Antibiotics

Sat, 04/17/2021 - 00:00
Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) is widespread in European pig production, and an increasing number of humans attract infections with this bacterium. Although most infections occur in humans with direct livestock contact, an increasing number of infections occur in humans without any established livestock contact. There have been speculations that at...
Sat, 04/17/2021 - 00:00
Little data exist on the levels of antimicrobial resistance from bacteria isolated from British sheep and beef cattle. The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial resistance patterns on sheep and beef farms in England and Wales using multiple interpretation methods. Fecal samples (n = 350) from sheep and beef cattle were collected from 35 farms. Disk diffusion antimicrobial...
Sat, 04/17/2021 - 00:00
All infections are potentially curable as long as the etiological agents are susceptible to antimicrobials. The increased rate at which antimicrobials are becoming ineffective is a global health risk of increasing concern that threatens withdrawal of beneficial antimicrobials for disease control. The increased demand for food of animal origin, in particular eggs, meat and milk has led to...
Fri, 04/16/2021 - 00:00
Prolonged broad-spectrum antibiotic use is more likely to induce bacterial resistance and dysbiosis of skin and gut microflora. First and second-generation tetracycline-class antibiotics have similar broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Targeted tetracycline-class antibiotics are needed to limit antimicrobial resistance and improve patient outcomes. Sarecycline is a narrow-spectrum, third-...
Thu, 04/15/2021 - 00:00
Background and aims: Only a few antimicrobials are effective against H. pylori, and antibiotic resistance is an increasing problem for eradication therapies. In 2017, the World Health Organization categorized clarithromycin resistant H. pylori as a “high-priority” bacterium. Standard antimicrobial susceptibility testing can be used to prescribe appropriate therapies but is currently recommended...
Tue, 04/13/2021 - 00:00
Monitoring veterinary antimicrobial use is part of the global strategy to tackle antimicrobial resistance. The purpose of this study was to quantify veterinary antimicrobials imported into Timor-Leste between 2016 and 2019 and describe the antimicrobial import profile of importers. Data were obtained from import applications received by the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (MAF) of Timor-...
Tue, 04/13/2021 - 00:00
There is an increasing interest in revisiting plants for drug discovery, proving scientifically their role as remedies. The aim of this review was to give an overview of the ethnopharmacological uses of Pistacia lentiscus L. (PlL) leaves and fruits, expanding the search for the scientific discovery of their chemistry, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and antimicrobial activities. PlL is a wild-...
Mon, 04/12/2021 - 00:00
Colistin is considered as the last-resort treatment for multiantibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections in humans. However, the oral administration of colistin to livestock and poultry results in the introduction of large amounts of colistin to the surrounding environment via urine and feces, potentially inducing the prevalence of colistin-resistant bacteria and the impact on the...
Sun, 04/11/2021 - 00:00
β-phenylethylamine hydrochloride (PEA-HCl) and ethyl acetoacetate (EAA) are anti-microbials with applications in food processing. As food anti-microbials, the compounds will have to withstand the cooking process without changing to toxic compounds. With this Communication, we address the question of whether PEA and EAA are altered when heated to 73.9 °C or 93.3 °C. A combination of gas...
Sat, 04/10/2021 - 00:00
Vibrio cholerae is the most common waterborne pathogen that can cause pandemic cholera in humans. Continuous monitoring of V. cholerae contamination in aquatic products is crucial for assuring food safety. In this study, we determined the virulence, cross-resistance between antibiotics and heavy metals, and genetic diversity of V. cholerae isolates from 36 species of aquatic food animals, nearly...
Sat, 04/10/2021 - 00:00
Antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic residues can enter the environment when using animal manure as fertilizer. Twenty-five mixed beef cattle farmyard manure samples and 9 mixed fattening calf slurry samples from different farms across Belgium were investigated for the presence of 69 antibiotic residues, antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. Doxycycline,...
Sat, 04/10/2021 - 00:00
Antimicrobial resistance to quinolones, which constitutes a threat to public health, has been increasing worldwide. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of quinolone-resistant determinants in Escherichia coli not susceptible to quinolones and isolated from food-producing animals and food derived from them, in the Philippines. A total of 791 E. coli strains were isolated in 56.4% of 601...
Fri, 04/09/2021 - 00:00
We determined the phenotypic profile of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli isolated from 698 samples (390 and 308 from poultry and domestic pigs, respectively). In total, 562 Enterobacteria were isolated. About 80.5% of the isolates were E. coli. Occurrence of E. coli was significantly higher among domestic pigs (73.1%) than in poultry (60.5%) (p = 0.000). In both poultry and domestic...
Fri, 04/09/2021 - 00:00
Residues of antimicrobials used in farm can exert selective pressure and accelerate the occurrence of multidrug resistant bacteria in litter. This study aimed to investigate the resistance profile of Escherichia coli isolated from poultry litter. A total of 101 E. coli strains was isolated from 229 litter samples collected and stored for two months in the laboratory at room temperature....
Wed, 04/07/2021 - 00:00
Clostridium perfringens is a major human pathogen that causes gastroenteritis via enterotoxin production and has the ability to form spores and biofilms for environmental persistence and disease transmission. This study aimed to compare the disinfectant and environmental resistance properties of C. perfringens vegetative cells and spores in planktonic and sessile conditions, and to examine the...
Mon, 04/05/2021 - 00:00
The prevalence of multidrug resistant, extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae is increasing worldwide. The present study aimed to provide an overview of the multidrug resistance phenotype and genotype of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolates of livestock and wild bird origin in Greece. Nineteen phenotypically confirmed ESBL-producing E. coli strains...
Sun, 04/04/2021 - 00:00
The genome characterization of the Lactiplantibacillus plantarum strain UTNGt2, isolated from wild copoazu or white cacao (Theobroma grandiflorum), is described. A total of 31 contigs is assembled with a total length of 3,264,448 bases, with all contigs matching the core genome of different groups in the database. The genome size is 3,540,752 bases with GC content of 44.53% and the genome repeat...
Sun, 04/04/2021 - 00:00
The emergence of bacterial resistance to traditional small-molecule antibiotics is fueling the search for innovative strategies to treat infections. Inhibiting the expression of essential bacterial genes using antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), particularly composed of nucleic acid mimics (NAMs), has emerged as a promising strategy. However, their efficiency depends on their association with...
Tue, 03/30/2021 - 00:00
Proteus mirabilis is a frequent cause of catheter associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs). Several virulence factors contribute to its pathogenesis, but swarming motility, biofilm formation, and urease activity are considered the hallmarks. The increased prevalence in antibiotic resistance among uropathogens is alarming and requires searching for new treatment alternatives. With this in mind...
Mon, 03/29/2021 - 00:00
Despite the crucial role of Polymyxin-B in treating life-threatening gram-negative infections, its clinical utility is limited due to the risk of acute kidney injury. In response, a novel formulation of polymyxin-B is being developed to mitigate drug-induced kidney injury. In this study, we have assessed the toxicity of four variants of that novel formulation (VRP034_F21-F24) in comparison with...
Mon, 03/29/2021 - 00:00
Food safety has attracted attention worldwide, and how to detect various kinds of hazardous substances in an efficient way has always been a focus. Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are a class of hybrid porous materials formed by organic ligand and metal ions. Nanoscale MOFs (NMOFs) exhibit great potential in serving as fluorescence sensors for food safety due to their superior properties...
Sun, 03/28/2021 - 00:00
Wild animals are potential vectors of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the environment. The present study aimed to investigate the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella serovars isolated from wildlife and the environment in Italy. A total of 164 Salmonella isolates were analyzed, and six different subspecies and 64 serovars were detected. High proportions of Salmonella isolates...
Sat, 03/27/2021 - 00:00
Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a growing global concern, threatening human and environmental health, particularly among urban populations. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are thought to be “hotspots” for antibiotic resistance dissemination. The conditions of WWTPs, in conjunction with the persistence of commonly used antibiotics, may favor the selection and transfer of resistance...
Sat, 03/27/2021 - 00:00
We recently described the genetic antimicrobial resistance and virulence profile of a collection of 279 commensal E. coli of food-producing animal (FPA), pet, wildlife and human origin. Phenotypic antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and the role of commensal E. coli as reservoir of extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) virulence-associated genes (VAGs) or as potential ExPEC pathogens...
Thu, 03/25/2021 - 00:00
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a leading cause of skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs) in the community. In this study, we characterized a collection of 34 S. aureus from SSTIs in ambulatory patients in Portugal and analyzed the presence of Panton–Valentine leucocidin (PVL)-encoding genes and antibiotic-resistance profile, which was correlated with genetic determinants, plasmid carriage...
Thu, 03/25/2021 - 00:00
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an enteric pathogen associated with human gastroenteritis outbreaks. Extensive use of antibiotics in agriculture selects resistant bacteria that may enter the food chain and potentially causes foodborne illnesses in humans that are less likely to respond to treatment with conventional antibiotics. Due to the importance of antibiotic resistance,...
Wed, 03/24/2021 - 00:00
This cross-sectional study was conducted between January and June 2020, in five large poultry slaughter slabs in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Purposive sampling was used to select broilers and spent layers, from which meat and cloaca swabs were collected to determine the occurrence of multidrug resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli. Identification of isolates was done using API 20E, and antimicrobial...
Tue, 03/23/2021 - 00:00
Antimicrobial and multidrug-resistant bacteria are a major problem worldwide and, consequently, the surveillance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and assessment of the dissemination routes are essential. We hypothesized that migratory birds, coming from various environments, would carry more numerous Vibrio strains than sedentary species, with increased risk to be passed to their contacts or...
Thu, 03/18/2021 - 00:00
Due to the inappropriate use and overuse of antibiotics, the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria are increasing and have become a major threat to human health. A key factor in the treatment of bacterial infections and slowing down the emergence of antibiotic resistance is to perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of infecting bacteria rapidly to prescribe appropriate...
Thu, 03/18/2021 - 00:00
Doxycycline is a well-tolerated tetracycline antibiotic, registered for use in rabbits and administered for treatment of bacterial infections in this animal species. Nevertheless, the available pharmacokinetic data are limited and this study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of orally administered doxycycline in mature and immature rabbits by application of the population approach. The...
Thu, 03/18/2021 - 00:00
Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterial foodborne pathogen and the causative agent of the disease listeriosis, which though uncommon can result in severe symptoms such as meningitis, septicemia, stillbirths, and abortions and has a high case fatality rate. This pathogen can infect humans and other animals, resulting in massive health and economic impacts in the United States and globally....
Thu, 03/18/2021 - 00:00
Colistin use has mostly been stopped in human medicine, due to its toxicity. However, nowadays, it still is used as a last-resort antibiotic to treat hospital infections caused by multi-drug resistant Enterobacteriaceae. On the contrary, colistin has been used in veterinary medicine until recently. In this study, 210 fecal samples from pigs (n = 57), calves (n = 152), and the farmer (n = 1) were...
Wed, 03/17/2021 - 00:00
An increasingly apparent role of noncoding RNA (ncRNAs) is to coordinate gene expression during environmental stress. A mounting body of evidence implicates small RNAs (sRNAs) as key drivers of Salmonella stress survival. Generally thought to be 50–500 nucleotides in length and to occur in intergenic regions, sRNAs typically regulate protein expression through base pairing with mRNA targets. In...
Sat, 03/13/2021 - 00:00
Contamination of waters with pharmaceuticals is an alarming problem as it may support the evolution of antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, fast and cost-effective analytical methods for potential on-site analysis are desired in order to control the water quality and assure the safety of its use as a source of drinking water. Antibody-based methods, such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (...
Fri, 03/12/2021 - 00:00
The insect gut is home to a wide range of microorganisms, including several bacterial species. Such bacterial symbionts provide various benefits to their insect hosts. One of such services is providing metabolites that resist infections. Little data are available about gut-inhabiting bacteria for several insect groups. Through the present work, the gut bacteria associated with the American...
Thu, 03/11/2021 - 00:00
Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) could play a major role in fighting multidrug-resistant bacteria. Recently, it was discovered that all living organisms oscillate in the range of nanometers and that these oscillations, referred to as nanomotion, stop as soon the organism dies. This finding led to the development of rapid AST techniques based on the monitoring of these oscillations...
Thu, 03/11/2021 - 00:00
Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) is increasingly being used to diagnose infections caused by respiratory pathogens in pediatric inpatient facilities. mPCR assays detect a broader array of viruses, with higher specificity and sensitivity and faster turnaround than previous assays. We adapted the FilmArray Respiratory Panel (FA-RP) for diagnosing respiratory infections. FA-RP is an in...
Thu, 03/11/2021 - 00:00
Arcobacter spp. are emerging waterborne and foodborne zoonotic pathogens responsible for gastroenteritis in humans. In this work, we evaluated the occurrence and the antimicrobial resistance profile of Arcobacter isolates recovered from different aquatic sources. Besides, we searched for Arcobacter spp. in seaweeds and the corresponding seawater samples. Bacteriological and molecular methods...
Wed, 03/10/2021 - 00:00
Bacterial infections are an important cause of mortality and morbidity in newborns. The main risk factors include low birth weight and prematurity. The study identified the most common bacterial pathogens causing neonatal infections including their resistance to antibiotics in the Neonatal Department of the University Hospital Olomouc. Additionally, the cut-off for distinguishing early- from late...
Wed, 03/10/2021 - 00:00
The use of xenobiotics in food production and how food intake is carried out in different cultures, along with different eating habits (omnivorism (ON), ovolactovegetarianism (VT), and strict vegetarianism (VG)) seem to have implications for antimicrobial resistance, especially in the human gut microbiota. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate aspects of the clinical resistome of the human...
Tue, 03/09/2021 - 00:00
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has risen as a global threat for human health. One of the leading factors for this emergence has been the massive use of antibiotics growth-promoter (AGPs) in livestock, enhancing the spread of AMR among human pathogenic bacteria. Thus, several alternatives such as probiotics, prebiotics, or phytobiotics have been proposed for using in animal feeding to maintain or...
Sat, 03/06/2021 - 00:00
Preslaughter starvation and subacute ruminal acidosis in cattle are known to promote ruminal proliferation of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains, thereby increasing the risk of meat and milk contamination. Using bacteriophages (henceforth called phages) to control these strains in the rumen is a potentially novel strategy. Therefore, this study evaluated the viability of phages...
Sat, 03/06/2021 - 00:00
Migratory wild birds acquire antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria from contaminated habitats and then act as reservoirs and potential spreaders of resistant elements through migration. However, the role of migratory wild birds as antimicrobial disseminators in the Arabian Peninsula desert, which represents a transit point for birds migrating all over Asia, Africa, and Europe not yet clear....
Sat, 03/06/2021 - 00:00
Salmonella Infantis, a common contaminant of poultry products, is known to harbor mobile genetic elements that confer multi-drug resistance (MDR) and have been detected in many continents. Here, we report four MDR S. Infantis strains recovered from poultry house environments in Santa Cruz Island of the Galapagos showing extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) resistance and reduced fluoroquinolone...
Sat, 03/06/2021 - 00:00
Macrolide–lincosamide–streptogramin B antibiotic resistance occurs through the action of erythromycin ribosome methylation (Erm) family proteins, causing problems due to their prevalence and high minimal inhibitory concentration, and feasibilities have been sought to develop inhibitors. Erms exhibit high conservation next to the N-terminal end region (NTER) as in ErmS, 64SQNF67. Side chains of...
Fri, 03/05/2021 - 00:00
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and non-aureus staphylococci (MRNAS) cause different infections in animals, including mastitis, in livestock and humans. This study aimed to identify and compare the staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec) types of MRSA or MRNAS isolated from several animal species and humans in different countries. Of 1462 S. aureus and non-aureus...
Fri, 03/05/2021 - 00:00
In order to estimate the prevalence of plasmid borne colistin resistance and to characterize in detail the mcr-positive isolates, we carried out a sentinel testing survey on the intestinal carriage of plasmid-mediated colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in hospitalized patients. Methods: Between June 2018 and September 2019, 1922 faecal samples from hospitalised patients were analysed by...
Wed, 03/03/2021 - 00:00
Campylobacter jejuni is an important foodborne pathogen causing campylobacteriosis. It can infect humans through the consumption of contaminated chicken products or via the direct handling of animals. Diallyl trisulfide (DATS) is a trisulfide compound from garlic extracts that has a potential antimicrobial effect on foodborne pathogens. This study investigated the antimicrobial activity of DATS...
Wed, 03/03/2021 - 00:00
The incidence of Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-encoding genes (blaCTX-M and blaTEM) among Gram-negative multidrug-resistant pathogens collected from three different countries was investigated. Two hundred and ninety-two clinical isolates were collected from Egypt (n = 90), Saudi Arabia (n = 162), and Sudan (n = 40). Based on the antimicrobial sensitivity against 20 antimicrobial agents...
Tue, 03/02/2021 - 00:00
Clostridium perfringens is an often-harmful intestinal bacterium that causes various diseases ranging from food poisoning to life-threatening fulminant disease. Potential treatments include phage-derived endolysins, a promising family of alternative antimicrobial agents. We surveyed the genome of the C. perfringens st13 strain and identified an endolysin gene, psa, in the phage remnant region....

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