Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

Mon, 12/09/2019 - 03:15
2,5-Furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) is attracting increasing attention because of its potential applications as a sustainable substitute to petroleum-derived terephthalic acid for the production of bio-based polymers, such as poly(ethylene 2,5-furandicarboxylate) (PEF). Many catalytic methods have been developed for the synthesis of FDCA, including chemocatalysis, biocatalysis, photocatalysis, and...
Sat, 12/07/2019 - 03:16
The production of black pigments in bacteria was discovered more than a century ago and related to tyrosine metabolism. However, their diverse biological roles and the control of melanin synthesis in different bacteria have only recently been investigated. The broad distribution of these pigments suggests that they have an important role in a variety of organisms. Melanins protect microorganisms...
Wed, 12/04/2019 - 03:16
Lipopeptides are important non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) products with broad therapeutic potential in biotechnology and biopharmaceutical applications. Fatty acyl modifications in N-terminal of lipopeptides have attracted wide interest in the engineering processes of altered fatty acyl selectivity. In this study, we focused on the starter condensation domain of antibiotic A54145 (...
Mon, 12/02/2019 - 03:16
Edible microalgae have potential as low-cost cell factories for the production and oral delivery of recombinant proteins such as vaccines, anti-bacterials and gut-active enzymes that are beneficial to farmed animals including livestock, poultry and fish. However, a major economic and technical problem associated with large-scale cultivation of microalgae, even in closed photobioreactors, is...
Sat, 11/16/2019 - 03:15
Apolipoprotein A-I is an anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, cardioprotective, anti-tumorigenic, and anti-diabetic in mammals. Apolipoprotein A-I also regulates innate immune defense mechanisms in vertebrates and invertebrates. Apolipoproteins A-I from mammals and several teleosts display antibacterial activities against Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. The present study describes...
Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:15
The present paper describes the generation of derivatives from the hybrid peptide called Ent35-MccV, active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This peptide has a triple glycine hinge region between enterocin CRL35 and microcin V. In order to obtain variants of Ent35-MccV with greater biotechnological potential, a saturation mutagenesis was carried out in the hinge region. As a...
Wed, 10/30/2019 - 03:16
Outcome of patients with blood stream infections (BSI) depends on the rapid initiation of adequate antibiotic therapy, which relies on the fast and reliable identification of the underlying pathogen. Blood cultures (BC) using CO2-sensitive colorimetric indicators and subsequent microbiological culturing are the diagnostic gold standard but turnaround times range between 24 and 48 h. The detection...
Wed, 10/30/2019 - 03:16
The invasion of Candida albicans is one of the most common fungal infections seen in clinical practice, and serious drug resistance has been reported in recent years. Therefore, new anti-C. albicans drugs must be introduced. In this research, it was demonstrated that cinnamaldehyde (CA) shows strong antimicrobial activity, with 0.26 mg/mL CA being the minimum inhibitory concentration to manage C...
Sat, 10/26/2019 - 03:20
Streptococcus agalactiae is a major pathogen causing streptococcosis. To prevent and control this bacterial disease, antagonistic bacteria have become a new research hotspot. This study evaluated the probiotic potential of Bacillus velezensis LF01 strain, which is antagonistic to S. agalactiae. The active compounds produced by LF01 showed antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of fish...
Tue, 10/22/2019 - 03:19
This work aimed at investigating the chemical composition, antibacterial properties, and effect mechanism of Smilax china L. polyphenols (SCLP). SCLP was extracted and purified, and then, its eighteen polyphenolic compounds were identified by LC-MS/MS analysis. SCLP exhibited antibacterial activity against five bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus,...
Mon, 10/21/2019 - 03:18
This study evaluated the inhibition and interaction of Bacillus velezensis BvL03 as a probiotic agent against Aeromonas hydrophila. Strain BvL03 isolated from sediment samples of fish ponds had excellent antimicrobial activity against several fish pathogenic bacteria, especially Aeromonas, including A. hydrophila, A. veronii, A. caviae, and A. sobria. The successful amplification of lipopeptide...
Sat, 10/19/2019 - 03:19
Zearalenone (ZEN) is one of the common mycotoxins with quite high occurrence rate and is harmful to animal and human health. Lactobacillus reuteri is known as a probiotic bacterium with active immune stimulating and high inhibitory activity against pathogenic microorganisms. In this study, we expressed the lactonohydrolase from Rhinocladiella mackenziei CBS 650.93 (RmZHD) in L. reuteri via...
Tue, 10/15/2019 - 03:21
Dichlorvos (DDVP) is widely applied in the agricultural industry, and its residues are considered hazardous to the environment. Microbial bioremediation is an innovative technology with the potential to mitigate such pollution. Trichoderma atroviride strain T23, a filamentous fungus, is very efficient at degrading DDVP. Therefore, we used DDVP as a model organophosphate pesticide to study the...
Tue, 09/03/2019 - 00:00
Abstract The environmental accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is of great concern due to potential carcinogenic and mutagenic risks, as well as their resistance to remediation. While many fungi have been reported to break down PAHs in environments, the details of gene-based metabolic pathways are not yet comprehensively understood. Specifically, the genome-...
Sun, 09/01/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Since polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are mutagenic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic, they are of considerable environmental concern. A biotechnological approach to remove such compounds from polluted ecosystems could be based on the use of white-rot fungi (WRF). The potential of well-adapted indigenous Ganoderma strains to degrade PAHs remains underexplored....
Thu, 08/08/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Microbial bioremediation of heavy metal–contaminated soil is a potential technique to reduce heavy metals in crop plants. However, the dynamics and roles of the local microbiota in bioremediation of heavy metal–contaminated soil following microbial application are rarely reported. In this study, we used Pseudomonas chenduensis strain MBR for bioremediation of Cd-...
Thu, 08/01/2019 - 00:00
Abstract A large number of industries release their untreated wastes in the environment causing an increase in the concentration of toxic pollutants including heavy metal ions in ground and drinking water which is above the WHO limit. The presence of toxic pollutants in the industrial wastes pollutes our environment. Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous toxic metalloid. Its amount...
Mon, 07/01/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Heavy metals, being toxic in nature, are one of the most persistent problems in wastewater. Unabated discharge of large amount of heavy metals into water bodies are known to cause several environmental and health impacts. Biological remediation processes like microbial remediation and phytoremediation are proved to be very effective in the reduction of heavy metal...
Sat, 06/01/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Recent studies from our laboratory indicate that engineered silver nanoparticles can inhibit aflatoxin biosynthesis even at concentrations at which they do not demonstrate antifungal activities on the aflatoxin-producing fungus. Whether such inhibition can be modified by altering the nanoparticles’ physical properties remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrate...
Wed, 04/10/2019 - 00:00
Abstract The TonB system functions in iron transport and has been identified in certain Gram-negative bacteria. Recently, we reported three TonB systems in the Aeromonas hydrophila Chinese epidemic strain NJ-35, but the functions of these systems have not been thoroughly elucidated to date. In this study, we investigated the role of these TonB systems in A. hydrophila iron...
Fri, 03/22/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Arabinofuranosidase plays an essential role in the process of hydrolysis of arabinoxylan (AX). Thermostable, versatile, and efficient arabinofuranosidase is thus of great interest for the biorefinery industry. A GH51 arabinofuranosidase, Abf51, from Hungateiclostridium clariflavum DSM 19732 was heterogeneously expressed in Escherichia coli. Abf51 was found to have an...
Thu, 03/07/2019 - 00:00
Abstract The ungenerous release of metals from different industrial, agricultural, and anthropogenic sources has resulted in heavy metal pollution. Metals with a density larger than 5 g cm−3 have been termed as heavy metals and have been stated to be potentially toxic to human and animals. Algae are known to be pioneer organisms with the potential to grow under extreme...
Thu, 02/28/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils has become a widespread serious problem with the rapid industrialization and urbanization in the past two decades. Cadmium (Cd2+) is of the most concern in soils due to its high toxicity. It is necessary to develop remediation strategies to remove or neutralize its toxic effects in Cd-contaminated soil. Microbial...
Fri, 02/15/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Transcriptional regulatory proteins (TRPs)-based whole-cell biosensors are promising owing to their specificity and sensitivity, but their applications are currently limited. Herein, TRPs were adapted for the extracellular detection of a disease biomarker, uric acid, and a typical pesticide residue, carbaryl. A mutant regulatory protein that specifically recognizes...
Sat, 01/19/2019 - 00:00
Abstract PAH ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases (PAH-RHDα) gene, a useful biomarker for PAH-degrading bacteria, has been widely used to examine PAH-degrading bacterial community in different contaminated sites. However, the distribution of PAH-RHDα genes in oilfield soils and mangrove sediments and their relationship with environmental factors still remain largely unclear. In this...
Thu, 01/10/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Bacillus cereus spores are a concern to the food industry due to their high resistance to processing and their ability to germinate to vegetative cells under suitable conditions. This research aimed to elucidate the mechanisms of Bacillus cereus spore inactivation under ultrasonication (US) combined with thermal (thermosonication, TS) treatments, with pressure (...
Wed, 01/09/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Live vector-based vaccine is a modern approach to overcome the drawbacks of inactivated foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines such as improper inactivation during manufacture. Listeria monocytogenes (LM), an intracellular microorganism with immune-stimulatory properties, is appropriate to be utilized as a live bacterial vaccine vector. FMDV-VP1 protein has the...
Tue, 12/11/2018 - 00:00
Abstract Efflux pumps are recognized as an important mechanism for decreased susceptibility of benzalkonium chloride (BC) in Listeria monocytogenes. Previous studies showed that the efflux pump MdrL was overexpressed in L. monocytogenes exposed to BC. In the present work, we aimed to clarify the role of MdrL in tolerance to BC and environmental stresses including acid, alkali,...
Sat, 12/01/2018 - 00:00
Abstract Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing E. coli (ESBLEC) are important bacteria of public health concern and frequently isolated from raw beef products. Bacteriophage-based methods have been increasingly exploited to control bacterial contamination in meats. Here, we describe the isolation,...
Tue, 10/09/2018 - 00:00
Abstract Microencapsulation enhances the oral delivery of probiotic bacteria. In this study, the probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) was microencapsulated using alginate and chitosan nanoparticles. The result showed 90% encapsulation yield of EcN, and the encapsulated EcN displayed significantly (P < 0.05) increased survival in low pH (1.5), high bile salt...
Mon, 10/01/2018 - 00:00
Abstract β-propeller phytase-like sequences (BPP-like sequences) are widespread in the microbial world and have been found in the sequenced genomes of aquatic, soil, and plant bacteria. Exploring NCBI microbial genome database for putative genes encoding phytase, a BPP-like sequence from Sphingomonas wittichii RW-1 (Sequence ID: CP000699.1), known for its capacity of degrading...
Wed, 09/05/2018 - 00:00
Abstract The protrusion (P) domain of the major structural protein VP1 of norovirus (NoV) is critical for the host’s immune response and receptor binding. Most heterologous P domains expressed in Escherichia coli or Komagataella pastoris (formally known as Pichia pastoris) form P particles consisting of 24 P monomers formed through intermolecular contact in the P regions and an...
Wed, 08/01/2018 - 00:00
Abstract Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) is a communicable zoonotic bacterium. Macrophages are essential for Salmonella survival, transmission, and infection. In this study, selective capture of transcribed sequences (SCOTS) was used to screen genes preferentially expressed by SE during contact with macrophages from different hosts. We found 57 predicted genes and...
Mon, 07/09/2018 - 00:00
Abstract Directly relevant to the toxicity, mobility, and fate of arsenic, the biotransformation of inorganic and organic arsenicals has been extensively concerned, including roxarsone, a widely applied organoarsenical feed additive in poultry industry. Yet, little is known about the transformation details of roxarsone in microbial fuel cells (MFC). In this study, a two-...
Sun, 06/03/2018 - 00:00
Abstract The type VI secretion system (T6SS) has been considered as a crucial factor in bacterial competition and virulence. The hemolysin co-regulated protein (Hcp) is the hallmark of T6SS. The secretion of Hcp in Aeromonas hydrophila Chinese epidemic strain NJ-35 indicated a functional T6SS. In this study, three copies of the hcp gene were identified in the genome of strain NJ...
Sat, 06/02/2018 - 00:00
Abstract This study aimed to investigate the ability of chitin and heat-treated shrimp shells to bind aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in liquid matrix. Several concentrations of chitin or shrimp shells (grinded and ungrinded) were incubated in AFM1-contaminated phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at different incubation times. The stability of the formed adsorbent-AFM1 complex was also tested...
Tue, 05/08/2018 - 00:00
Abstract Bacteria exhibit a number of metabolism-dependent and metabolism-independent processes for the uptake and accumulation of toxic metals. The removal of these metals from environmental sources such as soil, sludge, and wastewaters using microbe-based technologies provide an alternative for their recovery and remediation. Lead (Pb) is a pervasive metal in the environment...
Sat, 04/07/2018 - 00:00
Abstract Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide, mainly due to consumption and handling of contaminated raw chicken. Rapid detection methods for C. jejuni are vital for monitoring contamination levels in chicken products and reducing human Campylobacteriosis cases. The ‘gold standard’ culture-based method of Campylobacter detection takes 3–5 days...
Sat, 04/07/2018 - 00:00
Abstract Despite the large number of bioreporters developed to date, the ability to detect heavy metal(loid)s with bioreporters has thus far been limited owing to the lack of appropriate genetic systems. We here present a novel approach to modulate the selectivity and sensitivity of microbial whole-cell bioreporters (WCBs) for sensing metal(loid)s via the znt-operon from...
Fri, 03/02/2018 - 00:00
Abstract Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogen of significant concern in many ready to eat foods due to its ability to survive and multiply even under significant environmental stresses. Listeriosis in humans is a concern, especially to high-risk populations such as those who are immunocompromised or pregnant, due to the high rates of morbidity and mortality. Whole genome...
Fri, 01/19/2018 - 00:00
Abstract Foodstuffs and water are the key sources of cadmium biomagnifiaction. The available strategies to mitigate this problem are unproductive and expensive for practical large-scale use. Biological decontamination of metals through environmental microbes has been known since long time, whereas lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have not been extensively studied for this purpose. The...
Fri, 12/01/2017 - 00:00
Abstract Low pathogenic H9N2 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) can lead to moderate respiratory symptoms and low egg production rates in poultry. Due to its immunologic suppression, other various infectious pathogens give rise to the co-infection of hosts, causing heavy economic losses in the commercial poultry industry in both China and worldwide. Therefore, it is time to...
Wed, 11/08/2017 - 00:00
Abstract Under conditions of Azolla imbricata restoration, the high-throughput sequencing technology was employed to determine change trends of microbial community structures in the soil that had undergone long-term application of pesticides. The relationship between the content of pesticide residues in the soil and the microbial community structure was analyzed. The results...
Wed, 07/19/2017 - 00:00
Abstract Aspergillus flavus is an opportunistic mold that represents a serious threat for human and animal health due to its ability to synthesize and release, on food and feed commodities, different toxic secondary metabolites. Among them, aflatoxin B1 is one of the most dangerous since it is provided with a strong cancerogenic and mutagenic activity...
Wed, 06/14/2017 - 00:00
Abstract Lignocellulosic biomass from various types of wood has become a renewable resource for production of biofuels and biobased chemicals. Because xylan is the major component of wood hemicelluloses, highly efficient enzymes to enhance xylan hydrolysis can improve the use of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, a xylanolytic gene cluster was identified from the crude oil-...
Sat, 06/03/2017 - 00:00
Abstract Accumulation of heavy metals without developing toxicity symptoms is a phenotype restricted to a small group of plants called hyperaccumulators, whose metal-related characteristics suggested the high potential in biotechnologies such as bioremediation and bioextraction. In an attempt to extrapolate the heavy metal hyperaccumulating phenotype to yeast, we obtained...
Thu, 05/18/2017 - 00:00
Abstract Clostridium perfringens beta toxin (CPB) is the primary pathogenic factor responsible for necrotic enteritis in sheep, cattle and humans. Owing to rapid progression of the disease, vaccination is the only possible recourse to avoid high mortality in animal farms and huge economic losses. The present study reports evaluation of a cpb gene-...
Tue, 05/16/2017 - 00:00
Abstract In the fresh produce industry, validation of sanitation efficacy is critical to prevent cross-contamination of produce. The current validation approaches are either based on time-consuming plate counting assays or indirect measurements of chemical properties of wash water. In the study, the focus was to identify biomarkers that can provide direct assessment of oxidative...
Sat, 04/01/2017 - 00:00
Abstract The marriage of biology with nanomaterials has significantly accelerated advancement of biological techniques, profoundly facilitating practical applications in biomedical fields. With unique optical properties (e.g., tunable broad excitation, narrow emission spectra, robust photostability, and high quantum yield), fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) have been reasonably...
Sat, 02/11/2017 - 00:00
Abstract Coastal sediments contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be candidates for remediation via an approach like land farming. Land farming converts naturally anaerobic sediments to aerobic environments, and the response of microbial communities, in terms of community structure alterations and corresponding effects on biodegradative activities, is...

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