Antibiotics

The Research Publications track research that is published across national and international peer-reviewed journals. The most recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal Title, Subject, USDA Grant Funding Agencies or FDA Grant Funding Agencies. The research publications are tracked across five subject areas: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, and Viruses.

Wed, 08/12/2020 - 00:00
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the most prominent public health threats. AMR genes localized on plasmids can be easily transferred between bacterial isolates by horizontal gene transfer, thereby contributing to the spread of AMR. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are ideal for the detection of AMR genes; however, reliable reconstruction of plasmids is still a challenge due...
Tue, 08/11/2020 - 00:00
In the Mekong Delta of Vietnam, farmers use large quantities of antimicrobials to raise small-scale chicken flocks, often including active ingredients regarded of “critical importance’” by the World Health Organization. Due to limitations in laboratory capacity, the choice of antimicrobials normally does not follow any empirical criteria of effectiveness. The aim of...
Fri, 08/07/2020 - 00:00
Acronychia crassipetala is an endemic plant species in Australia. Its phytochemistry and therapeutic properties are underexplored. The hexane extract of the fruit A. crassipetala T. G. Hartley was found to inhibit the growth of the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. Following bio-activity guided fractionation, two prenylated acetophenones, crassipetalonol A (1) and crassipetalone A (2...
Wed, 08/05/2020 - 00:00
Young children are frequently colonized with Clostridioides (C.) difficile. Depending on their resistance patterns, antibiotic treatment can facilitate gastrointestinal spreading in colonized individuals, potentially leading to transmission to others. C. difficile was isolated from stool samples from infants born in two hospitals in Göttingen and Darmstadt, Germany. All isolates were...
Tue, 08/04/2020 - 00:00
Copper-derived compounds are often used in olive tree farms. In a previous study, a collection of bacterial strains isolated from olive tree farms were identified and tested for phenotypic antimicrobial resistance and heavy metal tolerance. The aim of this work was to study the genetic determinants of resistance and to evaluate the co-occurrence of metal tolerance and antibiotic resistance genes...
Sun, 08/02/2020 - 00:00
Bovine mastitis is the predominant cause for antimicrobial use on dairy farms and is a major source of economic losses in the dairy industry. In this study, the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of common mastitis-causing pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus (n = 62), Streptococcus agalactiae (n = 46), and Escherichia coli (n = 129), were determined for dairy cattle with mastitis across 142...
Fri, 07/31/2020 - 00:00
Short chain fatty acids (SCFA), principally acetate, propionate, and butyrate, are produced by fermentation of dietary fibers by the gut microbiota. SCFA regulate the growth and virulence of enteric pathogens, such as enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), Klebsiella and Salmonella. We sought to investigate the impact of SCFA on growth and virulence of pathosymbiont E. coli associated with...
Thu, 07/30/2020 - 00:00
Post-antibiotic effect (PAE) is the continued suppression of bacterial growth following a limited exposure to an antimicrobial agent. The presence of PAE needs consequential consideration in designing antibiotic dosage regimens. To understand the behavior of bacteria, PAE provides information on how long antibiotics are applied to the bacteria. Conventional methods of measuring PAE depend on...
Thu, 07/30/2020 - 00:00
The Sado wrinkled frog Glandirana susurra has recently been classified as a new frog species endemic to Sado Island, Japan. In this study, we cloned 12 cDNAs encoding the biosynthetic precursors for brevinin-2SSa–2SSd, esculentin-2SSa, ranatuerin-2SSa, brevinin-1SSa–1SSd, granuliberin-SSa, and bradykinin-SSa from the skin of G. susurra. Among these antimicrobial peptides, we...
Thu, 07/30/2020 - 00:00
Mycoplasma dispar is an overlooked pathogen often involved in bovine respiratory disease (BRD), which affects cattle around the world. BRD results in lost production and high treatment and prevention costs. Additionally, chronic therapies with multiple antimicrobials may lead to antimicrobial resistance. Data on antimicrobial susceptibility to M. dispar is limited so minimum inhibitory...
Wed, 07/29/2020 - 00:00
Veterinary antibiotics such as sulfonamides are widely used to increase feed efficiency and to protect against disease in livestock production. The sulfonamide antimicrobial mechanism involves the blocking of folate biosynthesis by inhibiting bacterial dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) activity competitively. Interestingly, most treatment antibiotics can be released into the environment via manure...
Sun, 07/26/2020 - 00:00
Arrayan and peumo fruits are commonly used in the traditional medicine of Chile. In this study, the concentration of the extracts halving the bacterial viability and biofilms formation and disruption of the drug-sensitive and drug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was determined. The chemical composition of extracts was analyzed by high-resolution liquid...
Sat, 07/25/2020 - 00:00
Active packaging incorporating antioxidants and antimicrobials is creating a niche in the market and becoming increasingly important. The main goal of this work was the design of bioactive bilayer films (zein/pullulan) incorporating licorice essential oil. The bilayer films were fully characterized in terms of their chemical, physical, barrier, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties....
Sat, 07/25/2020 - 00:00
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a disease that poses a major challenge in cereal production that has important food and feed safety implications due to trichothecene contamination. In this study, the effect of stevioside—a glycoside found in the leaves of candyleaf (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni)—was evaluated in vitro against Fusarium culmorum (W.G. Smith) Sacc., alone and in...
Wed, 07/22/2020 - 00:00
A novel straightforward analytical technique was developed to monitor the emission of hydrogen from anaerobic bacteria cultured in sealed headspace vials using a specific hydrogen sensor. The results were compared with headspace gas chromatography carried out in parallel. This technique was also applied to investigate the efficacy of chemical antibiotics and of natural compounds with...
Wed, 07/22/2020 - 00:00
Campylobacter species are among the major bacteria implicated in human gastrointestinal infections and are majorly found in faeces of domestic animals, sewage discharges and agricultural runoff. These pathogens have been implicated in diseases outbreaks through consumption of contaminated milk and water in some parts of the globe and reports on this is very scanty in the Eastern Cape Province....
Fri, 07/17/2020 - 00:00
Mortalities of bivalve larvae and spat linked with Vibrio spp. infection have been described in hatcheries since 1959, causing potential development of resistant bacteria. A reliable and sustainable solution to this problem is yet to be developed. Potential treatment of bacterial infection with bacteriophages is gaining interest in aquaculture as a more sustainable option for managing Vibrio spp...
Fri, 07/17/2020 - 00:00
Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen of special concern for ready-to-eat food producers. The control of its presence is a critical step in which food-grade sanitizers play an essential role. L. monocytogenes is believed to persist in food processing environments in biofilms, exhibiting less susceptibility to sanitizers than planktonic cells. This study aimed to test the susceptibility...
Thu, 07/16/2020 - 00:00
A serious emerging problem worldwide is increased antimicrobial resistance. Acquisition of coding genes for evasion methods of antimicrobial drug mechanisms characterizes acquired resistance. This phenomenon has been observed in Enterobacteriaceae family. Treatment for bacterial infections is performed with antibiotics, of which the most used are beta-lactams. The aim of this study was to...
Thu, 07/16/2020 - 00:00
Antibiotic resistance concerns various areas with high consumption of antibiotics, including husbandry. Resistant strains are transmitted to humans from livestock and agricultural products via the food chain and may pose a health risk. The commensal microbiota protects against the invasion of environmental strains by secretion of bacteriocins, among other mechanisms. The present study aims to...
Tue, 07/14/2020 - 00:00
Corynebacterium urealyticum is a non-diphtherial urease-producing clinically relevant corynebacterial, most frequently involved in urinary tract infections. Most of the C. urealyticum clinical isolates are frequently resistant to several antibiotics. We investigated the susceptibility of 40 C. urealyticum isolated in our institution during the period 2005–2017 to eight compounds...
Sun, 07/12/2020 - 00:00
The monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility of pig pathogens is critical to optimize antimicrobial treatments and prevent development of resistance with a one-health approach. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of swine respiratory pathogens in Spain from 2017 to 2019. Bacterial isolation and identification were carried out following standardized...
Sat, 07/11/2020 - 00:00
The recurrence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) biofilm infections is a major issue in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. A pivotal role is played by the presence of antibiotic-unresponsive persisters and/or viable but non-culturable (VBNC) forms, whose development might be favored by subinhibitory antibiotic concentrations. The involvement of tobramycin and ciprofloxacin, widely used to treat CF PA...
Thu, 07/09/2020 - 00:00
Carvotacetones (1–7) isolated from Sphaeranthus africanus were screened for their antimycobacterial and efflux pump (EP) inhibitory potential against the mycobacterial model strains Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2 155, Mycobacterium aurum ATCC 23366, and Mycobacterium bovis BCG ATCC 35734. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the carvotacetones were detected through high-...
Thu, 07/09/2020 - 00:00
Tea Tree oil (TTO) is well known for its numerous good properties but might be also irritating or toxic when used topically or ingested, thus limiting the number of possible applications in Humans. The aim of the study was to characterize the antimicrobial spectrum as well as the toxicity of Titroleane™, a new anti-infective agent obtained from TTO but cleared of its toxic monoterpenes...
Wed, 07/08/2020 - 00:00
Antimicrobial peptides constitute an excellent alternative against conventional antibiotics because of their potent antimicrobial spectrum, unspecific action mechanism and low capacity to produce antibiotic resistance. However, a potential use of these biological molecules as therapeutic agents is threatened by their low stability and susceptibility to proteases. In order to overcome these...
Wed, 07/08/2020 - 00:00
The aim of the present study was to characterize Enterobacterales resistant to 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins, carbapenems and/or fluoroquinolones, isolated from dogs and cats with urogenital infections. In total, 36 strains (Escherichia coli (n = 28), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 3), Serratia marcescens, Raoultella ornithinolytica, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter portucalensis and...
Tue, 07/07/2020 - 00:00
The main objective of this study was to develop a simple and efficient spectrophotometric technique combined with chemometrics for the simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and trimethoprim (TMP) in drug formulations. Specifically, we sought: (i) to evaluate the potential use of rank annihilation factor analysis (RAFA) to pH gradual change spectrophotometric data in order to...
Mon, 07/06/2020 - 00:01
It is widely known that pneumonia (either community acquired or hospital acquired, as like ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP)), is the most frequent type of severe infection and continues to pose a significant burden on healthcare services worldwide. Despite new diagnostic developments, most pneumonia cases continue to be difficult to diagnose clinically, partly due to acquired antibiotic...
Sun, 07/05/2020 - 00:00
Overwhelming empirical evidence has highlighted the contribution of indiscriminate antibiotic usage (ABU) in food animals to the overall burden of antibiotic resistance (ABR) in humans, thus making antibiotic use the main selective pressure driving antibiotic resistance. The social and behavioral perspective on antibiotic use and resistance in poultry is limited. Our study therefore aimed at...
Thu, 07/02/2020 - 00:00
Colistin, a last-resort antibiotic, has been used in controlling infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. However, recent reports showed a global dissemination of mobile colistin-resistance (mcr) genes, genetic elements that encode resistance to colistin, which has raised public health concerns. These mcr genes threaten the effectiveness of colistin and could...
Thu, 07/02/2020 - 00:00
In this study, the inhibitory potential of 3-(5-nitrofuran-2-yl)prop-2-en-1-one derivatives was evaluated against a panel of bacteria, as well as mammalian cell lines to determine their therapeutic index. In addition, we investigated the mechanism of antibiotic action of the derivatives to identify their therapeutic target. We discovered compound 2 to be an extremely potent inhibitor of...
Thu, 07/02/2020 - 00:00
Antibiotic resistance is an ecosystem problem threatening the interrelated human-animalenvironmenthealth under the “One Health” framework. Resistant bacteria arising in onegeographical area can spread via cross-reservoir transmission to other areas worldwide either bydirect exposure or through the food chain and the environment. Drivers of antibiotic resistance arecomplex and...
Wed, 07/01/2020 - 00:00
Antimicrobial resistance is one of today’s major public health challenges. Infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria have been responsible for an increasing number of deaths in recent decades. These resistant bacteria are also a concern in the food chain, as bacteria can resist common biocides used in the food industry and reach consumers. As a consequence, the search for...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 00:00
In Sudanese traditional medicine, decoctions of the stem bark of Anogeissus leiocarpa are used for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). However, this plant has not been investigated before for its antimycobacterial effects. Our screening results show, for the first time, that many extracts of various parts of A. leiocarpa exhibit growth inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis. Minimum...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 00:00
The continuous collection and analysis of updated data on the antimicrobic resistance among bacterial strains represent the essential core for the surveillance of this problem. The present work aimed to investigate the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella serovars isolated in foods in 2015–2019. A total of 178 Salmonella strains belonging to 39 serovars were tested...
Fri, 06/26/2020 - 00:00
Given the increasing antimicrobial resistance in urinary tract infections (UTI), alternative strategies need to be investigated. Determination of minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of essential oils from cajeput, lemongrass, tea tree, and thyme in artificial urine, revealed bactericidal activity of all four tested essential oils against seven uropathogenic species with values...
Sat, 06/20/2020 - 00:00
Antimicrobial resistance represents one of the most relevant threats to global public health and food security, affecting anyone, of any age, in any country and is responsible for longer hospital stays, higher medical costs and increased mortality. Resistant microorganisms are present in humans, animals, food and the environment, and, therefore, the One Health approach is very promising to...
Tue, 06/16/2020 - 00:00
Thioridazine hydrochloride (HCl) has been suggested as a promising antimicrobial helper compound for the treatment of infections with antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. Unfortunately, the therapeutic concentration of thioridazine HCl is generally higher than what can be tolerated clinically, in part due to its toxic side effects on the central nervous system. Therefore, we aimed to synthesize a...
Sun, 06/14/2020 - 00:00
This study reported the phytochemical composition of two hydroethanolic extracts of Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal trees from Burkina Faso and their activities, alone or in combination with selected antibiotics, against multidrug resistant bacteria. High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was used for phytochemical screening. Total phenolic and total flavonoid ant tannins in...
Sun, 06/14/2020 - 00:00
The discovery of antibiotics has revolutionized the medicine and treatment of microbial infections. However, the current scenario has highlighted the difficulties in marketing new antibiotics and an exponential increase in the appearance of resistant strains. On the other hand, research in the field of drug-discovery has revaluated the potential of natural products as a unique source for new...
Fri, 06/12/2020 - 00:00
Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen responsible for about 1600 illnesses each year in the United States (US) and about 2500 confirmed invasive human cases in European Union (EU) countries. Several technologies and antimicrobials are applied to control the presence of L. monocytogenes in food. Among these, the use of natural antimicrobials is preferred by consumers. This is due to their...
Tue, 06/09/2020 - 00:00
Campylobacteriosis is the leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis, very often associated with poultry consumption. Thermophilic Campylobacter (Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli) isolates (n = 158) recovered from broiler neck skin and caecal contents in Ireland over a one-year period, resistant to at least one of three clinically relevant antimicrobial classes, were screened for...
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 03:22
Phage therapy is becoming a widely recognized alternative for fighting pathogenic bacteria due to increasing antibiotic resistance problems. However, one of the common concerns related to the use of phages is the evolution of bacterial resistance against the phages, putatively disabling the treatment. Experimental adaptation of the phage (phage training) to infect a resistant host has been used...
Thu, 06/04/2020 - 03:21
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is influenced by antimicrobial use in human and animal health. This use exerts selection pressure on pathogen populations with the development of resistance and the exchange of resistance genes. While the exact scale of AMR in Vietnam remains uncertain, recent studies suggest that it is a major issue in both human and animal health. This study explored antimicrobial...
Mon, 06/01/2020 - 03:21
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) may enter a non-replicative, non-culturable, low metabolically active state, the so-called coccoid form, to survive in extreme environmental conditions. Since coccoid forms are not susceptible to antibiotics, they could represent a cause of therapy failure even in the absence of antibiotic resistance, i.e., relapse within one year. Furthermore, coccoid forms may...
Thu, 05/28/2020 - 03:23
The efficacy of fluoroquinolone-based eradication therapy largely depends on the fluoroquinolone resistance of H. pylori. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the primary resistance rate of H. pylori to fluoroquinolone and the mechanism of resistance in Korea. A total of 153 strains and 48 strains of H. pylori were isolated at a tertiary hospital in 2005/2006 and 2017/2018,...
Wed, 05/27/2020 - 03:20
An antifungal lipodepsipeptide was obtained from cultures of the fungus Foliophoma fallens CF-236885. Its structure, elucidated by HRMS and NMR spectroscopy, contained Gly, Thr, Asn, β-Ala, Orn, Ala, two Ser residues, and 3-hydroxy-4-methylhexadecanoic acid. The absolute configuration of its amino acid residues was determined using Marfey’s analysis and J-based configuration...
Wed, 05/27/2020 - 03:20
Streptomycetes are well known antibiotic producers and are among the rare prokaryotes able to store carbon as lipids. Previous comparative studies of the weak antibiotic producer Streptomyces lividans with its ppk mutant and with Streptomyces coelicolor, which both produce antibiotics, suggested the existence of a negative correlation between total lipid content and the ability to produce...
Tue, 05/26/2020 - 03:23
The aim of this study was to analyze the antibacterial activity of four essential oils (EOs), Melaleuca alternifolia, Eucalyptus globulus, Mentha piperita, and Thymus vulgaris, in preventing the development and spread of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL)-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and...

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