Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

Sat, 10/17/2020 - 02:02
Abstract Tolypocladium guangdongense is a high-value edible fungus with various medicinal and food safety properties. However, its evolutionary and genetic information is still limited. Mitochondrial genomes are potential models for molecular evolution and phylogenetic studies. In this study, we sequenced the complete mitogenome of T. guangdongense, demonstrating circular sequence of 46,102 bp,...
Sat, 10/17/2020 - 02:02
Abstract In light of emerging antibiotic resistance, bacterial cell wall lytic enzymes are promising antimicrobial agents that degrade bacterial peptidoglycan while specifically recognizing the target bacterium. The efficacy of lytic enzymes against several multi-drug-resistant pathogens infecting humans has led to many efforts focused on in vivo therapeutic applications. However, the potential...
Sat, 10/17/2020 - 02:02
Abstract Bacteriophage-based methods for the rapid detection of viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in veterinary specimens are a recent addition to the Johne’s disease diagnostic toolbox. Here, we report the use of D29 mycobacteriophage-coated tosylactivated paramagnetic beads to capture and concentrate MAP cells from samples (termed phagomagnetic separation, PhMS) and then...
Mon, 10/12/2020 - 02:02
Abstract The red yeast (Rhodotorula mucilaginosa: Rho) has abundant extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and intracellular vesicles (Ves). This study explored the mechanisms of Rho to resist Cu toxicity from extracellular to intracellular, i.e., EPS, membrane, and Ves. The Cu2+ concentrations were set from 0 to 200 mg/L. In contrast to other heavy metals (e.g., Pb2+), low Cu2+ stress has no...
Thu, 10/08/2020 - 02:02
Plasma-functionalized liquids (PFL) emerge as an effective sanitizer with great potential to be against a variety of microorganisms but their applications on seafood products are limited. In the current study, the physicochemical properties of plasma-functionalized water (PFW) and plasma-functionalized buffer (PFB), and their antimicrobial activities on grass carp, were investigated under...
Sun, 10/04/2020 - 02:02
Abstract Salmonella spp. can cause animal and human salmonellosis. In this study, we established a simple method to detect all Salmonella species by amplifying a specific region within the flgE gene encoding the flagellar hook protein. Our preliminary sequence analysis among flagella-associated genes of Salmonella revealed that although Salmonella Gallinarum and Salmonella Pullorum are lacking...
Fri, 09/04/2020 - 02:02
Abstract Staphylococcus aureus causes severe infections and among all methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) remains a great challenge in spite of decade research of antibacterial compounds. Even though some synthetic antibiotics have been developed, they are not effective against MRSA, and hence, there is a search for natural, alternative and plant-based antibacterial compound. In this...
Fri, 09/04/2020 - 02:02
Abstract Arabinanases from glycoside hydrolase family GH93 are enzymes with exo-activity that hydrolyze the α-1,5 bonds between arabinose residues present on arabinan. Currently, several initiatives aiming to use byproducts rich in arabinan such as pectin and sugar beet pulp as raw material to produce various compounds of interest are being developed. However, it is necessary to use robust...
Fri, 09/04/2020 - 02:02
Rhamnolipids have extensive potential applications and are the most promising biosurfactants for commercialization. The efficient and accurate identification and analysis of these are important to their production, application and commercialization. Accordingly, significant efforts have been made to identify and analyse rhamnolipids during screening of producing strains, fermentation and...
Fri, 09/04/2020 - 02:02
Abstract Flagellar motility in bacteria is a highly regulated and complex cellular process that requires high energy investment for movement and host colonization. Motility plays an important role in the lifestyle of Vibrio spp. in the aquatic environment and during host colonization. Flagellar motility in vibrios is associated with several cellular processes, such as movement, colonization,...
Fri, 09/04/2020 - 02:02
Substrate amendments composed of crab shell (CS) waste materials have been shown to significantly improve the longevity and performance of acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment systems containing spent mushroom compost (SMC), yet the development of key microbial populations within these systems has not been investigated. To better understand the effects of CS on microbial dynamics in these systems,...
Wed, 09/02/2020 - 02:02
Abstract Gluten is a cereal protein that is incompletely digested by human proteolytic enzymes that create immunogenic peptides that accumulate in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Although both environmental and human bacteria have been shown to expedite gluten hydrolysis, gluten intolerance is a growing concern. Here we hypothesize that together with food, we acquire environmental bacteria...
Wed, 09/02/2020 - 02:02
Brewers’ spent grain (BSG) is the most abundant by-product of brewing. Due to its microbiological instability and high perishability, fresh BSG is currently disposed of as low-cost cattle feed. However, BSG is an appealing source of nutrients to obtain products with high added value through microbial-based transformation. As such, BSG could become a potential source of income for the brewery...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 02:02
Abstract Drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) are unique engineering environments that are important routes for the acquisition and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in drinking water pose risks to human and environmental health. Metals are known stressors that can select for antibiotic resistance. The...
Wed, 08/05/2020 - 02:02
Abstract Kimchi is a traditional Korean fermented food prepared via spontaneous fermentation by various microorganisms originating from vegetables such as kimchi cabbage, radishes, and garlic. Recent advances in meta-omics approaches that integrate metataxonomics, metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and metabolomics have contributed to explaining and understanding food fermentation processes....
Wed, 07/22/2020 - 02:02
In recent years, an increasing number of Listeria monocytogenes strains with resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) have been reported. However, the genetic basis for QACs resistance in L. monocytogenes remains poorly understood. In the present study, we have characterized the operon lmo0852/lmo0853/lmo0854 (designated sugR/sugE1/sugE2) that contributes to QACs' resistance in L....
Wed, 07/22/2020 - 02:02
Mycoremediation holds great potential in remedying toxic environments contaminated with polyaromatic organic pollutants. To harness the natural process for practical applications, understanding the genetic and molecular basis of the remediation process is prerequisite. Compared to known bacterial degradation pathways of aromatic pollutants, however, the fungal degradation system is less studied...
Tue, 07/07/2020 - 02:02
Abstract Pullulanases are widely used in food, medicine, and other industries because they specifically hydrolyze α-1,6-glycosidic linkages in starch and oligosaccharides. In addition, high-temperature thermostable pullulanase has multiple advantages, including decreasing saccharification solution viscosity accompanied with enhanced mass transfer and reducing microbial contamination in starch...
Fri, 06/26/2020 - 02:02
This study reports the effects of early-life lactoferrin (LF) intervention on the colonic microbiota, intestinal function and mucosal immunity in suckling piglets. A total of 60 Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire suckling piglets from six sows were assigned to the control (CON) and LF groups in litters. The LF group piglets were fed 0.5 g/kg body weight of LF solution per day, and the CON group piglets...
Sun, 06/21/2020 - 02:02
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is commonly found in wheat and wheat-derived foods, posing a threat to human health. Biodegradation is an efficient and eco-friendly measure for mycotoxin detoxification. Understanding the mechanism of DON biodegradation is hence of great importance. Herein, we report the application of metabolomics methods for the analysis of DON degradation by a bacterial consortium...
Sat, 06/06/2020 - 02:02
Abstract Salmonella is a serious foodborne pathogen responsible for more than 90 million cases of gastroenteritis worldwide annually. Due to the gradual increase in antibiotic-resistant Salmonella strains, the identification of natural antibacterial substances is urgently needed. Herein, we purified natural l-phenyl lactic acid (L-PLA) from Lactobacillus plantarum ZJ316 and revealed its...
Wed, 06/03/2020 - 03:25
Multiple interlinked factors are associated with the global resistome, whereas multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens have been related to increased mortality rates in humans and animals. CTX-M-type is the most prevalent extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) among Enterobacteriaceae, which raises concern worldwide. Zoological gardens have a high density of animals that live very close to each other...
Wed, 06/03/2020 - 03:25
The emergence of lactic acid bacteria (LABs) resistant to existing antimicrobial drugs is a growing health crisis. To decrease the overuse of antibiotics, molecular diagnostic systems that can rapidly determine the presence of antibiotic resistance (AR) genes in LABs from yogurt samples are needed. This paper describes a fully integrated, miniaturized plastic chip and closed-tube detection...
Thu, 05/14/2020 - 03:23
Abstract The effective removal of dags (manure balls) from cattle, sheep and goats is a significant issue for the livestock industry. Dags are hard recalcitrant deposits composed of materials, such as faeces, hair, soil, urine, feed and straw, and attach to the animal through the hair rather than the skin. Dags build up during wet periods, especially on long haired breeds, and can weigh up to 40...
Sun, 05/10/2020 - 03:23
Fucosyllactoses have gained much attention owing to their multiple functions, including prebiotic, immune, gut, and cognition benefits. In this study, human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) 2′-fucosyllactose (α-L-Fuc-(1,2)-D-Galβ-1,4-Glu, 2′FL) and its isomer 3′-fucosyllactose (α-L-Fuc-(1,3)-D-Galβ-1,4-Glu, 3′FL) with potential prebiotic effect were synthesized efficiently by a novel recombinant α-L-...
Wed, 05/06/2020 - 03:24
The latest WHO report estimates about 1.6 million global deaths annually from TB, which is further exacerbated by drug-resistant (DR) TB and comorbidities with diabetes and HIV. Exiguous dosing, incomplete treatment course, and the ability of the tuberculosis bacilli to tolerate and survive current first-line and second-line anti-TB drugs, in either their latent state or active state, has...
Wed, 04/29/2020 - 03:23
More than 100 years have passed since the discovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in 1882, as the pathogen that causes tuberculosis (TB). However, globally, TB is still one of the leading causes of death by infectious diseases. In 2018, approximately 10.0 million people were diagnosed with TB owing to the development of advanced strategies by M. tuberculosis to resist antibiotics, including the...
Wed, 04/29/2020 - 03:23
Abstract “The Great Five” (GF) is an artificial bacterial consortium developed to protect potato tubers from soft rot caused by Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp. To investigate the commercialization potential of the GF, we developed liquid and powder formulations of the consortium and of each of the comprising strains (Serratia plymuthica strain A294, Enterobacter amnigenus strain A167,...
Tue, 04/14/2020 - 03:17
Abstract Neurodegenerative disorders especially Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are significantly threatening the public health. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are compounds of great interest which can be used as effective agents for the symptomatic treatment of AD. Although plants are considered the largest source for these types of inhibitors, the microbial production of AChE inhibitors...
Sun, 04/05/2020 - 03:14
Staphylococcus aureus is a notorious foodborne pathogen since it has ability to produce variety of toxins including heat-stable enterotoxin, form biofilm, and acquire resistance to antibiotics. Biocontrol of foodborne pathogens by lytic bacteriophages garners increasing interest from both researchers and food industry. In the present study, 29 phages against S. aureus were successfully isolated...
Sun, 04/05/2020 - 03:14
Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are novel biosurfactants performing excellent physical-chemical properties as well as bioactivities. This study is aimed to explore the antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of mannosylerythritol lipids against foodborne gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. The results of growth curve and survival rate revealed the significant inhibitory effect of MELs against S...
Fri, 04/03/2020 - 03:15
Despite the long-term interest in solventogenic clostridia-based ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) fermentation, clostridial butanol tolerance and its underlying mechanism remain poorly understood, which is a major obstacle hindering further improvements of this important fermentative process. In this study, a two-component system (TCS), BtrK/BtrR, was identified and demonstrated to positively...
Thu, 03/19/2020 - 03:16
The anodized titanium nanotubes (TiO2-NTs) are considered to be a potential material in clinical therapy. To enhance the antibacterial property of TiO2-NTs, cefuroxime is introduced into TiO2-NTs, and then, different chitosan layers are coated to control the release of cefuroxime. SEM and FTIR are adapted for the characterization of prepared TiO2-NTs. The effects of chitosan coating thickness on...
Fri, 03/06/2020 - 03:27
Abstract l-Arginine (L-Arg) depletion has attracted great attention in cancer therapy. Although two types of arginine-depleting enzymes, arginine deiminase (ADI) and human arginase I, are undergoing clinical trials, random site of PEGylation, low efficacy of heavy metal as co-factor, and immunogenicity limit the performance of these drugs and cause difficulty in a homogeneous production. Here we...
Wed, 03/04/2020 - 03:26
Comparative analyses determined the relationship between the structure of bisphenol A (BPA) as well as of seven bisphenol analogues (bisphenol B (BPB), bisphenol C (BPC), bisphenol E (BPE), bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol Z (BPZ), bisphenol AP (BPAP), bisphenol PH (BPPH)) and their biotransformability by the biphenyl-degrading bacterium Cupriavidus basilensis SBUG 290. All bisphenols were substrates...
Tue, 02/04/2020 - 03:25
Despite the significant advances of antibodies as therapeutic agents, there is still much room for improvement concerning the discovery of these macromolecules. Here, we present a new synthetic cell-based strategy that takes advantage of eukaryotic cell biology to produce highly diverse antibody libraries and, simultaneously, link them to a high-throughput selection mechanism, replicating B cell...
Sun, 01/12/2020 - 03:15
Multiple heavy metal–resistant bacterium, Micrococcus luteus strain AS2, was isolated from industrial waste water of District Sheikhupura, Pakistan. The isolated bacterium showed minimum inhibitory concentrations of 55 and 275 mM against arsenite and arsenate. The bacterial strain also showed resistance against other heavy metal ions, i.e., lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury, nickel, and zinc,...
Sun, 01/12/2020 - 03:15
Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) is a second messenger involved in the regulation of various physiological processes in bacteria. However, its function in spoilage bacteria has not yet been addressed. Here, we studied the function of a tandem GGDEF-EAL domain protein, Sbal_3235, in the spoilage bacterium Shewanella baltica OS155. The deletion of sbal_3235 significantly reduced the c-di-GMP level,...
Fri, 01/10/2020 - 03:14
Mining is an important activity for many countries, especially some in development, such as Chile, where it is a pillar of its economy. However, it generates large impacts that are undesirable for the population such as the generation of polluting solid and effluents with a high content of heavy metals and metalloids, which are traditionally accumulated in deposits. In recent years, bionanomining...
Fri, 01/10/2020 - 03:14
Abstract This article summarizes the current knowledge about the presence of naproxen in the environment, its toxicity to nontarget organisms and the microbial degradation of this drug. Currently, naproxen has been detected in all types of water, including drinking water and groundwater. The concentrations that have been observed ranged from ng/L to μg/L. These concentrations, although low, may...
Thu, 01/09/2020 - 03:26
Microorganisms are indispensable in the food industry, but wild-type strains hardly meet the current industrial demands due to several undesirable traits. Therefore, microbial strain improvement offers a critical solution to enhance the food industry. Traditional techniques for food microbial improvement, such as the use of chemical mutagens and manual isolation/purification, are inefficient,...
Fri, 01/03/2020 - 03:27
Staphylococcus hyicus, considered as a leading pathogen of exudative epidermitis, is a serious threat to humans and animals. The emergency of bacterial resistance to antibiotics, especially in human and animal health fields, leads to an urgent need of exploration of new antimicrobial agents. In this study, NZX, a plectasin-derived peptide, was firstly expressed in Pichia pastoris X-33 and was...
Fri, 01/03/2020 - 03:27
In an earlier work on lovastatin production by Aspergillus terreus, we found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration increased to high levels precisely at the start of the production phase (idiophase) and that these levels were sustained during all idiophase. Moreover, it was shown that ROS regulate lovastatin biosynthesis. ROS regulation has also been reported for aflatoxins. It has...
Fri, 01/03/2020 - 03:27
Streptococcus mutans is a common principal causative agent of dental caries. In this communication, we describe that the antibodies raised against purified dextransucrase effectively inhibited the growth of S. mutans. The purified enzyme showed 58-fold enrichment, 17.5% yield and a specific activity of 3.96 units/mg protein. Purified IgG fraction of the antibody showed significant affinity with...
Fri, 01/03/2020 - 03:27
Bacteria, fungi, viruses, and nematodes are the major causal agents of plant diseases. These phytopathogens are responsible for about 10–40% losses in productivity and quality of food crops and horticultural produce. Although eradication of pathogens is not possible, control of plant diseases has been an area of continuous improvement/research. Use of antimicrobials, bacteriophages, and...
Thu, 01/02/2020 - 03:16
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is an important zoonotic pathogen in public health and food safety. The type III secretion system (T3SS) encoded by Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI) is a sophisticated molecular machine that facilitates active invasion, intracellular replication, and host inflammation. Due to increasing antibiotic resistance, new therapeutic strategies...
Fri, 12/20/2019 - 03:16
Acrylamide is an important bulk chemical used for producing polyacrylamide, which is widely applied in diverse fields, such as enhanced oil recovery and water treatment. Acrylamide production with a superior biocatalyst, free-resting Rhodococcus cells containing nitrile hydratase (NHase), has been proven to be simple but effective, thereby becoming the main method adopted in industry to date....
Wed, 12/18/2019 - 03:25
Over the last years, the global production and trade of kiwifruit has been severely impacted by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa), a phytopathogen that causes a disease in kiwifruit plants known as bacterial canker. The available treatments for this disease are still scarce, with the most common involving frequently spraying the orchards with disinfectants, copper-based bactericides and/...
Fri, 12/13/2019 - 03:17
With the only exception of glycine, all amino acids exist in two specular structures which are mirror images of each other, called D-(dextro) and L-(levo) enantiomers. During evolution, L-amino acids were preferred for protein synthesis and main metabolism; however, the D-amino acids (D-AAs) acquired different and specific functions in different organisms (from playing a structural role in the...
Fri, 12/13/2019 - 03:17
Bioremediation of environmental estrogens requires microorganisms with stable degradation efficiency and great stress tolerance in complex environments. In this work, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SJTL3 isolated from wastewater was found to be able to degrade over 90% of 10 μg/mL 17β-estradiol (E2) in a week and the degradation dynamic was fitted by the first-order kinetic equations. Estrone was...

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