Antibiotics

Tue, 01/26/2021 - 00:00
Every year, the pharmaceutical and food industries produce over 1000 tons of essential oils (EOs) exploitable in different fields as the development of eco-friendly and safe antimicrobial inhibitors. In this work we investigated the potential of some EOs, namely Cinnamomum verum, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogoncitratus and Cymbopogon flexuosus, on the growth, biofilm formation and gene expression...
Mon, 01/25/2021 - 00:00
The article describes activities of an antibiotic center at a university hospital in the Czech Republic and presents the results of antibiotic stewardship program implementation over a period of 10 years. It provides data on the development of resistance of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus to selected antibiotic agents as well as...
Sun, 01/24/2021 - 00:00
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are increasing due to the abuse and misuse of antibiotics, and nosocomial infections by MDR bacteria are also increasing. The aim of this study was to identify new substances that can target MDR bacteria among 12 plant extracts that are known to have antibacterial effects. The experiments were performed by the disk diffusion test and microdilution minimum...
Sun, 01/24/2021 - 00:00
Foodborne bacterial pathogens in consumed foods are major food safety concerns worldwide, leading to serious illness and even death. An exciting strategy is to use novel phenolic compounds against bacterial pathogens based on recruiting the inducible metabolic responses of plant endogenous protective defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. Such stress-inducible phenolic metabolites have high...
Sun, 01/24/2021 - 00:00
This paper presents for the first time a successful fabrication of ternary ZnO/TiO2/Ag nanocomposites consisting of zinc oxide (ZnO), titania (TiO2) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) synthesised using Morinda citrifolia fruit (MCF) extract. ZnONPs were synthesised using the co-precipitation method, and TiO2 and Ag were introduced into the precursor solutions under microwave irradiation to...
Sat, 01/23/2021 - 00:00
The poultry sector contributes significantly to Kenya’s food and economic security. This contribution is expected to rise dramatically with a growing population, urbanization, and preferences for animal-source foods. Antimicrobial resistance is putting the poultry sector in Kenya—and worldwide—at risk of production losses due to the failure of medicines for animal (...
Sat, 01/23/2021 - 00:00
A total of 434 poultry cloacal samples were collected from seven different farms in different years (2013–2015) in the Cuban province of Mayabeque and analyzed for the presence of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli (3GC-R-Ec). Sixty-two 3GC-R-Ec isolates were recovered in total from the farms, with detection rates of 2.9% in 2013, 10.3% in 2014, and 28.7% in 2015...
Fri, 01/22/2021 - 00:00
Biofilm, a stress-induced physiological state, is an established means of antimicrobial tolerance. A perpetual increase in multidrug resistant (MDR) infections associated with high mortality and morbidity have been observed in healthcare settings. Multiple studies have indicated that the use of natural products can prevent bacterial growth. Recent studies in the field have identified that...
Fri, 01/22/2021 - 00:00
Candida albicans is the causative agent of fatal systemic candidiasis. Due to limitations of antifungals, new drugs are needed. The anti-virulence effect of plant essential oils (EOs) was evaluated against clinical C. albicans isolates including cinnamon, clove, jasmine and rosemary oils. Biofilm, phospholipase and hemolysin were assessed phenotypically. EOs were evaluated for their anti-...
Thu, 01/21/2021 - 00:00
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains have veterinary and public health importance as they are responsible for a wide range of difficult to treat infections and food poisoning. Two hundred samples (50 samples each of minced meat, beef luncheon, Karish cheese, and human samples (pus swab from open wounds)) were cultured, and MRSA strains were identified using disk diffusion...
Thu, 01/21/2021 - 00:00
Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an important pathogen that can cause zoonotic diseases. To investigate the antimicrobial resistance of STEC in China, non-O157 STEC isolates, recovered from domestic animals and humans from 12 provinces, were analyzed using antimicrobial susceptibility testing and whole genome characterization. Out of the 298 isolates tested, 115 strains...
Thu, 01/21/2021 - 00:00
The increased frequency of bacteraemias caused by pandrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (PDR-Kp) has significant implications. The aim of the present study was to identify predictors associated with mortality of PDR-Kp bacteraemias. Methods: Patients with monomicrobial bacteraemia due to PDR-Kp were included. K. pneumoniae was considered PDR if it showed resistance to all available groups of...
Thu, 01/21/2021 - 00:00
Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health concern, and resistance genes in Salmonella, especially those located on mobile genetic elements, are part of the problem. This study used phenotypic and genomic methods to identify antimicrobial resistance and resistance genes, as well as the plasmids that bear them, in Salmonella isolates obtained from poultry in Nigeria. Seventy-four isolates...
Thu, 01/21/2021 - 00:00
Daptomycin is an important antibiotic for the treatment of infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus. The emergence of daptomycin resistance in S. aureus is associated with treatment failure and persistent infections with poor clinical outcomes. Here, we investigated host innate immune responses against clinically derived, daptomycin-resistant (DAP-R) and -susceptible S. aureus paired isolates...
Wed, 01/13/2021 - 00:00
This paper reviews the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in insects, rodents, and pets. Insects (e.g., houseflies, cockroaches), rodents (rats, mice), and pets (dogs, cats) act as reservoirs of AMR for first-line and last-resort antimicrobial agents. AMR proliferates in insects, rodents, and pets, and their skin and gut systems. Subsequently, insects, rodents, and pets act as vectors...
Mon, 01/11/2021 - 00:00
The emerging spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) strains, in particular, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, has become a significant threat to hospitalized patients. Carbapenemase genes are frequently located on plasmids than can be exchanged among clonal strains, increasing the antibiotic resistance rate. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of CPE...
Sun, 01/10/2021 - 00:00
The aim of this study was to investigate the opinions of meat consumers (n = 1780) on on-farm management of unhealthy pigs, whether support for treatment with antibiotics varies according with chance of recovery, and the effect of knowledge on the use of antibiotics on these opinions. Most participants believed that the use of antibiotics was the best solution for unhealthy pigs, and this was...
Sat, 01/09/2021 - 00:00
Clostridium perfringens is a serious threat to successful bovine farming. It causes severe damage to the buffalo and cattle health causing a drastic reduction in milk and meat production. In Pakistan, C. perfringens is a constant threat, and for its management, antibiotics are mostly used. Most bovine farmers use a single antibiotic to suppress the bacterial infection which in turn, increases the...
Wed, 01/06/2021 - 00:00
Acinetobacter baumannii is involved in life-threatening nosocomial infections, mainly in the intensive care units (ICUs), and often colistin may represent the last therapeutic opportunity. The susceptibility to colistin of 51 epidemiologically typed A. baumannii strains isolated in 2017 from clinical samples of patients hospitalized in the ICU of a tertiary care academic hospital was investigated...
Wed, 01/06/2021 - 00:00
Riboswitches reside in the untranslated region of RNA and regulate genes involved in the biosynthesis of essential metabolites through binding of small molecules. Since their discovery at the beginning of this century, riboswitches have been regarded as potential antibacterial targets. Using fragment screening, high-throughput screening and rational ligand design guided by X-ray crystallography,...
Mon, 01/04/2021 - 00:00
Yersinia pestis is a Gram-negative pathogen that causes plague, a devastating disease that kills millions worldwide. Although plague is efficiently treatable by recommended antibiotics, the time of antibiotic therapy initiation is critical, as high mortality rates have been observed if treatment is delayed for longer than 24 h after symptom onset. To overcome the emergence of antibiotic resistant...
Sun, 01/03/2021 - 00:00
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the fluoroquinolone (FQ) minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for the causative agent Escherichia coli influences the clinical response of FQ treatment at 72 h in patients with community-acquired acute pyelonephritis (CA-APN). We prospectively collected the clinical data of women with CA-APN from 11 university hospitals from March 2010 to...
Sat, 01/02/2021 - 00:00
We describe the trend of antibiotic prescribing in out-of-hours (OOH) general practices (GP) before and during England’s first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. We analysed practice-level prescribing records between January 2016 to June 2020 to report the trends for the total prescribing volume, prescribing of broad-spectrum antibiotics and key agents included in the national Quality...
Fri, 01/01/2021 - 00:00
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a highly studied pathogen due to public health importance. Despite this, problems like early drug resistance, diagnostics and treatment success prediction are still not fully resolved. Here, we analyze the incidence of point mutations widely used for drug resistance detection in laboratory practice and conduct comparative analysis of whole-genome sequence (WGS) for...
Thu, 12/31/2020 - 00:00
Foodborne pathogens have been associated with severe and complicated diseases. Therefore, these types of infections are a concern for public health officials and food and dairy industries. Regarding the wide-spread multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis), new and alternative therapeutic approaches are...
Wed, 12/30/2020 - 00:00
Avocado Hass (Persea americana Mill) peel extract (APE) has the potential as a natural ingredient to substitute for chemical preservatives. The objectives of this study were to assess the phytochemical composition by high-performance liquid chromatography–quadrupole time-of-flight mass/mass spectrometry (HPLC-qTOF-MS/MS), total phenolic content (TPC), proanthocyanidin (PAC) content, and...
Wed, 12/30/2020 - 00:00
Antibiotic producers have mainly been isolated from soil, which often has led to the rediscovery of known compounds. In this study, we identified the freshwater snail Physa acuta as an unexplored source for new antibiotic producers. The bacterial diversity associated with the snail was characterized by a metagenomic approach using cultivation-independent high-throughput sequencing. Although...
Tue, 12/29/2020 - 00:00
We conducted a pilot study to assess microbiological safety of chicken litter, an affordable organic and main fertilizer used in Cameroon and worldwide. A convenience sampling of 26 farms was done and a questionnaire was administered. Samples of litter were aseptically collected. E. coli and Salmonella spp. were isolated using CLSI standards. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using...
Mon, 12/28/2020 - 00:00
The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentration of penicillin G in bone affected by antiresorptive agent-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (ARONJ) following a single preoperative dose of 10 million international units (6000 mg). ARONJ is a major concern in patients administered antiresorptive agents for conditions associated with pathologically increased bone resorption. Antibiotic therapy...
Sat, 12/26/2020 - 00:00
Effective alternatives to antibiotics for alleviating symptoms of acute infections may be appealing to patients and enhance antimicrobial stewardship. Cranberry-based products are already in wide use for symptoms of acute urinary tract infection (UTI). The aim of this review was to identify and critically appraise the supporting evidence. Methods: The protocol was registered on PROSPERO. Searches...
Thu, 12/24/2020 - 00:00
The risk of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in surgical wards remains closely related to the type of surgery and procedures performed on patients. Those factors also condition the risk of various forms of clinical infections, especially urinary tract infections (UTIs). UTIs are most frequently (70–80% of cases) caused by the use of bladder catheter in the perioperative period....
Sat, 12/19/2020 - 00:00
We previously constructed a risk prediction model of vancomycin (VCM)-associated nephrotoxicity for use when performing initial therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), using decision tree analysis. However, we could not build a model to be used at the time of initial administration due to insufficient sample size. Therefore, we performed a multicenter study at four hospitals in Japan. We investigated...
Sat, 12/19/2020 - 00:00
Rapid weight gain in turkeys causes a major change in the pharmacokinetics of drugs, leading to age-dependent variability in the internal exposure and, possibly, treatment failure and/or selection for antimicrobial resistance in young individuals. The aim of the study was to investigate whether a non-linear dosing protocol that accounts for the previously established allometric relation between...
Sat, 12/19/2020 - 00:00
The present research aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by octocoral-associated bacteria Bacillus sp. BO53 and Pseudoalteromonas sp. GA327. The volatilome bioactivity of both bacteria species was evaluated against human pathogenic antibiotic-resistant bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumanni, and...
Fri, 12/18/2020 - 00:00
Demand for animal protein is rising globally and has been facilitated by the expansion of intensive farming. However, intensive animal production relies on the regular use of antimicrobials to maintain health and productivity on farms. The routine use of antimicrobials fuels the development of antimicrobial resistance, a growing threat for the health of humans and animals. Monitoring global...
Tue, 12/15/2020 - 00:00
As the causative agent of Glässer’s disease, Glaesserella (Haemophilus) parasuis has led to serious economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Due to the low cross-protection of vaccines and increasing antimicrobial resistance of G. parasuis, it is important to develop alternative approaches to prevent G. parasuis infection. Defensins are host defense peptides that have...
Tue, 12/15/2020 - 00:00
Bacteriophage endolysins have attracted attention as promising alternatives to antibiotics, and their modular structure facilitates endolysin engineering to develop novel endolysins with enhanced versatility. Here, we constructed hybrid proteins consisting of two different endolysins for simultaneous control of two critical foodborne pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. The full-...
Mon, 12/14/2020 - 00:00
Native egg albumin (NEA) was isolated from hen eggs and hydrolyzed by pepsin to produce hydrolyzed egg albumin (HEA). HEA was chemically characterized and screened for its antibacterial activity against 10 pathogenic bacteria (6 Gram (+) and 4 Gram (−)). The SDS-PAGE pattern of NEA showed molecular weights of hen egg albumin subunits ranging from 30 to 180 kDa. The highest intensive...
Sat, 12/12/2020 - 00:00
The emergence of drug-resistant pathogens leads to a gradual decline in the efficacy of many antibacterial agents, which poses a serious problem for proper therapy. Multidrug resistance (MDR) mechanisms allow resistant bacteria to have limited uptake of drugs, modification of their target molecules, drug inactivation, or release of the drug into the extracellular space by efflux pumps (EPs). In...
Fri, 12/11/2020 - 00:00
Knowledge of pathogenic potential, frequency and antimicrobial resistance patterns of porcine Streptococcus (S.) spp. other than S. suis is scarce. Between 2016 and 2020, altogether 553 S. spp. isolates were recovered from clinical specimens taken from Austrian swine stocks and submitted for routine microbiological examination. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing towards eight antimicrobial...
Thu, 12/10/2020 - 00:00
The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted on 174 single isolates from poultry farms in Serbia and it was determined that seven Salmonella spp. were multidrug resistant. Sixteen serotypes were detected, but only serotype Infantis confirmed reduced susceptibility to colistin. Seven colistin resistant Salmonella Infantis were studied in detail using the WGS approach. Three sequence...
Thu, 12/10/2020 - 00:00
Genetic context of extended spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacterales and its association with plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR), aminoglycoside modifying enzymes (AME) and Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) resistance is little known from North India. Therefore, the current study was aimed to investigate the frequency of Non-β-Lactam antibiotic...
Sat, 12/05/2020 - 00:00
Bacterial foodborne infections, including meat-derived infections, are globally associated with diseases and some deaths. Antibiotics are sometimes used to treat bacterial infections. The use of antibiotics by farmers contributes to the development of resistance by foodborne pathogens. This study aimed to investigate the antibiotics used by farmers and the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant...
Fri, 12/04/2020 - 00:00
In this work, we describe the use of a new truncated aptamer for the determination of ofloxacin (OFL), being a principal quinolone commonly used in both human and animal healthcare. Since the affinity of a 72-mer ssDNA sequence has been previously described without further investigations, this paper demonstrates the first computational prediction of the binding motif between this aptamer and OFL...
Fri, 12/04/2020 - 00:00
Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) is a critical health concern for the treatment of infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular epidemiology of CRAB emphasizing the presence of oxacillinase (OXA)-type β-lactamase-encoding genes, one of the most important carbapenem resistance mechanisms. In this study, a total of 183 non-repetitive CRAB isolates...
Tue, 12/01/2020 - 00:00
With the increased scientific interest in green technologies, many researches have been focused on the production of polymeric composites containing naturally occurring reinforcing particles. Apart from increasing mechanical properties, these additions can have a wide range of interesting effects, such as increasing the resistance to bacterial and fungal colonization. In this work, different...
Sat, 11/28/2020 - 00:00
Probiotics have been shown to bind to host receptors, which are important for pathogen adhesion and induce the host’s production of defence factors. They can activate the goblet-cell-derived production of mucins, a major component of the mucus layer and a physical barrier participating in limiting the proximity of microorganisms to the epithelial layer. In the last decade, Bacillus spp...
Sat, 11/28/2020 - 00:00
The increased use of antibiotics in food animals has resulted in the selection of drug-resistant bacteria across the farm-to-fork continuum. This study aimed to investigate the molecular epidemiology of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli from intensively produced poultry in the uMgungundlovu District, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Samples were collected weekly between August and September 2017...
Thu, 11/26/2020 - 00:00
Agricultural fungicides contaminate the environment and promote the spread of fungicide-resistant strains of pathogenic fungi. The enhancement of pathogen sensitivity to these pesticides using chemosensitizers allows the reducing of fungicide dosages without a decrease in their efficiency. Using Petri plate and microplate bioassays, 6-demethylmevinolin (6-DMM), a putative sensitizer of a...
Tue, 11/24/2020 - 00:00
The ability of bacterial pathogens to form biofilms is an important virulence mechanism in relation to their pathogenesis and transmission. Biofilms play a crucial role in survival in unfavorable environmental conditions, acting as reservoirs of microbial contamination and antibiotic resistance. For intestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, biofilms are considered to be a contributing factor in...

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