Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

The Research Publications track research that is published across national and international peer-reviewed journals. The most recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal Title, Subject, USDA Grant Funding Agencies or FDA Grant Funding Agencies. The research publications are tracked across five subject areas: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, and Viruses.

Wed, 06/24/2020 - 10:01
Rifampin is the first-line antituberculosis drug, with Mycobacterium tuberculosis RNA polymerase as the molecular target. Unfortunately, M. tuberculosis strains that are resistant to rifampin have been identified in clinical settings, which limits its therapeutic effects. In clinical isolates, S531L and D516V (in Escherichia coli) are two common mutated codons in the gene rpoB, corresponding to...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 10:01
Attention has been paid to H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) because of its heavy burden on the poultry industry and human mortality. Since an influenza A virus carrying N6 neuraminidase (NA) has never spread in humans, the potential for H5N6 HPAIV to cause disease in humans and the efficacy of antiviral drugs against the virus need to be urgently assessed. We used nonhuman...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 10:01
The rise of extensively drug-resistant and multidrug-resistant strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae has occurred in parallel with the increasing demand for new drugs. However, the current methods of drug discovery are burdened with rigorous assessments and require more time than can be spared until gonococcal infections become difficult to control. To address this urgency, we utilized a drug-...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 10:01
Globally, mutations in the katG gene account for the majority of isoniazid-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Buyankhishig et al. analyzed a limited number of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in Mongolia and found that isoniazid resistance was mainly attributable to inhA mutations (B. Buyankhishig, T. Oyuntuya, B. Tserelmaa, J. Sarantuya, et al., Int J Mycobacteriol 1:40–44...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 10:01
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has grown to become a major burden on health care systems. The cumulation of limited therapeutic options and worsened patient outcomes with persistent MRSA bacteremia has driven research in optimizing its initial management. The guidelines published by the Infectious Diseases Society of America currently recommend combination therapy for...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 10:01
Clostridium (Clostridioides) difficile causes toxin-mediated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis, primarily among hospital inpatients. Outbreaks of C. difficile infection (CDI) have been caused by strains with acquired antimicrobial resistance, particularly fluoroquinolone resistance, including C. difficile ribotype (RT) 027 in North America and Europe and RT 017, the most common strain in Asia...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 10:01
Each year, 5% to 20% of the population of the United States becomes infected with influenza A virus. Combination therapy with two or more antiviral agents has been considered a potential treatment option for influenza virus infection. However, the clinical results derived from combination treatment with two or more antiviral drugs have been variable. We examined the effectiveness of cotreatment...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 10:01
Florfenicol belongs to a class of phenicol antimicrobials widely used as feed additives and for the treatment of respiratory infections. In recent years, increasing resistance to florfenicol has been reported in Campylobacter spp., the leading foodborne enteric pathogens causing diarrheal diseases worldwide. Here, we reported the identification of fexA, a novel mobile florfenicol resistance gene...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 10:01
Two nonamidated host defense peptides named Pin2[G] and FA1 were evaluated against three types of pathogenic bacteria: two (Staphylococcus aureus UPD13 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPD3) isolated from diabetic foot ulcer patients, and another (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium [ATCC 14028]) from a commercial collection. In vitro experiments showed that the antimicrobial performance of the...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 10:01
Ceftazidime-avibactam and cefiderocol are two of the latest generation β-lactam agents that possess expanded activity against highly drug-resistant bacteria, including carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales. Here, we show that structural changes in AmpC β-lactamases can confer reduced susceptibility to both agents. A multidrug-resistant Enterobacter cloacae clinical strain (Ent385) was...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 10:01
A total of 2,283 Salmonella isolates were recovered from 18,334 samples, including samples from patients with diarrhea, food of animal origin, and pets, across 5 provinces of China. The highest prevalence of Salmonella spp. was detected in chicken meats (39.3%, 486/1,237). Fifteen serogroups and 66 serovars were identified, with Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis being the...
Fri, 05/22/2020 - 03:33
Polymyxins are increasingly used as the critical last-resort therapeutic options for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Unfortunately, polymyxin resistance has increased gradually over the past few years. Although studies on polymyxin mechanisms are expanding, systemwide analyses of the underlying mechanism for polymyxin resistance and stress response are still lacking. To understand how...
Fri, 05/22/2020 - 03:33
Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative pathogens are a critical public health threat and there is an urgent need for new treatments. Carbapenemases (β-lactamases able to inactivate carbapenems) have been identified in both serine β-lactamase (SBL) and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) families. The recent introduction of SBL carbapenemase inhibitors has provided alternative therapeutic options...
Fri, 05/22/2020 - 03:33
Antibiotic combination therapy is used for severe infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria, yet data regarding which combinations are most effective are lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of polymyxin B in combination with 13 other antibiotics against four clinical strains of MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We evaluated the interactions of...
Fri, 05/22/2020 - 03:33
The rapid evolution of resistance in the malaria parasite to every single drug developed against it calls for the urgent identification of new molecular targets. Using a stain specific for the detection of intracellular amyloid deposits in live cells, we have detected the presence of abundant protein aggregates in Plasmodium falciparum blood stages and female gametes cultured in vitro, in the...
Fri, 05/22/2020 - 03:33
The continuous spread of antimalarial drug resistance is a threat to current chemotherapy efficacy. Therefore, characterizing the genetic diversity of drug resistance markers is needed to follow treatment effectiveness and further update control strategies. Here, we genotyped Plasmodium falciparum resistance gene markers associated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and artemisinin-based...
Fri, 05/22/2020 - 03:33
Spectinomycin is a ribosome-binding antibiotic that blocks the translocation step of translation. A prevalent resistance mechanism is modification of the drug by aminoglycoside nucleotidyl transferase (ANT) enzymes of the spectinomycin-specific ANT(9) family or by enzymes of the dual-specificity ANT(3)(9) family, which also acts on streptomycin. We previously reported the structural mechanism of...
Fri, 05/22/2020 - 03:33
Bacteria of the genus Campylobacter are major foodborne pathogens that have become increasingly resistant to clinically important antimicrobial agents (1). In China, Campylobacter jejuni is the main cause of human Campylobacter infections, whereas Campylobacter coli isolates exhibit a distinctly higher multidrug resistance rate. Fluoroquinolones and macrolides are the most frequently used...
Fri, 05/22/2020 - 03:33
Multidrug resistance among Gram-negative bacteria is a major global public health threat. Metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) target the most widely used antibiotic class, the β-lactams, including the most recent generation of carbapenems. Interspecies spread renders these enzymes a serious clinical threat, and there are no clinically available inhibitors. We present the crystal structures of...
Wed, 04/22/2020 - 03:30
A strain of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi has caused a large ongoing outbreak in Pakistan since 2016. In Ontario, Canada, 10 cases of mainly bloodstream infections (n = 9) were identified in patients who traveled to Pakistan. Whole-genome sequencing showed that Canadian cases were genetically related to the Pakistan outbreak strain. The appearance of XDR...
Wed, 04/22/2020 - 03:30
Tigecycline serves as one of the antibiotics of last resort to treat multidrug-resistant (including carbapenem-resistant) pathogens. However, the recently emerged plasmid-mediated tigecycline resistance mechanism, Tet(X), challenges the clinical efficacy of this class of antibiotics. In this study, we detected 180 tet(X)-harboring Acinetobacter isolates (8.9%, n = 180) from 2,018 samples...
Wed, 04/22/2020 - 03:30
Doxycycline, an FDA-approved tetracycline, is used in tuberculosis in vivo models for the temporal control of mycobacterial gene expression. In these models, animals are infected with recombinant Mycobacterium tuberculosis carrying genes of interest under transcriptional control of the doxycycline-responsive TetR-tetO unit. To minimize fluctuations of plasma levels, doxycycline is usually...
Wed, 04/22/2020 - 03:30
Omadacycline is a broad-spectrum aminomethylcycline approved in October 2018 by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treating acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections and community-acquired pneumonia as both an oral and intravenous once-daily formulation. In this report, the activities of omadacycline and comparators were tested against 49,000 nonduplicate bacterial isolates...
Wed, 04/22/2020 - 03:30
Nacubactam is a novel β-lactamase inhibitor with dual mechanisms of action as an inhibitor of serine β-lactamases (classes A and C and some class D) and an inhibitor of penicillin binding protein 2 in Enterobacteriaceae. The safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of intravenous nacubactam were evaluated in single- and multiple-ascending-dose, placebo-controlled studies. Healthy...
Wed, 04/22/2020 - 03:30
Chromosomal resistance islands containing the methicillin resistance gene mecD (McRImecD) have been reported in Macrococcus caseolyticus. Here, we identified novel macrolide resistance genes in Macrococcus canis on similar elements, called McRImsr. These elements were also integrated into the 3' end of the 30S ribosomal protein S9 gene (rpsI), delimited by characteristic attachment (att) sites,...
Wed, 04/22/2020 - 03:30
Ceftobiprole is an advanced-generation broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with potent and rapid bactericidal activity against Gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, as well as susceptible Gram-negative pathogens, including Pseudomonas sp. pathogens. In the case of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ceftobiprole acts by inhibiting P. aeruginosa penicillin-binding...
Wed, 03/25/2020 - 03:22
In Enterobacteriales, the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump exports substrates, including antimicrobials, from the cell. Overexpression of AcrAB-TolC can occur after exposure to fluoroquinolones, leading to multidrug resistance. The expression of AcrAB-TolC in Salmonella is primarily regulated by the transcriptional activator RamA. However, other transcriptional activators, such as MarA, SoxRS, and Rob, can...
Wed, 03/25/2020 - 03:22
One of the main mechanisms of azole resistance of Aspergillus fumigatus is thought to be a reduction in the drug’s affinity for the target molecule, Cyp51A, due to its amino acid mutation(s). It is known that the azole resistance pattern is closely related to the mutation site(s) of the molecule. In this study, we tried to develop a simple and rapid detection method for cyp51A mutations...
Wed, 03/25/2020 - 03:22
Our objective was to describe the prescribing practices, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of patients treated with ceftolozane-tazobactam (C/T) for multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative infections. This was a multicenter, retrospective, cohort study at eight U.S. medical centers (2015 to 2019). Inclusion criteria were age ≥18 years and receipt of C/T (≥72 hours) for suspected or...
Wed, 03/25/2020 - 03:22
Infections with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) cause disease ranging from mild diarrhea to hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) and are the most common cause of renal failure in children in high-income countries. The severity of the disease derives from the release of Shiga toxins (Stx). The use of antibiotics to treat EHEC infections is generally avoided, as it can result in increased stx...
Wed, 03/25/2020 - 03:22
Colistin (polymyxin E) is a last-resort antibiotic against multidrug-resistant isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, the nephro-toxicity of colistin limits its use, spurring the interest in novel antimicrobial peptides (AMP). Here, we show that the synthetic AMP-dendrimer G3KL (MW 4,531.38 Da, 15 positive charges, MIC = 8 mg/liter) showed faster killing than polymyxin B (Pmx-B) with no...
Wed, 03/25/2020 - 03:22
Fosfomycin is gaining renewed interest for treating urinary tract infections. Monitoring fosfomycin resistance is therefore important in order to detect the emergence of novel resistance mechanisms. Here, we used the Rapid Fosfomycin NP test to screen a collection of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolates from Switzerland and found a fosfomycin-resistant isolate in...
Wed, 03/25/2020 - 03:22
A key drawback to monitoring the emergence and spread of antimalarial drug resistance in sub-Saharan Africa is early detection and containment. Next-generation sequencing methods offer the resolution, sensitivity, and scale required to fill this gap by surveilling for molecular markers of drug resistance. We performed targeted sequencing using molecular inversion probes to interrogate five...
Wed, 03/25/2020 - 03:22
Drug repositioning offers an effective alternative to de novo drug design to tackle the urgent need for novel antimalarial treatments. The antiamoebic compound emetine dihydrochloride has been identified as a potent in vitro inhibitor of the multidrug-resistant strain K1 of Plasmodium falciparum (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], 47 nM ± 2.1 nM [mean ± standard deviation])....
Sat, 02/22/2020 - 03:25
Antibiotic tolerance is an underappreciated antibiotic escape strategy that is associated with recurrent and relapsing infections, as well as acting as a precursor to resistance. Tolerance describes the ability of a bacterial population to survive transient exposure to an otherwise lethal concentration of antibiotic without exhibiting an elevated MIC. It is detected in time-kill assays as a lower...
Sat, 02/22/2020 - 03:25
Resistance against cell wall-active antimicrobial peptides in bacteria is often mediated by transporters. In low-GC-content Gram-positive bacteria, a common type of such transporters is BceAB-like systems, which frequently provide high-level resistance against peptide antibiotics that target intermediates of the lipid II cycle of cell wall synthesis. How a transporter can offer protection from...
Sat, 02/22/2020 - 03:25
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis β-lactamase BlaC is a broad-spectrum β-lactamase that can convert a range of β-lactam antibiotics. Enzymes with low specificity are expected to exhibit active-site flexibility. To probe the motions in BlaC, we studied the dynamic behavior in solution using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. 15N relaxation experiments show that BlaC is...
Sat, 02/22/2020 - 03:25
Tuberculosis is an important cause of maternal morbidity, but little is known about the effects of pregnancy on antituberculosis drug concentrations. We developed population pharmacokinetic models to describe drug dispositions of isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol in pregnant women with tuberculosis and HIV. HIV-positive pregnant women with tuberculosis receiving standard first-line...
Sat, 02/22/2020 - 03:25
Oral fosfomycin trometamol is licensed as a single oral dose for the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections, with activity against multidrug-resistant uropathogens. The impact of interindividual variability in urinary concentrations on antimicrobial efficacy, and any benefit of giving multiple doses, is uncertain. We therefore performed pharmacodynamic profiling of oral fosfomycin,...
Sat, 02/22/2020 - 03:25
Antimicrobial-resistant Cutibacterium acnes strains have emerged and disseminated throughout the world. The 23S rRNA mutation and erm(X) gene are known as the major resistance determinants of macrolides and clindamycin in C. acnes. We isolated eight high-level macrolide-clindamycin-resistant C. acnes strains with no known resistance determinants, such as 23S rRNA mutation and erm(X), from...
Sat, 02/22/2020 - 03:25
The introduction of highly efficient therapies with direct-acting antivirals (DAA) for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection offers exceptional opportunities to globally control this deadly disease. For achieving this ambitious goal, it is essential to prevent antiviral resistance against the most optimal first-line and retreatment DAA choices. We performed independent...
Sat, 02/22/2020 - 03:25
The threat of diminished antibiotic discovery has global health care in crisis. In the United States, it is estimated each year that over 2 million bacterial infections are resistant to first-line antibiotic treatments and cost in excess of 20 billion dollars. Many of these cases result from infection with the ESKAPE pathogens (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae,...
Sat, 02/22/2020 - 03:25
Reference methods used to assess the drug susceptibilities of Aspergillus fumigatus isolates consisted of EUCAST and CLSI standardized broth microdilution techniques. Considering the increasing rate and the potential impact on the clinical outcome of azole resistance in A. fumigatus, more suitable techniques for routine testing are needed. The gradient concentration strip (GCS) method has been...
Tue, 01/28/2020 - 03:26
The most common mechanism of resistance to β-lactams antibiotics in Gram-negative bacteria is production of β-lactamase enzymes capable of cleaving the β-lactam ring. Inhibition of β-lactamase activity with small-molecule drugs is a proven strategy to restore the potency of many β-lactam antibiotics. Vaborbactam (formerly RPX7009) is a cyclic boronic acid β-lactamase...
Tue, 01/28/2020 - 03:26
We identified fosA3 at a rate of 2.6% in 310 Salmonella isolates from food animals in Guangdong province, China. The fosA3 gene was genetically linked to diverse antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), including mcr-1, blaCTX-M-14/55, oqxAB, and rmtB. These gene combinations were embedded in heterogeneous fosA3-containing multidrug resistance regions on the transferable ST3-IncHI2 and F33:A–:B...
Tue, 01/28/2020 - 03:26
The worldwide spread of multidrug-resistant Enterobacterales is a serious threat to public health. Here, we compared the MICs of plazomicin, amikacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin against 303 multinational multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli. We followed Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines and applied CLSI breakpoints as well as those of the European Committee on...
Tue, 01/28/2020 - 03:26
Effective treatments for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection are lacking. Here, we report a human proof-of-concept study for RV521, a small-molecule antiviral inhibitor of the RSV-F protein. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, healthy adults were challenged with RSV-A Memphis-37b. After infection was confirmed (or 5 days after challenge virus inoculation), subjects...
Tue, 01/28/2020 - 03:26
In this study, we aimed to assess the in vitro susceptibility to GSK656 among multiple mycobacterial species and to investigate the correlation between leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS) sequence variations and in vitro susceptibility to GSK656 among mycobacterial species. A total of 187 mycobacterial isolates, comprising 105 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates and 82 nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM...
Tue, 01/28/2020 - 03:26
Multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MRE) colonize the intestine asymptomatically from where they can breach into the bloodstream and cause life-threatening infections, especially in heavily colonized patients. Despite the clinical relevance of MRE colonization levels, we know little about how they vary in hospitalized patients and the clinical factors that determine those levels. Here, we...
Sat, 12/21/2019 - 03:40
Community-onset bloodstream infections (CO-BSI) are major causes of severe febrile illness and death worldwide. In light of new data and the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among pathogens causing BSI, we undertook a systematic review of hospital-based studies of CO-BSI among patients hospitalized with fever. Without restriction to language or country, we searched PubMed, Web of...

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