Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

Wed, 10/21/2020 - 10:01
Achromobacter spp. are recognized as emerging pathogens in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Though recent works have established species-level identification using nrdA sequencing, there is a dearth in knowledge relating to species-level antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and antimicrobial combinations, which hampers the use of optimal antimicrobial combinations for the treatment of chronic...
Wed, 10/21/2020 - 10:01
RO7049389, an inhibitor of hepatitis B virus (HBV) capsid assembly, is being developed for the treatment of patients with chronic HBV infection. The objectives of this first-in-human study are to assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), food effect, inhibitory effect on CYP3A, and effect on QT of RO7049389 in healthy participants. Five components, single-ascending-dose (SAD)...
Wed, 10/21/2020 - 10:01
Enteric fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) and S. enterica serovar Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi), is a common travel-related illness. Limited data are available on the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) patterns of these serovars among travelers. Records of travelers with a culture-confirmed diagnosis seen during or after travel from January 2007 to December 2018 were obtained...
Wed, 10/21/2020 - 10:01
Delayed clearance of Plasmodium falciparum by artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) has already been observed for African isolates. Here, we aimed to investigate the prevalence, among travelers returning from African countries, of polymorphisms in two genes correlated with delayed parasite clearance (encoding P. falciparum Kelch 13 [PfK13] and ubiquitin-specific protease 1 [pfubp1])...
Wed, 10/21/2020 - 10:01
Neurocysticercosis and trichuriasis are difficult-to-treat parasitic infections that affect more than 1.5 billion people worldwide. Oxfendazole, a potent broad-spectrum benzimidazole anthelmintic approved for use in veterinary medicine, has shown substantial antiparasitic activity against neurocysticercosis and intestinal helminths in preclinical studies. As part of a program to transition...
Wed, 10/21/2020 - 10:01
Porphyromonas gingivalis is one of the primary causative agents of periodontal disease and initially colonizes the oral cavity by adhering to commensal streptococci. Adherence requires the interaction of a minor fimbrial protein (Mfa1) of P. gingivalis with streptococcal antigen I/II (AgI/II). Our previous work identified an AgI/II peptide that potently inhibited adherence and significantly...
Wed, 10/21/2020 - 10:01
The spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria presents a global health challenge. Efficient surveillance of bacteria harboring antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) is a critical aspect to controlling the spread. Increased access to microbial genomic data from many diverse populations informs this surveillance but only when functional ARGs are identifiable within the data set. Current, homology-based...
Wed, 10/21/2020 - 10:01
We isolated 47 Acinetobacter strains carrying tet(X3) and 4 ST767 E. coli strains carrying tet(X4) from 296 rectal swab samples from dairy cows on a Chinese farm. tet(X3) was located on chromosomes or diverse plasmids, and tet(X4) was located on IncFIB/FIA(HI1)/X1 nontransferable plasmid. The coexistence of tet(X3) and carbapenemase genes, including blaOXA-58 and blaNDM-1, was detected in 9...
Wed, 10/21/2020 - 10:01
Lomentospora prolificans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen with low susceptibility to current antifungal drugs. Here, we tested the in vitro susceptibility of 8 drugs against 42 clinical L. prolificans isolates. All isolates showed high MICs to voriconazole (MIC90>16 μg/ml), itraconazole (MIC90>16 μg/ml), posaconazole (MIC90>16 μg/ml), isavuconazole (MIC90>16 μg/ml),...
Tue, 09/22/2020 - 10:01
Staphylococcus argenteus infection was initially described in Aboriginal patients in the Northern Territories of Australia as a predominant cause of skin infections and is rare outside Southeast Asia. A first well-characterized case of S. argenteus infection has now been described in the United States, involving a recurrent hemodialysis catheter infection, in which unstable daptomycin resistance...
Tue, 09/22/2020 - 10:01
The emergence of mobile colistin resistance (mcr) genes has raised a global concern (1–3), as colistin is considered a last-resort antimicrobial for treating fatal infections caused by multidrug-resistant or carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae.
Tue, 09/22/2020 - 10:01
The acquisition of antibiotic resistance commonly imposes fitness costs, a reduction in the fitness of bacteria in the absence of drugs. These costs have been quantified primarily using in vitro experiments and a small number of in vivo studies in mice, and it is commonly assumed that these diverse methods are consistent. Here, we used an insect model of infection to compare the fitness costs of...
Tue, 09/22/2020 - 10:01
The Swiss Centre for Antibiotic Resistance (ANRESIS) has recently noted an increase of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant (ESC-R) Shigella sonnei isolates nationwide (3.8% in 2016 versus 37.5% in 2019). To understand this phenomenon, we analyzed 25 representative isolates (of which 14 were ESC-R) collected in Switzerland during 2016 to 2019. Whole-genome sequencing was achieved using both...
Tue, 09/22/2020 - 10:01
The glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor biosynthesis inhibitor gepinacin demonstrates broad-spectrum antifungal activity and negligible mammalian toxicity in culture but is metabolically labile. The stability and bioactivity of 39 analogs were tested in vitro to identify LCUT-8, a stabilized lead with increased potency and promising single-dose pharmacokinetics. Unfortunately, no antifungal...
Tue, 09/22/2020 - 10:01
Lactoferrin (LF) is an iron-binding glycoprotein with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Previously, we discovered that LF synergistically enhanced the antifungal efficacy of amphotericin B (AMB) across a variety of yeast species and subsequently hypothesized that this synergy was enhanced by the presence of small peptides derived from the whole LF molecule. In this study, LF was digested...
Tue, 09/22/2020 - 10:01
Giardiasis, caused by the intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia, is a severe diarrheal disease, endemic in poverty-stricken regions of the world, and also a common infection in developed countries. The available therapeutic options are associated with adverse effects, and G. lamblia resistance to the standard-of-care drugs is spreading. Fumagillin, an antimicrosporidiosis drug, is a therapeutic...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 10:01
Widespread resistance against antimalarial drugs thwarts current efforts for controlling the disease and urges the discovery of new effective treatments. Drug repositioning is increasingly becoming an attractive strategy since it can reduce costs, risks, and time-to-market. Herein, we have used this strategy to identify novel antimalarial hits. We used a comparative in silico chemogenomics...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 10:01
This study summarizes drug resistance analyses in 4 recent phase 2b trials of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion inhibitor presatovir in naturally infected adults. Adult hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients, lung transplant recipients, or hospitalized patients with naturally acquired, laboratory-confirmed RSV infection were enrolled in 4 randomized, double-blind, placebo-...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 10:01
The incidence of invasive fungal infections is rising due to the increase in susceptible populations. Current clinically available drugs have therapeutic limitations due to toxicity, a narrow spectrum of activity, and, more importantly, the consistent rise of fungal species that are intrinsically resistant or that develop resistance due to prolonged therapy. Thus, there is an urgent need for new...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 10:01
Carbapenem and colistin antibiotics are often the last-resort treatment for severe infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria (1–3). Fortunately, most carbapenemase producers are susceptible to colistin, and many colistin-resistant strains have been reported to be sensitive to carbapenems (2–5). The present study is the first report of a Klebsiella pneumoniae strain LM22-1 harboring blaNDM...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 10:01
Despite excellent in vitro activity, aminoglycosides are used conservatively to treat multidrug-resistant bacterial infections due to their associated nephrotoxicity. Aminoglycosides are known to accumulate in the kidneys, but the quantitative relationship between drug exposures and nephrotoxicity is not well established. To bridge the knowledge gap, the objective of this study was to develop an...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 10:01
The increase of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) and lack of therapeutic options due to the scarcity of new antibiotics has sparked interest toward the use of intravenous fosfomycin against systemic CRE infections. We aimed to investigate the in vitro pharmacodynamics of fosfomycin against carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella aerogenes. Time-kill studies and...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 10:01
Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular parasite that can cause life-threatening acute disease, differentiates into a quiescent cyst stage to establish lifelong chronic infections in animal hosts, including humans. This tissue cyst reservoir, which can reactivate into an acute infection, is currently refractory to clinically available therapeutics. Recently, we and others have discovered...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 10:01
The treatment of infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales, especially New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)-producing bacteria, is challenging. Although less common in the United States than some other carbapenemase producers, NDM-producing bacteria are a public health threat due to the limited treatment options available. Here, we report on the antibiotic susceptibility of...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 10:01
Criteria defining bedaquiline resistance for tuberculosis have been proposed addressing an emerging concern. We evaluated bedaquiline phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (pDST) criteria using drug-resistant tuberculosis clinical isolates tested at five reference laboratories. Isolates were tested at the proposed bedaquiline MGIT960 and 7H11 agar proportion (AP) critical concentrations and also...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 10:01
Current antileishmanial treatment is hampered by limitations, such as drug toxicity and the risk of treatment failure, which may be related to parasitic drug resistance. Given the urgent need for novel drugs, the Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi) has undertaken a drug discovery program, which has resulted in the identification of aminopyrazoles, a highly promising antileishmanial...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 10:01
Erm proteins methylate a specific adenine residue (A2058, Escherichia coli coordinates) conferring macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) antibiotic resistance on a variety of microorganisms, ranging from antibiotic producers to pathogens. To identify the minimal motif required to be recognized and methylated by the Erm protein, various RNA substrates from 23S rRNA were constructed, and the...
Thu, 07/23/2020 - 10:01
Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is the first-line antimalarial regimen in Indonesia. Susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to artemisinin is falling in the Greater Mekong subregion, but it is not known whether the efficacy of current combinations is also threatened in nearby Sumatera. We evaluated the genetic loci pfcrt, pfmdr1, and pfk13, considered to be under selection by...
Thu, 07/23/2020 - 10:01
Pharyngeal infections by Neisseria gonorrhoeae are often asymptomatic, making them difficult to treat. However, in vivo animal modeling of human pharyngeal infections by pathogenic Neisseria species is challenging due to numerous host tropism barriers. We have relied on rhesus macaques to investigate pharyngeal persistence of naturally occurring Neisseria species in response to antibiotics. These...
Thu, 07/23/2020 - 10:01
Reports of transmissible colistin resistance show the importance of comprehensive colistin resistance surveillance. Recently, a new allele of the mobile colistin resistance (mcr) gene family designated mcr-9, which shows variation in genetic context and colistin susceptibility, was reported. We tested over 100 Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli isolates with mcr-9 from the National...
Thu, 07/23/2020 - 10:01
Flaviviruses such as Zika virus (ZIKV), dengue virus (DENV), and West Nile virus (WNV) are major global pathogens for which safe and effective antiviral therapies are not currently available. To identify antiviral small molecules with well-characterized safety and bioavailability profiles, we screened a library of 2,907 approved drugs and pharmacologically active compounds for inhibitors of ZIKV...
Thu, 07/23/2020 - 10:01
Alveolar echinococcosis (AE), caused by the larval stage of the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis, is a lethal disease in humans. Novel therapeutic options are urgently needed since the current chemotherapy displays limited efficiency in AE treatment. In this study, we assessed the in vitro and in vivo effects of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/MEK/extracellular signal-regulated...
Thu, 07/23/2020 - 10:01
Novel antiparasitic activity was observed for the antifungal occidiofungin. It efficaciously and irreversibly inhibited the zoonotic enteric parasite Cryptosporidium parvum in vitro with limited cytotoxicity (50% effective concentration [EC50] = 120 nM versus 50% cytotoxic concentration [TC50] = 988 nM), and its application disrupted the parasite morphology. This study expands the spectrum of...
Thu, 07/23/2020 - 10:01
Resistance to polymyxin antibiotics is increasing. Without new antibiotic classes, combination therapy is often required. We systematically investigated bacterial killing with polymyxin-based combinations against multidrug-resistant (including polymyxin-resistant), carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. Monotherapies and double- and triple-combination therapies were compared to identify...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 10:01
Rifampin is the first-line antituberculosis drug, with Mycobacterium tuberculosis RNA polymerase as the molecular target. Unfortunately, M. tuberculosis strains that are resistant to rifampin have been identified in clinical settings, which limits its therapeutic effects. In clinical isolates, S531L and D516V (in Escherichia coli) are two common mutated codons in the gene rpoB, corresponding to...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 10:01
Attention has been paid to H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) because of its heavy burden on the poultry industry and human mortality. Since an influenza A virus carrying N6 neuraminidase (NA) has never spread in humans, the potential for H5N6 HPAIV to cause disease in humans and the efficacy of antiviral drugs against the virus need to be urgently assessed. We used nonhuman...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 10:01
The rise of extensively drug-resistant and multidrug-resistant strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae has occurred in parallel with the increasing demand for new drugs. However, the current methods of drug discovery are burdened with rigorous assessments and require more time than can be spared until gonococcal infections become difficult to control. To address this urgency, we utilized a drug-...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 10:01
Globally, mutations in the katG gene account for the majority of isoniazid-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Buyankhishig et al. analyzed a limited number of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in Mongolia and found that isoniazid resistance was mainly attributable to inhA mutations (B. Buyankhishig, T. Oyuntuya, B. Tserelmaa, J. Sarantuya, et al., Int J Mycobacteriol 1:40–44...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 10:01
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has grown to become a major burden on health care systems. The cumulation of limited therapeutic options and worsened patient outcomes with persistent MRSA bacteremia has driven research in optimizing its initial management. The guidelines published by the Infectious Diseases Society of America currently recommend combination therapy for...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 10:01
Clostridium (Clostridioides) difficile causes toxin-mediated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis, primarily among hospital inpatients. Outbreaks of C. difficile infection (CDI) have been caused by strains with acquired antimicrobial resistance, particularly fluoroquinolone resistance, including C. difficile ribotype (RT) 027 in North America and Europe and RT 017, the most common strain in Asia...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 10:01
Each year, 5% to 20% of the population of the United States becomes infected with influenza A virus. Combination therapy with two or more antiviral agents has been considered a potential treatment option for influenza virus infection. However, the clinical results derived from combination treatment with two or more antiviral drugs have been variable. We examined the effectiveness of cotreatment...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 10:01
Florfenicol belongs to a class of phenicol antimicrobials widely used as feed additives and for the treatment of respiratory infections. In recent years, increasing resistance to florfenicol has been reported in Campylobacter spp., the leading foodborne enteric pathogens causing diarrheal diseases worldwide. Here, we reported the identification of fexA, a novel mobile florfenicol resistance gene...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 10:01
Two nonamidated host defense peptides named Pin2[G] and FA1 were evaluated against three types of pathogenic bacteria: two (Staphylococcus aureus UPD13 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPD3) isolated from diabetic foot ulcer patients, and another (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium [ATCC 14028]) from a commercial collection. In vitro experiments showed that the antimicrobial performance of the...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 10:01
Ceftazidime-avibactam and cefiderocol are two of the latest generation β-lactam agents that possess expanded activity against highly drug-resistant bacteria, including carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales. Here, we show that structural changes in AmpC β-lactamases can confer reduced susceptibility to both agents. A multidrug-resistant Enterobacter cloacae clinical strain (Ent385) was...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 10:01
A total of 2,283 Salmonella isolates were recovered from 18,334 samples, including samples from patients with diarrhea, food of animal origin, and pets, across 5 provinces of China. The highest prevalence of Salmonella spp. was detected in chicken meats (39.3%, 486/1,237). Fifteen serogroups and 66 serovars were identified, with Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis being the...
Fri, 05/22/2020 - 03:33
Polymyxins are increasingly used as the critical last-resort therapeutic options for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Unfortunately, polymyxin resistance has increased gradually over the past few years. Although studies on polymyxin mechanisms are expanding, systemwide analyses of the underlying mechanism for polymyxin resistance and stress response are still lacking. To understand how...
Fri, 05/22/2020 - 03:33
Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative pathogens are a critical public health threat and there is an urgent need for new treatments. Carbapenemases (β-lactamases able to inactivate carbapenems) have been identified in both serine β-lactamase (SBL) and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) families. The recent introduction of SBL carbapenemase inhibitors has provided alternative therapeutic options...
Fri, 05/22/2020 - 03:33
Antibiotic combination therapy is used for severe infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria, yet data regarding which combinations are most effective are lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of polymyxin B in combination with 13 other antibiotics against four clinical strains of MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We evaluated the interactions of...
Fri, 05/22/2020 - 03:33
The rapid evolution of resistance in the malaria parasite to every single drug developed against it calls for the urgent identification of new molecular targets. Using a stain specific for the detection of intracellular amyloid deposits in live cells, we have detected the presence of abundant protein aggregates in Plasmodium falciparum blood stages and female gametes cultured in vitro, in the...
Fri, 05/22/2020 - 03:33
The continuous spread of antimalarial drug resistance is a threat to current chemotherapy efficacy. Therefore, characterizing the genetic diversity of drug resistance markers is needed to follow treatment effectiveness and further update control strategies. Here, we genotyped Plasmodium falciparum resistance gene markers associated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and artemisinin-based...

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