Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

The Research Publications track research that is published across national and international peer-reviewed journals. The most recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal Title, Subject, USDA Grant Funding Agencies or FDA Grant Funding Agencies. The research publications are tracked across five subject areas: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, and Viruses.

Tue, 06/30/2020 - 16:00
One complication of malaria is increased susceptibility to invasive bacterial infections. Plasmodium infections impair host immunity to non-Typhoid Salmonella (NTS) through heme-oxygenase I (HO-I)-induced release of immature granulocytes and myeloid cell-derived IL-10. Yet, it is not known if these mechanisms are specific to NTS. We show here, that Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL (Py) infected mice had...
Fri, 06/26/2020 - 16:00
Foodborne diseases (FBDs) are a major concern worldwide since they are associated with high mortality and morbidity in the human population. Among the causative agents of FBDs, Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus, Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium spp., and Trichinella spiralis are listed in the top global risk ranking of foodborne parasites. One common feature between them is that they...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 16:00
Background: Growing evidence points out that a disturbance of gut microbiota may also disturb the gut–brain communication. However, it is not clear to what extent the alteration of microbiota composition can modulate brain function, affecting host behaviors. Here, we investigated the effects of gut microbiota depletion on emotional behaviors.Methods: Mice in the experimental group were orally...
Tue, 06/23/2020 - 16:00
Toxoplasma gondii has been found to infect almost all warm-blooded animals, including humans. In this study, a total of 3,275 human serum samples were collected from hospitals in five provinces of China. About 5.13% (168/3,275) (95% CI, 4.42–5.94) of the serum samples tested positive for T. gondii IgG antibody by a modified agglutination test (MAT) (cut-off: 1:20). Significant associations were...
Thu, 06/18/2020 - 16:00
Vibrios, which include more than 120 valid species, are an abundant and diverse group of bacteria in marine and estuarine environments. Some of these bacteria have been recognized as pathogens of both marine animals and humans, and therefore, their virulence mechanisms have attracted increasing attention. The type III secretion system (T3SS) is an important virulence determinant in many gram-...
Fri, 06/12/2020 - 16:00
Toxoplasma gondii is the causative agent of toxoplasmosis in animals and humans. This infection is transmitted to humans through oocysts released in the feces of the felines into the environment or by ingestion of undercooked meat. This implies that toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease and T. gondii is a foodborne pathogen. In addition, chronic toxoplasmosis in goats and sheep is the cause of...
Tue, 06/09/2020 - 16:00
Apicomplexan infections cause substantial morbidity and mortality, worldwide. New, improved therapies are needed. Herein, we create a next generation anti-apicomplexan lead compound, JAG21, a tetrahydroquinolone, with increased sp3-character to improve parasite selectivity. Relative to other cytochrome b inhibitors, JAG21 has improved solubility and ADMET properties, without need for pro-drug....
Tue, 06/09/2020 - 16:00
Gut organoids are stem cell derived 3D models of the intestinal epithelium that are useful for studying interactions between enteric pathogens and their host. While the organoid model has been used for both bacterial and viral infections, this is a closed system with the luminal side being inaccessible without microinjection or disruption of the organoid polarization. In order to overcome this...
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 03:22
Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 is an enteric pathogen that causes life-threatening disease in humans, with cattle being major natural reservoirs. A group of STEC O157:H7 with a dramatic combination of high virulence potentials and super-shedder bovine origin have been isolated. Here, an STEC O157:H7 isolate, JEONG-1266, was analyzed by comparative genomics, stx...
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 03:22
Cellular reproduction defines life, yet our textbook-level understanding of cell division is limited to a small number of model organisms centered around humans. The horizon on cell division variants is expanded here by advancing insights on the fascinating cell division modes found in the Apicomplexa, a key group of protozoan parasites. The Apicomplexa display remarkable variation in offspring...
Thu, 06/04/2020 - 03:23
Following infection with certain strains of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), particularly enterohemorrhagic ones, patients are at elevated risk for developing life-threatening extraintestinal complications, such as acute renal failure. Hence, these bacteria represent a public health concern in both developed and developing countries. Shiga toxins (Stxs) expressed by STEC are highly...
Wed, 06/03/2020 - 03:23
Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) cause intestinal illness through the same pathogenic mechanism used by Shigella spp. The latter species can be typed through genomic and phenotypic methods used for E. coli and have been proposed for reclassification within E. coli species. Recently the first appearance of a highly pathogenic EIEC O96:H19 was described in Europe as the causative agent of two...
Fri, 05/29/2020 - 03:22
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) that express F4 (K88) fimbriae are the principal microorganisms responsible for bacterial diarrhea in neonatal and pre-weaning piglets. To better understand the molecular effects of ETEC F4ab/ac infection, we performed a genome-wide comparison of the changes in DNA methylation and gene expression in ETEC F4ab/ac infected porcine intestinal epithelial cells...
Mon, 05/25/2020 - 03:21
Shiga toxin is the main virulence factor of non-invasive enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli strains capable of causing hemolytic uremic syndrome. Our group has previously shown that the toxin can reach the kidney within microvesicles where it is taken up by renal cells and the vesicles release their cargo intracellularly, leading to toxin-mediated inhibition of protein synthesis and cell death....
Mon, 05/25/2020 - 03:21
Anti-HIV chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) promote direct killing of infected cells, thus offering a therapeutic approach aimed at durable suppression of infection emerging from viral reservoirs. CD4-based CARs represent a favored option, since they target the essential conserved primary receptor binding site on the HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env). We have previously shown that adding a second...
Wed, 05/20/2020 - 03:21
Host defense peptides (HDPs), also known as antimicrobial peptides, are naturally occurring polypeptides (~12–50 residues) composed of cationic and hydrophobic amino acids that adopt an amphipathic conformation upon folding usually after contact with membranes. HDPs have a variety of biological activities including immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and anti-biofilm functions....
Wed, 05/20/2020 - 03:21
To discern if there was a particular genotype associated with clinical enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) strains isolated from deployed military personnel (DMP) with travelers' diarrhea (TD), we characterized a collection of EAEC from DMP deployed to Afghanistan, Djibouti, Kenya, or Honduras. Although we did not identify a specific EAEC genotype associated with TD in DMP, we found that...
Tue, 05/19/2020 - 03:22
Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) cause major economic losses to the global poultry industry. Many host factors have been identified that act as regulators of the inflammatory response and virus replication in influenza A virus (IAV) infected cells including nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) like receptor (NLR) family proteins. Evidence is emerging that NLRC5, the largest NLR member,...
Tue, 05/19/2020 - 03:22
Oocysts are the environmentally resistant stage of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. They are responsible for foodborne infections in humans and animals worldwide. Infectious oocysts contain sporozoites that have to exit the sporocyst and oocyst walls to initiate replication of the parasite within the host tissues. Given their robustness and resistance to chemical degradation, it is still...
Wed, 05/13/2020 - 03:22
Mallard ducks are a natural host and reservoir of avian Influenza A viruses. While most influenza strains can replicate in mallards, the virus typically does not cause substantial disease in this host. Mallards are often resistant to disease caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, while the same strains can cause severe infection in humans, chickens, and even other species of ducks,...
Wed, 05/06/2020 - 03:23
Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) has become an important pathogen that can cause diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) in humans. Recent reports show that the type VI secretion system (T6SS) from EHEC is required to produce infection in a murine model and its expression has been related to a higher prevalence of HUS. In this work, we use bioinformatics...
Wed, 04/29/2020 - 03:21
In recent years, protein glycosylation in pathogenic bacteria has attracted more and more attention, and accumulating evidence indicated that this type of posttranslational modification is involved in many physiological processes. The NleB from several enteropathogenic bacteria species as well as SseK from Salmonella enterica are type III secretion system effectors, which have an atypical N-...
Wed, 04/29/2020 - 03:21
Involvement of the microbiome in many different scalp conditions has been investigated over the years. Studies on the role of the scalp microbiome in specific diseases, such as those involving hair growth alterations like non-cicatricial [androgenetic alopecia (AGA), alopecia areata (AA)] and cicatricial alopecia lichen planopilaris, are of major importance. In the present work, we highlighted...
Wed, 04/29/2020 - 03:21
Granulomas are compact structures formed in tissues by the immune system in response to aggressions. The in vitro formation of granulomas using circulating mononuclear cells is an innovative method to easily assess the immune response of patients. Monitoring the efficiency of mononuclear cells from patients to form granulomas in vitro would help improve their therapeutic management. Circulating...
Tue, 04/28/2020 - 03:21
The retina is the primary site of Toxoplasma gondii infection in the eye, and choroidal neovascularization in ocular toxoplasmosis is one of the most important causes of visual impairment. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the key regulators of blood vessel development, however, little is known about the mechanisms of T. gondii-induced VEGF production in ocular toxoplasmosis....
Tue, 04/28/2020 - 03:21
Brucella abortus is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes a zoonosis called brucellosis. This disease leads to abortion and infertility in cattle, and diverse complications in humans. B. abortus is a successful intracellular bacterium that has developed the ability to evade the host's immune system and it replicates in professional and non-professional phagocytic cells, persisting in...
Fri, 04/24/2020 - 03:20
Yersinia pestis, Brucella spp., and Bacillus anthracis are pathogens that can cause infectious zoonotic diseases with high mortality rates. An upconverting phosphor-based quantitative immunochromatographic (UPT-LF) assay, a point-of-care testing method suitable for resource-limited areas, was calibrated to quantitatively detect pathogenic bacteria. The bacterial purity or activity were ensured...
Wed, 04/22/2020 - 03:19
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is an important agent of acute and persistent diarrhea in children and adults worldwide. Here we report a characterization of 220 EAEC isolates, 88.2% (194/220) of which were typical and 11.8% (26/220) were atypical, obtained from diarrheal patients during seven years (2010-2016) of epidemiological surveillance in Brazil. The majority of the isolates were...
Wed, 04/22/2020 - 03:19
Brucellosis is a serious zoonosis occurring mainly in developing countries, and its diagnosis is largely dependent on serologic detection and bacterial culture. In this study, we developed the murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against a conserved and major outer membrane protein 25 (Omp25) of Brucella species (B. spp.) for use in clinical diagnosis. The mAbs to Omp25 were produced by hybridoma...
Thu, 04/16/2020 - 03:16
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite, able to infect all homeothermic animals mostly through ingestion of (oo)cysts contaminated food or water. Recently, we observed a T. gondii strain-specific clearance from tissues upon infection in pigs: while the swine-adapted LR strain persisted in porcine tissues, a subsequent infection with the human-isolated Gangji strain cleared...
Wed, 04/15/2020 - 03:15
Sequencing studies have shown that optimal vaginal microbiota (VMB) are lactobacilli-dominated and that anaerobes associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV-anaerobes) are commonly present. However, they overlooked a less prevalent but more pathogenic group of vaginal bacteria: the pathobionts that cause maternal and neonatal infections and pelvic inflammatory disease. We conducted an individual...
Thu, 04/09/2020 - 03:17
Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) has a widely accepted role in bacterial intra- and interspecies communication. Little is known about the relationships between AI-2 and NEC. This study found that AI-2 levels in patients and in a NEC mouse model were detected using the Vibrio harveyi BB170 assay system. Bacterial communities of the newborns' stool microbiota (NEC acute group, NEC recovery group, control group...
Tue, 03/31/2020 - 03:15
Verotoxin, VT (aka Shiga toxin,Stx) is produced by enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and is the key pathogenic factor in EHEC-induced hemolytic uremic syndrome (eHUS-hemolytic anemia/thrombocytopenia/glomerular infarct) which can follow gastrointestinal EHEC infection, particularly in children. This AB5 subunit toxin family bind target cell globotriaosyl ceramide (Gb3), a glycosphingolipid (GSL) (...
Fri, 03/06/2020 - 03:25
Ochratoxins were important secondary metabolites secreted by fungi, and OTA and OTB are mainly significant mycotoxin, having toxic effects on humans and animals. Therefore, it is important to establish a rapid, sensitive, and precise method for ochratoxins detection and quantification in real samples. In this study, a stable monoclonal antibody (mAb) that recognizing both OTA and OTB toxins was...
Fri, 03/06/2020 - 03:25
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are nanoscale proteoliposomes secreted from the cell envelope of all Gram-negative bacteria. Originally considered as an artifact of the cell wall, OMVs are now recognized as a general secretion system, which serves to improve the fitness of bacteria and facilitate bacterial interactions in polymicrobial communities as well as interactions between the microbe and...
Sat, 02/29/2020 - 03:15
Lipophilic yeasts of the genus Malassezia are important skin commensals and opportunistic skin pathogens in a variety of animals. The species M. pachydermatis was first isolated from the skin of a captive Indian rhinoceros with an exfoliative dermatitis in 1925, recognized as an important otic pathogen of dogs in the 1950's, and finally accepted, after several years of controversy, as a common...
Sat, 02/29/2020 - 03:15
Antibiotic resistance/tolerance has become a severe threat to human and animal health. To combat antibiotic-resistant/tolerant bacteria, it is of significance to improve the efficacy of traditional antibiotics. Here we show that indole potentiates tobramycin to kill stationary-phase Staphylococcus aureus cells after a short, combined treatment, with its derivative 5-methylindole being the most...
Wed, 02/26/2020 - 03:15
In this study we compared nine Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 patient isolates for Stx levels, stx-phage insertion site(s), and pathogenicity in a streptomycin (Str)-treated mouse model. The strains encoded stx2a, stx1a and stx2a, or stx2a and stx2c. All of the strains elaborated 105-106 cytotoxic doses 50% (CD50) into the supernatant after growth in vitro as measured on...
Tue, 02/11/2020 - 03:14
Cyclosporiasis is caused by the coccidian parasite Cyclospora cayetanensis and is associated with large and complex food-borne outbreaks worldwide. Associated symptoms include severe watery diarrhea, particularly in infants, and immune dysfunction. With the globalization of human food supply, the occurrence of cyclosporiasis has been increasing in both food growing and importing countries. As...
Sat, 02/01/2020 - 03:24
Glycosomes are peroxisome-related organelles that have been identified in kinetoplastids and diplonemids. The hallmark of glycosomes is their harboring of the majority of the glycolytic enzymes. Our biochemical studies and proteome analysis of Trypanosoma cruzi glycosomes have located, in addition to enzymes of the glycolytic pathway, enzymes of several other metabolic processes in the organelles...
Sat, 02/01/2020 - 03:24
For adaptation to stressful conditions, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is prone to transit to a dormant, non-replicative state, which is believed to be the basis of the latent form of tuberculosis infection. Dormant bacteria persist in the host for a long period without multiplication, cannot be detected from biological samples by microbiological methods, however, their “non-culturable” state...
Sat, 02/01/2020 - 03:24
Cronobacter sakazakii is a food-borne pathogen carried in milk powder that can cause severe bacteremia, enterocolitis, and meningitis in newborns, which can lead to death of newborns. Preventing infection by this pathogen is significant to the health of newborns. Since infants and young children are the main target group of C. sakazakii, it is considered that maternal immunity can enhance the...
Thu, 01/23/2020 - 03:14
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has emerged as a global health concern during the last decade. In spite of a high mortality rate in pregnant women with fulminant hepatitis, no antiviral drugs or licensed vaccine is available in India. HEV-protease is a pivotal enzyme responsible for ORF1 polyprotein processing leading to cleavage of the non-structural enzymes involved in virus replication. HEV-protease...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:14
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as key regulators of gene expression in several biological systems. The long intergenic RNA-erythroid pro-survival (lincRNA-EPS) has been shown to play a critical role in restraining inflammatory gene expression. However, the function of lincRNA-EPS during bacterial infections remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that following infection with the...
Wed, 01/15/2020 - 03:13
Trichomonas vaginalis is the parasitic protozoan residing in human urogenital tract causing trichomoniasis, which is the leading non-viral sexually transmitted disease. It has cosmopolitan distribution throughout the globe and affects both men and women. Lifecycle of the parasite has been traditionally described as consisting of motile and symptom-causing trophozoites. Chemical and temperature...
Tue, 01/14/2020 - 03:13
Background:Toxoplasma gondii infects millions of individuals worldwide. This protozoan is food and water-borne transmitted but blood transfusion and organ transplantation constitute alternative forms for transmission. However, the influence of IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies in molecular analysis carried out in peripheral blood still remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the serum IgG...
Sat, 01/11/2020 - 03:13
Salmonella Gallinarum only infects avian species, where it causes a severe systemic infection in birds of all ages. It is generally accepted that interaction with phagocytic cells plays an important role in the development of systemic, host-specific Salmonella infections. The current study detailed the interaction of S. Gallinarum with macrophages derived from chicken (HD11) and cattle (Bomac)...
Sat, 01/11/2020 - 03:13
Clostridium perfringens is an important human and animal pathogen that is the primary causative agent of necrotizing enteritis and enterotoxemia in many types of animals; it causes traumatic gas gangrene in humans and animals and is associated with cases of food poisoning in humans. C. perfringens produces a variety of toxins as well as many enzymes, including three sialidases, NanH, NanI, and...
Wed, 01/08/2020 - 03:15
Shiga toxin (Stx) produced by enterohemorrhagic E. coli produces hemolytic uremic syndrome and encephalopathies in patients, which can lead to either reversible or permanent neurological abnormalities, or even fatal cases depending on the degree of intoxication. It has been observed that the inflammatory component plays a decisive role in the severity of the disease. Therefore, the objective of...
Fri, 12/20/2019 - 03:14
The hepatic immune system can induce rapid and controlled responses to pathogenic microorganisms and tumor cells. Accordingly, most of the microorganisms that reach the liver through the blood are eliminated. However, some of them, including Brucella spp., take advantage of the immunotolerant capacity of the liver to persist in the host. Brucella has a predilection for surviving in the...

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