Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

Sun, 01/12/2020 - 03:15
Multiple heavy metal–resistant bacterium, Micrococcus luteus strain AS2, was isolated from industrial waste water of District Sheikhupura, Pakistan. The isolated bacterium showed minimum inhibitory concentrations of 55 and 275 mM against arsenite and arsenate. The bacterial strain also showed resistance against other heavy metal ions, i.e., lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury, nickel, and zinc,...
Sun, 01/12/2020 - 03:15
Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) is a second messenger involved in the regulation of various physiological processes in bacteria. However, its function in spoilage bacteria has not yet been addressed. Here, we studied the function of a tandem GGDEF-EAL domain protein, Sbal_3235, in the spoilage bacterium Shewanella baltica OS155. The deletion of sbal_3235 significantly reduced the c-di-GMP level,...
Fri, 01/10/2020 - 03:14
Mining is an important activity for many countries, especially some in development, such as Chile, where it is a pillar of its economy. However, it generates large impacts that are undesirable for the population such as the generation of polluting solid and effluents with a high content of heavy metals and metalloids, which are traditionally accumulated in deposits. In recent years, bionanomining...
Fri, 01/10/2020 - 03:14
Abstract This article summarizes the current knowledge about the presence of naproxen in the environment, its toxicity to nontarget organisms and the microbial degradation of this drug. Currently, naproxen has been detected in all types of water, including drinking water and groundwater. The concentrations that have been observed ranged from ng/L to μg/L. These concentrations, although low, may...
Thu, 01/09/2020 - 03:26
Microorganisms are indispensable in the food industry, but wild-type strains hardly meet the current industrial demands due to several undesirable traits. Therefore, microbial strain improvement offers a critical solution to enhance the food industry. Traditional techniques for food microbial improvement, such as the use of chemical mutagens and manual isolation/purification, are inefficient,...
Fri, 01/03/2020 - 03:27
Staphylococcus hyicus, considered as a leading pathogen of exudative epidermitis, is a serious threat to humans and animals. The emergency of bacterial resistance to antibiotics, especially in human and animal health fields, leads to an urgent need of exploration of new antimicrobial agents. In this study, NZX, a plectasin-derived peptide, was firstly expressed in Pichia pastoris X-33 and was...
Fri, 01/03/2020 - 03:27
In an earlier work on lovastatin production by Aspergillus terreus, we found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration increased to high levels precisely at the start of the production phase (idiophase) and that these levels were sustained during all idiophase. Moreover, it was shown that ROS regulate lovastatin biosynthesis. ROS regulation has also been reported for aflatoxins. It has...
Fri, 01/03/2020 - 03:27
Streptococcus mutans is a common principal causative agent of dental caries. In this communication, we describe that the antibodies raised against purified dextransucrase effectively inhibited the growth of S. mutans. The purified enzyme showed 58-fold enrichment, 17.5% yield and a specific activity of 3.96 units/mg protein. Purified IgG fraction of the antibody showed significant affinity with...
Fri, 01/03/2020 - 03:27
Bacteria, fungi, viruses, and nematodes are the major causal agents of plant diseases. These phytopathogens are responsible for about 10–40% losses in productivity and quality of food crops and horticultural produce. Although eradication of pathogens is not possible, control of plant diseases has been an area of continuous improvement/research. Use of antimicrobials, bacteriophages, and...
Thu, 01/02/2020 - 03:16
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is an important zoonotic pathogen in public health and food safety. The type III secretion system (T3SS) encoded by Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI) is a sophisticated molecular machine that facilitates active invasion, intracellular replication, and host inflammation. Due to increasing antibiotic resistance, new therapeutic strategies...
Fri, 12/20/2019 - 03:16
Acrylamide is an important bulk chemical used for producing polyacrylamide, which is widely applied in diverse fields, such as enhanced oil recovery and water treatment. Acrylamide production with a superior biocatalyst, free-resting Rhodococcus cells containing nitrile hydratase (NHase), has been proven to be simple but effective, thereby becoming the main method adopted in industry to date....
Wed, 12/18/2019 - 03:25
Over the last years, the global production and trade of kiwifruit has been severely impacted by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa), a phytopathogen that causes a disease in kiwifruit plants known as bacterial canker. The available treatments for this disease are still scarce, with the most common involving frequently spraying the orchards with disinfectants, copper-based bactericides and/...
Fri, 12/13/2019 - 03:17
With the only exception of glycine, all amino acids exist in two specular structures which are mirror images of each other, called D-(dextro) and L-(levo) enantiomers. During evolution, L-amino acids were preferred for protein synthesis and main metabolism; however, the D-amino acids (D-AAs) acquired different and specific functions in different organisms (from playing a structural role in the...
Fri, 12/13/2019 - 03:17
Bioremediation of environmental estrogens requires microorganisms with stable degradation efficiency and great stress tolerance in complex environments. In this work, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SJTL3 isolated from wastewater was found to be able to degrade over 90% of 10 μg/mL 17β-estradiol (E2) in a week and the degradation dynamic was fitted by the first-order kinetic equations. Estrone was...
Fri, 12/13/2019 - 03:17
Heavy metal(loid)s play pivotal roles in regulating physiological and developmental aspects in living organisms depending on their concentration. For example, a trace amount of heavy metal(loid)s is essential for living organisms, but heavy metal(loid)s in high concentrations negatively affect their physiology and development. Because of rapid industrial developments, heavy metal(loid)s have been...
Wed, 12/11/2019 - 03:29
The recent use of photosynthetic organisms such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in biomedical applications has demonstrated their potential for the treatment of acute and chronic tissue hypoxia. Moreover, transgenic microalgae have been suggested as an alternative in situ drug delivery system. In this study, we set out to identify the best available combination of strains and expression vectors to...
Wed, 12/11/2019 - 03:29
Phenol accounts for a large proportion of the contamination in industrial wastewater discharged from chemical plants due to its wide use as a raw chemical. Residual phenol waste in water and soil significantly endangers human health and the natural environment. In this study, an Acinetobacter radioresistens strain, APH1, was isolated and identified for its efficient capability of utilizing phenol...
Mon, 12/09/2019 - 03:15
2,5-Furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) is attracting increasing attention because of its potential applications as a sustainable substitute to petroleum-derived terephthalic acid for the production of bio-based polymers, such as poly(ethylene 2,5-furandicarboxylate) (PEF). Many catalytic methods have been developed for the synthesis of FDCA, including chemocatalysis, biocatalysis, photocatalysis, and...
Sat, 12/07/2019 - 03:16
The production of black pigments in bacteria was discovered more than a century ago and related to tyrosine metabolism. However, their diverse biological roles and the control of melanin synthesis in different bacteria have only recently been investigated. The broad distribution of these pigments suggests that they have an important role in a variety of organisms. Melanins protect microorganisms...
Wed, 12/04/2019 - 03:16
Lipopeptides are important non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) products with broad therapeutic potential in biotechnology and biopharmaceutical applications. Fatty acyl modifications in N-terminal of lipopeptides have attracted wide interest in the engineering processes of altered fatty acyl selectivity. In this study, we focused on the starter condensation domain of antibiotic A54145 (...
Mon, 12/02/2019 - 03:16
Edible microalgae have potential as low-cost cell factories for the production and oral delivery of recombinant proteins such as vaccines, anti-bacterials and gut-active enzymes that are beneficial to farmed animals including livestock, poultry and fish. However, a major economic and technical problem associated with large-scale cultivation of microalgae, even in closed photobioreactors, is...
Sat, 11/16/2019 - 03:15
Apolipoprotein A-I is an anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, cardioprotective, anti-tumorigenic, and anti-diabetic in mammals. Apolipoprotein A-I also regulates innate immune defense mechanisms in vertebrates and invertebrates. Apolipoproteins A-I from mammals and several teleosts display antibacterial activities against Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. The present study describes...
Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:15
The present paper describes the generation of derivatives from the hybrid peptide called Ent35-MccV, active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This peptide has a triple glycine hinge region between enterocin CRL35 and microcin V. In order to obtain variants of Ent35-MccV with greater biotechnological potential, a saturation mutagenesis was carried out in the hinge region. As a...
Wed, 10/30/2019 - 03:16
Outcome of patients with blood stream infections (BSI) depends on the rapid initiation of adequate antibiotic therapy, which relies on the fast and reliable identification of the underlying pathogen. Blood cultures (BC) using CO2-sensitive colorimetric indicators and subsequent microbiological culturing are the diagnostic gold standard but turnaround times range between 24 and 48 h. The detection...
Wed, 10/30/2019 - 03:16
The invasion of Candida albicans is one of the most common fungal infections seen in clinical practice, and serious drug resistance has been reported in recent years. Therefore, new anti-C. albicans drugs must be introduced. In this research, it was demonstrated that cinnamaldehyde (CA) shows strong antimicrobial activity, with 0.26 mg/mL CA being the minimum inhibitory concentration to manage C...
Sat, 10/26/2019 - 03:20
Streptococcus agalactiae is a major pathogen causing streptococcosis. To prevent and control this bacterial disease, antagonistic bacteria have become a new research hotspot. This study evaluated the probiotic potential of Bacillus velezensis LF01 strain, which is antagonistic to S. agalactiae. The active compounds produced by LF01 showed antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of fish...
Tue, 10/22/2019 - 03:19
This work aimed at investigating the chemical composition, antibacterial properties, and effect mechanism of Smilax china L. polyphenols (SCLP). SCLP was extracted and purified, and then, its eighteen polyphenolic compounds were identified by LC-MS/MS analysis. SCLP exhibited antibacterial activity against five bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus,...
Mon, 10/21/2019 - 03:18
This study evaluated the inhibition and interaction of Bacillus velezensis BvL03 as a probiotic agent against Aeromonas hydrophila. Strain BvL03 isolated from sediment samples of fish ponds had excellent antimicrobial activity against several fish pathogenic bacteria, especially Aeromonas, including A. hydrophila, A. veronii, A. caviae, and A. sobria. The successful amplification of lipopeptide...
Sat, 10/19/2019 - 03:19
Zearalenone (ZEN) is one of the common mycotoxins with quite high occurrence rate and is harmful to animal and human health. Lactobacillus reuteri is known as a probiotic bacterium with active immune stimulating and high inhibitory activity against pathogenic microorganisms. In this study, we expressed the lactonohydrolase from Rhinocladiella mackenziei CBS 650.93 (RmZHD) in L. reuteri via...
Tue, 10/15/2019 - 03:21
Dichlorvos (DDVP) is widely applied in the agricultural industry, and its residues are considered hazardous to the environment. Microbial bioremediation is an innovative technology with the potential to mitigate such pollution. Trichoderma atroviride strain T23, a filamentous fungus, is very efficient at degrading DDVP. Therefore, we used DDVP as a model organophosphate pesticide to study the...
Tue, 09/03/2019 - 00:00
Abstract The environmental accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is of great concern due to potential carcinogenic and mutagenic risks, as well as their resistance to remediation. While many fungi have been reported to break down PAHs in environments, the details of gene-based metabolic pathways are not yet comprehensively understood. Specifically, the genome-...
Sun, 09/01/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Since polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are mutagenic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic, they are of considerable environmental concern. A biotechnological approach to remove such compounds from polluted ecosystems could be based on the use of white-rot fungi (WRF). The potential of well-adapted indigenous Ganoderma strains to degrade PAHs remains underexplored....
Thu, 08/08/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Microbial bioremediation of heavy metal–contaminated soil is a potential technique to reduce heavy metals in crop plants. However, the dynamics and roles of the local microbiota in bioremediation of heavy metal–contaminated soil following microbial application are rarely reported. In this study, we used Pseudomonas chenduensis strain MBR for bioremediation of Cd-...
Thu, 08/01/2019 - 00:00
Abstract A large number of industries release their untreated wastes in the environment causing an increase in the concentration of toxic pollutants including heavy metal ions in ground and drinking water which is above the WHO limit. The presence of toxic pollutants in the industrial wastes pollutes our environment. Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous toxic metalloid. Its amount...
Mon, 07/01/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Heavy metals, being toxic in nature, are one of the most persistent problems in wastewater. Unabated discharge of large amount of heavy metals into water bodies are known to cause several environmental and health impacts. Biological remediation processes like microbial remediation and phytoremediation are proved to be very effective in the reduction of heavy metal...
Sat, 06/01/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Recent studies from our laboratory indicate that engineered silver nanoparticles can inhibit aflatoxin biosynthesis even at concentrations at which they do not demonstrate antifungal activities on the aflatoxin-producing fungus. Whether such inhibition can be modified by altering the nanoparticles’ physical properties remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrate...
Wed, 04/10/2019 - 00:00
Abstract The TonB system functions in iron transport and has been identified in certain Gram-negative bacteria. Recently, we reported three TonB systems in the Aeromonas hydrophila Chinese epidemic strain NJ-35, but the functions of these systems have not been thoroughly elucidated to date. In this study, we investigated the role of these TonB systems in A. hydrophila iron...
Fri, 03/22/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Arabinofuranosidase plays an essential role in the process of hydrolysis of arabinoxylan (AX). Thermostable, versatile, and efficient arabinofuranosidase is thus of great interest for the biorefinery industry. A GH51 arabinofuranosidase, Abf51, from Hungateiclostridium clariflavum DSM 19732 was heterogeneously expressed in Escherichia coli. Abf51 was found to have an...
Thu, 03/07/2019 - 00:00
Abstract The ungenerous release of metals from different industrial, agricultural, and anthropogenic sources has resulted in heavy metal pollution. Metals with a density larger than 5 g cm−3 have been termed as heavy metals and have been stated to be potentially toxic to human and animals. Algae are known to be pioneer organisms with the potential to grow under extreme...
Thu, 02/28/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils has become a widespread serious problem with the rapid industrialization and urbanization in the past two decades. Cadmium (Cd2+) is of the most concern in soils due to its high toxicity. It is necessary to develop remediation strategies to remove or neutralize its toxic effects in Cd-contaminated soil. Microbial...
Fri, 02/15/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Transcriptional regulatory proteins (TRPs)-based whole-cell biosensors are promising owing to their specificity and sensitivity, but their applications are currently limited. Herein, TRPs were adapted for the extracellular detection of a disease biomarker, uric acid, and a typical pesticide residue, carbaryl. A mutant regulatory protein that specifically recognizes...
Sat, 01/19/2019 - 00:00
Abstract PAH ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases (PAH-RHDα) gene, a useful biomarker for PAH-degrading bacteria, has been widely used to examine PAH-degrading bacterial community in different contaminated sites. However, the distribution of PAH-RHDα genes in oilfield soils and mangrove sediments and their relationship with environmental factors still remain largely unclear. In this...
Thu, 01/10/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Bacillus cereus spores are a concern to the food industry due to their high resistance to processing and their ability to germinate to vegetative cells under suitable conditions. This research aimed to elucidate the mechanisms of Bacillus cereus spore inactivation under ultrasonication (US) combined with thermal (thermosonication, TS) treatments, with pressure (...
Wed, 01/09/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Live vector-based vaccine is a modern approach to overcome the drawbacks of inactivated foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines such as improper inactivation during manufacture. Listeria monocytogenes (LM), an intracellular microorganism with immune-stimulatory properties, is appropriate to be utilized as a live bacterial vaccine vector. FMDV-VP1 protein has the...
Tue, 12/11/2018 - 00:00
Abstract Efflux pumps are recognized as an important mechanism for decreased susceptibility of benzalkonium chloride (BC) in Listeria monocytogenes. Previous studies showed that the efflux pump MdrL was overexpressed in L. monocytogenes exposed to BC. In the present work, we aimed to clarify the role of MdrL in tolerance to BC and environmental stresses including acid, alkali,...
Sat, 12/01/2018 - 00:00
Abstract Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing E. coli (ESBLEC) are important bacteria of public health concern and frequently isolated from raw beef products. Bacteriophage-based methods have been increasingly exploited to control bacterial contamination in meats. Here, we describe the isolation,...
Tue, 10/09/2018 - 00:00
Abstract Microencapsulation enhances the oral delivery of probiotic bacteria. In this study, the probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) was microencapsulated using alginate and chitosan nanoparticles. The result showed 90% encapsulation yield of EcN, and the encapsulated EcN displayed significantly (P < 0.05) increased survival in low pH (1.5), high bile salt...
Mon, 10/01/2018 - 00:00
Abstract β-propeller phytase-like sequences (BPP-like sequences) are widespread in the microbial world and have been found in the sequenced genomes of aquatic, soil, and plant bacteria. Exploring NCBI microbial genome database for putative genes encoding phytase, a BPP-like sequence from Sphingomonas wittichii RW-1 (Sequence ID: CP000699.1), known for its capacity of degrading...
Wed, 09/05/2018 - 00:00
Abstract The protrusion (P) domain of the major structural protein VP1 of norovirus (NoV) is critical for the host’s immune response and receptor binding. Most heterologous P domains expressed in Escherichia coli or Komagataella pastoris (formally known as Pichia pastoris) form P particles consisting of 24 P monomers formed through intermolecular contact in the P regions and an...
Wed, 08/01/2018 - 00:00
Abstract Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) is a communicable zoonotic bacterium. Macrophages are essential for Salmonella survival, transmission, and infection. In this study, selective capture of transcribed sequences (SCOTS) was used to screen genes preferentially expressed by SE during contact with macrophages from different hosts. We found 57 predicted genes and...

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