# Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

The Research Publications track research that is published across national and international peer-reviewed journals. The most recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal Title, Subject, USDA Grant Funding Agencies or FDA Grant Funding Agencies. The research publications are tracked across five subject areas: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, and Viruses.

Tue, 07/14/2020 - 02:02
Molecular biomarkers play an increasing crucial role in evaluating and predicting toxicity of metals. Expressions patterns of genes related to oxidative stress, apoptosis, immune and inflammation response in the Bufo gargarizans embryo exhibited a development dependent manner. The genes related to oxidative stress (HSP, GPx and SOD) are the first response in the development of embryo, followed by...
Tue, 07/14/2020 - 02:01
Marigold (Calendula calypso) is a multipurpose ornamental plant, but its cadmium (Cd) tolerance and phytoremediation potential is unknown. The proposed study was carried out to unravel Cd partitioning, physiological and oxidative stress responses of C. calypso grown under Cd stress. Plants were grown for four months in pots having different soil Cd levels: 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 mg kg−1 soil....
Sat, 07/11/2020 - 02:01
Impacts on urban water resources are invariably caused by the development of urban centers and the occupation of the watershed. The release of untreated effluents and urban runoff are sources of metals in adjacent water bodies. It is therefore important to conduct studies on the occurrence of these trace elements in the environment and the risks posed to human health. The aim of the present study...
Fri, 07/10/2020 - 02:01
The objectives of this study was to diagnose Cd and Pb contamination in soil and to identify the main factors that contribute to the transfer of these elements to tomato plants and fruits and contamination levels of the fruits in tropical mountain conditions. Contamination of the study area soils by Cd and Pb was verified. This contamination stemmed from the intensive use of agricultural inputs,...
Tue, 07/07/2020 - 02:01
In order to assess environmental exposure-associated human health risk of dioxin compounds for the population in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) in Shanghai, the atmospheric samples (n = 24) and soils samples (n = 96) were collected and analyzed to obtain the concentration level, pollution characteristics and seasonal changes of dioxin compounds in environmental medias...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 02:01
Concentration and human health risks of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd, As, Ni) in water, sediment, crab (Tympanotonus fuscatus) and periwinkle (Callinectes amnicola) were assayed in New Calabar River, Nigeria. Results revealed that concentration (mg/L) of the metals in water in the two seasons studied, ranged from 1.1E-2 ± 1.0E-3…for Cd to 2.90 ± 0.03…for Cu. In sediment, the concentration (mg/kg...
Sun, 06/28/2020 - 02:02
Growing levels of pollution in marine environment has been a matter of serious concern in recent years. Increased levels of heavy metals due to improper waste disposal has led to serious repercussions. This has increased occurrences of heavy metals in marine fauna. Marine microbes are large influencers of nutrient cycling and productivity in oceans. Marine bacteria show altered metabolism as a...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 02:01
The distribution, seasonal variation and sources of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from suspended particulate matter (SPM) of the Aurá River, a small amazon typical river located in Northern Brazil, were determined. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of SPM revealed a mixture of PAH from different origins and a seasonal variation of PAH primary source for the studied area....
Sun, 06/21/2020 - 02:01
The growth response, tolerance, and enrichment characteristics of six ornamental species, Chlorophytum comosum, Calendula officinalis, Iris lacteal, Belamcanda chinensis, Saponaria officinalis, and Polygonum lapathifolium were studied under hydroponic culture with lead (Pb) concentrations ranging from 0 to 1000 mg/L. The results showed that the growth of the tested ornamental species under Pb...
Thu, 06/18/2020 - 02:01
A bulky waste, oyster shell (OS), was calcinated at 400–800°C to produce Ca-rich products (OS400–OS800) to reduce the human health risk of soil cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As). Thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and BET method were used to characterize OS and its calcined products. OS and OS400–OS700 removed little Cd and As from water, whereas...
Thu, 06/18/2020 - 02:01
The concentrations of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium owing to vehicles were analyzed in roadside soils during all the four seasons from Faisalabad-Gojra road (M-4) and Gojra-Jhang road (GJR) in the Punjab, Pakistan. Results indicated that all the polluted sites along the roadside had comparatively higher metal concentrations as compared to control, nevertheless, spatio-temporal variations in...
Sun, 06/07/2020 - 02:01
A novel model was developed to estimate heavy metal flux at regional scale by using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) to estimate soil erosion. This model was then used to estimate the fluxes of heavy metals including Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Cd, and As in three mono-lithologic regions in upper Pearl River Basin including carbonate rock (CR) basin, black shale (BS) basin, and basalt (BT)...
Sat, 06/06/2020 - 02:01
This paper investigates the concentrations of PCBs in the water and sediment media and its bio-concentration in the fish host-parasite bentho-pelagic food chain in Epe lagoon. Samples of water, sediment, plankton, mollusks, fish and intestinal helminth parasites were collected from three stations (Oriba, Imode and Ikosi) in Epe Lagoon. Concentration of total PCBs in the surface water and sediment...
Wed, 06/03/2020 - 03:25
Biochar was for the first time produced from Suaeda glauca. The immobilization of Pb and Cd by this biochar and pig manure biochar was examined in two types of soils by diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extraction. Addition of biochars decreased DTPA extractable Pb and Cd in Fluvo-aquic soil with reduction rates being 11.3%–48.4% and 0.74%–64.9% compared with the control treatment. The...
Wed, 05/27/2020 - 03:23
The lower Melet River is a drinking water source that is surrounded by hazelnut grove, agricultural lands, resulting in the accumulation of genotoxic agents such as mining activities, various domestic and agricultural wastes. Therefore, it receives many domestic and agricultural wastes that contain the genotoxic agent. This study was aimed to assess the heavy metal concentrations in water,...
Wed, 05/27/2020 - 03:23
In this study, the concentrations of 14 types of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 7 types of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in four freshwater fish species (Ctenopharyngodon idella, Cyprinus carpio, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) collected from nine lakes in Anhui Province were determined. Among these contaminants, only hexachlorobenzene (HCB), heptachlor,...
Wed, 05/27/2020 - 03:23
This study assessed if the concentrations of methylmercury (MeHg) in predatory and non-predatory fish caught in the Upper Solimões River are safe for human consumption, according to the reference values established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). MeHg concentrations were evaluated in muscle of 5 predatory and 4 non-predatory fish species by gas chromatography with...
Thu, 05/21/2020 - 03:25
Heavy metal (HM) contamination of the environment is a major issue worldwide, creating an ever-increasing demand for remediation techniques. Remediation with algae offers an ecologically safe, cost-effective, and efficient option for HM removal. Similar to plants, growth and development of algae are controlled by the hormonal system, where phytohormones are involved in HM tolerance and thus can...
Thu, 05/21/2020 - 03:25
Detection and removal of pesticides have become increasingly imperative as the widespread production and use of pesticides severely contaminate soil and groundwater and cause serious problems to non-target species such as human and animals. Recently, new two-dimensional materials beyond graphene (e.g., transition metal dichalcogenides, layered double hydroxides), called post-graphene two-...
Wed, 05/20/2020 - 03:22
Mercury (Hg) methylation could occur in freshwater ecosystems with low or high salinity. However, few studies are available about the effects of salinity change on mercury(Hg) release and methylation. In-situ experiments using Suaeda heteroptera wetland soil column from the Liaohe estuary were performed to decipher how total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) contents change under fluctuant...
Thu, 05/14/2020 - 03:23
In this study we test the sensitivity of three sizes of golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei), an introduced species in Argentina, to a 96-h exposure to $$\hbox {Cd}^{2+}$$, $$\hbox {Cr}^{6+}$$, and $$\hbox {Ni}^{2+}$$. We also analysed the relative sensitivity of L. fortunei compared to other freshwater bivalve equivalent sensitivity data. The ANOVA results showed that both factors, heavy metal...
Tue, 05/12/2020 - 03:22
We examined copper accumulation in the hemolymph, gills and hepatopancreas, and hemolymph osmolality, Na+ and Cl− concentrations, together with gill Na+/K+-ATPase and carbonic anhydrase activities, after dietary copper delivery (0, 100 or 500 Cu µg g−1) for 12 days in a fiddler crab, Minuca rapax. In contaminated crabs, copper concentration decreased in the hemolymph and hepatopancreas, but...
Sat, 05/09/2020 - 03:22
Concentrations and sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a rural atmosphere near industrial zones in Jiangsu, China were determined and the associated risks were assessed. The concentrations of ΣPCDD/Fs, ΣPCBs, and ΣPAHs ranged from 11.9–57.7 pg·m−3, 0.58–2.71 pg m−3...
Fri, 05/08/2020 - 03:24
With the development of urbanization and industrialization, Ziya River Plain (ZYRP) had become one of the most polluted regions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in north China. The distribution of PAHs in sediments were investigated, and then their sources and risks were evaluated. The results showed that the total PAHs varied from 3372 to 92,948 μg/kg, and heavy pollution was found in...
Sun, 04/26/2020 - 03:21
In this study, the photodegradation of organophosphorus (OPs) pesticides in the honey medium was evaluated under sunlight irradiation. Some of the 22 samples collected at different sites contained OPs pesticides (Methyl parathion, Coumaphos and Fenitrothion) with an average of 8 ng/g. Moreover, three samples were found with pesticide residue levels exceeding the maximum residue limits (MRL ≥ 50 ...
Fri, 04/24/2020 - 03:21
Waterbirds are considered the effective sentinels of aquatic ecosystems contamination and their feathers are widely used as non-destructive biological tools for contaminant biomonitoring. In this work, we measure and evaluate the concentrations of lead, copper and zinc in the breast feathers of three species namely Fulica atra, Anas crecca and Anas platyrhynchos in the wetland National Park...
Thu, 04/23/2020 - 03:20
Water quality degradation by organochlorine pesticides and potentially toxic elements is of worldwide concern. This research explores groundwater conditions, regarding organochlorine pesticides and potentially toxic elements, in Hopelchen, Campeche, which is located in the buffer zone of the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve. Unfortunately, agriculture is allowed and agrochemical use is not monitored...
Thu, 04/23/2020 - 03:20
The leaching behavior of five additives, including citric acid (CA), wood vinegar (WV), 1-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP), polyaspartic acid (PASP) and FeCl3, was investigated to evaluate the possibility of enhanced phytoextraction of Pennisetum sp. from cadmium-contaminated soil. FeCl3 and CA have the highest leaching potential due to the ability that could convert large amounts...
Tue, 04/21/2020 - 03:22
The physicochemical parameters and 16 priority PAHs in surface water, porewater and sediment at a sawmill wastes-impacted and High-Rise study sites on the Lagos lagoon in Nigeria were assessed. Further, the embryotoxic effects of sediment organic and porewater extracts from the study sites were evaluated in Clarias gariepinus (African sharptooth catfish) embryos for 26 h. High molecular weight...
Sun, 04/19/2020 - 03:20
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pose great risks to lake ecosystem and human health. Comprehensive knowledge on PAHs in lakes is critical for their risk control. 118 samples were collected from different environmental medium to study the occurrence and fluxes of 16 PAH in Lake Taihu. The average ∑PAH16 in air, water, phytoplankton, zooplankton, suspended particle matter, and surface...
Sun, 04/19/2020 - 03:20
The effect of shoot cutting was tested on cadmium, lead and zinc concentration in leaves and capitula of Erigeron annuus, an invasive species, which is considered as a potential phytoremediator. Plant material and soil were collected in the city center of Kraków, southern Poland, considered as one of the most contaminated cities in Europe. We proved that the concentration of zinc in leaves and...
Thu, 04/16/2020 - 03:17
Rare earth elements (REEs) are applied in various industries. They have entered the environment through different pathways and caused serious pollutions. So far, due to the lack of calculated toxicity coefficient of rare earth elements, it is still difficult to evaluate their ecological risks. The potential ecological risk index method is commonly used in the pollution assessment of heavy metals...
Mon, 04/13/2020 - 03:15
Arsenic (As) bioaccumulation and biotransformation in marine ecosystems involve a number of fields and disciplines such as Environmental Sciences & Ecology, Marine & Freshwater Biology, and Toxicology. Arsenic research in these areas has been developing rapidly in recent years. It is crucial to keep up with the emerging trends and critical development of the collective knowledge....
Thu, 04/02/2020 - 03:15
We investigated the concentration of heavy metals in the Fe–Mn nodules in soils derived from the carbonate rocks of typical karst areas in Guangxi, Southwest China. Compared with the soil background values in Guangxi, heavy metals are substantially enriched in the following order: Cd (268.13) > Pb (39.46) > Cr (11.80) > Zn (8.43) > Ni (6.16) > Cu (3.65). CaCl2 extraction results...
Wed, 04/01/2020 - 03:15
The aim of this study was to characterize the leachate derived from biochar produced from malt spent rootlets (MSR) and to evaluate the required washing level in order to provide water free from inorganic substances. MSR biochar was placed in a column and subjected to six serial washes with distilled water, and the leachate was analysed for main anions and heavy metals. The 1st wash aliquot...
Tue, 03/31/2020 - 03:16
Accumulation, bioavailability and potential ecological risk of seven heavy metals – chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) – have been analyzed in agricultural soil aggregates with particle size of > 1 mm, 0.25–1 mm, 0.05–0.25 mm, and < 0.05 mm from the Fenhe River Basin (FRB). Accumulation factor (AF) analysis demonstrated that heavy...
Thu, 03/26/2020 - 03:16
This work reports on the method optimization and application for quantitative analysis of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and anti-epileptic drug in soil and sediment samples. The analytes were extracted by ultrasonic extraction followed by solid phase extraction and quantified using liquid chromatographic coupled with photodiode array. The sensitivity of the method was determined based on...
Mon, 03/23/2020 - 03:17
The application of nano-level passivating agents in the remediation of soil heavy metal pollution has received widespread attention, but its harm to soil animals should also be addressed. This study explored the effect of three nanomaterials—nanohydroxyapatite apatite (n-HAP), nano zeolite (n-zeolite), and nanometer iron oxide (n-Fe3O4), on catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide...
Mon, 03/23/2020 - 03:17
Female vinegar flies (Drosophila melanogaster) preferentially oviposit eggs on oviposition substrates that decrease larval foraging costs. We tested whether female D. melanogaster would avoid oviposition substrates containing lead (Pb2+), which could potentially decrease offspring fitness. Wild type D. melanogaster were reared on control or Pb-treated medium from egg stage to adulthood and tested...
Thu, 03/19/2020 - 03:15
Daytime and nighttime PM2.5 samples were collected from an urban community in Tianjin. The major chemical components in PM2.5, including metal elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and inorganic water-soluble ions, were monitored. A positive matrix factorization (PMF) model was used to apportion the potential sources of PM2.5 under different weather conditions. When the Air Quality Index (...
Wed, 03/18/2020 - 03:15
This study focuses on seasonal variations of heavy metals in the soil around a coal fired thermal power plant in Udupi district, which is a densely populated town in the tropical southwest coast of India. This study, pertaining to 48 soil samples, collected during the pre-monsoon, early-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons for one year, reveals that the chemistry of collected soil samples is...
Sun, 03/15/2020 - 03:26
Cadmium contamination of agricultural soils is a serious problem due to its toxic effects on health and yield of crop plants. This study investigates the potential of low-dose nano-TiO2 as soil nanoremediation on Cd toxicity in cowpea plants. To achieve this goal, cowpea seeds were germinated on Cd-spiked soils at 10 mg/kg for 14 days and later augmented with 100 mg nTiO2/kg (nTiO2-50 nm and...
Fri, 03/13/2020 - 03:15
Intensive agricultural and livestock activities demand high pesticide use and, consequently, contaminants reach aquatic ecosystems. In the lower Jacuí River, southern Brazil, there is a lack of knowledge about pesticide residues in water samples and the biochemical responses in native fish species. Thus, this study aimed to estimate the influence of pesticide residues and water parameters to...
Tue, 03/10/2020 - 03:15
Eutrophication and metal contamination are the principal pollution problem for almost all inland lakes in world. Phytoremediation is one of the viable solutions for this concern. The present study analysed the concentration and distribution of six metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc) in sediment and macrophyte samples of Varthur Lake, Bangalore. Higher concentrations of...
Wed, 03/04/2020 - 03:26
This short note aims to report in detail a preliminary assessment of the concentrations of Cd, Hg and Pb in tissues of blue crabs Callinectes danae collected from the Cananéia-Iguape-Peruíbe estuarine complex (CIP), in the South of São Paulo State coast, Brazil. In October 2014, blue crabs were collected from CIP. Tissues were removed by dissection and metal determination was performed by GF-AAS...
Wed, 02/26/2020 - 03:16
Biochar is an important material for remediation of contaminated soils, however, different biochars have variable effects on bioavailability of heavy metals. This experiment revealed that peanut shell biochar (PSB) has highest reduction of 78% concentration of Pb in plant roots. The maize straw biochar (MSB) has significantly decreased Zn and Cd concentration (mg/kg dry weight) in Chinese cabbage...
Fri, 02/21/2020 - 03:30
The main aim of this short review was to assess the effect of test medium on the bioavailability of metals to the soil invertebrate Folsomia candida and the barley plant Hordeum vulgare. Solution-only exposures and sand-solution media were suitable media with control survival of > 80%. Comparing toxicity and accumulation data, LC50 and/or EC50 values as well as internal concentrations of...
Sat, 02/15/2020 - 03:15
Pesticide loads and associated toxicity can be significantly reduced using integrated vegetated treatment systems, which remove moderately soluble and hydrophobic pesticides, but need a sorbent material to remove more soluble pesticides. Neonicotinoids such as imidacloprid are widely used insecticides, acutely toxic, and have been linked to a range of ecological effects. Laboratory experiments...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 03:14
Biochar was prepared by mixing sewage sludge with sawdust via a co-pyrolysis with different mixture ratios and temperatures. The results showed that the sawdust addition resulted in a lower yield of biochar with higher C content. The total concentrations of Pb and Cd in biochar were reduced. Besides, pyrolysis can transform the potentially toxic Pb and Cd to stable fractions. However the sawdust...
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:14
Microplastics have become a global concern in recent years. In this study, we studied (i) whether the presence of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) microparticles may affect cadmium (Cd) uptake in mussel (Mytilus edulis); and (ii) the biological effects of PVC microparticles exposure alone or in combination with Cd. Significant Cd uptake in digestive gland was observed following Cd exposure. However, PVC...