Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

Sat, 12/07/2019 - 03:16
Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS) were deployed in two watersheds in Córdoba province and one watershed in Buenos Aires province in Argentina. The fungicides, tebuconazole, carbendazim and azoxystrobin, and the herbicides, atrazine, dicamba and 2,4-D were detected in POCIS deployed in each of the three watersheds. Estimated time weighted average concentrations of atrazine were...
Sun, 12/01/2019 - 03:15
This study evaluated the relationships between metal pollution and carbon production at six sites along a 285 km length of the Ganga River. Metal contaminated sites did show a significant reduction in microbial biomass, substrate induced respiration, fluorescein diacetate hydrolytic assay (FDAase) and β-d-glucosidase. Concordantly, despite a high concentration of total organic carbon at these...
Wed, 11/20/2019 - 03:26
Cadmium (Cd) pollution is constantly increasing in agricultural systems due to anthropogenic activities and causes significant reductions in the yield of crop species. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of Cd stress on growth, element contents, oxidative damage, antioxidant enzyme activities, and genotoxicity in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). To achieve this goal, 7-day-old wheat...
Sat, 11/16/2019 - 03:15
During the summer of 2015, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the atmosphere were collected by passive air samplers in typical urban–rural fringe of Wuhan–Ezhou region, Central China. The results showed that 16 kinds of PAHs were ubiquitous with the concentrations of ∑16PAHs from 14.69 to 136.30 ng·m−3 and the mean concentration of 43.03 ng·m−3. Phenanthrene (Phe), fluoranthene (Fla) and...
Fri, 11/15/2019 - 03:15
We conducted exposure assessment using toenails from 20 fishermen living in Bodo City, a community of the Niger delta region in Nigeria. This community has been affected by over 4000 oil spills and environmental disasters. Fishing is the primary source of food and income for individuals in this community. Previous research in Bodo City found elevated metal levels in fish. Toenails were used as a...
Thu, 11/14/2019 - 03:15
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA) was selected among various eluents due to its highest removal efficiency for lead (Pb) (43.7%) and zinc (Zn) (57.1%) leaching from Pb–Zn contaminated soil by soil column experiment. Compared with newly prepared EDTA eluent, using recycled EDTA eluent can still leaching down 71.1% of Pb and 63.2% of Zn respectively, which showed the reusable...
Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:15
Soils in three horizons from a naturally heavy metals enriched region were distributed into six size aggregates (> 2, 2–1, 1–0.6, 0.6–0.25, 0.25–0.053, < 0.053 mm) to determine the relationships of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Mn and Pb) and iron oxides. The results showed that the percentage of microaggregates (size < 0.25 mm) was in the order: topsoil (A) > subsoil (B) > parent material...
Thu, 11/07/2019 - 03:16
In order to determine the potential heavy metal contamination in soil across Dongguan City, 124 soil samples from seven land use types were collected, four heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, and Cu) were analyzed. Total Cd, Cr, and Cu contents were significantly higher than the background values for Guangdong Province. Lead bioaccessibility in urban green land was lower than that in industrial and...
Sat, 11/02/2019 - 03:16
Sugarcane is a potential species for use in heavy metal remediation. To analyze the effect of excess copper on sugarcane, the biomass, mineral nutrient content and activities of antioxidative enzymes were measured under copper stress. The results revealed that the biomass of roots and shoots significantly decreased with increasing copper concentration in solution. Most copper accumulated in the...
Thu, 10/31/2019 - 03:15
In the present study, biochar particles (BPs) produced by the co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge and corncobs at temperatures of 300, 500, and 700°C were characterized. The Pb2+ adsorption properties and the heavy metal leaching toxicity rates of the BPs were investigated. It was found that the adsorption kinetics of the Pb2+ can be accurately described by a pseudo-second-order model, and the...
Sat, 10/26/2019 - 03:20
Concentrations of mercury and other heavy metals were measured in soils surrounding the Wuda Coalfield, Inner Mongolia where underground coal fires are regarded as an important contamination source. Soil samples at the downwind direction were nearly all enriched mercury in surface layers, with their concentrations ~ 10 times higher than those from upwind soils. Mercury concentrations generally...
Thu, 10/24/2019 - 03:20
Lead is toxic to humans and wildlife. Most studies of lead exposure of raptors focus on the winter, non-breeding season when they scavenge heavily. We evaluated blood lead concentrations (BLCs) of red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus) during the non-scavenging season in the eastern United States. BLCs of 53 of 70 hawks were above the limit of detection ( \(\bar{x}\) = 9.25 µg/dL ± 19.81; ± SD)....
Sun, 10/20/2019 - 03:18
Climate change is expected to alter hydrological cycles on global and regional scales, impacting groundwater and surface water inputs to stream habitats. In the midwestern United States, the volume and frequency of inputs are expected to become increasingly variable. This region has a high incidence of agriculture, creating enormous potential for transport of pesticides and herbicides into...
Sun, 10/20/2019 - 03:18
Here we evaluate the potential of heavy metal accumulation of Proteocephalus macrophallus parasitizing the Butterfly Peacock Bass (Cichla ocellaris). A total of 19 fish specimens were collected. From the hosts, samples of intestine, liver, muscle, and parasites were taken. Heavy metal concentrations (Al, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Ti, and Zn) were obtained using Atomic Absorption...
Sun, 10/20/2019 - 03:18
In order to trace the source of Pb pollution in wheat, the contribution ratio of soil and atmospheric fallout source was quantified based on stable isotope ratios. Results showed that the average Pb content of soil was significantly lower than that of fallout, and Pb in the fallout had a higher weak acid fraction than soil. Pb in wheat had a distinct distribution in its tissues and the content of...
Wed, 10/16/2019 - 03:18
Little is known about the presence and effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in Puerto Rico’s waters. Four coastal aquatic systems were investigated using low-density polyethylene passive sampling for PCBs and OCPs in water and its overlying air. The highest total freely dissolved and gaseous concentrations of PCBs were found in Guánica Bay, with 4000 pg...
Wed, 10/09/2019 - 03:18
A hydroponic experiment was carried out to study the accumulation characteristics of copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) combined pollution in three ornamental plants. The results showed that these tested ornamental plants had higher tolerance to Cu–Pb combined pollution and could effectively accumulate the heavy metals. The Cu and Pb concentrations were higher in the roots of the ornamental plants than...
Wed, 10/09/2019 - 03:18
In this study, a binary mixture in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was used for the preconcentration and determination of selected pesticides, pharmaceutical and hormone by GC–MS. A Box–Behnken experimental design was used to optimize the amounts of binary mixture, dispersive solvent and salt. The optimum parameters obtained were dichloromethane/1,2-dichloroethane binary mixture (200 µL...
Wed, 09/25/2019 - 03:17
A growing concern exists over water contamination by veterinary pharmaceuticals from small pig farms in Yucatan, Mexico, where the anaerobic digesters installed as the wastewater treatment system are not operated properly. Therefore, considerable interest exists to develop analytical methods to detect these compounds and characterize their fate in the environment. In this study, the detection of...
Wed, 09/25/2019 - 03:17
Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic element widely distributed in the aquatic environment and producing a wide variety of harmful effects. In this study, the acute toxicity (96 h LC50) of Cd to rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss embryos and larvae was determined. The obtained results showed that hatched larvae were the most sensitive to Cd exposure. After 4 days of exposure, embryos were found to have...
Wed, 09/25/2019 - 03:17
This study investigated the effect of persistent heavy metal exposure on the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) of the freshwater snail, Lymnaea natalensis. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were also measured as an index of lipid peroxidation. The snails were exposed to cadmium, copper, lead and mercury for a total of 28 days at 0.1 mg/L, 0.1 mg/L...
Wed, 09/25/2019 - 03:17
Tree foliage sequesters gaseous elemental mercury (Hg) through stomatal uptake, when the foliage senesces and falls into the water, Hg from leaf litter can be released into the water and/or microbially methylated into a highly toxic form, methylmercury. The dominant groups of microbial communities that can methylate Hg during litter decomposition are, however, less certain. We conducted a...
Wed, 09/25/2019 - 03:17
Livestock and poultry manure containing high levels of copper and zinc have led to contamination of farmland and products which could have an impact on human health. Biochar is an inexpensive and efficient heavy metal absorbent. In the present study, we have used biochar to mitigate the effects of heavy metals on the growth of wheat seedlings. The study showed that the effects of heavy metals on...
Wed, 09/25/2019 - 03:17
The objective of the study was to evaluate the toxicity of trace elements to earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in recreational and military shooting range soils. The earthworms were exposed to soils; then mortality, growth, and reproduction endpoints were determined. In the recreational shooting range, the total Pb concentration was 6151 mg kg−1 and in the soil of the impact berm of the military...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:14
In most laboratory studies with oral exposure of terrestrial invertebrates to metals an artificial food, which is easy to handle, is used. The bioavailability of metals from this artificial food may, however, be much higher than from more field relevant food sources. Such differences may affect toxicokinetic processes in different tissues. To test the effect of bioavailability of Cd in food on Cd...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:14
The widespread use of bisphenol S (BPS) as a bisphenol A substitute increases its potential of release into the aquatic environments. However, the degradation of BPS in aquatic systems is largely unknown, which will dictate its fate and toxicity. In this study, a bacterial consortium was enriched from river sediments and the dynamic changes of community structure during bacterial acclimation were...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:14
Antibiotics in manure, soil, wastewater, and groundwater samples from the livestock and poultry farms in Xuzhou City were investigated in the present study. The concentrations of antibiotics in all matrices varied greatly among farms. Total concentrations of fluoroquinolones and macrolides were much higher than those of sulfonamides in manures and soil samples. Total concentrations of antibiotics...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:14
The manufacturing and consumption of drugs of addiction has increased globally and their widespread occurrence in the environment is an emerging concern. This study evaluated the phytotoxicity of three compounds: methamphetamine, codeine and morphine; commonly reported in Australian urban water, to the aquatic plant Lemna minor under controlled conditions. L. minor was sensitive to lower drug...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:14
Systemic pesticides, such as the neonicotinoid imidacloprid, can be introduced into aquatic ecosystems through contaminated plant material, which is the basis for detrital (brown) aquatic food-webs. With the aim of exemplarily assessing for indirect effects on the level of predators, we first offered imidacloprid contaminated and uncontaminated alder leaves to the stonefly shredder Protonemura sp...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:14
The aim of this study is to determine seasonal changes in the blood levels of some heavy metals in three Turkey-specific cattle breed: Native Land (NL), Grizzle Race (GR), and South Anatolian Red (SR). Blood samples were collected in summer and winter seasons from a total of 180 cattle aged 12–24 months. The levels of the essential (Zn, Cu, Fe, Co etc.) and non-essential (Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Pb, etc...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:14
This research presents the assessment of contamination status, congener profiles and ecological risk of selected endocrine disrupting compounds (S-EDCs) in surface water from KimNguu River, Hanoi. Selected EDCs compose polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), phthalate esters (PAEs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Water sampling and chemical analyses were carried out in collected water...