Emerging Infectious Diseases

The Research Publications track research that is published across national and international peer-reviewed journals. The most recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal Title, Subject, USDA Grant Funding Agencies or FDA Grant Funding Agencies. The research publications are tracked across five subject areas: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, and Viruses.

Tue, 03/10/2020 - 03:14
M. Jiang et al. In July 2018, an outbreak of 10 cases of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection occurred in Shenzhen, China. Outbreak investigation complemented by whole-genome sequencing traced the source to food ordered online. Our investigation highlights the role of online food delivery platforms as a new mode of foodborne disease transmission.
Sat, 03/07/2020 - 03:13
W. Wang et al. Various interventions for live poultry markets (LPMs) have emerged to control outbreaks of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in mainland China since March 2013. We assessed the effectiveness of various LPM interventions in reducing transmission of H7N9 virus across 5 annual waves during 2013–2018, especially in the final wave. With the exception of waves 1 and 4, various LPM...
Fri, 03/06/2020 - 03:25
D. Eikmeier et al. Shigellosis outbreaks caused by Shigella with decreased susceptibility to azithromycin (DSA-Shigella) among men who have sex with men (MSM) have been reported worldwide. We describe sexual health indicators and antimicrobial drug resistance for shigellosis cases in Minnesota, USA. We analyzed a sample of isolates received during 2012–2015 and cross-referenced cases with the...
Fri, 03/06/2020 - 03:25
X. Liu et al. We isolated Brucella melitensis biovar 3 from the spleen of an Asian badger (Meles leucurus) in Nilka County, northwestern China. Our investigation showed that this isolate had a common multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis 16 genotype, similar to bacterial isolates from local aborted sheep fetuses.
Fri, 02/07/2020 - 03:26
CaliciNet China, a network of provincial, county, and city laboratories coordinated by the Chinese Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was launched in October 2016 to monitor the epidemiology and genotype distribution of norovirus outbreaks in China. During October 2016–September 2018, a total of 556 norovirus outbreaks were reported, and positive fecal samples from 470 (84.5%) outbreaks...
Wed, 02/05/2020 - 03:15
The relative roles that movement and proximity networks play in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses are often unknown during an epidemic, preventing effective control. We used network analysis to explore the devastating epidemic of HPAI A(H5N8) among poultry, in particular ducks, in France during 2016–2017 and to estimate the likely contribution of live-duck movements....
Thu, 01/16/2020 - 03:13
In July 2018, recombinant norovirus GII.Pe-GII.4 Sydney was detected in dogs who had diarrhea in a kennel and in children living on the same premises in Thailand. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 4 noroviruses from Thailand showed that the canine norovirus was closely related to human norovirus GII.Pe-GII.4 Sydney, suggesting human-to-canine transmission.
Fri, 01/10/2020 - 03:13
We report the use of environmental samples to assess avian influenza virus activity in chickens at live poultry markets in China. Results of environmental and chicken samples correlate moderately well. However, collection of multiple environmental samples from holding, processing, and selling areas is recommended to detect viruses expected to have low prevalence.
Thu, 01/09/2020 - 03:24
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA was detected in 6.3% and HEV IgG in 40% of 5,033 serum samples from market-weight pigs at 25 slaughterhouses in 10 US states. The prevalent HEV genotype was zoonotic genotype 3, group 2. Blood of HEV-viremic pigs from slaughterhouses may contaminate pork supply chains.
Thu, 01/09/2020 - 03:24
In July 2018, recombinant norovirus GII.Pe-GII.4 Sydney was detected in dogs who had diarrhea in a kennel and in children living on the same premises in Thailand. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 4 noroviruses from Thailand showed that the canine norovirus was closely related to human norovirus GII.Pe-GII.4 Sydney, suggesting human-to-canine transmission.
Wed, 01/08/2020 - 03:15
We report transcontinental expansion of Vibrio parahaemolyticus sequence type 36 into Lima, Peru. From national collections, we identified 7 isolates from 2 different Pacific Northwest complex lineages that surfaced during 2011–2016. Sequence type 36 is likely established in environmental reservoirs. Systematic surveillance enabled detection of these epidemic isolates.
Wed, 01/08/2020 - 03:15
Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (pH1N1) virus has become established in swine in the United Kingdom and currently co-circulates with previously enzootic swine influenza A virus (IAV) strains, including avian-like H1N1 and human-like H1N2 viruses. During 2010, a swine influenza A reassortant virus, H1N2r, which caused mild clinical disease in pigs in the United Kingdom, was isolated. This reassortant virus...
Fri, 12/13/2019 - 03:15
M. Kaddoura et al. In 2018, a hepatitis A virus outbreak was identified among internally displaced persons in Syria. Sequence analysis based on the viral protein 1/2 junction revealed that the causative virus belonged to genotype IB. A high displacement rate, deteriorated sanitary and health conditions, and poor water quality likely contributed to this outbreak.
Wed, 12/11/2019 - 03:27
Y. Tu et al. We investigated the epidemiology of cholera in Taiwan during 2002–2018. Vibrio cholerae sequence type (ST) 75 clone emerged in 2009 and has since become more prevalent than the ST69 clone from a previous pandemic. Closely related ST75 strains have emerged in 4 countries and may now be widespread in Asia.
Thu, 12/05/2019 - 03:26
K. Tohma et al. We report multiple nontypeable genotype II noroviruses circulating in South America; nucleotides differed by >25% from those of other genotypes. These viruses have been circulating in the Americas for ≈20 years and show recombination with other genotypes. Clues to norovirus natural history can guide development of treatment and prevention plans.
Tue, 12/03/2019 - 03:25
K. E. Hassan et al. Abstract We detected a novel reassortant highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N2) virus in 3 poultry farms in Egypt. The virus carried genome segments of a pigeon H9N2 influenza virus detected in 2014, a nucleoprotein segment of contemporary chicken H9N2 viruses from Egypt, and hemagglutinin derived from the H5N8 virus clade.
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:14
S. Guix et al. Abstract During a waterborne outbreak of norovirus in Spain, we estimated 50% illness doses for a group of exposed (secretor) persons to be 556 (95% CI 319–957) genome copies/day for norovirus GI and 2,934 (95% CI 1,683–5,044) genome copies/day for norovirus GII. Use of a propidium monoazide viability assay reduced these values.
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:14
M. Tobin-D’Angelo et al. Abstract Shigella commonly causes gastroenteritis but rarely spreads to the blood. During 2002–2012, we identified 11,262 Shigella infections through population-based active surveillance in Georgia; 72 (0.64%) were isolated from blood. Bacteremia was associated with age >18 years, black race, and S. flexneri. More than half of patients with bacteremia were HIV-infected...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:14
F. Burckhardt and E. Kissling Abstract We created a free and interactive training activity based on playing cards (disease detective cards) that introduces foodborne outbreak investigations to public health professionals and students. Competencies taught cover-selected descriptive and analytic epidemiologic topics, such as case definition, epidemic curve, 2-by-2 tables, relative risks, attack...
Thu, 11/07/2019 - 03:15
R. Tauxe Public health advances step by step, as hazards are recognized and better control and prevention strategies are developed. How this happens, how new safety measures come into being, and how they are improved and become part of the way we live are the focus of this new book, Outbreak: Foodborne Illness and the Struggle for Food Safety (Figure).
Fri, 11/01/2019 - 03:15
M. Fusade-Boyer et al. Abstract In 2015, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses reemerged in poultry in West Africa. We describe the introduction of a reassortant clade virus into Togo in April 2018. Our findings signal further local spread and evolution of these viruses, which could affect animal and human health.
Wed, 09/04/2019 - 00:00
In 2018, a veterinarian became sick shortly after swabbing sows exhibiting respiratory syndrome on a farm in France. Epidemiologic data and genetic analyses revealed consecutive human-to-swine and swine-to-human influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus transmission, which occurred despite some biosecurity measures. Providing pig industry workers the annual influenza vaccine might reduce transmission risk.
Tue, 07/30/2019 - 00:00
Tools to detect human norovirus infectivity have been lacking. Using human intestinal enteroid cultures inoculated with GII.Pe-GII.4 Sydney–infected fecal samples, we determined that a real-time reverse transcription PCR cycle threshold cutoff of 30 may indicate infectious norovirus. This finding could be used to help guide infection control.
Thu, 07/25/2019 - 00:00
We used phylogenomic and risk factor data on isolates of Salmonella enterica serovars Mississippi and Typhimurium definitive type 160 (DT160) collected from human, animal, and environmental sources to elucidate their epidemiology and disease reservoirs in Australia and New Zealand. Sequence data suggested wild birds as a likely reservoir for DT160; animal and environmental sources varied more for...
Sat, 07/06/2019 - 00:00
During June 2017–December 2018, norovirus was responsible for 10.9% of acute gastroenteritis cases in Thailand. Genogroup I (GI) was found in 14% of samples, of which 12 were co-infected with genogroup II (GII). In 35.8% of samples, GII.Pe-GII.4 Sydney predominated. Diverse recombinant strains of GI and GII norovirus co-circulated year-round.
Mon, 07/01/2019 - 00:00
We implemented subgenomic and whole-genome sequencing to support the investigation of a large hepatitis A virus outbreak among persons experiencing homelessness, users of illicit drugs, or both in California, USA, during 2017–2018. Genotyping data helped confirm case-patients, track chains of transmission, and monitor the effectiveness of public health control measures.
Mon, 07/01/2019 - 00:00
We identified a novel recombinant GII.P16-GII.12 norovirus associated with epidemic and endemic gastroenteritis during March 1, 2018–February 12, 2019, in Alberta, Canada. GII.12 viruses have not been detected in Alberta since 2000. Comparing the full genome of this strain to previously published sequences revealed this virus to be a novel recombinant strain.
Wed, 06/12/2019 - 00:00
Cyclosporiasis is an infection caused by Cyclospora cayetanensis, which is acquired by consumption of contaminated fresh food or water. In the United States, cases of cyclosporiasis are often associated with foodborne outbreaks linked to imported fresh produce or travel to disease-endemic countries. Epidemiologic investigation has been the primary method for linking outbreak cases. A molecular...
Mon, 06/10/2019 - 00:00
Salmonella enterica serotype I 4,[5],12:i:- has been increasingly isolated from swine. However, its pathogenic potential is not well characterized. Analysis of swine cases confirmed a strong positive association between isolation of I 4,[5],12:i:- and lesions of enteric salmonellosis and suggested a similar pathogenic potential as that for Salmonella Typhimurium.
Wed, 05/29/2019 - 00:00
We examined whole-genome–sequenced Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli from 2012–2015 isolated from birds and human stool samples in North East Scotland for the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes. We found that sequence type (ST) 5136 (clonal complex 464) was the most prevalent multidrug-resistant strain of C. jejuni exclusively associated with poultry host reservoirs and recovered from...
Mon, 02/11/2019 - 00:00
In the United States, outbreaks of avian influenza H5 and H7 virus infections in poultry have raised concern about the risk for infections in humans. We reviewed the data collected during 2014–2017 and found no human infections among 4,555 exposed responders who were wearing protection.
Thu, 02/07/2019 - 00:00
Cronobacter sakazakii has been documented as a cause of life-threating infections, predominantly in neonates. We conducted a multicenter study to assess the occurrence of C. sakazakii across Europe and the extent of clonality for outbreak detection. National coordinators representing 24 countries in Europe were requested to submit all human C. sakazakii isolates collected during 2017 to a study...
Thu, 01/31/2019 - 00:00
In an investigation of a listeriosis outbreak in Ontario, Canada, during November 2015–June 2016, pasteurized chocolate milk was identified as the source. Because listeriosis outbreaks associated with pasteurized milk are rare in North America, these findings highlight that dairy products can be contaminated after pasteurization.
Thu, 01/31/2019 - 00:00
Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli serogroup O26 is an important public health pathogen. Phylogenetic bacterial lineages in a country can be associated with the level and timing of international imports of live cattle, the main reservoir. We sequenced the genomes of 152 E. coli O26 isolates from New Zealand and compared them with 252 E. coli O26 genomes from 14 other countries. Gene variation...
Tue, 12/11/2018 - 00:00
Increasingly, routine surveillance and monitoring of foodborne pathogens using whole-genome sequencing is creating opportunities to study foodborne illness epidemiology beyond routine outbreak investigations and case–control studies. Using a global phylogeny of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, we found that major livestock sources of the pathogen in the United States can be predicted...
Tue, 12/04/2018 - 00:00
In 2011, a Salmonella enterica serovar Anatum clone emerged in Taiwan. During 2016–2017, infections increased dramatically, strongly associated with emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant strains with a plasmid carrying 11 resistance genes, including blaDHA-1. Because these resistant strains infect humans and food animals, control measures are urgently needed.
Tue, 12/04/2018 - 00:00
We compared viral load of emerging recombinant norovirus GII.P16-GII.2 with those for pandemic GII.Pe-GII.4 and epidemic GII.P17-GII.17 genotypes among inpatients in Hong Kong. Viral load of GII.P16-GII.2 was higher than those for other genotypes in different age groups. GII.P16-GII.2 is as replication competent as the pandemic genotype, explaining its high transmissibility and widespread...
Tue, 12/04/2018 - 00:00
Avian influenza A(H9N2) virus isolated from a poultry worker in Pakistan in 2015 was closely related to viruses detected in poultry farms. Observed mutations in the hemagglutinin related to receptor-binding affinity and antigenicity could affect cross-reactivity with prepandemic H9N2 vaccine strains.
Tue, 11/13/2018 - 00:00
Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) confer resistance to clinically important third-generation cephalosporins, which are often used to treat invasive salmonellosis. In the United States, ESBLs are rarely found in Salmonella. However, in 2014, the US Food and Drug Administration found blaCTX-M-65 ESBL-producing Salmonella enterica serotype Infantis in retail chicken meat. The isolate had a rare...
Wed, 11/07/2018 - 00:00
All hepatitis E virus (HEV) variants reported to infect humans belong to the species Orthohepevirus A (HEV-A). The zoonotic potential of the species Orthohepevirus C (HEV-C), which circulates in rats and is highly divergent from HEV-A, is unknown. We report a liver transplant recipient with hepatitis caused by HEV-C infection. We detected HEV-C RNA in multiple clinical samples and HEV-C antigen...
Tue, 11/06/2018 - 00:00
We used whole-genome sequencing to investigate the evolutionary context of an emerging highly pathogenic strain of Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 in England and Wales. A timed phylogeny of sublineage IIb revealed that the emerging clone evolved from a STEC O157:H7 stx-negative ancestor ≈10 years ago after acquisition of a bacteriophage encoding Shiga toxin (stx) 2a, which...
Thu, 11/01/2018 - 00:00
Among Shiga toxin (Stx)–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 strains, those producing Stx2a cause more severe diseases. Atypical STEC O157:H7 strains showing a β-glucuronidase–positive phenotype (GP STEC O157:H7) have rarely been isolated from humans, mostly from persons with asymptomatic or mild infections; Stx2a-producing strains have not been reported. We isolated, from a patient with...
Tue, 10/30/2018 - 00:00
Genome degradation has been central to the adaptation of Salmonella enterica serotypes to their hosts throughout evolution. We witnessed the patho-adaptation of a strain of Salmonella Dublin (a cattle-adapted serotype) to a human host during the course of a recurrent prosthetic hip joint infection evolving over several years.
Thu, 09/27/2018 - 00:00
We report a case of meningitis in a neonate in China, which was caused by a novel multidrug-resistant Cronobacter sakazakii strain, sequence type 256, capsular profile K1:CA1. We identified genetic factors associated with bacterial pathogenicity and antimicrobial drug resistance in the genome and plasmids. Enhanced surveillance of this organism is warranted.
Thu, 09/27/2018 - 00:00
The first documented isolation of what would become known as Cronobacter sakazakii was from a can of dried milk in 1950, although these organisms have likely existed for millions of years. In 1980, John J. Farmer III, proposed the name Enterobacter sakazakii for what had been known as “yellow-pigmented E. cloacae,” in honor of Japanese bacteriologist Riichi Sakazaki. Over the next decades, E....
Fri, 09/21/2018 - 00:00
We estimated numbers of hospitalizations for norovirus gastroenteritis (NGE) and associated medical costs in Germany, where norovirus testing is high because reimbursement is affected. We extracted aggregate data for patients hospitalized with a primary or secondary code from the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10), NGE diagnosis during 2007–2012 from the German...
Thu, 09/13/2018 - 00:00
In Bogotá, Colombia, a large number of babies are fed with breast milk substitutes made from corn and plantain starch. We found 34.3% of tested samples to be contaminated with Cronobacter spp.; C. sakazakii was the most recovered species. Our findings underscore the risk for contamination of breast milk substitutes.
Tue, 08/28/2018 - 00:00
We describe a case of infection with Cronobacter sakazakii sequence type 494 causing bacteremia and meningitis in a hospitalized late premature infant in Brazil. We conducted microbiological analyses on samples of powdered infant formula from the same batch as formula ingested by the infant but could not identify the source of contamination.
Thu, 06/28/2018 - 00:00
The epidemiology of Coxiella burnetii infection in the United States is not well characterized. We report a case-patient with C. burnetii endocarditis and meningitis. Infection was diagnosed by detecting high serologic titers for C. burnetii and confirmed by sequencing of C. burnetii 16S rRNA isolated from resected valvular tissue and PCR of cerebrospinal fluid.
Thu, 06/28/2018 - 00:00
Human noroviruses are a leading cause of epidemic and endemic acute gastroenteritis worldwide and a leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States. Recently, human intestinal enteroids (HIEs) derived from human small intestinal tissue have been shown to support human norovirus replication. We implemented the HIE system in our laboratory and tested the effect of chlorine and alcohols on...