Food and Environmental Virology

Tue, 06/22/2021 - 02:01
Norovirus, the leading cause of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide, is constantly mutating. Continuous monitoring of the evolution of epidemic genotypes and emergence of novel genotypes is, therefore, necessary. This study determined the prevalence and clinical characteristics of norovirus strains in AGE in Guangzhou, China in 2019/2020 season. This study included children aged 2...
Tue, 06/15/2021 - 02:01
Water and wastewater virological quality is a significant public health issue. Viral agents include emerging and re-emerging pathogens characterized by extremely small size, and high environmental stability. Since the mainly used conventional disinfection methods are usually not able to achieve complete disinfection of viral and other microbial targets, in real water and wastewater matrices,...
Sun, 06/13/2021 - 02:01
Phage therapy is revolving to address the issues mainly dealing with antibiotic resistance in the pathogenic bacteria. Among the drug-resistant microbial populations, the bacterial species have been categorized as high-priority or critical-priority bacteria. This review summarizes the efficiency and development in phage therapy used against these drug-resistant bacteria in the past few years...
Thu, 06/10/2021 - 02:01
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) was detected in frozen strawberries which had been implicated in a large outbreak of hepatitis A in 1997. The sample was analysed after over 20 years of storage, following a standard method not available at the time of the outbreak. This is the first study in which the HAV associated with the 1997 outbreak of foodborne hepatitis has finally been detected.
Wed, 05/12/2021 - 02:01
Concentration of viruses in water is necessary for detection and quantification of the viruses present, in order to evaluate microbiological barriers in water treatment plants and detect pathogenic viruses during waterborne outbreaks, but there is currently no standardised procedure. In this study, we implemented a previously described fast and simple lanthanum-based protocol for concentration of...
Tue, 04/27/2021 - 02:01
In the last decade, the number of reported hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections in Germany, including Bavaria, has continued to rise. In order to identify risk factors associated with HEV infection, we investigated notified hepatitis E cases from Bavaria during 2017. The project “Intensified Hepatitis E Surveillance in Bavaria” included interviews with questionnaires, collection and genotyping of...
Sat, 04/24/2021 - 02:01
Pig’s blood and liver are valuable edible slaughter by-products which are also the major ingredients of offal-derived foodstuffs. The aim of the study was an evaluation of the occurrence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) and porcine adenovirus (pAdV) as an index virus of faecal contamination in pig’s blood and liver for human consumption. In total, 246 samples of retail liver (n = 100) and pooled pig’s...
Wed, 04/21/2021 - 02:01
Retail foodservice establishments (FSE) frequently utilize washes with sanitizing agents during fresh produce preparation. This study evaluated the efficacy of ozonated water on the inactivation of viruses, bacteria, and viruses in association with bacteria on produce surfaces. Boston bibb lettuce (BB) and cherry tomatoes were spot inoculated with viruses (murine norovirus (MNV) and MS2...
Tue, 04/20/2021 - 02:01
Hydroponic production of vegetables is becoming more common, especially in regions with unfavorable climate for year-round crop production. However, if viruses are present in the hydroponics feed water, then there is a chance that infectious viruses will be internalized into the tissues of hydroponically grown vegetables. When this happens, surface sanitization of postharvest vegetables may not...
Wed, 03/24/2021 - 02:01
The aim of the study was to assess human norovirus and feline calicivirus (FCV) surface free energy, hydrophobicity, and ability to interact with fresh foods and food-contact surfaces. Virus-like particles (VLPs) of human norovirus (GI.1 and GII.4) and FCV were produced, purified, and analyzed for their surface free energy, hydrophobicity, and the total interfacial free energy of interaction...
Fri, 03/19/2021 - 02:01
Globally, Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes over 20 million cases worldwide. HEV is an emerging and endemic pathogen within economically developed countries, chiefly resulting from infections with genotype 3 (G3) HEV. G3 HEV is known to be a zoonotic pathogen, with a broad host range. The primary source of HEV within more economically developed countries is considered to be pigs, and consumption of...
Thu, 03/18/2021 - 02:01
Kinetics of hepatitis A virus (HAV) accumulation and depuration from mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) was studied in an experimental depuration system. Different parameters likely to influence the rate of virus accumulation and elimination were evaluated. Analyses were carried out by both real-time RT-qPCR and digital PCR. Results demonstrated that the animals start to concentrate the virus...
Thu, 03/11/2021 - 02:01
Seeking a means of sanitizing berries, the effectiveness of steady state levels of gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO2) against hepatitis A virus (HAV) on laboratory-contaminated berries was determined. The generated ClO2 was maintained with 1 or 2 mg/l air inside a 269-l glove box to treat 50 g batches of blueberries, raspberries, and blackberries, and 100 g batches of strawberries that were...
Wed, 03/03/2021 - 02:01
Human noroviruses (HuNoV) are among the main causes of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Frozen raspberries have been linked to several HuNoV food-related outbreaks. However, the extraction of HuNoV RNA from frozen raspberries remains challenging. Recovery yields are low, and real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) inhibitors limit the sensitivity of the detection methodologies...
Tue, 03/02/2021 - 02:01
Norovirus contamination of oysters is the lead cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis and a significant food safety concern for the oyster industry. Here, norovirus reduction from Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas), contaminated in the marine environment, was studied in laboratory depuration trials and in two commercial settings. Norovirus concentrations were measured in oyster digestive tissue...
Fri, 02/26/2021 - 02:01
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of hepatitis E, an emerging public health infection which has an increasing incidence across Europe. Because of the apparent lack of species barriers, HEV was characterized as a zoonotic agent. Swine are recognized as the main reservoir, but HEV is also found in wild animals such as ungulates, lagomorphs, and bats. Our work aimed at detecting the HEV...
Thu, 02/11/2021 - 02:01
The objective of this study was to use high-energy electron beam (HEEB) treatments to find surrogate microorganisms for enteric viruses and to use the selected surrogates as proof of concept to investigate low-energy electron beam (LEEB) treatments for enteric virus inactivation at industrial scale on frozen blueberries. Six food matrices inoculated with HAV (hepatitis A virus), MNV S99 (murine...
Sun, 02/07/2021 - 02:01
Oysters contaminated with human enteric viruses from sewage are implicated in foodborne outbreaks globally. Bacteriophages have been identified as potential indicators for these viruses, but have not been used in shellfish management outside of the USA. This study aimed to determine the background levels of F-RNA phage in five Australian oyster growing areas with a history of sewage spills and...
Wed, 01/27/2021 - 02:01
Enteric viruses, such as human norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV), are the major causes of foodborne illnesses worldwide. These viruses have low infectious dose, and may remain infectious for weeks in the environment and food. Limited information is available regarding viral survival and transmission in low-moisture foods (LMF). LMFs are generally considered as ready-to-eat products,...
Wed, 01/27/2021 - 02:01
Enteric viruses are a diverse group of human pathogens which are primarily transmitted by the faecal–oral route and are a major cause of non-bacterial diarrhoeal disease in both developed and developing countries. Because they are shed in high numbers by infected individuals and can persist for a long time in the environment, they pose a serious threat to human health globally. Enteric viruses...
Sun, 01/24/2021 - 02:01
Unraveling the trends of phage-host versus phage-phage coevolution is critical for avoiding possible undesirable outcomes from the use of phage preparations intended for therapeutic, food safety or environmental safety purposes. We aimed to investigate a phenomenon of intergeneric recombination and its trajectories across the natural populations of phages predominantly linked to foodborne...
Thu, 01/21/2021 - 02:01
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been frequently detected from pork liver and liver products, which can usually cause self-limiting diseases in healthy adults, yet may result in fatality in immunosuppressed groups. Nevertheless, there is so far no standardized method for HEV detection available from pork liver and/or liver products. The present study aimed to optimize the virus extraction method of...
Tue, 01/12/2021 - 02:01
Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), a plant pathogenic virus belonging to the family Virgoviridae, has been proposed as a potential viral indicator for human faecal pollution in aquatic environments. The present study investigated the occurrence, amount and diversity of PMMoV in water environments in Italy. A total of 254 water samples, collected between 2017 and 2019 from different types of water...
Mon, 01/04/2021 - 02:01
Human noroviruses are a major cause for gastroenteritis outbreaks. Filter-feeding bivalve molluscs, which accumulate noroviruses in their digestive tissues, are a typical vector for human infection. RT-qPCR, the established method for human norovirus detection in food, does not allow discrimination between infectious and non-infectious viruses and can overestimate potentially infectious viral...
Fri, 10/16/2020 - 02:01
The global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic dictates that anti-contagion strategies should become matters of essential routine in everyday life. Fomite transference is one of the routes of transmission that has been considered for this virus. However, the risks associated with contaminated surfaces of food packaging kept in refrigerators have not yet been adequately assessed. In this study, a surrogate virus...
Tue, 10/13/2020 - 02:01
Aichivirus 1 (AiV-1) is an enteric virus that has been documented to be the causative agent of diarrhea in humans. It is transmitted by fecal–oral route, through person-to-person contact, consumption of contaminated food or water, or recreation of contaminated water. AiV-1 is highly prevalent in water samples and has been proposed as a potential indicator of fecal contamination in water...
Thu, 10/08/2020 - 02:02
Norovirus (NoV) is an important etiological agent of diarrhea in children and adults. In Mexico, NoV screening is not routinely performed. NoV is highly infectious and is responsible for massive outbreaks due to the consumption of contaminated food. The study was a cross-sectional design. Samples of diarrheal stools were collected from (62) children and (38) adults with acute gastroenteritis...
Wed, 09/16/2020 - 02:02
Consumption of raw or unpasteurized milk is a risk for the consumers because indirect contaminations such as fecal-cross-contamination could occur and determine the presence of enteric viruses. In this study, milk was treated with several temperature and time combinations chosen by performing a preliminary experiment to evaluate the intervals needed to inactivate Hepatitis A virus (HAV) HM175...
Tue, 09/08/2020 - 02:02
The main animal reservoirs of zoonotic hepatitis E virus (HEV) are domestic pigs and wild boars, but HEV also infects cervids. In this study, we estimated the prevalence of HEV in Finnish cervid species that are commonly hunted for human consumption. We investigated sera from 342 European moose (Alces alces), 70 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and 12 European roe deer (Capreolus...
Fri, 09/04/2020 - 02:02
The leading causes of foodborne viral disease outbreaks are human norovirus and hepatitis A virus (HAV). Their environmental persistence enables contamination of kitchen surfaces and crops often consumed raw, such as berries. Many decontamination procedures are inefficient and unsuitable for surfaces of industrial kitchen environments and soft fruits. In this study, we investigated the efficiency...
Fri, 08/28/2020 - 02:02
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection can cause acute and chronic hepatitis in humans. The zoonotic HEV genotype 3, which is highly prevalent in Europe, is mainly transmitted by consumption of raw meat and raw meat products produced from infected pigs or wild boars. High salt concentrations represent an important measure to preserve meat products and to inactivate foodborne pathogens. Here, an HEV...
Mon, 08/24/2020 - 20:46
This study investigated the obstacles in detecting enteric viruses from berry fruits, which are on the one hand often associated with outbreaks of viral enteric disease, and on the other hand recognized as a challenging food matrix for molecular detection of enteric viruses. According to the ISO 15216 protocol, for soft fruit samples, virus extraction is by elution with agitation followed by...
Thu, 08/06/2020 - 02:01
Outside the host, viruses will eventually lose their ability to infect cells due to conformational changes that occur to proteins on the viral capsid. In order to undergo a conformational change, these proteins require energy to activate the chemical reaction that leads to the conformational change. In this study, data from the literature is used to calculate the energy required for viral...
Wed, 07/15/2020 - 02:01
Monthly sampling was conducted at a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) in Southern Louisiana, USA from March 2017 to February 2018 to determine the prevalence and reduction efficiency of pathogenic and indicator viruses. Water samples were collected from the DWTP at three different treatment stages (raw, secondary-treated, and chlorinated drinking water) and subjected to quantification of...
Sat, 07/11/2020 - 02:01
Detection of norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) on fruits and vegetables using current standard methodologies can be inefficient. Method optimisation focussing on ease, rapidity and increased viral RNA recovery is needed for efficient reverse transcription (RT)-qPCR detection of viruses. A simple and quick direct lysis method for RNA extraction was optimised (method A) to achieve...
Thu, 07/02/2020 - 02:01
This study assessed wastewater quality through the quantification of four human enteric viruses and the applicability of pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) as indicators of viral reduction during wastewater treatment. Thirty-three samples were collected from three steps of a wastewater treatment plant in Southern Louisiana, USA for a year between March 2017 and...
Wed, 07/01/2020 - 02:01
The molecular detection of Norovirus GI and Norovirus GII in the Tunisian industrial wastewater treatment plant of Charguia I was conducted to test the effectiveness of secondary biological treatment using the activated sludge procedure and the UV-C254 tertiary treatment radiation using a UV disinfection prototype to upgrade the quality of the purified wastewater. A total of 140 sewage samples...
Sun, 06/28/2020 - 02:01
Shellfish constitute an important protein source but may be contaminated by viruses from various origins. A study performed on clams collected in Cameroon showed a high prevalence of norovirus and hepatitis A virus. After sequencing, the hepatitis A virus showed similarities with the genotype V simian strains.
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 02:01
Leachate from solid waste landfill is a dark liquid of variable composition and possible source of contamination of groundwater and surface waters. This study aims to assess skimmed milk flocculation and ultracentrifugation as viral concentration methods associated to different nucleic acid extraction protocols in order to establish a methodology for virus recovery from sanitary landfill leachate...
Thu, 06/11/2020 - 02:01
Globally, norovirus is the most common gastroenteritis causing pathogen. Annually, norovirus causes 685 million cases of acute gastroenteritis and 200,000 deaths, worldwide. Recent evidence has suggested that norovirus can also be spread via aerosolization; however, an indoor generation source has yet to be determined. We optimized a sampling method for the collection of aerosolized norovirus...
Mon, 03/23/2020 - 03:17
Highly sensitive detection of pathogens is effective for screening meat during quarantine inspection and export. The “micro-amount of virion enrichment technique” (MiVET) was recently developed, which is a new method combining virus concentration with immunomagnetic beads and simple RNA extraction with sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS) for the specific and sensitive detection of avian...
Tue, 03/10/2020 - 03:15
The availability of drinking water is one of the main determinants of quality of life, disease prevention and the promotion of health. Viruses are important agents of waterborne diseases and have been described as important markers of human faecal contamination. This study aimed to investigate viruses’ presence as an indicator of drinking water quality in low-income communities in the Manguinhos...
Tue, 03/03/2020 - 03:15
Human noroviruses are the major cause of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Since no therapeutic agent has been proven to prevent human norovirus infection yet, preventive healthcare interventions to block the infection routes play an important role in infection control. One of the possible infection routes of human noroviruses are through contaminated hands, but no hand antiseptics...
Fri, 02/21/2020 - 03:30
The U.S. FDA Food Safety Modernization Act Preventive Controls for Human Food Rule emphasizes the importance of an effective environmental monitoring (EM) program. This study aims to characterize polyurethane foam (PUF) EM tools—currently used in the food industry for the recovery of bacteria from food contact surfaces—for their efficacy in the release and recovery of human enteric viruses. Two...
Sun, 12/01/2019 - 03:15
Human bocavirus (HBoV) has a global distribution and is associated with respiratory and enteric infections, particularly in the paediatric population. In this study, raw sewage and mussel samples were analysed for the presence of HBoV using nested PCR with primers targeting the VP1/VP2 junction. Amplification and sequencing of the 382 bp region followed by phylogenetic analysis indicated the...
Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:15
Wastewater represents the main reusable water source after being adequately sanitized by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this sense, only bacterial quality indicators are usually checked to this end, and human pathogenic viruses usually escape from both sanitization procedures and controls, posing a health risk on the use of effluent waters. In this study, we evaluated a protocol based on...
Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:15
We modeled Group A Rotavirus (RVA) and Norovirus genogroup II (GII NoV) transport experiments in standardized (crystal quartz sand and deionized water with adjusted pH and ionic strength) and natural soil matrix-water systems (MWS). On the one hand, in the standardized MWS, Rotavirus and Norovirus showed very similar breakthrough curves (BTCs), showing a removal rate of 2 and 1.7 log10,...
Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:15
Detection of noroviruses in bivalve shellfish is difficult because of the low concentration of norovirus and the presence of reverse transcription (RT)-PCR inhibitors. This study aimed to assess the presence of noroviruses in oysters extracted using a proteinase K extraction (ISO 15216 method) and an adsorption–elution method. Seventy oyster samples were extracted using the two extraction methods...
Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:15
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic virus that can cause acute hepatitis in humans. Besides the fecal–oral route, transmission can occur by consumption of undercooked pig liver. Genotype 3 is the most frequent genotype found in Europe. Studies on HEV in slaughter-age pigs have not been conducted in Serbia so far. Pork meat production and consumption in Serbia is on average, higher than in the...
Wed, 11/06/2019 - 03:16
Bivalve mollusks as filter-feeders concentrate in their digestive tissue microorganisms likely present in the harvesting water, thus becoming risky food especially if consumed raw or poorly cooked. To eliminate bacteria and viruses eventually accumulated, they must undergo a depuration process which efficacy on viruses is on debate. To better clarify the worth of the depuration process on virus...

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