Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

Tue, 01/12/2021 - 22:10
This study shows that in some low‐ and middle‐income countries (LMICs), flour fortification would, in theory, increase calcium intake without posing the risk of excess of calcium intake in the population. However, in two LMICs, flour intake was so low that the impact on calcium intake was negligible, and fortification of other widely consumed foods should be considered. Results shown in this...
Fri, 12/11/2020 - 22:06
Herein, I review the manifestations, mechanisms, and clinical relevance of tolerance to cell wall–active (CWA) antibiotics, one of the most important groups of antibiotics at the forefront of clinical use. I discuss definitions of tolerance and assays for tolerance detection, comprehensively discuss the mechanism of action of β‐lactams and other CWA antibiotics, and then provide an overview of...
Sun, 11/08/2020 - 22:14
Understanding maternal‐to‐child transmission routes is key to lowering, and ultimately preventing, the exposure of Ebola virus (EBOV) in pediatric populations. We undertook a systematic review of the available scientific literature to determine whether EBOV can be transmitted through breast milk and to describe the outcomes of the infants that ingested EBOV laboratory‐confirmed breast milk....
Sun, 10/11/2020 - 22:14
In this review, we explore the plasmidome of A. salmonicida. Knowledge has accumulated about this diverse plasmidome, which can be separated into three categories (R‐plasmids, virulence plasmids, and cryptic plasmids). The advance of DNA sequencing technology has played an important role in the elucidation of complete sequences, giving greater clarity to study the roles and importance of plasmids...
Mon, 09/28/2020 - 22:14
Low calcium intake is common worldwide and can result in nutritional rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Calcium‐fortified foods could improve calcium intake. However, there is limited calcium fortification experience, with technical and practical issues that may hamper its adoption. The objective of this landscape review is to summarize these issues to help policymakers guide the...
Sat, 08/29/2020 - 22:15
Our food systems depend on complex interactions between farmers and food producers, local and federal governments, and consumers. Underlying these interactions are economic, environmental, and societal factors that can impact the types of food available, access to food, affordability, and food safety. The recent SARS‐CoV‐2 global pandemic has affected multiple aspects of our food systems, from...
Mon, 07/27/2020 - 22:11
Achalasia is a primary motility disorder of the esophagus, and while there are several treatment options, there is no consensus regarding them. When therapeutic intervention for achalasia fails, a careful evaluation of the cause of the persistent or recurrent symptoms using upper endoscopy, esophageal manometry, and contrast radiologic studies is required to understand the cause of therapy...
Mon, 07/06/2020 - 22:12
In this review, we highlight new and emerging metrics and tools in esophageal function testing and the clinical manifestations and management of esophageal involvement in connective tissue disorders. Abstract This work summarizes new and emerging metrics and tools in esophageal function testing and their potential clinical impact. Because the diagnostic sensitivity and reliability of conventional...
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 22:11
In this review and synthesis, we explore how global change can cause populations to become maladapted and how populations, in turn, exhibit adaptive or maladaptive responses to global change. We use the metaphor of a “double‐edged sword” to explore these evolutionary responses to global change. As the double‐edged sword has both beneficial and detrimental effects, evolutionary responses to global...
Tue, 12/03/2019 - 03:34
Our review provides a comprehensive treatise on the progress in understanding teixobactin chemistry, structure−activity relationships, and mechanisms of antibacterial activity. Teixobactin represents an exciting starting point for the development of new antibiotics that can be used to combat multidrug‐resistant bacterial (“superbug”) infections. Abstract The discovery of antibiotics has led to...
Thu, 11/07/2019 - 03:19
Neuropeptides function as neuromodulators in the brain, whereby they are released in a paracrine manner and activate G protein–coupled receptors in adjacent cells. Because neuropeptides are made in, and secreted from, cancer cells, then bind to cell surface receptors, they function in an autocrine manner. Bombesin (BB)‐like peptides synthesized by neuroendocrine tumor small cell lung cancer bind...
Tue, 10/08/2019 - 03:22
In this review, we focus on how full‐length chromogranin A and its peptides, including PST, vasostatin‐1, CST, and serpinin, as important modulators of cardiovascular functions, immunometabolism, and cancer. Abstract Chromogranin A (CgA)—the index member of the chromogranin/secretogranin secretory protein family—is ubiquitously distributed in endocrine, neuroendocrine, and immune cells. Elevated...
Wed, 09/25/2019 - 03:21
Whole‐genome sequence analysis was performed on a multidrug‐resistant Providencia rettgeri PR002 clinical strain isolated from the urine of a hospitalized patient in Pretoria, South Africa, in 2013. The array, multiplicity, and diversity of resistance and virulence genes in this strain are concerning, necessitating stringent infection control, antibiotic stewardship and periodic resistance...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:18
We performed a literature search for English research papers, published between 2013 and 2018, reporting on plasmid‐mediated carbapenem resistance. A rise in both carbapenemase types and associated plasmid replicon groups was seen, with China, Canada, and the United States recording a higher increase than other countries. Most reported plasmids were conjugative but not present in multiple...