Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

The Research Publications track research that is published across national and international peer-reviewed journals. The most recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal Title, Subject, USDA Grant Funding Agencies or FDA Grant Funding Agencies. The research publications are tracked across five subject areas: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, and Viruses.

Thu, 04/09/2020 - 03:17
Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) has a widely accepted role in bacterial intra- and interspecies communication. Little is known about the relationships between AI-2 and NEC. This study found that AI-2 levels in patients and in a NEC mouse model were detected using the Vibrio harveyi BB170 assay system. Bacterial communities of the newborns' stool microbiota (NEC acute group, NEC recovery group, control group...
Tue, 03/31/2020 - 03:15
Verotoxin, VT (aka Shiga toxin,Stx) is produced by enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and is the key pathogenic factor in EHEC-induced hemolytic uremic syndrome (eHUS-hemolytic anemia/thrombocytopenia/glomerular infarct) which can follow gastrointestinal EHEC infection, particularly in children. This AB5 subunit toxin family bind target cell globotriaosyl ceramide (Gb3), a glycosphingolipid (GSL) (...
Fri, 03/06/2020 - 03:25
Ochratoxins were important secondary metabolites secreted by fungi, and OTA and OTB are mainly significant mycotoxin, having toxic effects on humans and animals. Therefore, it is important to establish a rapid, sensitive, and precise method for ochratoxins detection and quantification in real samples. In this study, a stable monoclonal antibody (mAb) that recognizing both OTA and OTB toxins was...
Fri, 03/06/2020 - 03:25
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are nanoscale proteoliposomes secreted from the cell envelope of all Gram-negative bacteria. Originally considered as an artifact of the cell wall, OMVs are now recognized as a general secretion system, which serves to improve the fitness of bacteria and facilitate bacterial interactions in polymicrobial communities as well as interactions between the microbe and...
Sat, 02/29/2020 - 03:15
Lipophilic yeasts of the genus Malassezia are important skin commensals and opportunistic skin pathogens in a variety of animals. The species M. pachydermatis was first isolated from the skin of a captive Indian rhinoceros with an exfoliative dermatitis in 1925, recognized as an important otic pathogen of dogs in the 1950's, and finally accepted, after several years of controversy, as a common...
Sat, 02/29/2020 - 03:15
Antibiotic resistance/tolerance has become a severe threat to human and animal health. To combat antibiotic-resistant/tolerant bacteria, it is of significance to improve the efficacy of traditional antibiotics. Here we show that indole potentiates tobramycin to kill stationary-phase Staphylococcus aureus cells after a short, combined treatment, with its derivative 5-methylindole being the most...
Wed, 02/26/2020 - 03:15
In this study we compared nine Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 patient isolates for Stx levels, stx-phage insertion site(s), and pathogenicity in a streptomycin (Str)-treated mouse model. The strains encoded stx2a, stx1a and stx2a, or stx2a and stx2c. All of the strains elaborated 105-106 cytotoxic doses 50% (CD50) into the supernatant after growth in vitro as measured on...
Tue, 02/11/2020 - 03:14
Cyclosporiasis is caused by the coccidian parasite Cyclospora cayetanensis and is associated with large and complex food-borne outbreaks worldwide. Associated symptoms include severe watery diarrhea, particularly in infants, and immune dysfunction. With the globalization of human food supply, the occurrence of cyclosporiasis has been increasing in both food growing and importing countries. As...
Sat, 02/01/2020 - 03:24
Glycosomes are peroxisome-related organelles that have been identified in kinetoplastids and diplonemids. The hallmark of glycosomes is their harboring of the majority of the glycolytic enzymes. Our biochemical studies and proteome analysis of Trypanosoma cruzi glycosomes have located, in addition to enzymes of the glycolytic pathway, enzymes of several other metabolic processes in the organelles...
Sat, 02/01/2020 - 03:24
For adaptation to stressful conditions, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is prone to transit to a dormant, non-replicative state, which is believed to be the basis of the latent form of tuberculosis infection. Dormant bacteria persist in the host for a long period without multiplication, cannot be detected from biological samples by microbiological methods, however, their “non-culturable” state...
Sat, 02/01/2020 - 03:24
Cronobacter sakazakii is a food-borne pathogen carried in milk powder that can cause severe bacteremia, enterocolitis, and meningitis in newborns, which can lead to death of newborns. Preventing infection by this pathogen is significant to the health of newborns. Since infants and young children are the main target group of C. sakazakii, it is considered that maternal immunity can enhance the...
Thu, 01/23/2020 - 03:14
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has emerged as a global health concern during the last decade. In spite of a high mortality rate in pregnant women with fulminant hepatitis, no antiviral drugs or licensed vaccine is available in India. HEV-protease is a pivotal enzyme responsible for ORF1 polyprotein processing leading to cleavage of the non-structural enzymes involved in virus replication. HEV-protease...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:14
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as key regulators of gene expression in several biological systems. The long intergenic RNA-erythroid pro-survival (lincRNA-EPS) has been shown to play a critical role in restraining inflammatory gene expression. However, the function of lincRNA-EPS during bacterial infections remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that following infection with the...
Wed, 01/15/2020 - 03:13
Trichomonas vaginalis is the parasitic protozoan residing in human urogenital tract causing trichomoniasis, which is the leading non-viral sexually transmitted disease. It has cosmopolitan distribution throughout the globe and affects both men and women. Lifecycle of the parasite has been traditionally described as consisting of motile and symptom-causing trophozoites. Chemical and temperature...
Tue, 01/14/2020 - 03:13
Background:Toxoplasma gondii infects millions of individuals worldwide. This protozoan is food and water-borne transmitted but blood transfusion and organ transplantation constitute alternative forms for transmission. However, the influence of IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies in molecular analysis carried out in peripheral blood still remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the serum IgG...
Sat, 01/11/2020 - 03:13
Salmonella Gallinarum only infects avian species, where it causes a severe systemic infection in birds of all ages. It is generally accepted that interaction with phagocytic cells plays an important role in the development of systemic, host-specific Salmonella infections. The current study detailed the interaction of S. Gallinarum with macrophages derived from chicken (HD11) and cattle (Bomac)...
Sat, 01/11/2020 - 03:13
Clostridium perfringens is an important human and animal pathogen that is the primary causative agent of necrotizing enteritis and enterotoxemia in many types of animals; it causes traumatic gas gangrene in humans and animals and is associated with cases of food poisoning in humans. C. perfringens produces a variety of toxins as well as many enzymes, including three sialidases, NanH, NanI, and...
Wed, 01/08/2020 - 03:15
Shiga toxin (Stx) produced by enterohemorrhagic E. coli produces hemolytic uremic syndrome and encephalopathies in patients, which can lead to either reversible or permanent neurological abnormalities, or even fatal cases depending on the degree of intoxication. It has been observed that the inflammatory component plays a decisive role in the severity of the disease. Therefore, the objective of...
Fri, 12/20/2019 - 03:14
The hepatic immune system can induce rapid and controlled responses to pathogenic microorganisms and tumor cells. Accordingly, most of the microorganisms that reach the liver through the blood are eliminated. However, some of them, including Brucella spp., take advantage of the immunotolerant capacity of the liver to persist in the host. Brucella has a predilection for surviving in the...
Fri, 12/20/2019 - 03:14
Antimicrobial coating of medical devices has emerged as a potentially effective tool to prevent or ameliorate device-related infections. In this study the plasma deposition process for direct deposition of pharmaceutical drugs on to a range of surfaces and the retention of structure function relationship and antimicrobial efficacy against mono-species biofilms were investigated. Two selected...
Wed, 11/27/2019 - 03:15
Edwardsiella piscicida is a pathogenic bacterium responsible for significant losses in important wild and cultured fish species. E. piscicida strain MS-18-199 recovered from a diseased hybrid catfish from East Mississippi and showed resistance to florfenicol, chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline, doxycycline, erythromycin, tetracycline, azitromycin, spectinomycin, sulfonamide, and bacitracin. To...
Thu, 11/21/2019 - 03:14
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are responsible for multiple clinical syndromes, including hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). E. coli O157:H7 is the most prevalent serotype associated with HUS and produces a variety of virulence factors being Stx2 the responsible of the most HUS severe cases. After intestinal colonization by STEC, Stx2 is released into the intestinal lumen,...
Thu, 11/14/2019 - 03:14
The dynamic nature of Vibrio parahaemolyticus epidemiology has presented a unique challenge for disease intervention strategies. Despite the continued rise of disease incidence and outbreaks of vibriosis, as well as the global emergence of pandemic clones and serovariants with enhanced virulence, there is a paucity of molecular methods for the serotyping of V. parahaemolyticus strains to improve...
Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:14
The diagnosis of bloodstream infections (BSIs) still relies on blood culture (BC), but low turnaround times may hinder the early initiation of an appropriate antimicrobial therapy, thus increasing the risk of infection-related death. We describe a direct and rapid multiplex PCR-based assay capable of detecting and identifying 16 bacterial and four Candida species, as well as three antibiotic-...
Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:14
The envelope of Gram-negative bacteria is critical for survival across a wide range of environmental conditions. The inner membrane, the periplasm and the outer membrane form a complex compartment, home to many essential processes. Hence, constant monitoring by envelope stress response systems ensure correct biogenesis of the envelope and maintain its homeostasis. Inside the periplasm, the cell...
Wed, 11/06/2019 - 03:15
Galactosaminogalactan (GAG) is an insoluble aminosugar polymer produced by Aspergillus fumigatus and has anti-inflammatory properties. Here, the minimum glycosidic sequences required for the induction of IL-1Ra by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was investigated. Using chemical degradation of native GAG to isolate soluble oligomers, we have found that the de-N-acetylation of...
Fri, 10/25/2019 - 03:19
The Bacillus cereus group is frequently isolated from soil, plants, food, and other environments. In this study, we report the first isolation and characterization of a B. cereus group member, Bacillus wiedmannii SR52, from the hydrothermal field in the Iheya Ridge of Okinawa Trough. SR52 was isolated from the gills of shrimp Alvinocaris longirostris, an invertebrate species found abundantly in...
Wed, 10/23/2019 - 03:20
Little is known regarding differences in the gut microbiomes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and healthy cohorts in China. This study aimed to identify differences in the fecal microbiomes of 66 Chinese patients with RA and 60 healthy Chinese controls. The V3-V4 variable regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes were sequenced with the Illumina system to define the bacterial composition. The...
Tue, 10/22/2019 - 03:17
Background: This study aimed to evaluate real-time polymerase chain reaction coupled with multiplex probe melting curve analysis (PCR-MCA) for pathogen detection in patients with suspected bloodstream infections (BSIs).Methods: A PCR-MCA assay was developed for simultaneous identification of 28 kinds of the most common pathogens and two resistance genes within a few hours. The diagnostic...
Fri, 10/18/2019 - 03:17
Understanding bacterial virulence provides insight into the molecular basis behind infection and could identify new drug targets. However, assessing potential virulence determinants relies on testing in an animal model. The mouse is a well-validated model but it is constrained by the ethical and logistical challenges of using vertebrate animals. Recently the larva of the greater wax moth Galleria...
Wed, 10/09/2019 - 03:17
During infection, bacterial pathogens successfully sense, respond and adapt to a myriad of harsh environments presented by the mammalian host. This exquisite level of adaptation requires a robust modulation of their physiological and metabolic features. Additionally, virulence determinants, which include host invasion, colonization and survival despite the host's immune responses and...
Sat, 10/05/2019 - 03:16
Treated wastewater from reclaimed facilities (WWTP) has become a reusable source for a variety of applications, such as agricultural irrigation. However, it is also a potential reservoir of clinically-relevant multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens, including ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium and Streptococcus surrogates, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas...
Sat, 10/05/2019 - 03:16
While antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been detected in extreme environments, including Antarctica, to date there are no reports of Acinetobacter species isolated from this region. Here, we characterized by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) the genetic content of a single antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter spp. isolate (A154) collected in Antarctica. The isolate was recovered in 2013 from soil...
Wed, 09/25/2019 - 03:16
Pet and EspC are toxins secreted by enteroaggregative (EAEC) and enteropathogenic (EPEC) diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes, respectively. Both toxins are members of the Serine Protease Autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs) family. Pet and EspC are important virulence factors that produce cytotoxic and enterotoxic effects on enterocytes. Here, we evaluated the effect of curcumin...
Tue, 09/24/2019 - 03:16
Atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) is a group of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli with high diversity of serogroups, which lack the bundle-forming pili (BFP) and genes encoding for shiga toxins. The aim of this study was to isolate, identify and determine virulence and antibiotic resistance profiles of aEPEC O177 strains from cattle feces. A total of 780 samples were collected from beef and...
Mon, 08/26/2019 - 20:00
This study aimed to determine the antimicrobial activity of thymoquinone (TQ) against L. monocytogenes, and to examine its inhibitory effects on biofilm formation, motility, hemolysin production, and attachment-invasion of host cells. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of TQ against eight different L. monocytogenes strains ranged from 6.25–12.50 μg/mL. Crystal violet staining showed...
Mon, 08/12/2019 - 20:00
Heat-labile toxin (LT) is a well-characterized powerful enterotoxin produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). This toxin is known to contribute to diarrhea in young children in developing countries, international travelers, as well as many different species of young animals. Interestingly, it has also been revealed that LT is involved in other activities in addition to its role in...
Tue, 07/23/2019 - 20:00
Giardia lamblia, a single-celled eukaryote, colonizes and thrives in the small intestine of humans. Because of its compact and reduced genome, Giardia has adapted a “minimalistic” life style, as it becomes dependent on available resources of the small intestine. Because Giardia expresses fewer sphingolipid (SL) genes—and glycosphingolipids are critical for encystation—we investigated the SL...
Tue, 07/02/2019 - 20:00
Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium is a major global food-borne pathogen and causes life-threatening infections. Although the resistance mechanisms to fluoroquinolones in S. Typhimurium had been well defined, tolerance to fluoroquinolones and the associated mechanism for this are obscure. In the current work, we investigated an oqxAB-positive plasmid pHXY0908 and analyzed its role in S....
Thu, 06/20/2019 - 20:00
The lifecycle of the causative agent of the severe secretory diarrheal disease cholera, Vibrio cholerae, is characterized by the transition between two dissimilar habitats, i.e. as a natural inhabitant of aquatic ecosystems and as a pathogen in the human gastrointestinal tract. V. cholerae faces diverse stressors along its lifecycle, which require effective adaptation mechanisms to facilitate the...
Tue, 05/28/2019 - 20:00
Campylobacter jejuni outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) contain numerous virulence-associated proteins including the cytolethal distending toxin and three serine proteases. As C. jejuni lacks the classical virulence-associated secretion systems of other enteric pathogens that deliver effectors directly into target cells, OMVs may have a particularly important role in virulence. C. jejuni OMV...
Thu, 05/02/2019 - 20:00
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) infections are one of the most frequent causes of persistent diarrhea in children, immunocompromised patients and travelers worldwide. The most prominent colonization factors of EAEC are aggregative adherence fimbriae (AAF). EAEC prototypical strain 042 harbors the AAF/II fimbriae variant, which mediates adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells and...
Mon, 04/29/2019 - 20:00
Integrative Analyses of Long Non-coding RNA and mRNA Involved in Piglet Ileum Immune Response to Clostridium perfringens Type C Infection Xiaoyu Huang1, Wenyang Sun1, Zunqiang Yan1, Hairen Shi1, Qiaoli Yang1, Pengfei Wang1, Shenggui Li1, Lixia Liu2, Shengguo Zhao1 and Shuangbao Gun1,3* 1College of Animal Science and Technology, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, China 2College of...
Sat, 03/30/2019 - 01:13
Anna-Maria Schmidt, Ulrike Escher, Soraya Mousavi, Manja Boehm, Steffen Backert, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M. Heimesaat
Tue, 11/06/2018 - 01:13
M. Soledad Hielpos, Andrea G. Fernández, Juliana Falivene, Iván M. Alonso Paiva, Florencia Muñoz González, Mariana C. Ferrero, Priscila C. Campos, Angelica T. Vieira, Sergio Costa Oliveira, Pablo C. Baldi
Tue, 11/06/2018 - 01:13
Zujie Yao, Lina Sun, Yuqian Wang, Ling Lin, Zhuang Guo, Dong Li, Wenxiong Lin, Xiangmin Lin

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