Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety

The Research Publications track research that is published across national and international peer-reviewed journals. The most recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal Title, Subject, USDA Grant Funding Agencies or FDA Grant Funding Agencies. The research publications are tracked across five subject areas: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, and Viruses.

Mon, 06/29/2020 - 22:09
As a global public health problem, food safety has attracted increasing concern. To minimize the risk exposure of food to harmful ingredients, food quality and safety inspection that covers the whole process of “from farm to fork” is much desired. Fluorescent sensing is a promising and powerful screening tool for sensing hazardous substances in food and thus plays a crucial role in promoting food...
Tue, 06/23/2020 - 22:08
Mycotoxins such as aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA) fumonisins (FMN), deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), and patulin are stable at regular food process practices. Ozone (O3) is a strong oxidizer and generally considered as a safe antimicrobial agent in food industries. Ozone disrupts fungal cells through oxidizing sulfhydryl and amino acid groups of enzymes or attacks the...
Sat, 06/20/2020 - 22:09
The prevention of foodborne diseases is one of the main objectives of health authorities. To this effect, analytical techniques to detect and/or quantify the microbiological contamination of foods prior to their release onto the market are required. Management and control of foodborne pathogens have generally been based on conventional detection methodologies, which are not only time‐consuming...
Fri, 06/19/2020 - 22:09
Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) is a tropical to subtropical fruit that is widely cultivated in more than 20 countries worldwide. It is normally consumed as fresh or processed and has become one of the most popular fruits because it has a delicious flavor, attractive color, and high nutritive value. Whole litchi fruits have been used not only as a food source but also for medicinal purposes. As a...
Sat, 06/13/2020 - 22:09
There is a need to develop food processing technologies with enhanced antimicrobial capacity against foodborne pathogens. While considering the challenges of adequate inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms in different food matrices, the emerging technologies are also expected to be sustainable and have a minimum impact on food quality and nutrients. Synergistic combinations of food processing...
Fri, 06/12/2020 - 22:09
Bacterial toxins are food safety hazards causing about 10% of all reported foodborne outbreaks in Europe. Pertinent to Gram‐positive pathogens, the most relevant toxins are emetic toxin and diarrheal enterotoxins of Bacillus cereus, neurotoxins of Clostridium botulinum, enterotoxin of Clostridium perfringens, and a family of enterotoxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus and some other...
Wed, 06/10/2020 - 22:10
Consumer awareness on the side effects of chemical preservatives has increased the demand for natural preservation technologies. An efficient and sustainable alternative to current conventional preservation techniques should guarantee food safety and retain its quality with minimal side effects. Photosensitization, utilizing light and a natural photosensitizer, has been postulated as a viable and...
Sun, 06/07/2020 - 22:10
Infant formulas are manufactured products to meet specific nutritional requirements for infants. However, infant formulas can contain harmful substances, such as chemical contaminants and residues, normally due to possible contamination of the raw material or from the production chain. Some studies have demonstrated that veterinary drugs, pesticides, mycotoxins, heavy metals, packaging materials...
Sun, 06/07/2020 - 22:10
Foodborne pathogen contamination has become a severe threat to human health. Traditional methods for foodborne pathogen detection have several disadvantages, including long detection time, low sensitivity, and low selectivity. The emergence of multiple excellent nanomaterials enables the construction of novel biosensors for foodborne pathogen detection. Based on the outstanding properties of...
Mon, 06/01/2020 - 03:26
Nanotechnology is considered a highly valued technology to reduce the current environmental problem that is derived from plastic accumulation. The need to recycle and reuse packaging materials is essential to create a sustainable society towards a circular economy. However, the reprocessing of polymers leads to the deterioration of their characteristic mechanical, optical, thermal, and barrier...
Wed, 05/27/2020 - 03:25
Contamination of agricultural and food products by some fungi species that produce mycotoxins can result in unsafe food and feed. Mycotoxins have been demonstrated to have disease‐causing activities, including carcinogenicity, immune toxicity, teratogenicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and hepatotoxicity. Most of mycotoxins are heat stable and cannot be easily destroyed by conventional...
Sun, 05/24/2020 - 03:25
Milk and milk products have been utilized by humans for many thousands of years. With the advent of metagenomic studies, our knowledge on the microbiota of milk and milk products, especially as affected by the environment, production, and storage parameters, has increased. Milk quality depends on chemical parameters (fat and protein content and absence of inhibitory substances), as well as...
Thu, 05/21/2020 - 03:28
In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in investigating the carcinogenicity of mycotoxins in humans. This systematic review aims to provide an overview of data linking exposure to different mycotoxins with human cancer risk. Publications (2019 and earlier) of case–control or longitudinal cohort studies were identified in PubMed and EMBASE. These articles were then screened by...
Mon, 05/04/2020 - 03:24
Campylobacteriosis is one of the most common bacterial infections worldwide causing economic costs. The high prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat is a result of several contamination and cross‐contamination sources through the production chain. Moreover, survival mechanisms, such as biofilm formation, viable but nonculturable state, and antimicrobial resistance, enable its persistence...
Tue, 04/21/2020 - 03:25
In recent years, with advantages of versatility, functionality, and convenience, multilayer food packaging has gained significant interest. As a single entity, multilayer packaging combines the benefits of each monolayer in terms of enhanced barrier properties, mechanical integrity, and functional properties. Of late, apart from conventional approaches such as coextrusion and lamination, concepts...
Wed, 04/15/2020 - 03:18
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram‐negative bacterium that is naturally present in the marine environment. Oysters, which are water filter feeders, may accumulate this pathogen in their soft tissues, thus increasing the risk of V. parahaemolyticus infection among people who consume oysters. In this review, factors affecting V. parahaemolyticus accumulation in oysters, the route of the pathogen...
Tue, 04/14/2020 - 03:18
Management of stored product insects is a major concern and widely researched topic in the food and grain processing and storage industry. In the scenario of estimated utilization of produces exceeding the production, postharvest losses should be properly controlled to feed the growing population. The prevailing disinfestation techniques are forced to meet regulatory standards and market demands...
Fri, 04/10/2020 - 03:19
Compliance is the act or status of complying with an imperative regulatory or normative requirement, that is, compliance means working within boundaries defined by contractual, social, or cultural standards. The aim of this narrative review is to use the food supply chain as a lens of enquiry to distinguish between compliance‐based and integrity‐based organizational climates and frame and...
Thu, 03/05/2020 - 03:19
Mycotoxins contamination in cereal‐based food is ubiquitous according to systematic review of the scientific documentation of worldwide mycotoxin contamination in cereal and their products between 2008 and 2018, thus representing food safety issue especially in developing tropical countries. Food processing plays a vital role to prevent mycotoxin contamination in food. Therefore, it is with great...
Thu, 03/05/2020 - 03:19
Nowadays, many consumers prefer foods with a high content of nutraceuticals that contribute to the prevention or healing of chronic diseases. Therefore, in recent years, more and more researchers have studied the bioefficiency, safety, and toxicity of nutraceutical‐enriched foods. The key stage of nutraceutical bioefficiency is oral bioavailability, which involves the following processes: the...
Thu, 02/20/2020 - 03:18
World population growth and aging are posing unprecedented challenges in sustaining the health of 9.1 billion people that will be occupying the planet by 2050. Although noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and diabetes are among the top 10 global causes of death, they can be prevented by risk factor reduction, early detection, and adequate...
Tue, 02/18/2020 - 03:17
Deoxynivalenol (DON) has drawn global attention because of its prevalence and significant effects on human or animal health. Biological remedies for DON have been developed from preharvest to postharvest. Applying microbes, including bacteria, fungi (yeast and molds), and enzymes, results in inhibited synthesis, structural destruction, or adsorption of DON. DON can be degraded into masked forms...
Mon, 02/17/2020 - 03:16
Big data analysis has found applications in many industries due to its ability to turn huge amounts of data into insights for informed business and operational decisions. Advanced data mining techniques have been applied in many sectors of supply chains in the food industry. However, the previous work has mainly focused on the analysis of instrument‐generated data such as those from hyperspectral...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 03:16
Food contamination with heat‐resistant fungi (HRF), and their spores, is a major issue among fruit processors, being frequently found in fruit juices and concentrates, among other products, leading to considerable economic losses and food safety issues. Several strategies were developed to minimize the contamination with HRF, with improvements from harvesting to the final product, including...
Fri, 02/07/2020 - 03:32
Electrospun nanofibers with structural and functional advantages have drawn much attention due to their potential applications for active food packaging. The traditional role of food packaging is just storage containers for food products. The changes of retailing practice and consumer demand promote the development of active packaging to improve the safety, quality, and shelf life of the packaged...
Tue, 02/04/2020 - 03:29
Ready‐to‐eat foods (RTEs) are foods consumed without any further processing. They are widely consumed as choice meals especially by school‐aged children and the fast‐paced working class in most low‐ and middle‐income countries (LMICs), where they contribute substantially to the dietary intake. Depending on the type of processing and packaging material, RTEs could be industrially or traditionally...
Tue, 02/04/2020 - 03:29
In this review, we present the current information on development and applications of biological control against phytopathogenic organisms as well as mycotoxigenic fungi in Malaysia as part of the integrated pest management (IPM) programs in a collective effort to achieve food security. Although the biological control of phytopathogenic organisms of economically important crops is well...
Thu, 01/30/2020 - 03:18
Seaweed is a source of protein that can help overcome the anticipated challenges of a growing world population and the current challenges for finding alternatives for animal proteins in the Western diet. Thus far, data on the safety of seaweed for feed and food purposes in the Western world are scattered. This study aimed to review the available knowledge on the presence of food safety hazards in...
Fri, 01/24/2020 - 03:16
Black garlic (BG) is essentially a processed food and obtained through the transformation of fresh garlic (FG) (Allium sativum L.) via a range of chemical reactions (including the Maillard reaction) and microbial fermentation. This review provides the up‐to‐date knowledge of the dynamic and complicated changes in major components during the conversion of FG to BG, including moisture, lipids,...
Thu, 01/23/2020 - 03:17
Surface‐enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) provides a potential solution for rapid analysis of trace compounds such as residual pesticides, naturally occurred toxicants, banned or restricted drugs, and food additives in complex food matrices. In this review, the basic principles of SERS and general approaches to successfully apply SERS in food analysis are covered from an applications perspective...
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:16
Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) and its derivatives are appreciated for their aroma, color, and healthy properties, and are commodities of high economic value worldwide. Wide ranges of conventional methods have been used for years to guarantee cocoa quality. Recently, however, demand for global cocoa and the requirements of sensory, functional, and safety cocoa attributes have changed. On the one hand...
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:16
Sodium chloride (NaCl) universally well‐known as table salt is an ancient food additive, which is broadly used to increase the storage stability and the palatability of foods. Though, in recent decades, use of table salt in foods is a major concern among the health agencies of the world owing to ill effects of sodium (Na) that are mostly linked to hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. As a...
Sat, 01/04/2020 - 03:18
Fermented foods and alcoholic beverages have long been an important part of the human diet in nearly every culture on every continent. These foods are often well‐preserved and serve as stable and significant sources of proteins, vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients. Despite these common features, however, many differences exist with respect to substrates and products and the types of microbes...
Fri, 12/20/2019 - 03:17
The viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state has been recognized as a strategy for bacteria to cope with stressful environments; in this state, bacteria fail to grow on routine culture medium but are actually alive and can resuscitate into a culturable state under favorable conditions. The VBNC state may pose a great threat to food safety and public health. To date, more than 100 VBNC microorganism...
Thu, 12/05/2019 - 03:31
Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) as probable carcinogenic substances are mainly generated in meat products during thermal processing. Numerous studies have contributed to the analysis, formation, and mitigation of HAAs during food processing. However, few articles have comprehensively reviewed food safety aspects from both food processing and dietary intake regarding the formation, mitigation...
Sat, 10/19/2019 - 03:21
Globally, sorghum is one of the most important but least utilized staple crops. Sorghum grain is a rich source of nutrients and health‐beneficial phenolic compounds. The phenolic profile of sorghum is exceptionally unique and more abundant and diverse than other common cereal grains. The phenolic compounds in sorghum are mainly composed of phenolic acids, 3‐deoxyanthocyanidins, and condensed...
Thu, 10/17/2019 - 03:21
Food contact surfaces (FCS) in food processing facilities may become contaminated with a number of unwanted microorganisms, such as Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Staphylococcus aureus. To reduce contamination and the spread of disease, these surfaces may be treated with sanitizers or have active antimicrobial components adhered to them. Although significant efforts have...
Wed, 10/16/2019 - 03:21
Promotion of healthier lifestyles has led to an increase in consumption of fresh produce. Such foodstuffs may expose consumers to increased risk of foodborne disease, as often they are not subjected to processing steps to ensure effective removal or inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms before consumption. Consequently, reports of ready‐to‐eat fruit and vegetable related disease outbreak...
Wed, 10/16/2019 - 03:21
To combat food scarcity as well as to ensure nutritional food supply for sustainable living of increasing population, microalgae are considered as innovative sources for adequate nutrition. Currently, the dried biomass, various carotenoids, phycocyanin, phycoerythrin, omega fatty acids, and enzymes are being used as food additives, food coloring agents, and food supplements. Apart from...
Wed, 10/16/2019 - 03:21
Nonthermal processing methods are often preferred over conventional food processing methods to ensure nutritional quality. Nonthermal plasma (NTP) is a new field of nonthermal processing technology and seeing increased interest for application in food preservation. In food applications of NTP, liquid interactions are the most prevalent. The NTP reactivity and product storability are altered...
Fri, 10/04/2019 - 03:20
Listeria monocytogenes, in fresh and ready‐to‐eat produce such as whole fresh apples, is of concern as there is no “kill step” in their packing process that would eliminate the pathogenic bacteria. Recent listeriosis outbreaks revealed that insufficient cleaning and sanitation practices in fresh apple packing houses may lead to contamination of fruit with L. monocytogenes. This article discusses...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:22
Heme iron overload has been implicated as the main cause of the increased risk of cancer due to the consumption of red meat. However, fish and shellfish, teas, and spices contain up to five times more iron than red meat. There is insufficient evidence that iron intake in dietary red meat is the primary causal factor for colorectal cancer. In addition, harmful substances produced during the...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:16
The industrial processing water of fruit and vegetables has raised serious environmental concerns due to the presence of many important bioactive compounds being disposed in the wastewater. Bioactive compounds have great potential for the food industry to optimize their process and to recover these compounds in order to develop value‐added products and to reduce environmental impacts. However, to...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:16
Food product safety is a public health concern. Most of the food safety analytical and detection methods are expensive, labor intensive, and time consuming. A safe, rapid, reliable, and nondestructive detection method is needed to assure consumers that food products are safe to consume. Terahertz (THz) radiation, which has properties of both microwave and infrared, can penetrate and interact with...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:16
Peanut allergy has garnered significant attention because of the high sensitization rate, increase in allergy, and severity of the reaction. Sufficiently reliable therapies and efficient mitigating techniques to combat peanut allergy are still lacking. Current management relies on avoiding peanuts and nuts and seeds with homologous proteins, although adverse events mostly occur with accidental...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:16
Fresh produce, like fruits and vegetables, are important sources of nutrients and health‐promoting compounds. However, incidences of foodborne outbreaks associated with fresh produce often occur; it is thus important to develop and expand decay‐control technologies that can not only maintain the quality but can also control the biological hazards in postharvest, processing, and storage to extend...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:16
Fungal contamination of food and animal feed, especially by mycotoxigenic fungi, is not only a global food quality concern for food manufacturers, but it also poses serious health concerns because of the production of a variety of mycotoxins, some of which present considerable food safety challenges. In today's mega‐scale food and feed productions, which involve a number of processing steps and...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:16
The public concerns about agrifood safety call for innovative and reformative analytical techniques to meet the inspection requirements of high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility. Enzyme‐mimetic nanomaterials or nanozymes, which combine enzyme‐like properties with nanoscale features, emerge as an excellent tool for quality and safety detection in the agrifood sector, due to not only...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:16
Dysphagia or swallowing difficulty is a common morbidity experienced by those who have suffered a stroke or those undergone such treatments as head and neck surgeries. Dysphagic patients require special foods that are easier to swallow. Various technologies, including high‐pressure processing, high‐hydrodynamic pressure processing, pulsed electric field treatment, plasma processing, ultrasound‐...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:16
A large range of ingredients for food and food products are subject to fungal contamination, which is a major cause of destruction of crops, exposure of animals and humans to invasive mycotoxins, and food spoilage. The resistance of fungal species to common preservation methods highlights the necessity of new ways to increase the shelf life of raw material for food and food products....

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