Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A

Wed, 11/25/2020 - 14:03
Helium is commonly used as a carrier gas in gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS); however, there are growing concerns regarding its global shortage and the resulting limited supply and high cost. Using nitrogen as an alternative carrier gas in GC-MS/MS with the widely used electron ionisation (EI) technique leads to a significantly lower sensitivity; thus, in this study, we...
Sat, 11/21/2020 - 14:03
Aflatoxins are carcinogenic mycotoxins that contaminate a variety of crops worldwide. Acute exposure can cause liver failure, and chronic exposure can lead to stunting in children and liver cancer in adults. We estimated aflatoxin exposure across Uganda by measuring a serum biomarker of aflatoxin exposure in a subsample from the 2011 Uganda AIDS Indicator Survey, a nationally representative...
Wed, 11/11/2020 - 14:04
A holistic strategy for discovering structural analogs was established using characteristic structural fragments filtering by high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry and successfully employed for discovering potential hazards in meat. The mass spectrometry fragmentation mechanisms of 113 compounds (including sulphonamides, tetracyclines, benzimidazoles, steroid hormones, cephalosporins, β-...
Fri, 11/06/2020 - 14:04
Some secondary metabolites produced by fungi are carcinogenic, hepatotoxic, and/or cause birth defects in humans and animals. We developed and optimised bio-analytical tools for detection of metabolites, aflatoxins and evaluated the effectiveness of the methods in co-infected maize tissues. Isolate KSM012 (atoxigenic) demonstrated no peaks and no blue fluorescence on HPLC and TLC plates...
Wed, 10/21/2020 - 14:03
The substitution of fish oil and fishmeal with plant-based ingredients in commercial aquafeeds for Atlantic salmon, may introduce novel contaminants that have not previously been associated with farmed fish. The organophosphate pesticide pirimiphos-methyl (PM) is one of the novel contaminants that is most prevalent in commercial salmon feed. In this study, the feed-to-fillet transfer of dietary...
Sat, 10/17/2020 - 14:04
There is a significant lack of data on acrylamide in food which is prepared domestically, as obtaining samples of food cooked in people’s homes is more complex than taking samples from shops. Rösti is a fried potato dish, which can be a significant contributor to acrylamide exposure, particularly in the German speaking areas of Switzerland. A set of 71 samples was collected from people who cooked...
Thu, 10/08/2020 - 14:04
Aflatoxin exposure, malnutrition and growth impairment in children present significant public health problems in low- and middle-income countries. Recent epidemiology studies show that exposure to aflatoxins through dietary sources in early life contributes to growth retardation among children. However, the findings remain inconclusive due to limited comparative studies in high versus low...
Thu, 10/08/2020 - 14:04
Contamination of key staples with aflatoxins compromises the quality of food and feed, impedes trade, and negatively affects the health of consumers whereas acute exposure can be fatal. This study used the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) on a sample of 480 farmers in counties prone to aflatoxin contamination to assess the willingness to pay (WTP) by farmers for Aflasafe KE01, a promising...
Fri, 10/02/2020 - 14:04
Antibiotic residues have become a major concern worldwide as food contaminants due to the risk that they may pose to human health. The presence of these residues in food is due to improper veterinary practices. Consequently, rapid and cost-effective clean-up methods prior to analysis for these residues in food matrices are increasingly becoming necessary in order to ensure food safety....
Wed, 09/30/2020 - 14:04
Many researchers have pointed out that coffee contributes significantly to the dietary exposure among the many foods that contain acrylamide. Within the context of this study, the 24 h dietary recall method was employed to obtain the coffee consumption information of 263 individuals with different socio-demographic characteristics, followed by an estimation based on the deterministic model and an...
Thu, 09/24/2020 - 14:04
The current research describes an alternative test method to evaluate the impact of food properties and compound characteristics on migration from paperboard to food. Tightly sealed bottles containing paperboard spiked with surrogate components as a donor, together with modified polyphenylene oxide (MPPO or Tenax®) or one of the nine considered foods as a receptor, were stored at 22°C. Instead of...
Fri, 09/11/2020 - 14:04
An immunobiosensor assay was developed for multi-residue screening in bovine milk of the parent amphenicols, thiamphenicol and florfenicol, along with the metabolite florfenicol amine. A polyclonal antibody raised in a rabbit after immunisation with a florfenicol amine-protein conjugate was employed in the assay. Milk samples were subjected to acetonitrile extraction, reconstituted in buffer and...
Wed, 09/09/2020 - 14:03
Aspergillus flavus is the main aflatoxin producer in food and feed and has wide ecological niches. Contamination of food products such as pistachio nuts and aflatoxin secretion directly affects food safety and international food product trades. Abilities of 13 yeast strains isolated from 200 soil and pistachio nut samples collected in Iranian orchards to reduce the growth of A. flavus as well as...
Wed, 09/09/2020 - 14:03
A QuEChERS multi-residue GC-MS/MS method was developed for determining 160 pesticides in fresh edible snails. The method was validated according to the EU guidance SANTE/12682/2019. Twenty-seven different pesticides were quantified in the 824 samples analysed. Of these, 22.09% contained pesticide residues; in one case six different pesticides. The most frequently quantified pesticides were...
Tue, 08/18/2020 - 14:03
Buckwheat has been reported to be responsible for gluten contamination in manufactured gluten-free foods (mGFFs) although it is inherently gluten-free (GF). It could happen through buckwheat grains contacting gluten-containing (GC) grains and surfaces contacted by GC grains during pre-manufacturing practices. To simulate grain contact, whole and broken GC grains (wheat, rye, barley, and oat) were...
Tue, 08/18/2020 - 14:03
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin found in grape products and oxidative stress has been reported as an important mechanism involved in its toxicity, classified as possible carcinogenic to humans. Conversely, phenolics are known bioactive compounds in grapes and display great antioxidant properties. However, the biological effects of the concomitant presence of phenolic compounds and OTA remains...
Wed, 07/29/2020 - 14:03
The purpose of this research was to determine the occurrence of 15 + 1 European priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (EUPAHs) in various types of tea purchased on Hangzhou city market in China in order to control their safety. The results indicated that the incidence rate of EUPAHs compounds was 97.4%. The total EUPAHs levels ranged from 1.2 μg/kg to 155.6 μg/kg, with a median of 27.1 μg/kg...
Wed, 07/29/2020 - 14:03
Aflatoxin B1 is a naturally occurring mycotoxin that is produced as secondary metabolite by Aspergillus spp., especially A. flavus and A. parasiticus. This is the most severe toxin due to its carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic properties. Hence, methods for toxin degradation have been received increasing interest from both scientific communities and industries. In this study, 32 isolates of...
Tue, 07/28/2020 - 14:03
Agricultural commodities are generally consumed as processed food. Therefore, it is indispensable to assess pesticide residues in processed products rather than only in the raw agricultural commodity, in order to approach a more realistic scenario of dietary exposure. Processing factors are important tools for dietary exposure risk assessments. In this study, processing factors for the baking...
Tue, 07/28/2020 - 14:03
Herein, we have successfully established a novel, rapid, and simple lateral-flow immunoassay based on time-resolved fluorescence and biotin-streptavidin to detect the residues of various antibiotics in milk. The fluorescence signal and sensitivity of immunochromatography were enhanced through biotinylated antibody coupled with streptavidin europium microspheres. Moreover, due to the use of a QR...
Sat, 07/25/2020 - 14:02
‘Kankankan’ is a popular spice powder used to season roasted meat in Côte d’Ivoire. However, produced in a traditional way, the conditions of production and storage of kankankan favour the proliferation of mycotoxin-producing fungal strains. The aim of this study was to carry out an inventory of mycotoxin contamination of this spice powder and to assess risk exposure to consumers. In total, 75...
Wed, 07/22/2020 - 14:03
Processing Factors (PFs) reflect the concentration or dilution of pesticide residues resulting from food processing. PFs are key elements to demonstrate the compliance of processed foods with Maximum residue levels (MRLs) as set by Regulation 396/2005. While efforts have been made by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and by national authorities to compile PFs from processing studies, such...
Sat, 07/18/2020 - 14:02
p -Cresol has been identified as a flavouring compound in cheeses; however, scientific studies have already identified p-cresol as a potential chemical contaminant in environmental matrices. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate four traditional methods for extracting p-cresol from cheese samples in order to validate the best method, and finally to apply it to five cheese samples...
Tue, 06/23/2020 - 14:03
This study was carried out to assess the exposure to pesticide residues from vegetable consumption of residents in Seoul using data on pesticide residue concentrations and the quantity of vegetables consumed. A total of 34,520 samples of 96 types of vegetables collected from 2010 to 2014 by the Seoul Metropolitan Government Institute of Health and Environment (SIHE) were analysed for 283...
Wed, 06/17/2020 - 14:03
In the present study, a simple and fast method for simultaneous detection of zearalenone, citrinin, and ochratoxin A utilising capillary zone electrophoresis with an ultraviolet detector was developed. The optimised approach was validated and applied using pepper samples. The proposed method yielded satisfactory linearity between the signal and the mycotoxin concentration in the range of 1.5–150...
Sat, 06/13/2020 - 14:03
In the present study, tea variety and proportions and tea nang production conditions were optimised to improve tea nang flavour, and dynamic changes in polyphenols and acrylamide content were determined. Orthogonal experimental design was adopted to optimise processing of low-acrylamide tea nang through a multi-index integrated evaluation method (MIEM) and a single-index balanced evaluation...
Thu, 06/11/2020 - 14:03
A liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) method was developed and validated for the determination of residual peptide antibiotics (bacitracin A, colistin A and B, enramycin A and B, virginiamycin M1 and S1) in bovine milk. LC-HRMS accurate mass data provided the necessary selectivity and sensitivity to quantitate and identify these important antibiotics in milk at...
Wed, 06/10/2020 - 14:02
In this study, we developed a reference labelled protein containing the partial amino acid sequence of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNTA). We also applied it as an internal standard to detect specific and non-toxic peptides originated from BoNTA in honey with the use of liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). Original proteins in the honey sample were collected through a two-...
Thu, 05/21/2020 - 03:30
To assess the dietary exposure risks of pesticide residues in snow fungus for the general population and young children, 91 snow fungus samples were collected from major production areas in Fujian Province, China and the presence of 44 pesticides was determined. A total of thirteen pesticides were detected; 65.9% of the samples contained one or more pesticide residues. The most frequently found...
Tue, 05/05/2020 - 03:28
The study aimed to evaluate the effects of heat on macrocyclic lactone residues in cows’ milk. Ivermectin, abamectin, doramectin, eprinomectin and moxidectin were added to raw milk in three concentrations. The milk was then pasteurised (40 seconds at 74°C or 1 minute at 80°C) and boiled (10 minutes at 100°C). The analyses were performed with a validated method: LC-MS/MS. Thermal treatment...
Tue, 05/05/2020 - 03:28
Dietary exposure of the Tunisian adult population to pesticide residue was assessed using the Total Diet Study method. In the present study 170 pesticides were searched for in 42 aggregated foods characterised by 64 food samples representing the Tunisian diet. All the food samples were collected, prepared, and analysed for remains of pesticides including organochlorine, organophosphorous,...
Tue, 05/05/2020 - 03:28
The behaviour of residues of tebuconazole, prochloraz, and abamectin in rehmannia during rehmannia decoction processing was systemically assessed. The pesticides were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) after each processing step including washing, steaming and drying, carbonising, and boiling. Results showed that the pesticide...
Thu, 04/30/2020 - 03:28
The exposure to selected chemical contaminants from fish has been calculated for the Danish population, both for adults (15–75 years of age) and children (4–14 years of age). The Danish mean consumption of fish is 21 g person−1 day−1 for adults and 12 g person−1 day−1 for children. Fish consumption is the main food group contributor for exposure to mercury and dioxins and dioxin-like...
Tue, 04/21/2020 - 03:27
Acrylamide, a known carcinogen, is formed during preparation of food containing reducing sugar and asparagine. Because acrylamide exposure of the population is primarily through food, the maximum levels of acrylamide in food were set by the European Commission in 2017. Moreover, in the 2016 Korean Total Diet study, acrylamide showed the lowest margin of exposure among 23 food-processing-related...
Fri, 04/03/2020 - 03:19
Liposoluble liquid smoke (LS) preparations are versatile food additives used worldwide. The objective of the present work was to characterise the chemical composition of four types of industrial liposoluble LS currently used as the basis for the production of commercial smoke flavourings. The LS was obtained by vacuum fractional distillation from a raw pyrolysis oil (raw LS) obtained primarily...
Fri, 04/03/2020 - 03:19
The effects of acid soaking as a pre-treatment on the glycoalkaloid and acrylamide levels in raw and cooked potatoes (French fries) were examined. Soaking raw potato cuts in 1.0%, 2.5% or 5.0% acetic acid solutions for at least 8 hours resulted in >90% reduction of α-solanine and α-chaconine in potato samples. Processing of pre-acid soaked potato cuts into French fries resulted in an...
Sun, 03/22/2020 - 03:18
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants and their accurate determination is very important to human health and environment safety. In this review, sorptive-based micro-extraction techniques [such as Solid-Phase Micro-extraction (SPME), Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction (SBSE), Micro-extraction in Packed Sorbent (MEPS)] and solvent-based micro-extraction [...
Wed, 03/18/2020 - 03:19
Dredging activities can lead to the re-suspension of contaminated sediments, resulting in a potential hazard for the whole ecosystem and also for human health. Six-month active biomonitoring was performed in order to monitor the trends of different classes of both legacy (organochlorine – OCPs – and organophosphate (OPs) compounds and polychlorinated biphenyls – PCBs) and emerging (...
Wed, 02/26/2020 - 03:20
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination was monitored in grilled pork sold in Beninese street restaurants, as well as in grilled pork from a well-controlled experiment replicating traditional grilling using Acacia auriculiformis wood as fuel. Fifteen PAHs were analysed using a high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with fluorescence detection. To assess the risk for...
Sat, 02/22/2020 - 03:20
Fatty acid esters of 3-monochloropropanediol (3-MCPD), 2-MCPD and glycidol (Gly) are food-processing contaminants that cause concerns about possible adverse health effects. The present study evaluates the contamination levels of the three ester classes in 130 samples of foodstuffs marketed in Italy covering 10 food categories, namely margarines, oils, roasted coffee, breakfast cereals, salted...
Thu, 02/20/2020 - 03:20
Imprudent and superfluous use of antibiotics contributes to the selection of resistant bacteria, which is a large threat to human health. Therefore analytical procedures have been implemented in the poultry production sector to check if antibiotic treatments are registered, aiming to achieve more prudent use of antibiotics. These methods rely on the analysis of feathers, a matrix in which...
Fri, 02/07/2020 - 03:35
Due to the lack of drugs regulated for aquaculture, we have evaluated the use of albendazole (ABZ) – a potential drug to be regulated for fish – under food safety perspectives assessing the depletion profile of ABZ and its main metabolites (albendazole sulphoxide – ABZSO, albendazole sulphone – ABZSO2 and albendazole amino sulphone – ABZ-2-NH2SO2) in fish fillets (muscle and skin) after single...
Wed, 02/05/2020 - 03:20
Consumption of a gluten-free diet or avoiding exposure to gluten is the only feasible and effective treatment available for coeliac patients to date. Although many grains and their products are naturally gluten-free, the possibility of gluten cross-contamination must be considered. Since such data are not available for Indian markets, we carried out this pilot study (n = 160) to assess gluten...
Sat, 02/01/2020 - 03:32
Nickel can occur in plant-based, animal-based foods and drinks. It can either naturally occur in plants or it could originate from contamination. The natural occurrence of nickel arises from the fact that the element plays an essential role in the functioning of enzymes involved in the nitrogen fixation process. Besides, contamination can occur at any stage of the production, processing or...
Sat, 01/11/2020 - 03:18
Bleached olive pomace oil (BOPO) was distilled using a short-path molecular distillation unit to determine the impacts of distillation conditions on the removal of 15 PAHs from the list of 16 EPA-priority pollutant PAHs. The removal of PAHs was achieved at elevated temperatures (110–230°C) and pressures (0.05, 0.5, 5 mbar). The oil was also deodorised at 230°C under 0.5, 1 and 5 mbar pressures to...
Sat, 01/11/2020 - 03:18
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ingested with foods and cause toxicities for humans. Yoghurt is one of the main foods that mediate PAH ingestion. Yanık yoghurt, a traditional strained yoghurt, can contain PAHs due to its production process. Therefore, the concentration and types of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)....
Sat, 01/11/2020 - 03:18
This study investigated the antifungal effect of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus on roasted coffee beans. Also, any changes in the quality of the roasted coffee beans were measured after UV-C irradiation. As UV-C irradiation time increased (0–2 h), the number of surviving A. flavus and A. parasiticus spores significantly (P < .05) decreased. The...
Sun, 12/29/2019 - 03:20
The recent emergence of ciguatera in the eastern Atlantic, particularly in the Canary Islands (Spain) and Madeira (Portugal) prompted the development and implementation of liquid chromatography tandem–mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) methods for the detection of ciguatoxins in fish. The complexity of fish tissue matrices, low concentrations of ciguatoxins in hazardous fish, and the scarcity of...
Wed, 12/25/2019 - 03:18
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of mycotoxin binders on the determination of aflatoxins in maize and maize gluten using various analytical methods, including ELISA, HPLC and LC-MS/MS. Three types of commercially available mycotoxin binders, yeast cell wall, mineral, and a mixture of mineral and bacterium, were investigated at inclusion levels of 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.4%. The...
Thu, 12/12/2019 - 03:21
Gluten contamination in manufactured gluten-free foods (mGFFs) is a major health, well-being and economic issue worldwide for both mandatory and voluntary GFF-consumers. Although scarce, a number of surveys have shown that up to 21.5 % of mGFFs in circulation in the market are contaminated with gluten. However, at the present time there is no published work reporting gluten contamination in mGFFs...

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