Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

Wed, 05/19/2021 - 10:01
Escherichia coli is the most commonly identified human pathogen and a prominent microorganism of the gut microbiota. Acquired resistance to antibiotics in this species is driven mainly by horizontal gene transfer and plasmid acquisition. Currently, the main concern is the acquisition of extended-spectrum β-lactamases of the CTX-M type in E. coli, a worldwide-observed phenomenon. Plasmids...
Wed, 05/19/2021 - 10:01
Leishmaniasis and Chagas are among the most significant neglected tropical diseases. Due to several drawbacks with the current chemotherapy, developing new antikinetoplastid drugs has become an urgent issue. In the present work, a bioassay-guided investigation of the root bark of Maytenus chiapensis on Leishmania amazonensis and Trypanosoma cruzi led to the identification of two D:A-friedo-nor-...
Wed, 05/19/2021 - 10:01
Xpert MTB/RIF rapidly detects resistance to rifampicin (RR); however, this test misses I491F-RR conferring rpoB mutation, common in southern Africa. In addition, Xpert MTB/RIF does not distinguish between viable and dead Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). We aimed to investigate the ability of thin-layer agar (TLA) direct drug-susceptibility testing (DST) to detect MTB and its drug-resistance...
Wed, 05/19/2021 - 10:01
The worldwide distribution of qnr genes found on plasmids and their presence on the chromosomes of aquatic bacteria, such as Vibrio vulnificus, one of the suspected sources, suggests an origin before the development of synthetic quinolones. However, their native function remains unknown. Previous work indicated that expression of qnrVv in V. vulnificus was induced by cold shock. To investigate...
Wed, 05/19/2021 - 10:01
OXA-48-type β-lactamases are now routinely encountered in bacterial infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales. These enzymes are of high and growing clinical significance due to the importance of carbapenems in treatment of health care-associated infections by Gram-negative bacteria, the wide and increasing dissemination of OXA-48 enzymes on plasmids, and the challenges...
Wed, 05/19/2021 - 10:01
Salmonella enterica can exist in food animals as multiserovar populations, and different serovars can harbor diverse antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles. Conventional Salmonella isolation assesses AMR only in the most abundant members of a multiserovar population, which typically reflects their relative abundance in the initial sample. Therefore, AMR in underlying serovars is an undetected...
Wed, 05/19/2021 - 10:01
The intestinal protozoan Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of diarrheal disease and mortality in young children. There is currently no fully effective treatment for cryptosporidiosis, which has stimulated interest in anticryptosporidial development over the last ~10 years, with numerous lead compounds identified, including several tRNA synthetase inhibitors. Here, we report the results of a...
Wed, 05/19/2021 - 10:01
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persistence in tissue reservoirs is a major barrier to HIV cure. While antiretrovirals (ARVs) suppress viral replication, antiretroviral therapy (ART) interruption results in rapid rebound viremia that may originate from lymphoid tissues. To understand the relationship between anatomic distribution of ARV exposure and viral expression in lymph nodes, we...
Tue, 04/20/2021 - 10:01
We identified an erm42-carrying integrative and conjugative element, ICE_erm42, in 26.4% of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Albany isolates recovered from cases of human salmonellosis between 2014 and 2019 in Taiwan. ICE_erm42-carrying strains displayed high-level resistance to azithromycin, and the element could move into the phylogenetically distant species Vibrio cholerae via...
Tue, 04/20/2021 - 10:01
We evaluated human-like the efficacy of intravenous doses of fosfomycin of 8 g every 8 h (8 g/Q8h) and of amikacin (15 mg/kg/Q24h) in monotherapy and in combination against six fosfomycin-heteroresistant Escherichia coli isolates using a hollow-fiber infection model (HFIM). Six fosfomycin-heteroresistant E. coli isolates (four with strong mutator phenotype) and the control strain E. coli ATCC...
Tue, 04/20/2021 - 10:01
AcrAB-TolC is a major tripartite multidrug efflux pump conferring resistance to a wide variety of compounds in Gram-negative pathogens. Many AcrB mutants have been constructed through site-directed mutagenesis to probe the mechanism of AcrB function in antibiotic resistance. However, much less is known about the actual drug resistance-related mutants that naturally occur in clinically isolated...
Tue, 04/20/2021 - 10:01
The use of colistin as a last-resort antimicrobial is compromised by the emergence of resistant enterobacteria with acquired determinants like mcr genes, mutations that activate the PmrAB system, or still unknown mechanisms. This work analyzed 74 Escherichia coli isolates from healthy swine, turkey, or bovine, characterizing their colistin resistance determinants. The mcr-1 gene, detected in 69...
Fri, 03/19/2021 - 10:01
Quinoline antimalarials cause drug-induced electrocardiographic QT prolongation, a potential risk factor for torsade de pointes. The effects of currently used antimalarials on the electrocardiogram (ECG) were assessed in pregnant women with malaria. Pregnant women with microscopy-confirmed parasitemia of any malaria species were enrolled in an open-label randomized controlled trial on the...
Fri, 03/19/2021 - 10:01
A minimal genome and absent bacterial cell wall render Mycoplasma hominis inherently resistant to most antimicrobials except lincosamides, tetracyclines, and fluoroquinolones. Often dismissed as a commensal (except where linked to preterm birth), it causes septic arthritis in immunodeficient patients and is increasingly associated with transplant failure (particularly lung) accompanying...
Fri, 03/19/2021 - 10:01
We sought to determine if Acinetobacter baumannii is capable of altering the pharmacodynamics of an antistaphylococcal β-lactam. Two strains of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and two A. baumannii isolates were studied in 24-h static time-killing experiments under monoculture or coculture conditions. Bacterial killing of meropenem was described using an empirical...
Fri, 03/19/2021 - 10:01
Gonorrhea is a common, sexually transmitted disease caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Multidrug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae is an urgent threat, and the development of a new antimicrobial agent that functions via a new mechanism is strongly desired. We evaluated the in vitro and in vivo activities of a DNA gyrase/topoisomerase IV inhibitor, TP0480066, which is a novel 8-(methylamino)-2-oxo-1,2-...
Fri, 03/19/2021 - 10:01
Synergy between piperacillin-tazobactam and meropenem against KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae was recently demonstrated. We sought to test the combination against a broader range of serine carbapenemase producers. We tested the combination against 10 KPC-producing Escherichia coli and 10 OXA-48 family-producing K. pneumoniae isolates. Antibiotic concentrations used are achievable in...
Fri, 03/19/2021 - 10:01
The diazabicyclooctane (DBO) inhibitor avibactam (AVI) reversibly inactivates most serine β-lactamases, including the CTX-M β-lactamases. Currently, more than 230 unique CTX-M members distributed in five clusters with less than 5% amino acid sequence divergence within each group have been described. Recently, a variant named CTX-M-151 was isolated from a Salmonella enterica subsp....
Fri, 03/19/2021 - 10:01
Negamycin is a natural pseudodipeptide antibiotic with promising activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus, and good efficacy in infection models. It binds to ribosomes with a novel binding mode, stimulating miscoding and inhibiting ribosome translocation. We were particularly interested in studying...
Fri, 03/19/2021 - 10:01
Screening strategies for antituberculosis compounds using Mycobacterium tuberculosis are time consuming and require biosafety level 3 (BSL3) facilities, which makes the development of high-throughput assays difficult and expensive. Mycobacterium marinum, a close genetic relative of M. tuberculosis, possesses several advantages as a suitable model for tuberculosis drug screening. However, despite...
Thu, 02/18/2021 - 10:01
Molecular testing is rapidly becoming an integral component of global tuberculosis (TB) control. Uncommon mechanisms of resistance escape detection by these platforms and undermine our ability to contain outbreaks. This article is a systematic review of published articles that reported isoniazid (INH) resistance-conferring mutations between September 2013 and December 2019. The genes katG, inhA,...
Thu, 02/18/2021 - 10:01
Chagas disease reactivation in HIV-positive people is an opportunistic infection with 79 to 100% mortality. It commonly involves the central nervous system (CNS). Early treatment with trypanocidal drugs such as benznidazole (BNZ) is crucial for this severe manifestation of Trypanosoma cruzi infection. However, limited BNZ clinical pharmacology data are available, especially its concentration in...
Thu, 02/18/2021 - 10:01
H7N9 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection in a human was first reported in 2017. A/duck/Japan/AQ-HE29-22/2017 (H7N9) (Dk/HE29-22), found in imported duck meat at an airport in Japan, possesses a hemagglutinin with a multibasic cleavage site, indicating high pathogenicity in chickens, as in the case of other H7 HPAIVs. In the present study, we examined the pathogenicity of Dk/...
Thu, 02/18/2021 - 10:01
Zinc is an essential micronutrient for mycobacteria, and its depletion induces multiple adaptive changes in cellular physiology, the most remarkable of which are remodeling and hibernation of ribosomes. Ribosome remodeling, induced upon relatively moderate depletion of zinc, involves replacement of multiple ribosomal proteins containing the zinc-binding CXXC motif (called C+ r proteins) by their...
Thu, 02/18/2021 - 10:01
Schistosomiasis poses a serious threat to human health and remains a major tropical and parasitic disease in more than 70 countries. Praziquantel (PZQ) has been the primary treatment for schistosomiasis for nearly 4 decades. However, its efficacy against migratory-stage schistosomula is limited. Radicicol (RAD), a β-resorcylic acid lactone derived from Paecilomyces sp. strain SC0924, was...
Thu, 02/18/2021 - 10:01
Candida endophthalmitis is a serious sight-threatening complication of candidemia that may occur before or during antifungal therapy. Hematogenous Candida meningoencephalitis (HCME) is also a serious manifestation of disseminated candidiasis in premature infants, immunosuppressed children, and immunocompromised adults. We evaluated the antifungal efficacy and pharmacokinetics of the prodrug...
Thu, 02/18/2021 - 10:01
IMP-type carbapenemase, found in various Gram-negative bacteria, has been increasingly detected worldwide. We aimed to study the outcomes and risk factors for acquisition of IMP-type carbapenemase-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (IMP-CRE), as this has not been evaluated in detail. We conducted a matched case-case-control study of patients from whom IMP-CRE isolates were obtained...
Thu, 02/18/2021 - 10:01
Accurate antibiotic susceptibility testing is essential for successful tuberculosis treatment. Recent studies have highlighted the limitations of MIC-based phenotypic susceptibility methods in detecting other aspects of antibiotic susceptibilities in bacteria. Duration and peak of antibiotic exposure, at or above the MIC required for killing the bacterial population, has emerged as another...
Thu, 02/18/2021 - 10:01
Molecular genotyping holds tremendous potential to detect antimalarial drug resistance (ADR) related to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, it relies on the use of complicated procedures and expensive instruments. Thus, rapid point-of-care testing (POCT) molecular tools are urgently needed for field survey and clinical use. Herein, a POCT platform consisting of multiple-allele-...
Thu, 02/18/2021 - 10:01
Atovaquone-proguanil remains effective against multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Southeast Asia, but resistance is mediated by a single point mutation in cytochrome b (cytb) that can arise during treatment. Among 14 atovaquone-proguanil treatment failures in a clinical trial in Cambodia, only one recrudescence harbored the cytb mutation Y268C. Deep sequencing did not detect the...
Thu, 01/21/2021 - 10:02
New treatment strategies are required for cryptococcosis, a leading mycosis in HIV-AIDS patients. Following the identification of Cryptococcus proteins differentially expressed in response to fluconazole, we targeted farnesyl pryrophosphate synthetase (FPPS), an enzyme in the squalene biosynthesis pathway, using nitrogenous bisphosphonates. We hypothesized that these would disrupt squalene...
Thu, 01/21/2021 - 10:02
mcr-10 is a newly identified plasmid-borne colistin resistance gene, but its mobilization mechanism remains unclear. In this study, mcr-10 was found on an IncFIB plasmid carrying virulence genes mrkABCDFJ, iucABCD/iutA, and eitCBAD in a Cronobacter sakazakii isolate. By comparison with closely related plasmids, two recombination sites were identified flanking the genetic element containing mcr-10...
Thu, 01/21/2021 - 10:02
The bacterial cell wall plays a key role in viability and is an important drug target. The cell wall is made of elongated polymers that are cross-linked to one another to form a load-bearing mesh. An alternative cell wall cross-linking mechanism used by the l,d-transpeptidase YcbB has been implicated in the stress-regulated roles of β-lactam resistance, outer membrane defect rescue, and...
Thu, 01/21/2021 - 10:02
Chronic Chagas disease might have an impact on benznidazole pharmacokinetics with potential alterations in the therapeutic dosing regimen. This study aims to investigate the influence of chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection on the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of benznidazole in mice. Healthy (n = 40) and chronically T. cruzi (Berenice-78 strain)-infected (n = 40) Swiss female 10-month-old...
Thu, 01/21/2021 - 10:02
Resistance mechanisms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to ceftolozane/tazobactam (C/T) were assessed on a collection of 420 nonredundant strains nonsusceptible to ceftazidime (MIC > 8 μg/ml) and/or imipenem (>4 μg/ml), collected by 36 French hospital laboratories over a one-month period (the GERPA study). Rates of C/T resistance (MIC > 4/4 μg/ml) were equal to 10% in this population (...
Thu, 01/21/2021 - 10:02
Antibiotic therapy is expected to impact host microbial communities considerably, yet many studies focused on microbiome and health are often confounded by limited information about antibiotic exposure. Given that antibiotics have diverse pharmacokinetic and antimicrobial properties, investigating the type and concentration of these agents in specific host specimens would provide much needed...
Thu, 12/17/2020 - 10:01
Increasing mobile colistin resistance, mediated by the mcr gene family, in Enterobacteriaceae has become a global concern. Among the 10 reported mcr genes, mcr-8 was first identified in Klebsiella pneumoniae, which could cause severe infections with high mortality. Information about the prevalence and genetic context of mcr-8 is still lacking. In this study, we found that mcr-8 was present in 9....
Thu, 12/17/2020 - 10:01
Fluoroquinolones (FQ) are crucial components of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) treatment. Differing levels of resistance are associated with specific mutations within the quinolone-resistance-determining region (QRDR) of gyrA. We sequenced the QRDR from serial isolates of MDR TB patients in the Preserving Effective TB Treatment Study (PETTS) with baseline FQ resistance (FQR) or...
Thu, 12/17/2020 - 10:01
Tetracyclines are widely used in veterinary medicine and food animal production. Campylobacter members are major foodborne pathogens, and their resistance to tetracycline has been widely reported in different countries. To date, Tet(O), a ribosomal protection protein, is the only confirmed Tet resistance determinant in Campylobacter spp. Here, we reported the detection and characterization of a...
Thu, 12/17/2020 - 10:01
A healthy, intact gut microbiota is often resistant to colonization by gastrointestinal pathogens. During periods of dysbiosis, however, organisms such as Clostridioides difficile can thrive. We describe an optimized in vitro colonization resistance assay for C. difficile in stool (CRACS) and demonstrate the utility of this assay by assessing changes in colonization resistance following...
Thu, 12/17/2020 - 10:01
We previously identified a small-molecule inhibitor of capsule biogenesis (designated DU011) and identified its target as MprA, a MarR family transcriptional repressor of multidrug efflux pumps. Unlike other proposed MprA ligands, such as salicylate and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), DU011 does not alter Escherichia coli antibiotic resistance and has significantly enhanced inhibition of capsule...
Thu, 12/17/2020 - 10:01
Pretomanid was approved by the U.S. FDA, via the limited population pathway for antibacterial and antifungal drugs, as part of a three-drug regimen with bedaquiline and linezolid for the treatment of extensively drug-resistant and treatment-intolerant or nonresponsive multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The recommended dose of pretomanid is 200 mg once daily with food. The objective of this work...
Thu, 12/17/2020 - 10:01
Bacterial pathogens are rapidly evolving resistance to all clinically available antibiotics. One part of the solution to this complex issue is to better understand the resistance mechanisms to new and existing antibiotics. Here, we focus on two antibiotics. Teixobactin is a recently discovered promising antibiotic that is claimed to "kill pathogens without detectable resistance" (L. L. Ling, T....
Thu, 12/17/2020 - 10:01
Current guidelines recommend vancomycin and linezolid as first-line agents against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nosocomial pneumonia. Telavancin is a potential new therapeutic alternative, specifically in monomicrobial MRSA pneumonia. This study compared the efficacies of telavancin versus linezolid in a porcine model of severe MRSA pneumonia. In 18 mechanically ventilated...
Thu, 12/17/2020 - 10:01
Silver gulls carry phylogenetically diverse Escherichia coli, including globally dominant extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) sequence types and pandemic ExPEC-ST131 clades; however, our large-scale study (504 samples) on silver gulls nesting off the coast of New South Wales identified E. coli ST457 as the most prevalent. A phylogenetic analysis of whole-genome sequences (WGS) of 138 ST457...
Thu, 12/17/2020 - 10:01
Monitoring of Plasmodium falciparum sensitivity to antimalarial drugs in Africa is vital for malaria elimination. However, the commonly used ex vivo/in vitro 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) test gives inconsistent results for several antimalarials, while the alternative ring-stage survival assay (RSA) for artemisinin derivatives has not been widely adopted. Here, we applied an alternative two...
Wed, 11/18/2020 - 10:01
In Australia, cases of shigellosis usually occur in returned travelers from regions of shigellosis endemicity or in men who have sex with men. Resistance to multiple antibiotics has significantly increased in Shigella sonnei isolates and represents a significant public health concern. We investigate an outbreak of multidrug-resistant S. sonnei in Victoria, Australia. We undertook whole-genome...
Wed, 11/18/2020 - 10:01
Patients with traveler’s diarrhea (TD) can acquire extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing members of the Enterobacterales (EPE) during travel to areas of endemicity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of EPE carriage in travelers from southern Sweden who were sampled for bacterial diagnostics of TD compared to those of EPE carriage...
Wed, 11/18/2020 - 10:01
Extended-spectrum class C β-lactamases have evolved to rapidly inactivate expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, a class of antibiotics designed to be resistant to hydrolysis by β-lactamase enzymes. To better understand the mechanism by which Acinetobacter-derived cephalosporinase-7 (ADC-7), a chromosomal AmpC enzyme, hydrolyzes these molecules, we determined the X-ray crystal structure of...
Wed, 10/21/2020 - 10:01
Achromobacter spp. are recognized as emerging pathogens in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Though recent works have established species-level identification using nrdA sequencing, there is a dearth in knowledge relating to species-level antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and antimicrobial combinations, which hampers the use of optimal antimicrobial combinations for the treatment of chronic...

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