Food and Environmental Virology

The Research Publications track research that is published across national and international peer-reviewed journals. The most recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal Title, Subject, USDA Grant Funding Agencies or FDA Grant Funding Agencies. The research publications are tracked across five subject areas: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, and Viruses.

Sat, 07/11/2020 - 02:01
Detection of norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) on fruits and vegetables using current standard methodologies can be inefficient. Method optimisation focussing on ease, rapidity and increased viral RNA recovery is needed for efficient reverse transcription (RT)-qPCR detection of viruses. A simple and quick direct lysis method for RNA extraction was optimised (method A) to achieve...
Thu, 07/02/2020 - 02:01
This study assessed wastewater quality through the quantification of four human enteric viruses and the applicability of pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) as indicators of viral reduction during wastewater treatment. Thirty-three samples were collected from three steps of a wastewater treatment plant in Southern Louisiana, USA for a year between March 2017 and...
Wed, 07/01/2020 - 02:01
The molecular detection of Norovirus GI and Norovirus GII in the Tunisian industrial wastewater treatment plant of Charguia I was conducted to test the effectiveness of secondary biological treatment using the activated sludge procedure and the UV-C254 tertiary treatment radiation using a UV disinfection prototype to upgrade the quality of the purified wastewater. A total of 140 sewage samples...
Sun, 06/28/2020 - 02:01
Shellfish constitute an important protein source but may be contaminated by viruses from various origins. A study performed on clams collected in Cameroon showed a high prevalence of norovirus and hepatitis A virus. After sequencing, the hepatitis A virus showed similarities with the genotype V simian strains.
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 02:01
Leachate from solid waste landfill is a dark liquid of variable composition and possible source of contamination of groundwater and surface waters. This study aims to assess skimmed milk flocculation and ultracentrifugation as viral concentration methods associated to different nucleic acid extraction protocols in order to establish a methodology for virus recovery from sanitary landfill leachate...
Thu, 06/11/2020 - 02:01
Globally, norovirus is the most common gastroenteritis causing pathogen. Annually, norovirus causes 685 million cases of acute gastroenteritis and 200,000 deaths, worldwide. Recent evidence has suggested that norovirus can also be spread via aerosolization; however, an indoor generation source has yet to be determined. We optimized a sampling method for the collection of aerosolized norovirus...
Mon, 03/23/2020 - 03:17
Highly sensitive detection of pathogens is effective for screening meat during quarantine inspection and export. The “micro-amount of virion enrichment technique” (MiVET) was recently developed, which is a new method combining virus concentration with immunomagnetic beads and simple RNA extraction with sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS) for the specific and sensitive detection of avian...
Tue, 03/10/2020 - 03:15
The availability of drinking water is one of the main determinants of quality of life, disease prevention and the promotion of health. Viruses are important agents of waterborne diseases and have been described as important markers of human faecal contamination. This study aimed to investigate viruses’ presence as an indicator of drinking water quality in low-income communities in the Manguinhos...
Tue, 03/03/2020 - 03:15
Human noroviruses are the major cause of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Since no therapeutic agent has been proven to prevent human norovirus infection yet, preventive healthcare interventions to block the infection routes play an important role in infection control. One of the possible infection routes of human noroviruses are through contaminated hands, but no hand antiseptics...
Fri, 02/21/2020 - 03:30
The U.S. FDA Food Safety Modernization Act Preventive Controls for Human Food Rule emphasizes the importance of an effective environmental monitoring (EM) program. This study aims to characterize polyurethane foam (PUF) EM tools—currently used in the food industry for the recovery of bacteria from food contact surfaces—for their efficacy in the release and recovery of human enteric viruses. Two...
Sun, 12/01/2019 - 03:15
Human bocavirus (HBoV) has a global distribution and is associated with respiratory and enteric infections, particularly in the paediatric population. In this study, raw sewage and mussel samples were analysed for the presence of HBoV using nested PCR with primers targeting the VP1/VP2 junction. Amplification and sequencing of the 382 bp region followed by phylogenetic analysis indicated the...
Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:15
Wastewater represents the main reusable water source after being adequately sanitized by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this sense, only bacterial quality indicators are usually checked to this end, and human pathogenic viruses usually escape from both sanitization procedures and controls, posing a health risk on the use of effluent waters. In this study, we evaluated a protocol based on...
Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:15
We modeled Group A Rotavirus (RVA) and Norovirus genogroup II (GII NoV) transport experiments in standardized (crystal quartz sand and deionized water with adjusted pH and ionic strength) and natural soil matrix-water systems (MWS). On the one hand, in the standardized MWS, Rotavirus and Norovirus showed very similar breakthrough curves (BTCs), showing a removal rate of 2 and 1.7 log10,...
Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:15
Detection of noroviruses in bivalve shellfish is difficult because of the low concentration of norovirus and the presence of reverse transcription (RT)-PCR inhibitors. This study aimed to assess the presence of noroviruses in oysters extracted using a proteinase K extraction (ISO 15216 method) and an adsorption–elution method. Seventy oyster samples were extracted using the two extraction methods...
Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:15
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic virus that can cause acute hepatitis in humans. Besides the fecal–oral route, transmission can occur by consumption of undercooked pig liver. Genotype 3 is the most frequent genotype found in Europe. Studies on HEV in slaughter-age pigs have not been conducted in Serbia so far. Pork meat production and consumption in Serbia is on average, higher than in the...
Wed, 11/06/2019 - 03:16
Bivalve mollusks as filter-feeders concentrate in their digestive tissue microorganisms likely present in the harvesting water, thus becoming risky food especially if consumed raw or poorly cooked. To eliminate bacteria and viruses eventually accumulated, they must undergo a depuration process which efficacy on viruses is on debate. To better clarify the worth of the depuration process on virus...
Wed, 10/30/2019 - 03:16
Norovirus is commonly associated with food and waterborne outbreaks. Genetic susceptibility to norovirus is largely dependent on presence of histo-blood group antigens (HBGA), specifically ABO, secretor, and Lewis phenotypes. The aim of the study was to determine the association between HBGAs to norovirus susceptibility during a large norovirus foodborne outbreak linked to genotype GII.6 in an...
Fri, 10/18/2019 - 03:18
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic agent, which is mainly transmitted by consumption of undercooked meat products originating from infected animals. Domestic pigs and wild boars are the major animal reservoirs, but HEV infections have been also repeatedly described in wild deer species. However, farmed deer has been only sparsely investigated so far. Here, 108 blood and 106 liver samples from...
Sat, 09/28/2019 - 03:13
Foodborne viral diseases are a major public health threat and pose a huge burden on the economies of both developed and developing countries. Enteric viruses are the causative agents of most foodborne illnesses and outbreaks. Egypt is classified by WHO among the regions with intermediate to high endemicity for various enteric viruses. This is manifested by the high prevalence rates of different...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:14
Five human-specific markers were detected in 59–74% of 27 human fecal-source samples collected in Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan. Similarly, potential human-specific markers, crAssphage, pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), and tobacco mosaic virus were detected in 96–100% of samples, with crAssphage showing the maximum concentration of 12.03 log copies/L. However, these markers were detected in 100% (...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:14
Foodborne viruses are a global threat to food safety. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the most commonly used method to detect viral RNA in food. Armored RNA (AR) prepared using the MS2 phage system is a successful positive control for detecting foodborne viruses and is an important quality control process when using real-time RT-PCR. In this study, we report...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:14
This study was conducted to evaluate the microbiological quality of a mangrove estuary in the Vitória Bay region, Espírito Santo, Brazil. We analyzed the presence and concentration of enteric viruses and thermotolerant coliforms in water, mussels (Mytella charruana and Mytella guyanensis), and oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae), collected over a 13-month period. Human adenovirus, rotavirus A (RVA...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:14
The effectiveness of steady-state levels of gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO2) against Tulane virus (TV), a human norovirus surrogate, on berries was determined. The generated ClO2 was maintained at 1 mg/L inside a 269 L glove box to treat two 50 g batches of blueberries, raspberries, and blackberries, and two 100 g batches of strawberries that were immersion coated with TV. The standardized/...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:14
Human noroviruses (hNoV) are the primary cause of foodborne disease in the USA. Most studies on inactivation kinetics of hNoV and its surrogates are performed in monoculture, while the microbial ecosystem effect on virus inactivation remains limited. This study investigated the persistence of hNoV surrogates, murine norovirus (MNV) and Tulane virus (TuV), along with Aichi virus (AiV) under...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:14
The aim of this study was to determine the origin (human, bovine or porcine) and the concentration of the fecal sources of contamination in waters from Santa Lucía basin and Uruguay River in Uruguay by using host-specific viral markers (adenoviruses and polyomaviruses) as microbial source tracking (MST). Between June 2015 and May 2016, monthly collections of surface water samples were performed...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:14
Monitoring of environmental water is crucial to protecting humans and animals from possible health risks. Although numerous human-specific viral markers have been designed to track the presence of human fecal contamination in water, they lack adequate sensitivity and specificity in different geographical regions. We evaluated the performances of six human-specific viral markers [Aichi virus 1 (...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:14
While one of the biggest problems we are facing today is water scarcity, enormous quantities of water are still being used in irrigation. If contaminated, this water can act as an effective pathway for the spread of disease-causing agents, like viruses. Here, we present a novel, environmentally friendly method known as cold atmospheric plasma for inactivation of viruses in water used in closed...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:14
In industrialized countries, hepatitis E is now recognized as an emerging zoonosis. Autochthonous cases have been increased over recent years in Europe and are mainly associated with HEV-3 infections. Pigs and wild boars are considered the main reservoirs of the zoonotic HEV-3 and HEV-4 genotypes. Over the past decade, the number of wild boars has drastically increased in Europe. Due to habitats...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:14
Hepatitis E is an emerging threat in industrialized countries. The foodborne transmission linked to consumption of pork and game meat is considered the main source of autochthonous infection. In Europe, small outbreaks have been reported linked to the consumption of pork liver sausages and wild boar meat. Based on previous findings and on increasing evidence of pork and game meat as a vehicle for...
Sat, 08/24/2019 - 00:00
Abstract This study aimed to optimize a method to identify human enteric viruses in sewage and stool samples using random primed next-generation sequencing. We tested three methods, two employed virus enrichment based on the binding properties of the viral capsid using pig-mucin capture or by selecting viral RNA prior to library preparation through a capture using the SureSelect...
Fri, 08/16/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Enteroviruses (EVs) and Hepatitis A Viruses (HAVs) are human pathogens with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. The monitoring of sewage samples enables to monitor the EVs and HAVs in circulation among the general population and recognize possible outbreaks. This study focused on the molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the EVs and HAVs...
Wed, 07/24/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Detection of noroviruses in bivalve shellfish is difficult because of the low concentration of norovirus and the presence of reverse transcription (RT)-PCR inhibitors. This study aimed to assess the presence of noroviruses in oysters extracted using a proteinase K extraction (ISO 15216 method) and an adsorption–elution method. Seventy oyster samples were extracted using...
Wed, 06/26/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic virus that can cause acute hepatitis in humans. Besides the fecal–oral route, transmission can occur by consumption of undercooked pig liver. Genotype 3 is the most frequent genotype found in Europe. Studies on HEV in slaughter-age pigs have not been conducted in Serbia so far. Pork meat production and consumption in Serbia is on...
Wed, 06/05/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Human noroviruses are the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis. In the absence of a practical culture technique for routine analysis of infectious noroviruses, several methods have been developed to discriminate between infectious and non-infectious viruses by removing non-viable viruses prior to analysis by RT-qPCR. In this study, two such methods (RNase and porcine...
Tue, 05/21/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Contamination of bivalve shellfish, particularly oysters, with norovirus is recognised as a significant food safety risk. Methods for quantification of norovirus in oysters using the quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) are well established, and various studies using RT-qPCR have detected norovirus in a considerable proportion...
Fri, 04/19/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Mismatches between template sequences and reverse transcription (RT) or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers can lead to underestimation or false negative results during detection and quantification of sequence-diverse viruses. We performed an in silico inclusivity analysis of a widely used RT-PCR assay for detection of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in food, described in...
Sat, 04/13/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Norovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of acute viral gastroenteritis outbreaks in the world. These outbreaks are frequently associated with bivalve shellfish consumption, particularly because these products are often eaten raw or only slightly cooked. In Morocco, regulations concerning the acceptable levels of enteric bacteria indicator organisms in these products have...
Fri, 03/22/2019 - 00:00
Abstract This study investigated the synergistic effects of combined chlorine (200, 500, 700, and 1000 ppm) and vitamin B1 (1000, 2000, and 3000 ppm) on the murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1), a human norovirus (NoV) surrogate, on oyster surface. Vitamin B1 slightly reduced MNV-1 (0.04–0.3 log-reduction), whereas chlorine significantly reduced MNV-1 (0.4–1.0 log-reduction). The combined...
Thu, 03/21/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Two outbreaks of norovirus and acute gastroenteritis took place in Canada between November 2016 and April 2017. Both outbreaks were linked to oysters from British Columbia (BC) coastal waters. This paper describes the multi-agency investigations to identify the source and control the outbreak. Public health officials conducted interviews to determine case exposures....
Wed, 03/13/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Hepatitis A (HAV) is a viral infection causing a range of symptoms, sudden onset of fever, malaise, diarrhea, and jaundice. It is mostly transmitted fecal-oral through contaminated food, with immediate household and sexual contacts having a higher risk of infection. Since 2016 an increased number of HAV infections, mostly affecting men who have sex with men (MSM) have...
Sat, 02/09/2019 - 00:00
Abstract A gastroenteritis outbreak occurred in a university in May, 2017, Wuhan, China. The epidemiological survey and pathogen analysis were conducted to identify the pathogen and control this outbreak. Feces or anal swabs from individuals, water, and swabs taken from tap surfaces of the secondary water supply system (SWSS) and foods were collected for the detection of viruses...
Thu, 01/31/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from three locations along the Delaware Bay were surveyed monthly from May to October 2017 for levels of total Vibrio parahaemolyticus, pathogenic strains of V. parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus, and for strain-specific bacteriophages against vibrios (vibriophages). The objectives were to determine (a) whether vibriophages...
Fri, 01/25/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Berries have repeatedly been associated with outbreaks of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. The fruits are usually minimally processed in the food industry due to their delicate nature. While washing treatments partially remove enteric viruses, the commonly used chemical additives produce toxic by-products. A valid alternative to preserve the food safety of these...
Mon, 12/17/2018 - 00:00
Abstract We investigated the present forms of genogroup II norovirus and group A rotavirus in surface water used for drinking water production. River water samples (N = 15) collected at a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) monthly from June 2017 to August 2018 were fractioned by filtration through 10- and 0.45-μm-pore-size membranes, and viruses present in suspended and...
Wed, 11/21/2018 - 00:00
Abstract Increasing numbers of hepatitis E cases are currently recognized in many European countries. The zoonotic hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3 mainly circulates in domestic pigs and wild boars, and can be transmitted to humans via consumption of insufficiently heated meat or meat products produced from those animals. Here, a detailed protocol for detection of HEV RNA in...
Thu, 11/15/2018 - 00:00
Abstract With increasing interest in peracetic acid (PAA) as a disinfectant in water treatment processes, this study determined PAA treatment effects on human noroviruses (hNoVs) genotype I (GI) and genotype II (GII) as well as effects on bacteriophage MS2 and murine norovirus (MNV) in relation to pH. Across all pH conditions, PAA achieved between 0.2 and 2.5 log10 reduction of...
Tue, 09/11/2018 - 00:00
Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis E (HEV), and rotavirus (RV) in fresh and processed meat traded on the border of Brazil with Argentina and Uruguay. In total, 159 samples of raw and processed foods of animal origin were collected in Paso de los Libres, Argentina (n = 53 raw meat, n = 24 processed meat) and Rivera, Uruguay (n = ...
Thu, 08/09/2018 - 00:00
Abstract Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) can be easily transferred by the contacts of humans or fomites. Swab sampling methods are widely used for recovering HuNoVs from small surfaces of various fomites or hard-to-reach locations and swab sampling conditions are important for the accurate detection of HuNoVs, which have a low infectious dose and relatively long persistence under a...
Thu, 07/26/2018 - 00:00
Abstract Hepatitis E is an important public health concern throughout the world. Many molecular and serological surveys have reported the prevalence and genotypic characteristics of HEV in humans and animals worldwide. However, the genotypic characterization of this virus is very limited in Tibetan pigs. Hence, we aimed to explore the genotype of HEV, prevailing among Tibetan...

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