Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

Fri, 06/18/2021 - 02:02
Abstract As the reality of pandemic threats challenges humanity, exemplified during the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 infections, the development of vaccines targeting these etiological agents of disease has become increasingly critical. Of paramount concern are novel and reemerging pathogens that could trigger such events, including the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis. Y. pestis is responsible for more...
Tue, 06/15/2021 - 02:02
Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) is a fatal infectious disease to human health, and the drug tolerance and immune evasion of M. tuberculosis were reported to be related to its biofilm formation; however, the difficulty of M. tuberculosis biofilm culture and its unknown global mechanism impede its further research. Here, we developed a modified in...
Sat, 06/05/2021 - 02:01
Abstract o-Vanillin is a natural product that has been widely applied in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, we determined that o-vanillin can strongly inhibit the growth of Aspergillus flavus mycelia. However, the inhibition mechanism of o-vanillin is still elusive. The ultrastructural morphology of mycelia was injured, and the cell walls were destroyed. The OH functional...
Sat, 06/05/2021 - 02:01
Abstract Attenuated Listeria monocytogenes could be a potential vaccine vector for the immunotherapy of tumors or pathogens. However, the lack of reliable promoters has limited its ability to express foreign antigens. In the present study, 21 promoters were identified from Listeria monocytogenes through RNA-seq analysis under two pH conditions of pH 7.4 and pH 5.5. Based on the constructed...
Tue, 06/01/2021 - 02:02
Abstract In the past decades, the production of biopharmaceuticals has gained high interest due to its great sensitivity, specificity, and lower risk of negative effects to patients. Biopharmaceuticals are mostly therapeutic recombinant proteins produced through biotechnological processes. In this context, L-asparaginase (L-asparagine amidohydrolase, L-ASNase (E.C. 3.5.1.1)) is a therapeutic...
Fri, 05/21/2021 - 02:01
Abstract Shigella flexneri (Sh. flexneri), a common foodborne pathogen, has become one of the main threats to food safety and human health due to its high pathogenicity and persistent infection. The objective of this study was to explore the antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activities and the possible mechanism of thymoquinone (TQ) against Sh. flexneri. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)...
Sun, 05/16/2021 - 02:01
Enterococcus faecium WEFA23 was previously found effectively against adherence and colonization of Listeria monocytogenes CMCC54007, which might be closely related to its surface layer protein (SLP). In this study, the protective of SLP of E. faecium WEFA23 against infection of L. monocytogenes CMCC54007 was systemically investigated. In vitro assay showed that SLP actively inhibited L....
Wed, 05/05/2021 - 02:01
Abstract Bioconversion using microorganisms and their enzymes is an important tool in many industrial fields. The discovery of useful new microbial enzymes contributes to the development of industries utilizing bioprocesses. Streptomyces sp. EAS-AB2608, isolated from a soil sample collected in Japan, can convert the tetrahydrobenzotriazole CPD-1 (a selective positive allosteric modulator of...
Mon, 05/03/2021 - 02:01
Abstract In biopharmaceutical production, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells derived from Cricetulus griseus remain the most commonly used host cell for recombinant protein production, especially antibodies. Over the last decade, in-depth multi-omics characterization of these CHO cells provided data for extensive cell line engineering and corresponding increases in productivity. However, exosomes...
Mon, 05/03/2021 - 02:01
Abstract N-linked glycosylation plays critical roles in folding, receptor binding, and immunomodulating of hemagglutinin (HA), the main antigen in influenza vaccines. Chicken embryos are the predominant production host for influenza vaccines, but Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells have emerged as an important alternative host. In this study, we compared glycosylation patterns, including the...
Mon, 05/03/2021 - 02:01
Abstract NAD(H)-dependent 7α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase catalyzes the oxidation of chenodeoxycholic acid to 7-oxolithocholic acid. Here, we designed mutations of Ile258 adjacent to the catalytic pocket of Brucella melitensis 7α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. The I258M variant gave a 4.7-fold higher kcat, but 4.5-fold lower KM, compared with the wild type, resulting in a 21.8-fold higher kcat/KM...
Tue, 04/27/2021 - 02:01
Abstract The formation of biofilms by bacterial pathogens and the presence of persister cells in biofilms have become major concerns in the health sector, owing to their antibiotic resistance and tolerance. The transformation of bacterial pathogens into persister cells, either stochastically or due to stressful environmental factors, results in recalcitrant and recurring infections. Here, we...
Sat, 04/17/2021 - 02:02
Abstract Bacterial cell has always been an attractive target for anti-infective drug discovery. MurA (UDP-N-acetylglucosamine enolpyruvyl transferase) enzyme of Escherichia coli (E.coli) is crucial for peptidoglycan biosynthetic pathway, as it is involved in the early stages of bacterial cell wall biosynthesis. In the present study we aim to identify novel chemical structures targeting the MurA...
Thu, 03/25/2021 - 02:01
Abstract Fungal immunomodulatory proteins (FIPs) are bioactive proteins with immunomodulatory properties. We previously reported the heterologous production in Escherichia coli of FIP-Lrh from Tiger milk mushroom (Lignosus rhinocerus) with potent cytotoxic effect on cancer cell lines. However, protein produced in E. coli lacks post-translational modifications and may be contaminated with...
Thu, 03/25/2021 - 02:01
Abstract Aspergillus species are closely associated with humanity through fermentation, infectious disease, and mycotoxin contamination of food. Members of this genus produce various enzymes to degrade plant polysaccharides, including starch, cellulose, xylan, and xyloglucan. This review focus on the machinery of the xyloglucan degradation using glycoside hydrolases, such as xyloglucanases,...
Thu, 03/25/2021 - 02:01
Abstract The genus Citrobacter is commonly found in environmental and industrial settings, some members of which have been used for bioremediation of heavy metals owing to the absorption ability of their biofilms. Although our previous studies have found that the outer membrane protein A (OmpA) contributes to the process of Citrobacter werkmanii biofilm formation, the underlying mechanisms...
Tue, 03/23/2021 - 02:01
Abstract In this study, we report a chromogenic reaction between magnesium ascorbyl phosphate (MAP) and ferric chloride to generate a Brown-Red clathrate, while the Treated MAP by phosphatases forms Colorless (BRTC) product with ferric chloride. The BRTC was indicative of phosphatase activity-mediated excision of phosphorous group from MAP and utilized to screen phosphatases from bacterial cell...
Fri, 03/19/2021 - 02:01
Abstract Occurrence of emerging antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment, especially those conferring resistance to the last resort antibiotic carbapenems (blaKPC) and colistin (mcr-1), has become an important environmental issue. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methods were commonly used to quantify emerging ARGs in the environment, with some studies reporting high...
Mon, 03/15/2021 - 02:01
Abstract The human gut harbors a complex microbial community that performs a range of metabolic, physiological, and immunological functions. The host and its inhabiting microorganisms are often referred to as a “superorganism.” Dysbiosis of gut microflora has been associated with the pathogenesis of intestinal disorders including inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer, and extra-...
Wed, 03/03/2021 - 02:01
Abstract Bioremediation of toxic metal ions using bacterial strains is a promising tool. Metal binding motifs in microbial proteins are involved in the regulation and transport of such toxic metals for metal detoxification. A bacterial strain designated TWSL_4 with metal (Cu, Cd, and Pb) resistance and removal ability was isolated and identified as a Bacillus megaterium strain using 16S rRNA...
Sat, 02/20/2021 - 02:01
Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) spore can serve as an ideal vehicle for expressing heterologous antigens, and elicit specific immune responses by oral administration. In previous studies, we successfully constructed the recombinant B. subtilis spores expressing cysteine protease of Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis, B.s-CsCP), and confirmed that oral administration of B.s-CsCP could elicit good...
Tue, 02/16/2021 - 02:02
Abstract Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) devices generate an ionized gas with highly reactive species and electric fields at ambient air pressure and temperature. A flexible dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) was developed as an alternative antimicrobial treatment for chronic wounds. Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus in collagen-elastin matrices with CAP for 2 min resulted in a 4 log reduction....
Mon, 02/15/2021 - 02:02
Abstract Liver cancer, one of the most common types of cancer in the world, is the second leading cause of death for cancer patients. For liver cancer, there is an urgent need for an effective treatment with no or less toxic side effects. Lactonic sophorolipids (LSL), as a potential anticancer drug, has attracted wide attention of pharmaceutical researchers with its good biological activities....
Sat, 02/13/2021 - 02:02
Abstract Black rot and bacterial spots threaten the cultivation of cruciferous vegetables worldwide, and the development of a method that can easily detect, identify, and distinguish their respective pathogens Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) and X. campestris pv. raphani (Xcr) is required. Multiple whole-genome sequences of Xcc and Xcr were aligned to identify specific regions and...
Wed, 02/10/2021 - 02:02
Abstract Pollution with the heavy metal cadmium (Cd2+) is a global problem. Cadmium adversely affects living organisms, highlighting the need to develop new methods for removal of this pollutant from the environment. In this study, we used a novel biomaterial based on calcium-crosslinked alginate-encapsulated bacteria to precipitate Cd2+ in polluted water. Our results show that calcium-...
Tue, 02/09/2021 - 02:02
Abstract Serpentine has weak immobilization capacity for Pb(II), especially under acidic conditions. In order to improve its application potential, a new biological modification method was adopted, i.e., the serpentine powder was weathered by Aspergillus niger and the fungus-serpentine aggregation (FSA) formed was investigated for its Pb(II) immobilization potential and underlying mechanism....
Tue, 02/02/2021 - 02:02
Abstract The heat-stable peptidase AprX, secreted by psychrotolerant Pseudomonas species in raw milk, is a major cause of destabilization and premature spoilage of ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk and milk products. To enable rapid detection and quantification of seven frequent and proteolytic Pseudomonas species (P. proteolytica, P. gessardii, P. lactis, P. fluorescens, P. protegens, P....
Wed, 01/27/2021 - 02:01
Abstract As a primary cause of food contamination and human diseases, Salmonella Typhimurium can easily form a biofilm that is difficult to remove from food surfaces, and often causes significant invisible threats to food safety. Although berberine has been widely used as an anti-infective drug in traditional medicine, some basic principles underlying its mechanism, especially the interaction...
Thu, 01/21/2021 - 02:01
Abstract The low rate of discovery and rapid spread of resistant pathogens have made antibiotic discovery a worldwide priority. In cell-based screening, the mechanism of action (MOA) is identified after antimicrobial activity. This increases rediscovery, impairs low potency candidate detection, and does not guide lead optimization. In this study, high-throughput Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR...
Thu, 01/21/2021 - 02:01
Abstract Shigellosis is a significant type of diarrhea that causes 160,000 deaths annually in a global scale. The mortality occurs mainly in children less than 5 years of age. No licensed vaccine is available, and conventional efforts for developing an effective and safe vaccine against shigellosis have not been succeeded yet. The reverse vaccinology is a novel promising method that screens...
Thu, 01/07/2021 - 02:01
Abstract In this study, we firstly reported the large-scale screening and isolation of endophytic fungi from nine wild and six cultivated soybeans in the cold regions of China. We totally isolated 302 endophytic fungal strains, of which 215 strains are isolated from the wild soybeans and 87 are identified from cultivated soybeans. Among these endophytic fungal strains, in the roots, stems, and...
Thu, 01/07/2021 - 02:01
Abstract Diosgenin is a plant-derived secondary metabolite mainly present in the members of the plant family Dioscoreaceae. It is a pharmaceutically important compound because of its anti-cancerous, anti-diabetic, anticoagulant, anti-thrombosis, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, anti-ageing and other properties. Biotechnology provides an opportunity to genetically manipulate cells, tissues, organs...
Thu, 01/07/2021 - 02:01
Abstract Vibrio parahaemolyticus is one of the major pathogens responsible for vibriosis and zoonotic infections in teleosts, marine invertebrates, and also humans through consumption of contaminated or unprocessed seafood. Emergence of resistance against current accessible antibiotics and spread to the food chain and environment necessitate the development of safe and effective subunit vaccine...
Thu, 12/03/2020 - 02:02
Abstract Bioremediation systems represent an environmentally sustainable approach to degrading industrially generated thiocyanate (SCN−), with low energy demand and operational costs and high efficiency and substrate specificity. However, heavy metals present in mine tailings effluent may hamper process efficiency by poisoning thiocyanate-degrading microbial consortia. Here, we experimentally...
Sat, 11/14/2020 - 02:02
Abstract The telomerase activator cycloastragenol (CA) is regarded as a potential anti-aging drug with promising applications in the food and medical industry. However, one remaining challenge is the low efficiency of CA production. Herein, we developed an enzyme-based approach by applying two enzymes (β-xylosidase: Xyl-T; β-glucosidase: Bgcm) for efficient CA production. Both key glycosidases,...
Sat, 11/14/2020 - 02:02
Abstract Human connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a secreted cysteine-rich peptide that stimulates cell proliferation, migration, and extracellular matrix production during tissue development, differentiation, angiogenesis, implantation, wound healing, and fibrosis processes, with broad application in the medical and cosmetic medical fields. However, the production of CTGF is currently...
Wed, 11/11/2020 - 02:02
Abstract Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are recognized as promising safe alternatives to antibiotics for its low drug-resistance. Brevilaterin B, a newly discovered antimicrobial lipopeptide produced by Brevibacillus laterosporus S62-9, exhibits efficient antibacterial activity on Listeria monocytogenes with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 1 μg mL−1. The present research aimed to...
Wed, 11/11/2020 - 02:02
Abstract Increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant untreatable infections has prompted researchers to trial alternative treatments such as a substitute for traditional antibiotics. This study endeavored to elucidate the antibacterial mechanism(s) of this isoflavone, via analysis of relationship between genistein and Escherichia coli. Furthermore, this investigation analyzed whether genistein...
Sat, 10/17/2020 - 02:02
Abstract Tolypocladium guangdongense is a high-value edible fungus with various medicinal and food safety properties. However, its evolutionary and genetic information is still limited. Mitochondrial genomes are potential models for molecular evolution and phylogenetic studies. In this study, we sequenced the complete mitogenome of T. guangdongense, demonstrating circular sequence of 46,102 bp,...
Sat, 10/17/2020 - 02:02
Abstract In light of emerging antibiotic resistance, bacterial cell wall lytic enzymes are promising antimicrobial agents that degrade bacterial peptidoglycan while specifically recognizing the target bacterium. The efficacy of lytic enzymes against several multi-drug-resistant pathogens infecting humans has led to many efforts focused on in vivo therapeutic applications. However, the potential...
Sat, 10/17/2020 - 02:02
Abstract Bacteriophage-based methods for the rapid detection of viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in veterinary specimens are a recent addition to the Johne’s disease diagnostic toolbox. Here, we report the use of D29 mycobacteriophage-coated tosylactivated paramagnetic beads to capture and concentrate MAP cells from samples (termed phagomagnetic separation, PhMS) and then...
Mon, 10/12/2020 - 02:02
Abstract The red yeast (Rhodotorula mucilaginosa: Rho) has abundant extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and intracellular vesicles (Ves). This study explored the mechanisms of Rho to resist Cu toxicity from extracellular to intracellular, i.e., EPS, membrane, and Ves. The Cu2+ concentrations were set from 0 to 200 mg/L. In contrast to other heavy metals (e.g., Pb2+), low Cu2+ stress has no...
Thu, 10/08/2020 - 02:02
Plasma-functionalized liquids (PFL) emerge as an effective sanitizer with great potential to be against a variety of microorganisms but their applications on seafood products are limited. In the current study, the physicochemical properties of plasma-functionalized water (PFW) and plasma-functionalized buffer (PFB), and their antimicrobial activities on grass carp, were investigated under...
Sun, 10/04/2020 - 02:02
Abstract Salmonella spp. can cause animal and human salmonellosis. In this study, we established a simple method to detect all Salmonella species by amplifying a specific region within the flgE gene encoding the flagellar hook protein. Our preliminary sequence analysis among flagella-associated genes of Salmonella revealed that although Salmonella Gallinarum and Salmonella Pullorum are lacking...
Fri, 09/04/2020 - 02:02
Abstract Staphylococcus aureus causes severe infections and among all methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) remains a great challenge in spite of decade research of antibacterial compounds. Even though some synthetic antibiotics have been developed, they are not effective against MRSA, and hence, there is a search for natural, alternative and plant-based antibacterial compound. In this...
Fri, 09/04/2020 - 02:02
Abstract Arabinanases from glycoside hydrolase family GH93 are enzymes with exo-activity that hydrolyze the α-1,5 bonds between arabinose residues present on arabinan. Currently, several initiatives aiming to use byproducts rich in arabinan such as pectin and sugar beet pulp as raw material to produce various compounds of interest are being developed. However, it is necessary to use robust...
Fri, 09/04/2020 - 02:02
Rhamnolipids have extensive potential applications and are the most promising biosurfactants for commercialization. The efficient and accurate identification and analysis of these are important to their production, application and commercialization. Accordingly, significant efforts have been made to identify and analyse rhamnolipids during screening of producing strains, fermentation and...
Fri, 09/04/2020 - 02:02
Abstract Flagellar motility in bacteria is a highly regulated and complex cellular process that requires high energy investment for movement and host colonization. Motility plays an important role in the lifestyle of Vibrio spp. in the aquatic environment and during host colonization. Flagellar motility in vibrios is associated with several cellular processes, such as movement, colonization,...
Fri, 09/04/2020 - 02:02
Substrate amendments composed of crab shell (CS) waste materials have been shown to significantly improve the longevity and performance of acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment systems containing spent mushroom compost (SMC), yet the development of key microbial populations within these systems has not been investigated. To better understand the effects of CS on microbial dynamics in these systems,...
Wed, 09/02/2020 - 02:02
Abstract Gluten is a cereal protein that is incompletely digested by human proteolytic enzymes that create immunogenic peptides that accumulate in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Although both environmental and human bacteria have been shown to expedite gluten hydrolysis, gluten intolerance is a growing concern. Here we hypothesize that together with food, we acquire environmental bacteria...

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