Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

Thu, 02/18/2021 - 10:01
Molecular testing is rapidly becoming an integral component of global tuberculosis (TB) control. Uncommon mechanisms of resistance escape detection by these platforms and undermine our ability to contain outbreaks. This article is a systematic review of published articles that reported isoniazid (INH) resistance-conferring mutations between September 2013 and December 2019. The genes katG, inhA,...
Thu, 02/18/2021 - 10:01
Chagas disease reactivation in HIV-positive people is an opportunistic infection with 79 to 100% mortality. It commonly involves the central nervous system (CNS). Early treatment with trypanocidal drugs such as benznidazole (BNZ) is crucial for this severe manifestation of Trypanosoma cruzi infection. However, limited BNZ clinical pharmacology data are available, especially its concentration in...
Thu, 02/18/2021 - 10:01
H7N9 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection in a human was first reported in 2017. A/duck/Japan/AQ-HE29-22/2017 (H7N9) (Dk/HE29-22), found in imported duck meat at an airport in Japan, possesses a hemagglutinin with a multibasic cleavage site, indicating high pathogenicity in chickens, as in the case of other H7 HPAIVs. In the present study, we examined the pathogenicity of Dk/...
Thu, 02/18/2021 - 10:01
Zinc is an essential micronutrient for mycobacteria, and its depletion induces multiple adaptive changes in cellular physiology, the most remarkable of which are remodeling and hibernation of ribosomes. Ribosome remodeling, induced upon relatively moderate depletion of zinc, involves replacement of multiple ribosomal proteins containing the zinc-binding CXXC motif (called C+ r proteins) by their...
Thu, 02/18/2021 - 10:01
Schistosomiasis poses a serious threat to human health and remains a major tropical and parasitic disease in more than 70 countries. Praziquantel (PZQ) has been the primary treatment for schistosomiasis for nearly 4 decades. However, its efficacy against migratory-stage schistosomula is limited. Radicicol (RAD), a β-resorcylic acid lactone derived from Paecilomyces sp. strain SC0924, was...
Thu, 02/18/2021 - 10:01
Candida endophthalmitis is a serious sight-threatening complication of candidemia that may occur before or during antifungal therapy. Hematogenous Candida meningoencephalitis (HCME) is also a serious manifestation of disseminated candidiasis in premature infants, immunosuppressed children, and immunocompromised adults. We evaluated the antifungal efficacy and pharmacokinetics of the prodrug...
Thu, 02/18/2021 - 10:01
IMP-type carbapenemase, found in various Gram-negative bacteria, has been increasingly detected worldwide. We aimed to study the outcomes and risk factors for acquisition of IMP-type carbapenemase-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (IMP-CRE), as this has not been evaluated in detail. We conducted a matched case-case-control study of patients from whom IMP-CRE isolates were obtained...
Thu, 02/18/2021 - 10:01
Accurate antibiotic susceptibility testing is essential for successful tuberculosis treatment. Recent studies have highlighted the limitations of MIC-based phenotypic susceptibility methods in detecting other aspects of antibiotic susceptibilities in bacteria. Duration and peak of antibiotic exposure, at or above the MIC required for killing the bacterial population, has emerged as another...
Thu, 02/18/2021 - 10:01
Molecular genotyping holds tremendous potential to detect antimalarial drug resistance (ADR) related to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, it relies on the use of complicated procedures and expensive instruments. Thus, rapid point-of-care testing (POCT) molecular tools are urgently needed for field survey and clinical use. Herein, a POCT platform consisting of multiple-allele-...
Thu, 02/18/2021 - 10:01
Atovaquone-proguanil remains effective against multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Southeast Asia, but resistance is mediated by a single point mutation in cytochrome b (cytb) that can arise during treatment. Among 14 atovaquone-proguanil treatment failures in a clinical trial in Cambodia, only one recrudescence harbored the cytb mutation Y268C. Deep sequencing did not detect the...
Thu, 01/21/2021 - 10:02
New treatment strategies are required for cryptococcosis, a leading mycosis in HIV-AIDS patients. Following the identification of Cryptococcus proteins differentially expressed in response to fluconazole, we targeted farnesyl pryrophosphate synthetase (FPPS), an enzyme in the squalene biosynthesis pathway, using nitrogenous bisphosphonates. We hypothesized that these would disrupt squalene...
Thu, 01/21/2021 - 10:02
mcr-10 is a newly identified plasmid-borne colistin resistance gene, but its mobilization mechanism remains unclear. In this study, mcr-10 was found on an IncFIB plasmid carrying virulence genes mrkABCDFJ, iucABCD/iutA, and eitCBAD in a Cronobacter sakazakii isolate. By comparison with closely related plasmids, two recombination sites were identified flanking the genetic element containing mcr-10...
Thu, 01/21/2021 - 10:02
The bacterial cell wall plays a key role in viability and is an important drug target. The cell wall is made of elongated polymers that are cross-linked to one another to form a load-bearing mesh. An alternative cell wall cross-linking mechanism used by the l,d-transpeptidase YcbB has been implicated in the stress-regulated roles of β-lactam resistance, outer membrane defect rescue, and...
Thu, 01/21/2021 - 10:02
Chronic Chagas disease might have an impact on benznidazole pharmacokinetics with potential alterations in the therapeutic dosing regimen. This study aims to investigate the influence of chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection on the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of benznidazole in mice. Healthy (n = 40) and chronically T. cruzi (Berenice-78 strain)-infected (n = 40) Swiss female 10-month-old...
Thu, 01/21/2021 - 10:02
Resistance mechanisms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to ceftolozane/tazobactam (C/T) were assessed on a collection of 420 nonredundant strains nonsusceptible to ceftazidime (MIC > 8 μg/ml) and/or imipenem (>4 μg/ml), collected by 36 French hospital laboratories over a one-month period (the GERPA study). Rates of C/T resistance (MIC > 4/4 μg/ml) were equal to 10% in this population (...
Thu, 01/21/2021 - 10:02
Antibiotic therapy is expected to impact host microbial communities considerably, yet many studies focused on microbiome and health are often confounded by limited information about antibiotic exposure. Given that antibiotics have diverse pharmacokinetic and antimicrobial properties, investigating the type and concentration of these agents in specific host specimens would provide much needed...
Thu, 12/17/2020 - 10:01
Increasing mobile colistin resistance, mediated by the mcr gene family, in Enterobacteriaceae has become a global concern. Among the 10 reported mcr genes, mcr-8 was first identified in Klebsiella pneumoniae, which could cause severe infections with high mortality. Information about the prevalence and genetic context of mcr-8 is still lacking. In this study, we found that mcr-8 was present in 9....
Thu, 12/17/2020 - 10:01
Fluoroquinolones (FQ) are crucial components of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) treatment. Differing levels of resistance are associated with specific mutations within the quinolone-resistance-determining region (QRDR) of gyrA. We sequenced the QRDR from serial isolates of MDR TB patients in the Preserving Effective TB Treatment Study (PETTS) with baseline FQ resistance (FQR) or...
Thu, 12/17/2020 - 10:01
Tetracyclines are widely used in veterinary medicine and food animal production. Campylobacter members are major foodborne pathogens, and their resistance to tetracycline has been widely reported in different countries. To date, Tet(O), a ribosomal protection protein, is the only confirmed Tet resistance determinant in Campylobacter spp. Here, we reported the detection and characterization of a...
Thu, 12/17/2020 - 10:01
A healthy, intact gut microbiota is often resistant to colonization by gastrointestinal pathogens. During periods of dysbiosis, however, organisms such as Clostridioides difficile can thrive. We describe an optimized in vitro colonization resistance assay for C. difficile in stool (CRACS) and demonstrate the utility of this assay by assessing changes in colonization resistance following...
Thu, 12/17/2020 - 10:01
We previously identified a small-molecule inhibitor of capsule biogenesis (designated DU011) and identified its target as MprA, a MarR family transcriptional repressor of multidrug efflux pumps. Unlike other proposed MprA ligands, such as salicylate and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), DU011 does not alter Escherichia coli antibiotic resistance and has significantly enhanced inhibition of capsule...
Thu, 12/17/2020 - 10:01
Pretomanid was approved by the U.S. FDA, via the limited population pathway for antibacterial and antifungal drugs, as part of a three-drug regimen with bedaquiline and linezolid for the treatment of extensively drug-resistant and treatment-intolerant or nonresponsive multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The recommended dose of pretomanid is 200 mg once daily with food. The objective of this work...
Thu, 12/17/2020 - 10:01
Bacterial pathogens are rapidly evolving resistance to all clinically available antibiotics. One part of the solution to this complex issue is to better understand the resistance mechanisms to new and existing antibiotics. Here, we focus on two antibiotics. Teixobactin is a recently discovered promising antibiotic that is claimed to "kill pathogens without detectable resistance" (L. L. Ling, T....
Thu, 12/17/2020 - 10:01
Current guidelines recommend vancomycin and linezolid as first-line agents against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nosocomial pneumonia. Telavancin is a potential new therapeutic alternative, specifically in monomicrobial MRSA pneumonia. This study compared the efficacies of telavancin versus linezolid in a porcine model of severe MRSA pneumonia. In 18 mechanically ventilated...
Thu, 12/17/2020 - 10:01
Silver gulls carry phylogenetically diverse Escherichia coli, including globally dominant extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) sequence types and pandemic ExPEC-ST131 clades; however, our large-scale study (504 samples) on silver gulls nesting off the coast of New South Wales identified E. coli ST457 as the most prevalent. A phylogenetic analysis of whole-genome sequences (WGS) of 138 ST457...
Thu, 12/17/2020 - 10:01
Monitoring of Plasmodium falciparum sensitivity to antimalarial drugs in Africa is vital for malaria elimination. However, the commonly used ex vivo/in vitro 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) test gives inconsistent results for several antimalarials, while the alternative ring-stage survival assay (RSA) for artemisinin derivatives has not been widely adopted. Here, we applied an alternative two...
Wed, 11/18/2020 - 10:01
In Australia, cases of shigellosis usually occur in returned travelers from regions of shigellosis endemicity or in men who have sex with men. Resistance to multiple antibiotics has significantly increased in Shigella sonnei isolates and represents a significant public health concern. We investigate an outbreak of multidrug-resistant S. sonnei in Victoria, Australia. We undertook whole-genome...
Wed, 11/18/2020 - 10:01
Patients with traveler’s diarrhea (TD) can acquire extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing members of the Enterobacterales (EPE) during travel to areas of endemicity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of EPE carriage in travelers from southern Sweden who were sampled for bacterial diagnostics of TD compared to those of EPE carriage...
Wed, 11/18/2020 - 10:01
Extended-spectrum class C β-lactamases have evolved to rapidly inactivate expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, a class of antibiotics designed to be resistant to hydrolysis by β-lactamase enzymes. To better understand the mechanism by which Acinetobacter-derived cephalosporinase-7 (ADC-7), a chromosomal AmpC enzyme, hydrolyzes these molecules, we determined the X-ray crystal structure of...
Wed, 10/21/2020 - 10:01
Achromobacter spp. are recognized as emerging pathogens in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Though recent works have established species-level identification using nrdA sequencing, there is a dearth in knowledge relating to species-level antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and antimicrobial combinations, which hampers the use of optimal antimicrobial combinations for the treatment of chronic...
Wed, 10/21/2020 - 10:01
RO7049389, an inhibitor of hepatitis B virus (HBV) capsid assembly, is being developed for the treatment of patients with chronic HBV infection. The objectives of this first-in-human study are to assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), food effect, inhibitory effect on CYP3A, and effect on QT of RO7049389 in healthy participants. Five components, single-ascending-dose (SAD)...
Wed, 10/21/2020 - 10:01
Enteric fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) and S. enterica serovar Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi), is a common travel-related illness. Limited data are available on the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) patterns of these serovars among travelers. Records of travelers with a culture-confirmed diagnosis seen during or after travel from January 2007 to December 2018 were obtained...
Wed, 10/21/2020 - 10:01
Delayed clearance of Plasmodium falciparum by artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) has already been observed for African isolates. Here, we aimed to investigate the prevalence, among travelers returning from African countries, of polymorphisms in two genes correlated with delayed parasite clearance (encoding P. falciparum Kelch 13 [PfK13] and ubiquitin-specific protease 1 [pfubp1])...
Wed, 10/21/2020 - 10:01
Neurocysticercosis and trichuriasis are difficult-to-treat parasitic infections that affect more than 1.5 billion people worldwide. Oxfendazole, a potent broad-spectrum benzimidazole anthelmintic approved for use in veterinary medicine, has shown substantial antiparasitic activity against neurocysticercosis and intestinal helminths in preclinical studies. As part of a program to transition...
Wed, 10/21/2020 - 10:01
Porphyromonas gingivalis is one of the primary causative agents of periodontal disease and initially colonizes the oral cavity by adhering to commensal streptococci. Adherence requires the interaction of a minor fimbrial protein (Mfa1) of P. gingivalis with streptococcal antigen I/II (AgI/II). Our previous work identified an AgI/II peptide that potently inhibited adherence and significantly...
Wed, 10/21/2020 - 10:01
The spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria presents a global health challenge. Efficient surveillance of bacteria harboring antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) is a critical aspect to controlling the spread. Increased access to microbial genomic data from many diverse populations informs this surveillance but only when functional ARGs are identifiable within the data set. Current, homology-based...
Wed, 10/21/2020 - 10:01
We isolated 47 Acinetobacter strains carrying tet(X3) and 4 ST767 E. coli strains carrying tet(X4) from 296 rectal swab samples from dairy cows on a Chinese farm. tet(X3) was located on chromosomes or diverse plasmids, and tet(X4) was located on IncFIB/FIA(HI1)/X1 nontransferable plasmid. The coexistence of tet(X3) and carbapenemase genes, including blaOXA-58 and blaNDM-1, was detected in 9...
Wed, 10/21/2020 - 10:01
Lomentospora prolificans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen with low susceptibility to current antifungal drugs. Here, we tested the in vitro susceptibility of 8 drugs against 42 clinical L. prolificans isolates. All isolates showed high MICs to voriconazole (MIC90>16 μg/ml), itraconazole (MIC90>16 μg/ml), posaconazole (MIC90>16 μg/ml), isavuconazole (MIC90>16 μg/ml),...
Tue, 09/22/2020 - 10:01
Staphylococcus argenteus infection was initially described in Aboriginal patients in the Northern Territories of Australia as a predominant cause of skin infections and is rare outside Southeast Asia. A first well-characterized case of S. argenteus infection has now been described in the United States, involving a recurrent hemodialysis catheter infection, in which unstable daptomycin resistance...
Tue, 09/22/2020 - 10:01
The emergence of mobile colistin resistance (mcr) genes has raised a global concern (1–3), as colistin is considered a last-resort antimicrobial for treating fatal infections caused by multidrug-resistant or carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae.
Tue, 09/22/2020 - 10:01
The acquisition of antibiotic resistance commonly imposes fitness costs, a reduction in the fitness of bacteria in the absence of drugs. These costs have been quantified primarily using in vitro experiments and a small number of in vivo studies in mice, and it is commonly assumed that these diverse methods are consistent. Here, we used an insect model of infection to compare the fitness costs of...
Tue, 09/22/2020 - 10:01
The Swiss Centre for Antibiotic Resistance (ANRESIS) has recently noted an increase of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant (ESC-R) Shigella sonnei isolates nationwide (3.8% in 2016 versus 37.5% in 2019). To understand this phenomenon, we analyzed 25 representative isolates (of which 14 were ESC-R) collected in Switzerland during 2016 to 2019. Whole-genome sequencing was achieved using both...
Tue, 09/22/2020 - 10:01
The glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor biosynthesis inhibitor gepinacin demonstrates broad-spectrum antifungal activity and negligible mammalian toxicity in culture but is metabolically labile. The stability and bioactivity of 39 analogs were tested in vitro to identify LCUT-8, a stabilized lead with increased potency and promising single-dose pharmacokinetics. Unfortunately, no antifungal...
Tue, 09/22/2020 - 10:01
Lactoferrin (LF) is an iron-binding glycoprotein with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Previously, we discovered that LF synergistically enhanced the antifungal efficacy of amphotericin B (AMB) across a variety of yeast species and subsequently hypothesized that this synergy was enhanced by the presence of small peptides derived from the whole LF molecule. In this study, LF was digested...
Tue, 09/22/2020 - 10:01
Giardiasis, caused by the intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia, is a severe diarrheal disease, endemic in poverty-stricken regions of the world, and also a common infection in developed countries. The available therapeutic options are associated with adverse effects, and G. lamblia resistance to the standard-of-care drugs is spreading. Fumagillin, an antimicrosporidiosis drug, is a therapeutic...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 10:01
Widespread resistance against antimalarial drugs thwarts current efforts for controlling the disease and urges the discovery of new effective treatments. Drug repositioning is increasingly becoming an attractive strategy since it can reduce costs, risks, and time-to-market. Herein, we have used this strategy to identify novel antimalarial hits. We used a comparative in silico chemogenomics...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 10:01
This study summarizes drug resistance analyses in 4 recent phase 2b trials of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion inhibitor presatovir in naturally infected adults. Adult hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients, lung transplant recipients, or hospitalized patients with naturally acquired, laboratory-confirmed RSV infection were enrolled in 4 randomized, double-blind, placebo-...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 10:01
The incidence of invasive fungal infections is rising due to the increase in susceptible populations. Current clinically available drugs have therapeutic limitations due to toxicity, a narrow spectrum of activity, and, more importantly, the consistent rise of fungal species that are intrinsically resistant or that develop resistance due to prolonged therapy. Thus, there is an urgent need for new...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 10:01
Carbapenem and colistin antibiotics are often the last-resort treatment for severe infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria (1–3). Fortunately, most carbapenemase producers are susceptible to colistin, and many colistin-resistant strains have been reported to be sensitive to carbapenems (2–5). The present study is the first report of a Klebsiella pneumoniae strain LM22-1 harboring blaNDM...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 10:01
Despite excellent in vitro activity, aminoglycosides are used conservatively to treat multidrug-resistant bacterial infections due to their associated nephrotoxicity. Aminoglycosides are known to accumulate in the kidneys, but the quantitative relationship between drug exposures and nephrotoxicity is not well established. To bridge the knowledge gap, the objective of this study was to develop an...

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