Clinical Infectious Diseases

Thu, 11/05/2020 - 12:01
Background Campylobacter species are among the most common causes of enteric bacterial infections worldwide. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk for sexually transmitted enteric infections, including globally distributed strains of multidrug-resistant Shigella species. Methods This was a retrospective study of MSM-associated Campylobacter in Seattle, Washington and Montréal,...
Thu, 11/05/2020 - 12:01
Background Produce-associated outbreaks of Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) were first identified in 1991. In April 2018, New Jersey and Pennsylvania officials reported a cluster of STEC O157 infections associated with multiple locations of a restaurant chain. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) queried PulseNet, the national laboratory network for foodborne disease...
Thu, 11/05/2020 - 12:01
Background Pharyngitis due to group A Streptococcus (GAS) represents a major cause of outpatient visits and antibiotic use in the United States. A leading vaccine candidate targets 30 of the > 200 emm types of GAS. We aimed to assess natural protection conferred by GAS against respiratory symptoms. Methods In a 5-year study among school-aged children in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, pharyngeal...
Thu, 11/05/2020 - 12:01
Norovirus enteritis can cause intractable diarrhea in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients, for which there are no established treatments. We reviewed medical records of 9 SOT recipients at our center who received orally administered human immunoglobulin for norovirus enteritis, and it appeared to be an effective treatment modality.
Thu, 11/05/2020 - 12:01
Background Typhoid fever caused by Salmonella Typhi is a major public health concern in low-/middle-income countries. A recent study of 1900 global S. Typhi indicated that South Asia might be the site of the original emergence of the most successful and hypervirulent clone belonging to the 4.3.1 genotype. However, this study had limited samples from India. Methods We analyzed 194 clinical S....
Fri, 10/23/2020 - 12:01
Background Diarrhea is common and associated with substantial morbidity among hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients, but the etiology is often not identified. Multiplexed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays increase the detection of diarrheal pathogens, but the impact of this technology in this population has not been evaluated. Methods Our center replaced stool cultures and other...
Fri, 10/23/2020 - 12:01
Background Enhanced influenza vaccines may improve protection for older adults, but comparative immunogenicity data are limited. Our objective was to examine immune responses to enhanced influenza vaccines, compared to standard-dose vaccines, in community-dwelling older adults. Methods Community-dwelling older adults aged 65–82 years in Hong Kong were randomly allocated (October 2017–January 2018...
Fri, 10/23/2020 - 12:01
Background Despite advances in prevention, detection, and treatment, cholera remains a major public health problem in Bangladesh and little is known about cholera outside of limited historical sentinel surveillance sites. In Bangladesh, a comprehensive national cholera control plan is essential, although national data are needed to better understand the magnitude and geographic distribution of...
Fri, 10/23/2020 - 12:01
Carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative bacteria is a public health concern. Consequently, numerous government and agency reports discuss carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) and carbapenem-resistant organisms (CROs). Unfortunately, these terms are fuzzy. Do they include (1) Proteeae with inherent imipenem resistance; (2) porin-deficient Enterobacterales resistant to ertapenem but not other...
Sat, 09/12/2020 - 12:00
Background The H3N2 component of egg-based 2017–2018 influenza vaccines possessed an adaptive substitution that alters antigenicity. Several influenza vaccines include antigens that are produced through alternative systems, but a systematic comparison of different vaccines used during the 2017–2018 season has not been completed. Methods We compared antibody responses in humans vaccinated with...
Sat, 09/12/2020 - 12:00
Background Food insecurity is a well-established determinant of suboptimal, self-reported antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, but few studies have investigated this association using objective adherence measures. We examined the association of food insecurity with levels of ART concentrations in hair among women living with human immunodeficiency virus (WLHIV) in the United States. Methods We...
Sat, 08/22/2020 - 12:00
Background Tuberculosis (TB) control is hindered by absence of rapid tests to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and detect isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RIF) resistance. We evaluated the accuracy of the BD MAX multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB assay (BD MAX) in South Africa, Uganda, India, and Peru. Methods Outpatient adults with signs/symptoms of pulmonary TB were prospectively enrolled....
Sat, 08/22/2020 - 12:00
Background Increasing numbers of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) are being observed in the Western world. The actual routes of HCV transmission during high-risk sex practices and associated drug use remain poorly understood. Methods Forty-seven patients with HCV were prospectively enrolled. Rectal and nasal swabs were collected to quantify HCV-RNA levels...
Sat, 08/22/2020 - 12:00
Background We studied the effect of age, baseline viral load, vaccination status, antiviral therapy, and emergence of drug resistance on viral shedding in children infected with influenza A or B virus. Methods Samples from children (aged ≤13 years) enrolled during the 7 years of the prospective Influenza Resistance Information Study were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction to determine the...
Sat, 08/22/2020 - 12:00
Background Transfusion-related sepsis remains an important hospital infection control challenge. Investigation of septic transfusion events is often restricted by the limitations of bacterial culture in terms of time requirements and low yield in the setting of prior antibiotic administration. Methods In 3 gram-negative septic transfusion cases, we performed metagenomic next-generation sequencing...
Sat, 08/22/2020 - 12:00
To the Editor—We read the article by Franz et al [1] with great interest. They performed a pan-genome, spatio-temporal, phylogenetic study of Escherichia coli isolates of O157:H7, a major serotype of Shiga toxin–producing E. coli (STEC), and concluded that E. coli O157:H7 has spread globally by the transportation of cattle. We have the following concerns with this study: (1) reservoir selection...
Sat, 08/15/2020 - 12:00
Background Campylobacter infection is associated with impaired growth of children, even in the absence of symptoms. To examine the underlying mechanisms, we evaluated associations between Campylobacter infection, linear growth, and fecal microbial community features in a prospective birth cohort of 271 children with a high burden of diarrhea and stunting in the Amazonian lowlands of Peru. Methods...
Sat, 08/15/2020 - 12:00
Background In 2012, the Food and Drug Administration approved use of bedaquiline fumarate as part of combination therapy for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB). We describe treatment outcomes, safety, and tolerability of bedaquiline in our case series. Methods Data on patients started on bedaquiline for MDR TB between September 2012 and August 2016 were collected retrospectively through 4...
Sat, 08/15/2020 - 12:00
Background Most oropharyngeal Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections are asymptomatic, and many infections remain undetected, creating a reservoir for ongoing transmission and potential drug resistance. It is unclear what the optimal testing policy is in men who have sex with men (MSM), as routine universal testing data are lacking. Methods Surveillance data from all Dutch sexually transmitted...
Wed, 07/29/2020 - 12:00
Background Salmonella enterica bloodstream infections are an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality, including in Mali. We report 17 years of surveillance for nontyphoidal and typhoidal S. enterica infections among inpatients and outpatients at l’Hôpital Gabriel Touré, the main source of pediatric tertiary care in Bamako, Mali. Methods Between June 2002 and December 2018, a blood...
Wed, 07/29/2020 - 12:00
Control of Salmonella enterica serovar typhi (S. typhi), the agent of typhoid fever, continues to be a challenge in many low- and middle-income countries. The major transmission route of S. typhi is fecal-oral, through contaminated food and water; thus, the ultimate measures for typhoid fever prevention and control include the provision of safe water, improved sanitation, and hygiene. Considering...
Wed, 07/29/2020 - 12:00
The world is currently facing a serious health burden of waterborne diseases, including diarrhea, gastrointestinal diseases, and systemic illnesses. The control of these infectious diseases ultimately depends on the access to safe drinking water, properly managed sanitation, and hygiene practices. Therefore, ultrasensitive, rapid, and specific monitoring platforms for bacterial pathogens in...
Wed, 07/29/2020 - 12:00
In 1993, the International Task Force on Disease Eradication classified the political will for typhoid eradication as “none.” Here we revisit the Task Force’s assessment in light of developments in typhoid vaccines and increasing antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella Typhi that have served to increase interest in typhoid elimination. Considering the requisite biological and technical factors for...
Wed, 07/29/2020 - 12:00
Background Typhoid fever has been endemic on the island nation of Samoa (2016 population, 195 979) since the 1960s and has persisted through 2019, despite economic development and improvements in water supply and sanitation. Methods Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates from the 2 hospitals with blood culture capability and matched patient demographic and clinical data from January 2008...
Mon, 07/27/2020 - 12:00
Background Quinolone resistance has been documented in the pediatric population, although their use is limited in children. This study investigated the effect of maternal quinolone use on gram-negative bacterial resistance to quinolones in their offspring. Methods We conducted a population-based, unmatched case-control study during 2010–2017. Cases were all children aged 0.5–17 years with...
Mon, 07/27/2020 - 12:00
Background Hepatitis A virus (HAV) can be sexually transmitted. However, the level of HAV immunity among patients living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Japan is unknown. Determining the epidemiology of HAV infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) and who are living with HIV is essential for an HAV vaccination program. This study examined HAV immunity in patients living with...
Mon, 07/27/2020 - 12:00
Background China is thought to be a hotspot for zoonotic influenza virus emergence, yet there have been few prospective studies examining the occupational risks of such infections. Methods We present the first 2 years of data collected from a 5-year, prospective, cohort study of swine-exposed and -unexposed participants at 6 swine farms in China. We conducted serological and virological...
Mon, 07/27/2020 - 12:00
Background The clinical role of sputum Gram stain (SGS) in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) diagnosis remains controversial. A 1996 meta-analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of SGS reported heterogeneous results. To update the available evidence, we performed a systematic review and a Bayesian standard and latent-class model meta-analysis. Methods We searched Medline, Embase, and Cochrane...
Mon, 07/27/2020 - 12:00
To the Editor—We read with interest the recent article by Koibuchi et al [1] that provides further suggestions for a hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccination program with decision-tree and cost-effectiveness analyses. However, we have several concerns about the findings and conclusions in this study during the ongoing outbreak of acute hepatitis A in Tokyo. HAV seroprevalence generally increases with...
Mon, 07/27/2020 - 12:00
Rising levels of antimicrobial resistance pose serious dangers to patients, population health, food security, and economic stability worldwide. In response to this threat, the United Nations and the World Health Organization have called for multisectoral, multidisciplinary action, recognizing that human, animal, and environmental health are interdependent. Although the pharmaceutical industry...
Sat, 07/11/2020 - 12:00
Background Drug–drug interactions (DDIs) that involve antiretrovirals (ARVs) tend to cause harm if unrecognized, especially in the context of comorbidity and polypharmacy. Methods A linkage was established between the drug dispensing registry of Madrid and the Liverpool human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) DDI database (January 2017–June 2017). Polypharmacy was defined as the use of ≥5 non-HIV...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 12:00
We reviewed relevant syphilis diagnostic literature and conducted a meta-analysis to address the question, “What is the sensitivity and specificity of the Syphilis Health Check, a rapid qualitative test for the detection of human antibodies to Treponema pallidum.” The Syphilis Health Check is the only rapid syphilis test currently cleared by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). We conducted a...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 12:00
Direct detection methods for Treponema pallidum include dark-field microscopy (DFM), direct fluorescence antibody (DFA) testing, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs). Here, we reviewed the relevant syphilis diagnostic literature to address 2 main questions with respect to T. pallidum direct detection techniques: “What are the performance characteristics for...
Wed, 06/10/2020 - 12:00
Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can transmit through needle sharing. The national HBV infection prevalence in persons who inject drugs remains ill-defined. We estimated the prevalence of total HBV core antibody (anti-HBc) positivity, indicating a previous or ongoing HBV infection, among adults aged 20–59 years with an injection drug use (IDU) history. We compared select characteristics by anti...
Wed, 05/27/2020 - 03:22
Nosocomial outbreak detection is a fundamental activity of hospital infection control programs. Traditionally, infection preventionists screen for outbreaks by applying simple rules to data derived from the manual review of microbiology reports. For example, the identification of 3 or more cases of bloodstream infection due to vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) or another...
Wed, 05/27/2020 - 03:22
Background Human-use probiotics have recently been associated with clinical infections and antibiotic resistance transfer, raising public concern over their safety. However, despite their extensive application in aquaculture and animal husbandry, the safety of animal-use probiotics remains poorly described. Methods We evaluated the safety of 92 animal-use probiotics from China. The pattern of...
Tue, 05/26/2020 - 03:25
To the Editor—Meliodosis is a fatal disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, which is a small Gram-negative rod found as environmental saprophyte in tropical and subtropical climates, predominantly in Southeast Asia and northern Australia [1]. The gold standard for the diagnosis of meliodosis is isolation by culture on the B. pseudomallei selective agar and/or the Ashdown medium, which...
Fri, 05/22/2020 - 03:22
Background Ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, 2 fluoroquinolone antimicrobials, are ≥90% effective for the treatment of inhalational plague when administered within 2–6 hours of fever onset in African green monkeys (AGM). Based on data in the AGM model, these antimicrobials were approved under the Food and Drug Administration’s Animal Efficacy Rule. However, that data did not address the issue of...
Fri, 05/22/2020 - 03:22
Background Additional treatment options for pneumonic plague, the most severe form of infection by Yersinia pestis, are needed, as past US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approvals were not based on clinical trials that meet today’s standards, and multiple drugs are sought to counter resistance or use in special populations. Due to the sporadic nature of outbreaks and the low number of...
Thu, 05/07/2020 - 03:22
Background Leprosy has been treated with multidrug therapy, which has been distributed for free across the globe and regarded as highly efficient. However, the impossibility of growing Mycobacterium leprae in axenic media has historically impaired assessments of M. leprae resistance, a parameter only recently detectable through molecular methods. Methods A systematic, population-based search for...
Thu, 05/07/2020 - 03:22
Background Asymptomatic patients colonized with Clostridioides difficile are at risk of developing C. difficile infection (CDI), but the factors associated with disease onset are poorly understood. Our aims were to identify predictors of hospital-onset CDI (HO-CDI) among colonized patients and to explore the potential benefits of primary prophylaxis to prevent CDI. Methods We conducted a...
Thu, 05/07/2020 - 03:22
Background Noroviruses are the major cause of viral gastroenteritis. Disease transmission is difficult to prevent and outbreaks in health-care facilities commonly occur. Contact with infected persons and contaminated environments are believed to be the main routes of transmission. However, noroviruses have recently been found in aerosols and airborne transmission has been suggested. The aim of...
Thu, 05/07/2020 - 03:22
Background Direct measurement of tenofovir (TFV) in urine could be an objective measure to monitor adherence to preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) or TFV-based antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods We conducted a 3-arm randomized, pharmacokinetic study of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) 300 mg/emtricitabine (FTC) 200 mg among adults living with human immunodeficiency virus. Participants were...
Wed, 04/15/2020 - 03:15
Background Mycobacterium abscessus is an extensively drug–resistant pathogen that causes pulmonary disease, particularly in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Identifying direct patient-to-patient transmission of M. abscessus is critically important in directing an infection control policy for the management of risk in CF patients. A variety of clinical labs have used molecular epidemiology to...
Wed, 04/15/2020 - 03:15
Background Botulism is a rare, life-threatening paralytic illness. Botulism Antitoxin Heptavalent (A,B,C,D,E,F,G)-(Equine) (BAT) manufactured by Emergent BioSolutions Canada Inc is an equine-derived heptavalent botulinum antitoxin product indicated for the treatment of symptomatic botulism following documented or suspected exposure to botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A-G in adults and pediatric...
Wed, 04/15/2020 - 03:15
Background Rarely, Legionnaires’ disease (LD) can progress into a slowly or nonresolving form. Methods A nationwide retrospective study was conducted by the French National Reference Center for Legionella (2013–2017) including cases of slowly or nonresolving LD defined as persistent clinical symptoms, computed tomography (CT) scan abnormalities, and Legionella detection in lower respiratory tract...
Wed, 04/15/2020 - 03:15
Background The efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in patients colonized with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) is unknown. We evaluated the effectiveness of fluoroquinolone-based SBP prophylaxis in an era and area of frequent antibiotic resistance. Methods This is a prospective observational study in patients with liver cirrhosis and an...
Wed, 04/15/2020 - 03:15
Background Increasingly, people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) benefit from lower drug regimens (LDRs). Exploring viral genital shedding during LDRs is crucial to ensure their safety. Methods We pooled genital sub-studies from 2 clinical trials in this area. Patients were randomized 1:1 to continue abacavir/lamivudine/dolutegravir or switch to dolutegravir (MONCAY trial), or to...
Fri, 04/10/2020 - 03:17
Background Beginning from 2015–2016, unprecedented large outbreaks of acute hepatitis A that predominantly affected men who have sex with men (MSM) reemerged across the continents. We assessed the impact of an early initiated hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccination campaign that targeted MSM living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during the 2015–2017 hepatitis A outbreak in Taiwan. Methods...
Fri, 04/10/2020 - 03:17
Background Botulism is a rare and potentially fatal paralytic disease caused by botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT). In April 2017, 4 California residents from 2 adjacent counties were hospitalized with suspected foodborne botulism, precipitating an investigation by state and local public health departments in California. Methods We interviewed suspected botulism patients and their families, inspected...

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