Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A

Sat, 01/11/2020 - 03:18
Bleached olive pomace oil (BOPO) was distilled using a short-path molecular distillation unit to determine the impacts of distillation conditions on the removal of 15 PAHs from the list of 16 EPA-priority pollutant PAHs. The removal of PAHs was achieved at elevated temperatures (110–230°C) and pressures (0.05, 0.5, 5 mbar). The oil was also deodorised at 230°C under 0.5, 1 and 5 mbar pressures to...
Sat, 01/11/2020 - 03:18
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ingested with foods and cause toxicities for humans. Yoghurt is one of the main foods that mediate PAH ingestion. Yanık yoghurt, a traditional strained yoghurt, can contain PAHs due to its production process. Therefore, the concentration and types of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)....
Sat, 01/11/2020 - 03:18
This study investigated the antifungal effect of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus on roasted coffee beans. Also, any changes in the quality of the roasted coffee beans were measured after UV-C irradiation. As UV-C irradiation time increased (0–2 h), the number of surviving A. flavus and A. parasiticus spores significantly (P < .05) decreased. The...
Sun, 12/29/2019 - 03:20
The recent emergence of ciguatera in the eastern Atlantic, particularly in the Canary Islands (Spain) and Madeira (Portugal) prompted the development and implementation of liquid chromatography tandem–mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) methods for the detection of ciguatoxins in fish. The complexity of fish tissue matrices, low concentrations of ciguatoxins in hazardous fish, and the scarcity of...
Wed, 12/25/2019 - 03:18
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of mycotoxin binders on the determination of aflatoxins in maize and maize gluten using various analytical methods, including ELISA, HPLC and LC-MS/MS. Three types of commercially available mycotoxin binders, yeast cell wall, mineral, and a mixture of mineral and bacterium, were investigated at inclusion levels of 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.4%. The...
Thu, 12/12/2019 - 03:21
Gluten contamination in manufactured gluten-free foods (mGFFs) is a major health, well-being and economic issue worldwide for both mandatory and voluntary GFF-consumers. Although scarce, a number of surveys have shown that up to 21.5 % of mGFFs in circulation in the market are contaminated with gluten. However, at the present time there is no published work reporting gluten contamination in mGFFs...
Sun, 12/08/2019 - 03:34
An observational study in 208 volunteers in households from 30 Spanish provinces was conducted from May to June 2017 in order to evaluate the formation of acrylamide during the preparation of French fries from fresh potatoes. Consumer cooking practices and household typology were evaluated with an ad-hoc questionnaire. Potatoes (fresh and fried) and frying oil were collected from the households....
Wed, 12/04/2019 - 03:20
Previously a calcium bentonite clay (CB) has been shown to tightly bind aflatoxins in vitro, significantly reduce mortality and morbidity in animals, and decrease molecular biomarkers of aflatoxin exposure in humans and animals. Extensive studies have shown that CB is safe for human and animal consumption. In further work, we have investigated a highly active sodium bentonite (SB) clay (SB-E)...
Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:18
Coffee is a beverage that is widely enjoyed and consumed by all segments of society. As well as having a rich content, it contains acrylamide, defined as ‘a probable carcinogen for humans’ by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The aim of this study was both to determine the acrylamide levels of ready-to-drink coffees from various coffee brands marketed in Turkey and to offer a...
Thu, 10/31/2019 - 03:19
Food safety becomes imperative when it aims to protect infants. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of emerging contaminants of which some act as endocrine-disruptors in baby food. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), parabens and antibiotics were analysed in 112 baby food of different categories (meat, fish, vegetables, fruit, cheese)....
Wed, 10/30/2019 - 03:20
Effects of cooking modes on the real intake and chronic exposure risk of pesticide residues in vegetables are usually neglected and largely unknown. Four modes of daily meal preparation; chafing dish, soup, salad and stir-frying were studied in this work to clarify their impact on the residual pesticides in foods. A detection method for 14 types of pesticide residues in different cuisines was...
Sat, 10/26/2019 - 03:25
Dietary exposures to lead were estimated for older children, females of childbearing age and adults based on lead concentration data from the FDA’s Total Diet Study and on food consumption data from What We Eat In America (WWEIA), the food survey portion of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Estimated mean exposures varied based on the population and on the three...
Thu, 10/24/2019 - 03:24
There are two official PSP detection methods (mouse bioassay and HLPC-FLD) and a number of alternative methods. Ethical considerations have led to regulations being adopted in some countries that limit or prohibit the application of mouse bioassay. Analytical methodologies (e.g. HPLC-FLD or LC-MSMS) have the disadvantages of not being able to detect new toxins or analogues or reflecting the...
Sat, 10/19/2019 - 03:23
Due to the growing number of analysed pesticide residues, analytical strategies have evolved for the data processing of 100s of pesticides in a single analysis. We present herein a LC-MS/MS method based on triple quadrupole technology capable of detecting concentrations at 5 ng/g and confirming 381 pesticides in a single injection. Confirmatory analysis is performed using data-dependent...
Sun, 10/13/2019 - 03:23
Calcium carbide (CaC2) is widely used as the low price artificial ripening agent of fruits. It may contain traces of heavy metals which can make fruits harmful for human consumption. This study aimed to assess heavy metals present in commercial-grade CaC2 and subsequently their quantification in mango peels for the identification of possible marker elements as an indicator of CaC2 ripening....
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:18
A sensitive and reproducible screening analytical method is here proposed for the determination of six non dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs, congener 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, 180) in chicken eggs based on accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) procedure for the fat extraction and determination, a solid phase extraction (SPE) sample clean-up process, and a gas chromatography – electron...
Fri, 09/06/2019 - 03:20
1-Phenylthiosemicarbazide bonded modified silica gel (PTC-SG) was synthesised and characterised by FTIR, SEM and elemental analysis for a novel separation/preconcentration of multiple elements based on solid phase extraction. The analytical parameters including pH of solutions, amounts of PTC-SG, flow rates of sample, eluent type and sample volume were optimised. The adsorption capacities of PTC-...
Fri, 09/06/2019 - 03:14
The monitoring of the contamination levels of bisphenol A (BPA) and its congeners bisphenol B (BPB) and bisphenol F (BPF) in foodstuffs is a necessary process for assessment of consumers’ risk. After development and validation of a method using Strata® C18-E cartridge cleanup with detection by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, forty-six samples of fruit juices, sold on...
Tue, 09/03/2019 - 03:25
For most substances migrating from food contact materials (FCMs) to food, the producers have to perform the safety assessment as self-control, since only a minor part has been officially evaluated and listed. This implies that the main official control of the safety assessment is by the national control authorities. The present EU legislation requires this, but in its structure, it still reflects...
Tue, 09/03/2019 - 03:18
A rapid method for quantitative caffeine analysis in carbonated and non-carbonated beverages and liquid dietary supplement products was developed based on the direct sample introduction technique of laser diode thermal desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation with tandem mass spectrometry (LDTD-MS/MS). Product samples were diluted with a mixture of methanol, water, and d3-caffeine...
Tue, 09/03/2019 - 03:05
Linear and cyclic oligomers are unavoidable non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) present in food contact materials made from common polyesters such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) and polyester coatings. Although polyester oligomers can migrate into fats in significant amounts in high-temperature processes such as baking or frying, little is known about...
Tue, 09/03/2019 - 02:59
An extraction method based on metal-organic framework has been developed and applied to acetanilide herbicides, including metazachlor, propanil, pretilachlor, and butachlor, in black beans, red beans, and kidney beans. The acetanilide herbicides are extracted with a mixture of ethyl acetate and n-hexane. The extract solution is absorbed and purified with metal-organic framework MIL-101 (Zn). The...
Mon, 08/26/2019 - 00:27
A new, simple, low cost, high efficiency, and rapid floating technique was developed for the determination of Sunset Yellow in beverage and effervescent vitamin C. The method is based on two main steps: 1)- formation of dye-surfactant complex by the addition of a cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, to the solution containing an anionic dye (Sunset Yellow) and 2)- flocculation of...
Thu, 08/22/2019 - 23:53
The use of former food products (FFPs) as alternative feed ingredients in farm animal diets has several benefits. In fact, FFPs are a way of converting losses from the food industry into ingredients for the feed industry. FFPs are produced from packaged food and in general, they are recognised as safe. Packaging materials are not accepted as a feed ingredient according to Regulation (EC) No 767/...
Thu, 08/22/2019 - 03:42
This study was conducted to investigate on the effect of different sampling regions of palm-refined oils and fats on the 2- and 3-monochloropropanediol fatty acid esters (MCPDE) and glycidol fatty acid esters (GE) levels. The American Oil Chemists’ Society (AOCS) Official Method Cd 29a-13 on the determination of MCPDE and GE in edible oils and fats by acid transesterification was successfully...
Thu, 08/22/2019 - 03:40
Potential consumer exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) from nanoenabled food contact materials (FCMs) has been a driving force for migration studies of NPs from FCMs. Although NP migration from fresh, unused FCMs was not previously observed, conditions that result in significant changes to the surface of FCMs have not been investigated for NP migration into food. Therefore, a quantitative assessment...
Thu, 08/22/2019 - 03:22
Male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally dosed with fumonisin B1 (FB1; 0, 20, 50 and 100 mg kg−1 dietary dose equivalent) for 5 & 10 days to assess dose- and time-dependent effects on renal and hepatic phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) fatty acid (FA) profiles. Renal PC showed increasing FA saturation (SAT) after 5 days; after 10 days...
Thu, 08/22/2019 - 03:21
Food decay by spoilage fungi leads to significant economic losses and hazards to consumers’ health due to the potential of mycotoxin occurrence. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin known as nephrotoxic and carcinogenic to humans. Natural capsaicin was evaluated for its effectiveness against the growth of five Aspergillus section Nigri strains and accumulation of OTA in inoculated black grapes....
Thu, 08/08/2019 - 22:36
This work is focused on separation and determination of amygdalin and its unnatural form neoamygdalin in natural food supplements. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with a high-stability silica-based column with C18 functional group has been used for solving this problem. The effect of the mobile phase composition as well as the column temperature on the separation of the...
Thu, 08/08/2019 - 02:22
High bioavailability of microplastics (MPs) in the marine environment has raised serious concern during the last few decades. Nevertheless, the trophic transfer of MPs within edible parts of the marine food webs remain unknown. In this study, bioaccumulation, biomagnification, and potential human intake of MPs in muscles and gills of five popular commercial species (3 fish, 1 crab, and 1 prawn)...
Thu, 08/08/2019 - 02:14
A compilation of volatile N-nitrosamine levels in processed (e.g., cured, canned, smoked) meat and poultry products is presented. Over 1800 samples of processed meat products including bacon, ham, salami, sausage, and various other processed meat and poultry products have been examined for the presence of eight volatile N-nitrosamines. The database compiled from the literature is based on 25...
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 21:50
Urea is a non-protein nitrogen compound, authorised in the EU as a nutritional source of nitrogen in animal feed intended for ruminants with a functional rumen. The Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) is the EU online platform through which food and feed safety risks are reported. During 2017, several rapid alerts were raised in the EU by individual member states regarding the presence...
Mon, 07/29/2019 - 23:23
A novel microextraction method was developed by combining CO2-controlled switchable hydrophilicity solvent (SHS) with solidification of the aqueous phase (SAP), referred to as CSHS-SAP. It was applied for pre-concentration/extraction of the complexes of Pb-ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) prior to GFAAS detection in raw bovine milk and milk products (whole-fat, half-skimmed and skimmed...
Mon, 07/29/2019 - 23:20
It is already known that bisphenol S (BPS) has been used as a substitute for BPA in thermal papers in recent years. It is not clear, however, if BPS has also been used to replace BPA in can coatings as currently being speculated due to a lack of credible studies on migration of BPS from can coatings and occurrence data of BPS in foods. In this study, an LC-MS/MS method was developed for the...
Mon, 07/29/2019 - 23:16
A simultaneous headspace-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HS-GC/MS) method was developed and validated to determine the migration of 12 volatile organic compounds (methanol, acetone, methylethylketone, ethylacetate, isopropylalcohol, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, cumene, propylbenzene, and styrene) from food contact materials into food simulants (water, 4% acetic acid, 50% ethanol...
Mon, 07/29/2019 - 23:02
A sensitive competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ciELISA) was developed for the detection and quantification of citrinin (CIT) in grain-based food samples. The limit of quantification (IC20) of the established method was 0.10 ± 0.02 ng mL−1, with the limit of detection (IC10) being 0.04 ± 0.007 ng mL−1 in wheat and corn flour matrices with a coefficient of variation (CV) less...
Mon, 07/29/2019 - 22:57
An efficient, sensitive, simple and fast method for the simultaneous determination of oxine-copper and pyraclostrobin in citrus fruit was developed and validated. The method uses ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid as a competitive ligand to convert oxine-copper to soluble 8-hydroxyquinoline for analysis by QuEChERS and LC-MS/MS. Linear relationships were determined with correlation coefficients...
Mon, 07/29/2019 - 21:40
A detection method for 20 different phthalate esters (PAEs) in breast milk analyzed by quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) clean-up with five internal standards and quantitative GC–MS/MS was established. This method can effectively remove interfering substances such as lipids and fatty acids from breast milk using acetonitrile as the extraction solvent and PSA/C18 as clean-...
Mon, 07/29/2019 - 21:27
A liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) screening method was developed previously to analyze for veterinary drug residues commonly found in different types of aquaculture products. This method has been further evaluated for its feasibility to detect several other classes of compounds that might also be a concern as possible contaminants in farmed tilapia, salmon, eel...
Thu, 07/18/2019 - 02:26
The safety of nine synthetic colour additives approved in Korea were assessed through hazard identification, hazard characterisation, exposure assessment, and risk characterisation. Hazard identification and characterisation were conducted using new risk information based on toxicology data. Exposure assessment calculated the estimated daily intake (EDI) of the nine colours. Finally, the risk was...
Thu, 07/18/2019 - 02:18
In this study, the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) have been determined in the flesh of two species of fish, sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius) fished in the Algerian coast. Quantification of As, Cd and Pb was carried out using an ICP-MS method and the results were compared with the thresholds set by national and international regulatory bodies. In a...
Thu, 07/18/2019 - 00:07
Acrylamide is a contaminant that can form in certain plant-based foods during high-temperature cooking. From 2011–2015, the Food and Drug Administration conducted extensive sampling and analyses of acrylamide in foods, as a follow-up to surveys from 2002–2006. We compared acrylamide occurrence data and exposure estimates based on 2011–2015 data with data and exposure estimates from 2002–2006....
Wed, 07/17/2019 - 00:45
Tofu or bean curd is obtained from soybean seeds being a widespread food product in Asia. The commodity used for its production can be contaminated with aflatoxins, which are secondary metabolites synthetised by species of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Intake of contaminated food products causes toxic effects on consumers. The aim of this work was to study aflatoxin distribution in...
Sun, 07/14/2019 - 23:19
A reliable and sensitive identification method is required to tackle food adulteration mainly in meat production. We developed a dry reagent based ready-to-use single tube quadruplex PCR assay for accurate identification of chicken, mutton, beef and pork. The assay was found to be specific and reproducible. Thermo-stability studies of lyophilized PCR master mix were conducted at different...
Wed, 07/10/2019 - 21:45
The purpose of this study was to investigate pesticide residues in bell peppers from Shandong Province, China. A total of 299 samples were collected from 17 cities in 2016. The concentrations of 26 pesticide residues were determined by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The results showed that there were 25 pesticides (15 OPs, 7 PYs, 3 CBs) found in 86 bell pepper samples, and the...
Wed, 07/10/2019 - 21:43
The use of food supplements is increasing. They are marketed as beneficial for health, well-being, physical or mental condition and performance, or to prevent diseases. Producers add synthetic compounds or illicit herbal material to food supplements to claim desired effects. Claims made to support marketing without scientific evidence are, however, illegal. Intake of adulterated food supplements...
Wed, 07/10/2019 - 21:26
The present study examines the influence of the natural preservatives carvacrol, eugenol, trans-cinnamaldehyde and the essential oil (EO) Origanum vulgare on ochratoxin A (OTA) production and the mycelial growth of two food-related moulds, Penicillium verrucosum and Aspergillus westerdijkiae, by broth macro-dilution assay for 21 days. With the addition of ½ minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)...
Mon, 07/08/2019 - 21:43
A major challenge in the safety assessment of food contact materials (FCM) is the evaluation of unknown non-intentionally added substances (NIAS). Even though consumer exposure levels may be quantitatively low, these substances are considered to be of high toxicological concern if they act as DNA reactive mutagens. From a safety assessment perspective, it is therefore important to detect their...
Mon, 07/08/2019 - 21:09
A method has been developed for the rapid, specific, accurate, precise and sensitive determination of glufosinate, glyphosate and its major metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid, in edible oils, by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Oils were extracted with acidified water (1% formic acid), and the extracts were directly injected into an LC using a Hypercarb column as the...
Mon, 07/08/2019 - 21:07
Four analytical methods were developed and validated for the determination of veterinary drug residues and environmental pesticide residues in honey: (a) GC-MS method for the analysis of amitraz and all metabolites containing the 2,4-dimethylaniline moiety; (b) GC-MS method for the analysis of thymol, chlorfenvinphos and coumaphos; (c) GC-MS method for the analysis of 75 active substances; (d) LC...

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