Applied and Environmental Microbiology

Thu, 10/29/2020 - 10:02
Bacteriophages (phages) are currently available for use by the food industry to control the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. Although phage biocontrols are effective under specific conditions, their use can select for phage-resistant bacteria that repopulate phage-treated environments. Here, we performed short-term coevolution experiments to investigate the impact of single phages and a...
Thu, 10/29/2020 - 10:02
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are regarded as a safe and stable antimicrobial that can inactivate bacteria by several potential working mechanisms. We aimed to incorporate ZnO NPs into packaging material to control Campylobacter in raw chicken meat. ZnO NPs were first incorporated into three-dimensional (3D) paper tubes to identify the lethal concentration against Campylobacter jejuni, which...
Thu, 10/29/2020 - 10:02
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Abortusequi is a frequently reported pathogen causing abortion in mares. In this study, the preventive and therapeutic effects of phage PIZ SAE-01E2 against S. Abortusequi in a mouse model of abortion were investigated. Phage PIZ SAE-01E2 was stable at different temperatures (4 to 70°C) and pH values (pH 4 to 10) and could lyse the majority of the...
Fri, 10/16/2020 - 10:01
Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is caused by PirAB toxin-producing Vibrio parahaemolyticus and has devastated the global shrimp aquaculture industry. One approach for preventing the growth of AHPND-producing Vibrio spp. is through the application of beneficial bacteria capable of inhibiting these pathogens. In this study, we focused on the inhibitory activity of Bacillus...
Fri, 10/16/2020 - 10:01
In the present study, a deep-sea bacterial strain designated Bacillus sp. strain wsm-1 was screened and found to exhibit strong antifungal activity against many plant-pathogenic fungi, and corresponding antifungal agents were thereby purified and determined by tandem mass spectrometry to be two cyclic lipopeptide homologs. These homologs, which were different from any previously reported...
Fri, 10/16/2020 - 10:01
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a prevalent incitant of enteritis in human beings and nonhuman animals. It has been proposed that host defense responses incited by Salmonella allow the bacterium to overcome colonization resistance. Piglets (n = 24) were orally inoculated with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 or buffer alone, and the host and microbial responses were temporally...
Fri, 10/16/2020 - 10:01
Contamination of soil and water with heavy metals and metalloids is a serious environmental problem. Cadmium and arsenic are major environmental contaminants that pose a serious threat to human health. Although toxicities of cadmium and arsenic to living organisms have been extensively studied, the molecular mechanisms of cellular responses to cadmium and arsenic remain poorly understood. In this...
Fri, 10/16/2020 - 10:01
The risk of petroleum spills coupled with the potential application of chemical dispersants as a spill response strategy necessitates further understanding of the fate of oil and dispersants and their interactive effects during biodegradation. Using Arctic seawater mesocosms amended with either crude oil, Corexit 9500, or both together, we quantified the chemical losses of crude oil and Corexit...
Fri, 10/02/2020 - 10:01
Globally, gulls have been associated with carriage of high levels of Escherichia coli strains resistant to critically important antimicrobials (CIAs), a major concern, as these antimicrobials are the sole alternative or one among only a few alternatives available to treat severe life-threatening infections in humans. Previous studies of Australian silver gulls demonstrated high levels of...
Fri, 10/02/2020 - 10:01
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a leading cause of foodborne infections. Cattle are an important STEC reservoir, although little is known about specific pathogen traits that impact persistence in the farm environment. Hence, we sought to evaluate STEC isolates recovered from beef cattle in a single herd in Michigan. To do this, we collected fecal grabs from 26 cattle and...
Fri, 10/02/2020 - 10:01
Biofilms formed by Salmonella enterica are a frequent source of food supply contamination. Since biofilms are inherently resistant to disinfection, new agents capable of preventing biofilm formation are needed. Synthetic analogs of 4-oxazolidinone containing natural products have shown promise as antibiofilm compounds against Gram-positive bacteria. The purpose of our study was 2-fold: to...
Fri, 10/02/2020 - 10:01
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is a major bacterial pathogen of commercial poultry contributing to extensive economic losses and contamination of the food chain. One of the initial steps in bacterial infection and successful colonization of the host is adhesion to the host cells. A random transposon mutant library (n = 1,300) of APEC IMT 5155 was screened phenotypically for adhesion to...
Fri, 10/02/2020 - 10:01
In September 2018, Hurricane Florence caused extreme flooding in eastern North Carolina, USA, a region highly dense in concentrated animal production, especially swine and poultry. In this study, floodwater samples (n = 96) were collected as promptly post-hurricane as possible and for up to approximately 30 days and selectively enriched for Campylobacter using Bolton broth enrichment and...
Fri, 10/02/2020 - 10:01
Rapid and accurate identification of Arcobacter is of great importance because it is considered an emerging food- and waterborne pathogen and potential zoonotic agent. Raman spectroscopy can differentiate bacteria based on Raman scattering spectral patterns of whole cells in a fast, reagentless, and easy-to-use manner. We aimed to detect and discriminate Arcobacter bacteria at the species level...
Fri, 10/02/2020 - 10:01
The present multicenter study aimed at assessing the performance of air sampling as a novel method for monitoring Campylobacter in biosecure poultry farms. We compared, using a harmonized procedure, the bacteriological isolation protocol (ISO 10272-1:2017) and a real-time PCR method used on air filter samples. Air samples and boot swabs were collected from 62 biosecure flocks from five European...
Fri, 10/02/2020 - 10:01
We sought to identify and study the antibiofilm protein secreted by the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain 3J6. The latter is active against marine and terrestrial bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical strains forming different biofilm types. Several amino acid sequences were obtained from the partially purified antibiofilm protein, named alterocin. The Pseudoalteromonas...
Fri, 10/02/2020 - 10:01
As climate change continues to stress freshwater resources, we have a pressing need to identify alternative (nontraditional) sources of microbially safe water for irrigation of fresh produce. This study is part of the center CONSERVE, which aims to facilitate the adoption of adequate agricultural water sources. A 26-month longitudinal study was conducted at 11 sites to assess the prevalence of...
Fri, 09/18/2020 - 10:01
Enterococci are commensals that proliferated as animals crawled ashore hundreds of millions of years ago. They are also leading causes of multidrug-resistant hospital-acquired infections. While most studies are driven by clinical interest, comparatively little is known about enterococci in the wild or the effect of human activity on them. Pharmaceutical pollution and runoff from other human...
Fri, 09/18/2020 - 10:01
Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) bacteria are intrinsically antimicrobial-resistant opportunistic pathogens and key risk species in the contamination of nonfood industrial products. New agents and formulations to prevent growth of Burkholderia in home care (cleaning agents) and personal-care (cosmetics and toiletries) products are required. We characterized how ethylzingerone [4-(3-ethoxy-4-...
Fri, 09/18/2020 - 10:01
Salmonella enterica serovar Hvittingfoss is an important foodborne serotype of Salmonella, being detected in many countries where surveillance is conducted. Outbreaks can occur, and there was a recent multistate foodborne outbreak in Australia. S. Hvittingfoss can be found in animal populations, though a definitive animal host has not been established. Six species of birds were sampled at Roebuck...
Fri, 09/18/2020 - 10:01
An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis among veterinary students performing fetotomy exercises on euthanized calves took place in September 2018 in Denmark. A prospective cohort investigation was performed to identify risk factors and provide guidance for preventing outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis in this setting. Ninety-seven students attended the fetotomy exercises and completed a questionnaire about...
Fri, 09/18/2020 - 10:01
Ergot alkaloids are important specialized fungal metabolites that are used to make potent pharmaceuticals for neurological diseases and disorders. Lysergic acid (LA) and dihydrolysergic acid (DHLA) are desirable lead compounds for pharmaceutical semisynthesis but are typically transient intermediates in the ergot alkaloid and dihydroergot alkaloid pathways. Previous work with Neosartorya fumigata...
Fri, 09/18/2020 - 10:01
We determined the disinfection efficacy and inactivation mechanisms of peracetic acid (PAA)-based sanitizer using pH values relevant for vegetable sanitation against rotavirus (RV) and Tulane virus (TV; a human norovirus surrogate). TV was significantly more resistant to PAA disinfection than RV: for a 2-log10 reduction of virus titer, RV required 1 mg/liter PAA for 3.5 min of exposure, while TV...
Fri, 09/18/2020 - 10:01
Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) occurring after artificial joint replacement is a major clinical issue requiring multiple surgeries and antibiotic interventions. Staphylococcus aureus is the bacterium most commonly responsible for PJI. Recent in vitro research has shown that staphylococcal strains rapidly form aggregates in the presence of synovial fluid (SF). We hypothesize that these...
Fri, 09/18/2020 - 10:01
Biphenyl dioxygenase (BPDO), which is a Rieske-type oxygenase (RO), catalyzes the initial dioxygenation of biphenyl and some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In order to enhance the degradation ability of BPDO in terms of a broader substrate range, the BphAES283M, BphAEp4-S283M, and BphAERR41-S283M variants were created from the parent enzymes BphAELB400, BphAEp4, and BphAERR41, respectively, by...
Wed, 09/02/2020 - 10:01
Honey bees are important agricultural pollinators that rely on a specific gut microbiota for the regulation of their immune system and defense against pathogens. Environmental stressors that affect the bee gut microbial community, such as antibiotics and glyphosate, can indirectly compromise bee health. Most of the experiments demonstrating these effects have been done under laboratory conditions...
Wed, 09/02/2020 - 10:01
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of chitosan microparticles on the uterine microbiome of cows with metritis. Dairy cows with metritis (n = 89) were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: chitosan microparticles (n = 21), in which the cows received an intrauterine infusion of chitosan microparticles at metritis diagnosis (day 0), day 2, and day 4; ceftiofur (n = 25), in which the...
Wed, 09/02/2020 - 10:01
The marine facultative pathogen Vibrio cholerae forms complex multicellular communities on the chitinous shells of crustacean zooplankton in its aquatic reservoir. V. cholerae-chitin interactions are critical for the growth, evolution, and waterborne transmission of cholera. This is due, in part, to chitin-induced changes in gene expression in this pathogen. Here, we sought to identify factors...
Wed, 08/19/2020 - 10:01
Staphylococcus aureus and other coagulase-positive Staphylococcus spp. bind the Fc region of IgG antibodies through expression of protein A (SpA). These species have consequently been a source of false-positive signals in antibody-based assays designed to detect other target bacteria. Here, flow cytometry was used to study the influence of a number of factors on the SpA-mediated binding of single...
Wed, 08/19/2020 - 10:01
The use of exogenous functional microorganisms to regulate biogenic amine (BA) content is a common approach in fermentation systems. Here, to better understand the microbial traits of succession trajectories in resource-based and biotic interference systems, the BA-related primary and secondary succession were tracked during industrial semidry Chinese rice wine (CRW) fermentation. Dominant...
Wed, 08/19/2020 - 10:01
Interactions between Listeria monocytogenes and food-associated or environmental bacteria are critical not only for the growth but also for a number of key biological processes of the microorganism. In this regard, limited information exists on the impact of other microorganisms on the virulence of L. monocytogenes. In this study, the growth of L. monocytogenes was evaluated in a single culture...
Wed, 08/19/2020 - 10:01
Clinical surveillance of enteric pathogens like Salmonella is integral to track outbreaks and endemic disease trends. However, clinic-centered disease monitoring biases toward detection of severe cases and underestimates the incidence of self-limiting gastroenteritis and asymptomatic strains. Monitoring pathogen loads and diversity in municipal wastewater (MW) can provide insight into...
Wed, 08/19/2020 - 10:01
The Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) includes a time-to-harvest interval following the application of noncompliant water to preharvest produce to allow for microbial die-off. However, additional scientific evidence is needed to support this rule. This study aimed to determine the impact of weather on the die-off rate of Escherichia coli and Salmonella on spinach and lettuce under field...
Wed, 08/19/2020 - 10:01
Effective wastewater management is crucial to ensure the safety of water reuse projects and effluent discharge into surface waters. Multiple studies have demonstrated that municipal wastewater treatment with conventional activated sludge processes is inefficient for the removal of a wide spectrum of viruses in sewage. In this study, a well-accepted statistical approach was used to investigate the...
Tue, 08/04/2020 - 10:01
Traditional fermentations have been widely studied from the microbiological point of view, but little is known from the functional perspective. In this work, nitrogen fixation by free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria was conclusively demonstrated in pozol, a traditional Mayan beverage prepared with nixtamalized and fermented maize dough. Three aspects of nitrogen fixation were investigated to...
Tue, 07/21/2020 - 10:01
In order to estimate herd-level prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase/AmpC β-lactamase (ESBL/AmpC)- and carbapenemase-producing commensal Escherichia coli in ruminants in the Basque Country (northern Spain), a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2014 to 2016 in 300 herds using selective isolation. ESBL-/AmpC-producing E. coli was isolated in 32.9% of dairy cattle herds, 9.6%...
Tue, 07/21/2020 - 10:01
Anaerobic degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons has been investigated mostly with naphthalene as a model compound. Naphthalene degradation by sulfate-reducing bacteria proceeds via carboxylation to 2-naphthoic acid, formation of a coenzyme A thioester, and subsequent reduction to 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthoyl-coenzyme A (THNCoA), which is further reduced to hexahydro-2-naphthoyl-CoA (...
Tue, 07/21/2020 - 10:01
In developing countries, Shigella flexneri is the most common enteric pathogen causing bacillary dysentery. Biofilm formation by S. flexneri can cause the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains, which poses serious threats to food safety and human health. In this study, the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum 12 exopolysaccharides (L-EPSs) and S. flexneri exopolysaccharides (S-EPSs) on S....
Tue, 07/21/2020 - 10:01
Over a 2-year period, drag swabs of orchard soil surface and air, soil, and almond leaf samples were collected in an almond orchard adjacent to (35 m from the first row of trees) and downwind from a poultry operation and in two almond orchards (controls) that were surrounded by other orchards. Samples were evaluated for aerobic plate count, generic Escherichia coli, other coliforms, the presence...
Fri, 07/03/2020 - 10:01
According to the World Health Organization, arsenic is the water contaminant that affects the largest number of people worldwide. To limit its impact on the population, inexpensive, quick, and easy-to-use systems of detection are required. One promising solution could be the use of whole-cell biosensors, which have been extensively studied and could meet all these criteria even though they often...
Fri, 07/03/2020 - 10:01
Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogen mostly associated with the consumption of ready-to-eat foods and can cause severe disease and death. It can be introduced into food chains from raw materials, but often the contamination source is the food production environment, where certain clones can persist for years. In the meat chain, ST9 is one of the most commonly encountered L. monocytogenes sequence...
Fri, 07/03/2020 - 10:01
The aim of this research was to investigate the efficacy of the duty ratio and applied voltage in the inactivation of pathogens in soybean curd by pulsed ohmic heating (POH). The heating rate of soybean curd increased rapidly as the applied voltage increased, although the duty ratio did not affect the temperature profile. We supported this result by verifying that electrical conductivity...
Thu, 06/18/2020 - 10:01
The Gram-positive pathogen Listeria monocytogenes can be subdivided into at least 12 different serovars, based on the differential expression of a set of somatic and flagellar antigens. Of note, strains belonging to serovars 1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b cause the vast majority of foodborne listeriosis cases and outbreaks. The standard protocol for serovar determination involves an agglutination method...
Thu, 06/18/2020 - 10:01
Decontamination practices, which often involve thermal treatments, are routinely performed in beef packing plants and have generally improved the safety of meat in North America. We investigated whether Escherichia coli in the beef production chain is becoming more heat resistant due to those treatments. Cattle isolates (n = 750) included seven serogroups (O157, O103, O111, O121, O145, O26, and...
Thu, 06/18/2020 - 10:01
The microbiota plays a vital role in maintaining gut health and influences the overall performance of chickens. Most gut microbiota-related studies have been performed in broilers, which have different microbial communities compared to those of layers. The normal gut microbiota of laying chickens is dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, and Actinobacteria at the...
Thu, 06/18/2020 - 10:01
Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus sequence type (ST) 398 (LA-MRSA ST398) is a genetic lineage for which pigs are regarded as the main reservoir. An increasing prevalence of LA-MRSA ST398 has been reported in areas with high livestock density throughout Europe. In this study, we investigated the drivers contributing to the introduction and spread of LA-MRSA ST398...
Thu, 06/18/2020 - 10:01
Dissemination of extended-spectrum-cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant Salmonella, especially extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Salmonella, is a concern worldwide. Here, we assessed Salmonella carriage by food workers in Japan to clarify the prevalence of ESC-resistant Salmonella harboring blaCTX-M. We then characterized the genetic features, such as transposable elements, of blaCTX-M...
Thu, 06/18/2020 - 10:01
Food safety is a new area for novel applications of metagenomics analysis, which not only can detect and subtype foodborne pathogens in a single workflow but may also produce additional information with in-depth analysis capabilities. In this study, we applied a quasimetagenomic approach by combining short-term enrichment, immunomagnetic separation (IMS), multiple-displacement amplification (MDA...
Thu, 06/18/2020 - 10:01
The "Moore swab" is a classic environmental surveillance tool whereby a gauze pad tied with string is suspended in flowing water or wastewater contaminated with human feces and harboring enteric pathogens that pose a human health threat. In contrast to single volume "grab" samples, Moore swabs act as continuous filters to "trap" microorganisms, which are subsequently isolated and confirmed using...
Wed, 06/03/2020 - 03:36
Carboxylesterase PytH, isolated from the pyrethroid-degrading bacterium Sphingobium faniae JZ-2, could rapidly hydrolyze the ester bond of a wide range of pyrethroid pesticides, including permethrin, fenpropathrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, deltamethrin, cyhalothrin, and bifenthrin. To elucidate the catalytic mechanism of PytH, we report here the crystal structures of PytH with bifenthrin (BIF)...

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