaster Farming Newspaper http://www.lancasterfarming.com/Research-Supports-Growing-Interest-in -Wheat- CUPBG - Cornell Small Grains Variety Trial Results NOFA-NY developed a mobile processing unit for processing specialty grains. OGRIN Through conferences, workshops and field days 185 surveys have been collected to date. PARTICIPANTS: Program Staff: Brian Baker, Executive Director, Institute for Sustainability, Alfred State College, Alfred, NY 14802. Ph. 607-587-4744. bakerbp@alfredstate.edu Mike Davis, Research Agronomist, Cornell E.V. Baker Research Farm, 48 Sayward Lane, Willsboro, NY 12996. Ph. (518) 963-7499. mhd11@cornell.edu Elizabeth Dyck, Coordinator, Organic Growers' Research and Information-Sharing Network, 1124 County Rd 38, Bainbridge, NY 13733. Ph. 607-895-6913. edyck@ogrin.org Frank Kutka, Farm Breeder Club Manager, Northern Plains Sustainable Agriculture Society, 1041 State Ave, Dickinson ND 58601. Ph. (701) 483-2348, ext 113. dakotacornman@yahoo.com Kate Mendenhall, Executive Director, Northeast Organic Farming Assoc. of New York, Inc. (NOFA-NY), 249 Highland Ave., Rochester, NY 14620. Ph. (585) 271-1979. director@nofany.org Rebecca Robertson, Farm-Based Education Coordinator, Pennsylvania Association for Sustainable Agriculture (PASA), 114 West Main Street, Millheim, PA 16854. Ph. (814) 349-9856. Rebecca@pasafarming.org Greg Roth, Professor of Agronomy, Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Penn State University, 116 ASI Building, University Park, PA 16802. Ph. (814) 863-1018. gwr@psu.edu June Russell, Farm Inspections Manager, Greenmarket, CENYC. 51 Chambers Street, Room 228, New York, New York 10007. Ph. (212) 341-2320. jrussell@greenmarket.grownyc.org Mark E. Sorrells, Professor of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, 240 Emerson Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 14853-1902. Ph. (607) 255-2180. mes12@cornell.edu Alexandra Stone, Vegetable Cropping Systems Specialist, Dept of Horticulture, Oregon State University, 4017 ALS, Corvallis, OR 97330. Ph. 541 602 4676. alexandra.g.stone@gmail.com Steve Zwinger, Research Specialist, Agronomy, North Dakota State University, 663 Hwy. 281 N., PO Box 219, Carrington, ND 58421-0219. Ph. (701) 652-2951. steve.zwinger@ndsu.edu Advisory Committee: Sam Sherman President, Champlain Valley Milling, Inc. PO Box 454 Westport, NY 12993 518-962-4711 Luke Stodola Small World Bakery 972 S. Plymouth Ave. Rochester, NY 14608 585 563 9018 Roberta Strickler Daisy Flour PO Box 299 Lancaster, PA 17608-0299 717-394-6843 Joel and Eric Steigman Owners, Small Valley Milling 1188 Mountain House Road Halifax, PA 17032 717-362-9850 Thor Oechsner Owner, Oechsner Farm 1045 Trumbulls Corner Rd Newfield, NY 14867 607-564-7701 Nigel Tudor Owner, Weatherbury Farm 1061 Sugar Run Road Avella, PA 15312 TARGET AUDIENCES: Our target audience is very diverse and includes organic growers and grain users, grain processors that mill and produce products, distilleries, consumers that purchase specialty grains and grain products, extension agents, and the seed industry. Greenmarket manages over 100 famers markets in the New York City area which includes many racial and ethnic minorities as well as disadvantaged groups. The rural community in New York, Pennsylvania and North Dakota are well served by this project and many people in those communities need the information coming from this project to be successful in their enterprises. This project has been extremely active in communicating with the public through workshops, field days, tasting events, web sites, and webminars. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: The sensory evaluations were delayed until 2013 due to insufficient seed of some of the varieties to make some of the products. IMPACT: 2011/09/01 TO 2012/08/31 Promising varieties of emmer and einkorn were identified from winter screening nurseries and spring trials. A replicated on-farm trial assessed relative performance of spring wheat versus spring emmer at early (optimum) and late planting dates. Spring wheat exhibited a lower relative yield loss due to late planting (51%) than did spring emmer (68%). A replicated on-farm trial on top-dressing hard red winter wheat with N fertilizers permissible under NOP standards showed that wheat top-dressed with either Chilean nitrate or blood meal at late boot stage had protein contents over 1% higher than wheat that was untreated. Field days at trial sites on the research station and on-farm allowed farmers to observe varieties in the field and to see demonstrations of small-scale equipment. Through on-farm experiments and demonstrations, farmers and project participants have documented that high-quality wheat can be grown organically in the Northeast and the Dakotas. The organization of grain buying clubs has allowed organic growers to access organically grown, high-quality modern hard red wheat varieties, spring emmer, and heritage varieties. In collaboration with growers, fact sheets have been developed on basic aspects of organic grain management that can be expanded and enriched by the project's ongoing findings. Informational requests from farmers interested in growing grains for value-added projects are increasing, and we are seeing strong growth in interest from millers, bakers, brewers and distillers that would like to use regional grains. Lessons learned from this project should benefit the development of other locally grown food grains including oats, barley, corn, buckwheat, and quinoa. At this point, Greenmarket has been most effective through the general consumer tastings. They have created a great deal of attention and enthusiasm for specialty grains by presenting these grains as options for the consumer, placing them into the common vocabulary and introducing taste and variety as valuable components of consumer choice. NDSU outreach to stakeholders (farmers, processors) has been well received and all presentations have been well attended. This indicates that there is interest in value-added small grains and a ready market. Some farmers who have spoken with team presenters are already growing existing varieties of emmer and einkorn and they have many questions concerning management and marketing of these grains. Clearly this project addresses an area of interest for organic farming stakeholders. The eOrganic workspace has helped team members to stay abreast of events and developments. This space offers an easy way to get information to researchers and others interested in organic agriculture and enhances our outreach over what we have done by direct presentations and other social media.

Funding Source
Nat'l. Inst. of Food and Agriculture
Project source
View this project
Project number
NYC-149549
Accession number
225649
Categories
Bacterial Pathogens
Education and Training
Natural Toxins
Commodities
Grains, Beans, Legumes
Produce