- Mills, Ed
- Pennsylvania State University
- Start date
- End date
1. Pursue funding for meat palatability and safety research. Subsequent objectives presume successful funding in each respective area.
2. Evaluate formulation and manufacturing alternatives for meat-containing snack foods.
3. Determine the extent of microbial destruction in during manufacture of novel meat snacks.
4. Assess the survival/destruction of selected microorganisms in naturally cured meats.
- More information
External funding is required in order to support personnel and materials for the desired research. Proposals requesting such support will be directed to various prospective sponsors including livestock or poultry producer organizations, meat industry enterprises, government agencies, international development agencies and philanthropic sources. In developing cultures meat is a highly desired food but its availability is limited especially for young children or those of frail health. Whole muscle meats are mostly consumed by adults, especially men of higher social status. Providing for increased meat consumption by those of greatest nutritional need is a complex challenge. One approach for addressing this problem is to develop novel meat products or meat-containing foods which are intended specifically for certain population segments. Such products, especially those made by women, are more likely to be fed to children and might be perceived as children's food thus avoiding the cultural bias that ?meat is not for children?. Efforts in this area will focus on development of culturally appropriate snack foods made from meat and grain or starch ingredients available in specific regions of the developing world. Shelf-stable products will be made using simple, robust procedures that assure food safety and palatability. Rapid growth of consumer interest in organic and natural foods has driven meat processors to manufacture a variety of ?naturally cured? meat products. Such products are made without the direct addition of the sodium nitrite commonly used in regular cured and smoked meats. Instead, a variety of natural ingredients (vegetable juice powder, celery juice powder, sea salt, and turbinado sugar among others) are utilized to allow production of naturally cured meats with properties similar to regular cured products. However, wide variation in the composition of the natural ingredients leads to varied success of the manufacturing process. There is little information available concerning variation in shelf life for products made using different natural curing processes. Color fading and lipid oxidation in naturally cured meat products will be evaluated during storage in vacuum and modified atmosphere retail packages.
External funding is required in order to support personnel and materials for the desired research. Proposals requesting such support will be directed to various prospective sponsors including livestock or poultry producer organizations, meat industry enterprises, government agencies, international development agencies and philanthropic sources. Snack food offerings by the meat and poultry industry are currently limited mostly to jerky and snack stick products. This work will investigate formulation and manufacturing alternatives for production of novel meat snack items. Initial investigations will involve product formulations using meat and potato or grain ingredients to make novel shelf stable snack food items. In developing cultures meat is a highly desired food but its availability is limited especially for young children. Providing for increased meat consumption by malnourished children is a complex challenge. One small part of that challenge is the need for microbiologically robust preservation procedures that allow meat-containing foods to be stored and meted out in small portions for growing children. The current effort will focus on low intensity drying procedures that might be achieved in a solar drier. Meat and meat-containing foods will be manufactured and dried under various conditions representing those that might be expected for solar drying in various climates. Microbial destruction will be assessed in order to predict the safety of products manufactured under local conditions in developing cultures. Naturally cured meat products may exhibit visual and palatability properties similar to those of traditionally cured meats. This effort will focus on developing knowledge of the microbiological implications of natural curing. Emphasis will be place on evaluating destruction of important pathogens. Additional work will investigate the effects on natural curing on meat fermentations.
PROGRESS: 2011/10 TO 2012/09
OUTPUTS: Ingoing nitrite concentration is a primary determinant of ultimate cured meat properties and cured meat safety. Natural ingredients such as celery juice powder provide nitrite via microbial reduction of nitrate prior to or during manufacture of "no-nitrate or nitrite-added" meat products. However, such ingredients have variable nitrate contents. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the nitrate and nitrite contents of "no-nitrate or nitrite-added" bacon brine formulations. Brines were all manufactured with 5% sugar. All no salt (NS) treatments were formulated with no added salt and all salt (S) treatments were formulated with 20% salt. The curing ingredients investigated are vegetable juice powder with starter (V) (natural nitrate; treatments NSV2 (2%), NSV4 (4%), SV2 (2%), SV4 (4%)), pre-converted celery juice powder (C) (natural nitrite; treatments NSC, SC), and pre-converted celery juice powder with natural cure accelerator (CC) (natural nitrite with accelerator; treatments NSCC, SCC). All commercial ingredients were utilized at concentrations recommended by the supplier. Conventional-cure brine (NI) (treatments NSNI, SNI) contained 1200 ppm sodium nitrite and 5500 ppm sodium erythorbate. The No-Cure brine (NC) (treatments NSNC, SNC) contained sugar (5%) and water and salt (0 or 20%) respectively. Results demonstrated that treatments NSV2, NSV4, SV2, and SV4 had lower (P IMPACT: 2011/10 TO 2012/09The findings of this work demonstrated that nitrate and nitrite contents are quite variable in curing brines and cured products prepared using natural curing ingredients. The study results were presented at one national and one international research conference where academic, industry and government scientists received the information. In this country the USDA, Food Safety Inspection Service is actively collecting information in order to determine how best to regulated labeling of naturally cured meat products.
PROGRESS: 2010/10/01 TO 2011/09/30
OUTPUTS: The consumption of a wide variety of species of wild and farmed game has been an important source of protein for humans world-wide for millennia. Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) has emerged as important enteric food-borne zoonotic pathogen of considerable public health significance worldwide but little is known about the level of contamination in game meat. The main game meat consuming populations are the traditional ones with most of the game meat produced and processed for their own consumption under regulatory exemption thereby escaping sanitary scrutiny in many countries. In this study, a total of 55 samples from five game species (deer, wild boar, bison, rabbit and elk) were collected from retail game meat vendors in Pennsylvania for detection of eight STEC serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O113, O111, O121,O145 and O157) that are responsible for the majority of STEC infections in domestic livestock and livestock products using a multiplex PCR assay method. The method for detection of STEC consisted of enrichment in modified tryptic soy broth (mTSB) and static incubation for 6 h at 37 C initially and 18 h at 42 C subsequently, followed by Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction with the MasterPure DNA Purification Kit. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting the wzxgene in the O-antigen gene clusters of the eight serogroups and the stx1, stx2, genes for the wzx positive samples was done. Seven serogroups were detected with the exception of O26. One white tailed deer ground meat sample was confirmed positive for Stx1 gene. The result shows the importance of microbiological testing and performance standards as a critical part of commercial game meat oversight and the need for increased surveillance of wild game meat. PARTICIPANTS: Much of the work on this project was completed by Dr. Kuda Magwadere a visiting scientist from Namibia who was sponsored by the Borlaug program of the USDA, Foreign Agricultural Service. TARGET AUDIENCES: The findings of this work are of significance to meat processors and meat consumers especially those involved with commercial game meat. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.
PROGRESS: 2009/10/01 TO 2010/09/30
OUTPUTS: The benefits of improved diet are especially important in communities and households where food resources or capital for food purchases are limited. The Lisha Bora research and educational program (NIH funded work underway in Eldoret, Kenya) emphasizes the importance of good nutrition for health and wellbeing. Lisha Bora is an example of the continuing effort to improve nutrition in part by increasing the use of meat in nutrient deficient diets. The purpose of the current work is to assess agricultural, political, infrastructural, financial, and community prospects for sustainable production of meat and food containing meat in Kenya. Agricultural: The southern regions of Kenya are agriculturally productive areas with considerable current production and good potential for further integration of livestock and crop production. Maize and wheat are commonly raised on large holder farms. Small holder farms typically produce maize along with a wide variety of other crops. Concentrated poultry production was observed at several sites with flocks of about 200 birds being raised using modern technology and formulated feed leading to rapid growth of meat birds or increased egg production. Political: Federal and local governments are currently reasonably stable, providing some assurance that investors will be able to realize the benefits of their creative and financial commitments. However, tribal influences are still strong across much of Kenya. Infrastructure: All weather roads are present in some areas but most rural areas are accessible only by dirt roads and may be inaccessible during rainy seasons. Paved roads between major cities, while being improved, are not well maintained and may be nearly impassible in places. Electricity is available in cities and larger towns but is not common on homesteads in rural areas. The public water supply, if available, is typically unreliable and water is commonly managed by individual households or business establishments. Financial: Faulu Bank in Eldoret, Kenya is an example of a financial services provider that also provides education and technical training for its customers. Faulu arranges group/community training sessions on topics relating to group finance, enterprise development and technology applications. Focused technology topics include mushroom production, yogurt production, baking, liquid soap production and fruit juice extraction. Community: The system of household financial decision making will be an important influence on the ease/comfort with which someone might try a new activity. For women, the ability to engage in group income generating activities protects their resources from being confiscated by spouses or other family members. Many types of groups are already established in Kenyan communities. Existing community groups are often established by individuals with common enterprise or commodity interests. Groups may be composed of vegetable producers, dairy farmers, goat herders or rabbit producers to name a few. These groups represent a natural starting point as we work to identify prospects for NutriBusiness development. PARTICIPANTS: Participants in this project included research leader Dr. Edward Mills, PSU, Department of Dairy and Animal Science. TARGET AUDIENCES: Benefits of this work will accrue to undernourished and frail individual in developing countries. International aid agencies and governments might adopt this technology or model other products on the concepts developed here. Some product concepts might be utilized in snack food production in the developed world. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.
PROGRESS: 2009/07/01 TO 2009/09/30
OUTPUTS: The benefits of improved diet are especially important in communities and households where food resources or capital for food purchases are limited. Young children and those who are frail due to illness or age are especially vulnerable to reduced access to adequate nutrition. The Nutribusiness model for a value-added food processing enterprise was developed with the idea that women in a group that develops a food production, processing and marketing business would also be able and inclined to provide improved nutrition for their children and others within their care. By design, Nutribusiness enterprises formulate and manufacture nutritionally superior foods and generate income for Nutribusiness owners. Chiparoo is a product developed for production in a Nutribusiness enterprise. It contains a broad range of important nutrients due to a combination meat and nonmeat ingredients. In its original form it is intended to serve as a snack for children or an adjunct to be crumbled into a weaning porridge for very young children. As such it could provide meat source nutrients in the diets of young children or others who would not otherwise be provided with meat. Lisha Bora research and educational program (NIH funded work underway in Eldoret, Kenya) emphasizes importance of good nutrition for health and wellbeing. Continued progress for improving nutrition can be achieved by improving knowledge of nutrition and proper food selection, increasing agricultural production and successful enterprise development leading to improved economic status. Assessment of possible alternatives for local meat production and processing in Kenya is in progress. PARTICIPANTS: Participants in this project included research leader Dr. Edward Mills, PSU, Department of Dairy and Animal Science. TARGET AUDIENCES: Benefits of this work will accrue to undernourished children and frail adults in developing countries. International aid agencies and governments might adopt this technology or model other products on the concepts developed here. Some product concepts might be utilized in snack food production in the developed world. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.
- Funding Source
- Nat'l. Inst. of Food and Agriculture
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- Natural Toxins
- Viruses and Prions
- Bacterial Pathogens
- Chemical Contaminants
- Education and Training
- Escherichia coli
- Meat, Poultry, Game