Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

Wed, 10/21/2020 - 16:00
Radiation enteritis (RE) is a common complication in cancer patients receiving radiotherapy. Although studies have shown the changes of this disease at clinical, pathological and other levels, the dynamic characteristics of local microbiome and metabolomics are hitherto unknown. We aimed to examine the multi-omics features of the gut microecosystem, determining the functional correlation between...
Wed, 10/21/2020 - 16:00
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the most frequent bacterial infections in humans, being Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the most common etiological agent. The ability of UPEC to invade urothelial cells and to form intracellular bacterial communities (IBC) has been described. Therefore, UPEC can persist in the urinary tract producing recurrent infections, resisting antibiotic...
Tue, 10/20/2020 - 16:00
The pathogenesis of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) and membranous nephropathy (MN) is characterized by immune dysregulation, which is related to gut dysbiosis. The aim of the study was to compare the gut microbiota of patients with IgAN and MN vs. healthy controls. We used 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing to investigate the bacterial communities of 44 patients with kidney biopsy-proven IgAN, 40...
Mon, 10/19/2020 - 16:00
Proline-rich antimicrobial peptides (PR-AMPs) having a potent antimicrobial activity predominantly toward Gram-negative bacteria and negligible toxicity toward host cells, are attracting attention as new templates for developing antibiotic drugs. We have previously isolated and characterized several bactenecins that are promising in this respect, from the leukocytes of the domestic goat Capra...
Mon, 10/19/2020 - 16:00
The formation of persister cells is one mechanism by which bacteria can survive exposure to environmental stresses. We show that Campylobacter jejuni 11168H forms persister cells at a frequency of 10−3 after exposure to 100 × MIC of penicillin G for 24 h. Staining the cell population with a redox sensitive fluorescent dye revealed that penicillin G treatment resulted in the appearance of a...
Thu, 10/15/2020 - 16:00
The present study investigated the genomic constitution and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of 238 Campylobacter from pigs and wild boars in Italy between 2012 and 2019. Campylobacter strains were genotyped using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and whole genome MLST (wgMLST), screened for antimicrobial resistance genes, and tested for phenotypic susceptibility to six different antibiotics. C....
Thu, 10/15/2020 - 16:00
The most common bacterial cause of pharyngitis is infection by Group A β-hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS), commonly known as strep throat. 5–15% of adults and 15–35% of children in the United States with pharyngitis have a GABHS infection. The symptoms of GABHS overlap with non-GABHS and viral causes of acute pharyngitis, complicating the problem of diagnosis. A careful physical examination and...
Thu, 10/15/2020 - 16:00
Diarrheagenic E. coli can be separated into six distinct pathotypes, with enteroaggregative (EAEC) and diffusely-adherent E. coli (DAEC) among the least characterized. To gain additional insights into these two pathotypes we performed whole genome sequencing of ten DAEC, nine EAEC strains, isolated from Mexican children with diarrhea, and one EAEC plus one commensal E. coli strains isolated from...
Wed, 10/14/2020 - 16:00
Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of viruses from patient or environmental samples can provide tremendous insight into the epidemiology, drug resistance or evolution of a virus. However, we face two common hurdles in obtaining robust sequence information; the low copy number of viral genomes in specimens and the error introduced by WGS techniques. To optimize detection and minimize error in WGS of...
Thu, 10/08/2020 - 16:00
In vitro development of the complete life cycle of Eimeria species has been achieved in primary cultures of avian epithelial cells with low efficiency. The use of immortalized cell lines simplifies procedures but only allows partial development through one round of parasite invasion and intracellular replication. We have assessed the suitability of Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells to...
Tue, 10/06/2020 - 16:00
Cholera is an acute secretory diarrhoeal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The key determinants of cholera pathogenicity, cholera toxin (CT), and toxin co-regulated pilus (TCP) are part of the genome of two horizontally acquired Mobile Genetic Elements (MGEs), CTXΦ, and Vibrio pathogenicity island 1 (VPI-1), respectively. Besides, V. cholerae genome harbors several others MGEs that...
Wed, 09/30/2020 - 16:00
Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome requires the expression of NLRP3, which is strictly regulated by its capacity to directly recognize microbial-derived substances. Even though the involvement of caspase-1 activation in macrophages via NLRP3 and NLRC4 has been discovered, the accurate mechanisms by which Shigella infection triggers NLRP3 activation remain inadequately understood. Here, we...
Wed, 09/30/2020 - 16:00
The human pathogen Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of severe diarrheal disease known as cholera. Of the more than 200 “O” serogroups of this pathogen, O1 and O139 cause cholera outbreaks and epidemics. The rest of the serogroups, collectively known as non-O1/non-O139 cause sporadic moderate or mild diarrhea and also systemic infections. Pathogenic V. cholerae circulates between nutrient-...
Tue, 09/29/2020 - 16:00
Salmonellosis is a common foodborne disease. We previously reported the protection of Caenorhabditis elegans from Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 infection by Lactobacillus zeae LB1. However, the mechanism is not fully understood. C. elegans exhibits behavior plasticity when presented with diverse pathogenic or commensal bacteria. Whether it can exert approach avoidance to S. Typhimurium through...
Tue, 09/29/2020 - 16:00
Hybrid strains of Escherichia coli combine virulence traits of diarrheagenic (DEC) and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC), but it is poorly understood whether these combined features improve the virulence potential of such strains. We have previously identified a uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strain (UPEC 252) harboring the eae gene that encodes the adhesin intimin and is located in the...
Fri, 09/25/2020 - 16:00
Macrophages participate to the first line of defense against infectious agents. Microbial pathogens evolved sophisticated mechanisms to escape macrophage killing. Here, we review recent discoveries and emerging concepts on bacterial molecular strategies to subvert macrophage immune responses. We focus on the expanding number of fascinating subversive tools developed by Listeria monocytogenes,...
Fri, 09/25/2020 - 16:00
The use of molecular diagnostics for pathogen detection in epidemiological studies have allowed us to get a wider view of the pathogens associated with diarrhea, but the presence of enteropathogens in asymptomatic individuals has raised several challenges in understanding the etiology of diarrhea, and the use of these platforms in clinical diagnosis as well. To characterize the presence of the...
Fri, 09/25/2020 - 16:00
Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite infecting human and animals, causing huge public health concerns and economic losses. Swine alveolar macrophage plays an important role in controlling T. gondii infection. However, the mechanism by which macrophages infected with T. gondii function in the immunity to the infection is unclear, especially for local isolates such as TgHB1 isolated in...
Thu, 09/24/2020 - 16:00
Vibrio parahaemolyticus non-toxigenic strains are responsible for about 10% of acute gastroenteritis associated with this species, suggesting they harbor unique virulence factors. Zonula occludens toxin (Zot), firstly described in Vibrio cholerae, is a secreted toxin that increases intestinal permeability. Recently, we identified Zot-encoding genes in the genomes of highly cytotoxic Chilean V....
Fri, 09/18/2020 - 16:00
Coxiella burnetii is the agent that causes acute and chronic Q fever infections in humans. Although the isolates studied so far have shown that the two forms of the disease differ in virulence potential thus, implying a variance in their proteomic profile, the methods used do not deliver enough discriminatory capability and often, human infections may be mis-diagnosed. The current study adds...
Thu, 09/17/2020 - 16:00
Despite the continuous emergence of multi-drug resistant pathogens, the number of new antimicrobials reaching the market is critically low. Natural product peptides are a rich source of bioactive compounds, and advances in mass spectrometry have achieved unprecedented capabilities for the discovery and characterization of novel molecular species. However, traditional bioactivity assay formats...
Thu, 09/17/2020 - 16:00
Objectives: To evaluate metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) as a diagnostic tool in detecting pathogens from osteoarticular infection (OAI) samples.Methods: 130 samples of joint fluid, sonicate fluid, and tissue were prospectively collected from 92 patients with OAI. The performance of mNGS and microbiology culture was compared pairwise.Results: The overall sensitivity of mNGS was 88.5...
Wed, 09/16/2020 - 16:00
The emergence of antimicrobial-resistant (AR) Salmonella has a major concern worldwide. This study was designed to determine the AR profiles and serovars distribution of Salmonella enterica isolated from different breeds of breeder chickens in the province of Henan, China. For this, 2,139 dead embryo samples were collected from 28 breeder chicken hatcheries, representing two domestic and four...
Wed, 09/16/2020 - 16:00
Objective: The present study aimed at investigating the clinical risk factors for COVID-19 patients developing from moderate condition to severe condition, and providing reference for early intervention and prognosis.Methods: We collected the clinical data of 24 patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 who were admitted to the isolation ward of the First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical...
Wed, 09/16/2020 - 16:00
Regulation of the environmental stress response and virulence of Shigella flexneri may involve multiple signaling pathways; however, these mechanisms are not well-defined. In bacteria, small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) regulate bacterial growth, metabolism, virulence, and environmental stress response. Therefore, identifying novel functional sRNAs in S. flexneri could help elucidate pathogenic...
Fri, 09/11/2020 - 16:00
Due to the importance of a rapid determination of patients infected by multidrug resistant bacteria, we evaluated two rapid diagnostic tests for the detection of third-generation cephalosporins (3GC)-resistant Enterobacterales directly from positive blood cultures within 1 h: BL-REDTM (electrochemical method) and β-LACTATM test (chromogenic method). A panel of 150 clinical strains characterized...
Fri, 09/11/2020 - 16:00
Background:Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite of worldwide importance but its burden in indigenous communities remains unclear. In French Guiana, atypical strains of T. gondii originating from a complex rainforest cycle involving wild felids have been linked to severe infections in humans. These cases of Amazonian toxoplasmosis are sporadic and outbreaks are rarely described. We report on the...
Thu, 09/10/2020 - 16:00
We investigated the in vitro effects of Lactobacillus casei ZX633 on gut microorganism composition in infants with diarrhea. For this purpose, 103 feces samples from healthy infants (healthy group) and 300 diarrhea samples from infants (diarrhea group) were collected, and diarrhea feces were treated with L. casei ZX633, which was previously isolated from healthy infant feces (treatment group). We...
Wed, 09/09/2020 - 16:00
Genomic reassortment of segmented RNA virus strains is an important evolutionary mechanism that can generate novel viruses with profound effects on human and animal health, such as the H1N1 influenza pandemic in 2009 arising from reassortment of two swine influenza viruses. Reassortment is not restricted to influenza virus and has been shown to occur in members of the order Bunyavirales. The...
Mon, 09/07/2020 - 16:00
Salmonella spp. are a major cause of foodborne illness throughout the world. Traditional serotyping by antisera agglutination has been used as a standard identification method for many years but newer nucleic acid-based tests have become available that may provide advantages in workflow and test turnaround time. In this study, we evaluated the Luminex® xMAP® Salmonella Serotyping Assay (SSA), a...
Fri, 09/04/2020 - 16:00
Host-associated bacteria and fungi, comprising the microbiota, are critical to host health. In the airways, the composition and diversity of the mucosal microbiota of patients are associated with airway health status. However, the relationship between airway microbiota and respiratory inflammation is not well-understood. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a complex disease that affects up to 14% of...
Tue, 09/01/2020 - 16:00
Infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) challenges effective pulmonary infectious disease control. Current phenotypic and molecular assays could not comprehensively and accurately diagnose MTB, NTM, and drug resistance. Next-generation sequencing allows an “all-in-one” approach providing results on expected drug susceptibility testing (DST) and the...
Thu, 08/27/2020 - 16:00
Drug-resistant bacteria infections and drug residues have been increasing and causing antibiotic resistance and public health threats worldwide. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are novel antimicrobial drugs with the potential to solve these problems. Here, a peptide based on our previously studied peptide PMAP-36PW was designed via N-terminal myristoylation and referred to as Myr-36PW. The fatty...
Thu, 08/27/2020 - 16:00
Mycobacterium abscessus is a prevalent pathogenic mycobacterium in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and one of the most highly drug resistant mycobacterial species to antimicrobial agents. It possesses the property to transition from a smooth (S) to a rough (R) morphotype, thereby influencing the host innate immune response. This transition from the S to the R morphotype takes place in patients with...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 16:00
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is extremely recalcitrant to antimicrobial chemotherapy requiring 6 months to treat drug-sensitive tuberculosis (TB). Despite this, 4–10% of cured patients will develop recurrent disease within 12 months after completing therapy. Reasons for relapse in cured TB patients remains speculative, attributed to both pathogen and host factors. Populations of dormant...
Thu, 08/20/2020 - 16:00
The obligate intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, is highly prevalent among livestock species. Although cattle are generally resistant to Toxoplasma strains circulating in Europe and North America, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we report that bovine bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMDM) pre-stimulated with interferon gamma (IFNγ) restricts intracellular Toxoplasma...
Thu, 08/13/2020 - 16:00
Rapid developments in the field of whole genome sequencing (WGS) make in silico antimicrobial resistance (AMR) a target within reach. Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne infections in Israel with increasing rates of resistance. We applied WGS analysis to study the prevalence and genetic basis of AMR in 263 C. jejuni human and veterinary representative isolates retrieved from a...
Tue, 08/11/2020 - 16:00
Objective: To study the molecular epidemiological characteristics of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (SMA) isolated from patients in a pediatric teaching hospital in Shanghai so as to provide data for the prevention and treatment of SMA.Methods: Non-repetitive SMA strains were isolated from patients from January 2013 to December 2014. The cloning characteristics were analyzed using multilocus...
Fri, 08/07/2020 - 16:00
High-fat diet (HFD) leads to enhancement in various parameters of mice like weight, fasting glucose levels, adipose tissue, and also the liver weight in male C57 BL/6 J mice. Additionally, high-fat diet causes severe liver damage with significant increase in the level of aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT). The variations in microbiota induced by different diet were...
Wed, 07/29/2020 - 16:00
Escherichia coli carrying prophage with genes that encode for Shiga toxins are categorized as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) pathotype. Illnesses caused by STEC in humans, which are often foodborne, range from mild to bloody diarrhea with life-threatening complications of renal failure and hemolytic uremic syndrome and even death, particularly in children. As many as 158 of the total 187...
Fri, 07/17/2020 - 16:00
Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite and a major cause of dysentery and diarrheal disease in developing countries. Disease transmission from one host to another occurs via cysts which can survive in environmental extremes and are transmitted through contaminated food and water. Recent studies in our lab identified a novel transcription factor, Encystation Regulatory Motif- Binding...
Fri, 07/17/2020 - 16:00
Aeromonas veronii is a Gram-negative species ubiquitous in different aquatic environments and capable of causing a variety of diseases to a broad host range. Aeromonas species have the capability to carry and acquire antimicrobial resistance (AMR) elements, and currently multi-drug resistant (MDR) Aeromonas isolates are commonly found across the world. A. veronii strain MS-17-88 is a MDR strain...
Wed, 07/15/2020 - 16:00
Although extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) are designated by their isolation site and grouped based on the type of host and the disease they cause, most diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) are subdivided into several pathotypes based on the presence of specific virulence traits directly related to disease development. This scenario of a well-categorized E. coli collapsed after the...
Wed, 07/15/2020 - 16:00
Fast, robust, and affordable antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) is required, as roughly 50% of antibiotic treatments are started with wrong antibiotics and without a proper diagnosis of the pathogen. Validated growth-based AST according to EUCAST or CLSI (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing, Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute) recommendations is currently...
Fri, 07/10/2020 - 16:00
Several studies have recently identified the main factors contributing to the bacterial colonization of newborns and the dynamics of the infant microbiome development. However, most of these studies address large time periods of weeks or months after birth, thereby missing on important aspects of the early microbiome maturation, such as the acquisition of antibiotic resistance determinants during...
Tue, 07/07/2020 - 16:00
During the development of antimicrobial peptides (AMP) as potential therapeutics, antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) stands as an essential part of the process in identification and optimisation of candidate AMP. Standard methods for AST, developed almost 60 years ago for testing conventional antibiotics, are not necessarily fit for purpose when it comes to determining the susceptibility...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 16:00
One complication of malaria is increased susceptibility to invasive bacterial infections. Plasmodium infections impair host immunity to non-Typhoid Salmonella (NTS) through heme-oxygenase I (HO-I)-induced release of immature granulocytes and myeloid cell-derived IL-10. Yet, it is not known if these mechanisms are specific to NTS. We show here, that Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL (Py) infected mice had...
Fri, 06/26/2020 - 16:00
Foodborne diseases (FBDs) are a major concern worldwide since they are associated with high mortality and morbidity in the human population. Among the causative agents of FBDs, Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus, Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium spp., and Trichinella spiralis are listed in the top global risk ranking of foodborne parasites. One common feature between them is that they...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 16:00
Background: Growing evidence points out that a disturbance of gut microbiota may also disturb the gut–brain communication. However, it is not clear to what extent the alteration of microbiota composition can modulate brain function, affecting host behaviors. Here, we investigated the effects of gut microbiota depletion on emotional behaviors.Methods: Mice in the experimental group were orally...
Tue, 06/23/2020 - 16:00
Toxoplasma gondii has been found to infect almost all warm-blooded animals, including humans. In this study, a total of 3,275 human serum samples were collected from hospitals in five provinces of China. About 5.13% (168/3,275) (95% CI, 4.42–5.94) of the serum samples tested positive for T. gondii IgG antibody by a modified agglutination test (MAT) (cut-off: 1:20). Significant associations were...

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