Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

Thu, 06/17/2021 - 16:00
ObjectivesTo compare the safety, immunogenicity, and immune persistence of hepatitis A (HA) vaccines between HBs-Ag-positive and -negative participants.Method9000 participants were enrolled in the phase IV study of live attenuated HA (HA-L) or inactivated HA (HA-I) vaccines. The HBs-Ag-positive subjects were detected and became an independent observation group. Adverse reactions (ARs), geometric...
Tue, 06/15/2021 - 16:00
In this study, a detailed genetic dissection of the huge and complex blaNDM-carrying genetic elements and their related mobile genetic elements was performed in Enterobacteriaceae. An extensive comparison was applied to 12 chromosomal genetic elements, including six sequenced in this study and the other six from GenBank. These 12 genetic elements were divided into five groups: a novel IME Tn6588...
Mon, 06/14/2021 - 16:00
Brucella, a notorious intracellular pathogen, causes chronic infections in many mammals, including humans. The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway transports folded proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane; protein substrates translocated by Brucella include ABC transporters, oxidoreductases, and cell envelope biosynthesis proteins. Previously, we showed that a Tat mutant of Brucella...
Thu, 06/03/2021 - 16:00
Shigella flexneri, causative agent of bacillary dysentery (shigellosis), uses a type III secretion system (T3SS) as its primary virulence factor. The T3SS injectisome delivers effector proteins into host cells to promote entry and create an important intracellular niche. The injectisome’s cytoplasmic sorting platform (SP) is a critical assembly that contributes to substrate selection and...
Tue, 06/01/2021 - 16:00
BackgroundMetagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) is a promising technique for pathogens diagnosis. However, application of mNGS in immunocompromised adults with severe community-acquired pneumonia (SCAP) is relatively limited.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed 23 immunocompromised and 21 immunocompetent SCAP patients with mNGS detection from April 2019 to December 2019. The performances of...
Tue, 05/25/2021 - 16:00
Cryptosporidium parvum is an apicomplexan parasite that infects the intestinal epithelium of humans and livestock animals worldwide. Cryptosporidiosis is a leading cause of diarrheal-related deaths in young children and a major cause of economic loss in cattle operations. The disease is especially dangerous to infants and immunocompromised individuals, for which there is no effective treatment or...
Wed, 05/19/2021 - 16:00
The ability of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) to cause chronic gallbladder infections is dependent on biofilm growth on cholesterol gallstones. Non-typhoidal Salmonella (e.g. S. Typhimurium) also utilize the biofilm state to persist in the host and the environment. How the pathogen maintains recalcitrance to the host response, and oxidative stress in particular,...
Thu, 05/13/2021 - 16:00
Campylobacter jejuni is the main pathogen identified in cases of foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide. Its importance in poultry production and public health is highlighted due to the growing antimicrobial resistance. Our study comparatively investigated the effect of five different classes of antimicrobials on the planktonic and biofilm forms of 35 strains of C. jejuni with high phylogenetic...
Thu, 05/13/2021 - 16:00
The ocular surface possesses its own bacterial microbiota. Once given a chance, opportunistic pathogens within ocular microbiota may lead to corneal infection like bacterial keratitis (BK). To reveal the possible factor that makes people vulnerable to BK from the perspective of ocular bacterial microbiota, as well as to compare diagnostic information provided by high-throughput 16S rDNA...
Thu, 04/29/2021 - 16:00
BackgroundThe pathogenesis of choledocholithiasis is closely related to the role of bacteria. However, little is known about the predictive role of bile bacteria in clinical conditions of patients and the compositional and functional characteristics of biliary microbiota in choledocholithiasis.MethodsTo investigate the predictive value of biliary bacteria, clinical data of 488 patients with...
Thu, 04/29/2021 - 16:00
The genus Enterococcus includes two Gram-positive pathogens of particular clinical relevance: E. faecalis and E. faecium. Infections with each of these pathogens are becoming more frequent, particularly in the case of hospital-acquired infections. Like most other bacterial species of clinical importance, antimicrobial resistance (and, specifically, multi-drug resistance) is an increasing threat,...
Thu, 04/29/2021 - 16:00
Extracellular matrix (ECM) degrading enzymes produced by Clostridium perfringens may play an important role during the initial phases of avian necrotic enteritis by facilitating toxin entry in the intestinal mucosa and destruction of the tissue. C. perfringens is known to produce several ECM-degrading proteases, such as kappa toxin, an extracellular collagenase that is encoded by the colA gene....
Thu, 04/29/2021 - 16:00
Bacterial Type III Secretion Systems (T3SSs) are specialized multicomponent nanomachines that mediate the transport of proteins either to extracellular locations or deliver Type III Secretion effectors directly into eukaryotic host cell cytoplasm. Shigella, the causing agent of bacillary dysentery or shigellosis, bears a set of T3SS proteins termed translocators that form a pore in the host cell...
Wed, 04/28/2021 - 16:00
Neurobrucellosis is a chronic complication of human brucellosis that is caused by the presence of Brucella spp in the central nervous system (CNS) and the inflammation play a key role on the pathogenesis. Doxycycline (Dox) is a widely used antibiotic that induces apoptosis of bacteria-infected cells. However, the mechanisms of Brucella inhibition of microglial apoptosis and Dox induction of...
Tue, 04/27/2021 - 16:00
Adhesion to host cells is a key step for successful infection of many bacterial pathogens and may define tropism to different host tissues. To do so, bacteria display adhesins on their surfaces. Brucella is an intracellular pathogen capable of proliferating in a wide variety of cell types. It has been described that BmaC, a large protein that belongs to the classical (type Va) autotransporter...
Mon, 04/26/2021 - 16:00
Salmonella comprises two species and more than 2500 serovars with marked differences in host specificity, and is responsible for a wide spectrum of diseases, ranging from localized gastroenteritis to severe life-threatening invasive disease. The initiation of the host inflammatory response, triggered by many Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) that Salmonella possesses, recruits innate...
Fri, 04/23/2021 - 16:00
The continued global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) poses a serious threat to global public health and social stability and it has become a serious global public health problem. Unfortunately, existing diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for the prevention and control of COVID-19 have many shortcomings. In recent years, the emerging CRISPR/Cas technology can complement the...
Thu, 04/22/2021 - 16:00
Because of the special culture requirements of anaerobic bacteria, their low growth-rate and the difficulties to isolate them, MALDI-TOF MS has become a reliable identification tool for these microorganisms due to the little amount of bacteria required and the accuracy of MALDI-TOF MS identifications. In this study, the performance of MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of anaerobic isolates...
Mon, 04/19/2021 - 16:00
Avian influenza virus (AIV) outbreaks occur frequently worldwide, causing a potential public health risk and great economic losses to poultry industries. Considering the high mutation rate and frequent genetic reassortment between segments in the genome of AIVs, emerging new strains are a real threat that may infect and spread through the human population, causing a pandemic. Therefore, rapid AIV...
Fri, 04/16/2021 - 16:00
Macrophages provide the first-line defense against invasive fungal infections and, therefore, escape from macrophage becomes the basis for the establishment of Candida albicans invasive infection. Here, we found that deletion of ATP2 (atp2Δ/Δ) in C. albicans resulted in a dramatic decrease from 69.2% (WT) to 1.2% in the escape rate in vitro. The effect of ATP2 on macrophage clearance stands out...
Tue, 04/13/2021 - 16:00
Genome scale mutagenesis identifies many genes required for mycobacterial infectivity and survival, but their contributions and mechanisms of action within the host are poorly understood. Using CRISPR interference, we created a knockdown of ppe31Mm gene in Mycobacterium marinum (M. marinum), which reduced the resistance to acid medium. To further explore the function of PPE31, the ppe31 mutant...
Tue, 04/13/2021 - 16:00
Chicken egg yolk antibody (IgY), considered as a potential substitute for antibiotics, has been used for preventing pathogens infection in food, human and animals. This study investigated effects of IgY on growth, adhesion inhibitory and morphology of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 in vitro, and evaluated the protective effects of IgY on intestinal health and immune response of mice...
Mon, 04/12/2021 - 16:00
BackgroundUrinary tract infections (UTIs) are one the most common infections. The rapid and accurate identification of uropathogens, and the determination of antimicrobial susceptibility, are essential aspects of the management of UTIs. However, existing detection methods are associated with certain limitations. In this study, a new urinary tract infection high-throughput multiplex genetic...
Mon, 03/29/2021 - 16:00
Human lymphocytes exposed to Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) cytolethal distending toxin (Cdt) undergo cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In previous studies, we demonstrated that the active Cdt subunit, CdtB, is a potent phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3,4,5-triphosphate phosphatase. Moreover, AaCdt-treated cells exhibit evidence of PI-3-kinase (PI-3K) signaling blockade characterized by...
Tue, 03/23/2021 - 16:00
The facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica Typhimurium (STM) resides in a specific membrane-bound compartment termed the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). STM is able to obtain all nutrients required for rapid proliferation, although being separated from direct access to host cell metabolites. The formation of specific tubular membrane compartments, called Salmonella-induced...
Fri, 03/19/2021 - 16:00
The pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is commonly associated with altered gut bacteria. However, whether the microbial dysbiosis that exists in human diabetic patients with or without retinopathy is different remains largely unknown. Here, we collected clinical information and fecal samples from 75 participants, including 25 diabetic patients without retinopathy (DM), 25 diabetic...
Thu, 03/18/2021 - 16:00
Bacterial pathogens have a broad arsenal of genes that are tightly regulated and coordinated to facilitate adaptation to alter host inflammatory response and prolong intracellular bacterial survival. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium utilizes a type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver effector molecules into host cells and regulate signal transduction pathways such as NF-κB, thereby...
Thu, 03/18/2021 - 16:00
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is noted for its intrinsic antibiotic resistance and capacity of acquiring additional resistance genes. In this study, the genomes of nine clinical P. aeruginosa isolates were fully sequenced. An extensive genetic comparison was applied to 18 P. aeruginosa accessory genetic elements (AGEs; 13 of them were sequenced in this study and located within P. aeruginosa chromosomes...
Thu, 03/18/2021 - 16:00
Campylobacter jejuni is the leading bacterial cause of gastroenteritis worldwide with excessive incidence in low-and middle-income countries (LMIC). During a survey for C. jejuni from putative animal hosts in a town in the Peruvian Amazon, we were able to isolate and whole genome sequence two C. jejuni strains from domesticated guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). The C. jejuni isolated from guinea...
Wed, 03/17/2021 - 16:00
PurposeRecurrent tuberculosis (TB) is defined by more than one TB episode per patient and is caused by re-infection with a new Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strain or relapse with the previous strain. Recurrence of TB is one important obstacle for End TB strategy in the world and elucidating the triggers of recurrence is important for the current TB control strategy in China. This study aimed...
Wed, 03/17/2021 - 16:00
Shiga toxin (Stx) is the main virulence factor of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), and ruminants are the main reservoir of STEC. This study assessed the abundance and expression of Stx genes and the expression of host immune genes, aiming to determine factors affecting these measures and potential gene markers to differentiate Stx gene expression in the recto-anal junction of...
Wed, 03/17/2021 - 16:00
Aliarcobacter cibarius and Aliarcobacter thereius are two rarely detected Aliarcobacter species. In the study, we analyzed the antimicrobial susceptibility and provide detailed insights into the genotype and phylogeny of both species using whole-genome sequencing. Thermophilic Campylobacter species are the most common bacterial foodborne pathogens causing gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. The...
Tue, 03/16/2021 - 16:00
The occurrence of multidrug-resistant Candida auris isolates and the increased mortality associated with invasive infections or outbreaks due to this Candida species have been reported in many healthcare settings. Therefore, accurate and rapid identification at the species level of clinical C. auris isolates as well as their timely differentiation as susceptible or resistant to antifungal drugs...
Mon, 03/15/2021 - 16:00
More than two decades have elapsed since the publication of the first genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) which, shortly thereafter, enabled methods to determine gene essentiality in the pathogen. Despite this, target-based approaches have not yielded drugs that have progressed to clinical testing. Whole-cell screening followed by elucidation of mechanism of action has to date...
Fri, 03/12/2021 - 16:00
It has been well documented that cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) from Helicobacter hepaticus (H. hepaticus), Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) and other Gram-negative intestinal pathogens is linked to the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the mechanisms underlying the progression of H. hepaticus induced colitis remains unclear. In this study, male B6.129P2-IL10tm1Cgn/J mice were...
Fri, 03/12/2021 - 16:00
Horizontal gene transfer is an important mechanism which facilitates bacterial populations in overcoming antimicrobial treatment. In this study, a total of 120 Escherichia coli and 62 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica isolates were isolated from broiler chicken farms in Alberta. Fourteen serovars were identified among Salmonella isolates. Thirty one percent of E. coli isolates (37/120) were...
Fri, 03/12/2021 - 16:00
Commensal bacteria within the gut microbiome contribute to development of host tolerance to infection, however, identifying specific microbes responsible for this response is difficult. Here we describe methods for developing microfluidic organ-on-a-chip models of small and large intestine lined with epithelial cells isolated from duodenal, jejunal, ileal, or colon organoids derived from wild...
Thu, 03/11/2021 - 16:00
The human whipworm Trichuris trichiura infects 289 million people worldwide, resulting in substantial morbidity. Whipworm infections are difficult to treat due to low cure rates and high reinfection rates. Interactions between whipworm and its host’s intestinal microbiome present a potential novel target for infection control or prevention but are very complicated and are identified using...
Wed, 03/10/2021 - 16:00
Bacillus toyonensis is a group of Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the Bacillus cereus group and used in some cases as probiotics or biocontrol agents. To our knowledge, B. toyonensis from the deep sea (depth >1,000 m) has not been documented. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a B. toyonensis strain, P18, from a deep sea hydrothermal field. P18 is aerobic, motile, and...
Tue, 03/09/2021 - 16:00
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-based HIV-1 genome editing has shown promising outcomes in in vitro and in vivo viral infection models. However, existing HIV-1 sequence variants have been shown to reduce CRISPR-mediated efficiency and induce viral escape. Two metrics, global patient coverage and global subtype coverage, were used to identify guide RNA (gRNA)...
Mon, 03/08/2021 - 16:00
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been reported to protect against Gram-negative bacteria by acting as a pathogen recognition receptor that senses mainly lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria. However, the role of TLR4 in Gram-positive bacterial infection is less well understood. Clostridium perfringens type A is a Gram-positive bacterium that causes gas gangrene characterized by...
Mon, 03/01/2021 - 16:00
Over the last decade, an increasing number of reports presented Galleria mellonella larvae as an important model to study host-pathogen interactions. Coherently, increasing information became available about molecular mechanisms used by this host to cope with microbial infections but few of them dealt with oxidative stress. In this work, we addressed the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
Mon, 03/01/2021 - 16:00
The gut microbiota of preterm infants is affected by perinatal factors and, in turn, may impact upon infant health. In this study, we collected fecal samples at Day-10 (D10) and 4-months corrected-age (4M) from 227 moderate–late preterm (MLPT) babies enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of nutritional management. A total of 320 samples underwent 16S amplicon sequencing, and shotgun...
Fri, 02/26/2021 - 16:00
The serotyping of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, which is crucial to the surveillance and detection of outbreaks of vibriosis infection, has been widely used in many countries. In this study, we developed a molecular assay, named multiplex ligation reaction based on probe melting curve analysis (MLMA), for simultaneous identification of V. parahaemolyticus 57 K-serogroups. Based on the previous genomes...
Fri, 02/26/2021 - 16:00
Vibrio vulnificus is a deadly human pathogen for which infections occur via seafood consumption (foodborne) or direct contact with wounds. Virulence is not fully characterized for this organism; however, there is evidence of biochemical and genotypic correlations with virulence potential. In this study, biochemical profiles and virulence genotype, based on 16S rRNA gene (rrn) and virulence...
Fri, 02/26/2021 - 16:00
Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacteria Coxiella burnetii. Domestic ruminants are the primary source for human infection, and the identification of likely contamination routes from the reservoir animals the critical point to implement control programs. This study shows that Q fever is detected in Belgium in abortion of cattle, goat and sheep at a different degree of apparent...
Fri, 02/26/2021 - 16:00
Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) leading to tuberculosis (TB) disease continues to be a major global health challenge. Critical barriers, including but not limited to the development of multi-drug resistance, lack of diagnostic assays that detect patients with latent TB, an effective vaccine that prevents Mtb infection, and infectious and non-infectious comorbidities that...
Thu, 02/25/2021 - 16:00
Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus are common diarrheal pathogens of great public health concern. A multiplex TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay was developed on the BD MAX platform; this assay can simultaneously detect and differentiate V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus directly from human fecal specimens. The assay includes two reactions. One reaction, BDM-VC, targets the gene ompW,...
Thu, 02/25/2021 - 16:00
Salmonella spp. is among the main foodborne pathogens which cause serious foodborne diseases. An isothermal real-time recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) and lateral flow strip detection (LFS RPA) were used to detect Salmonella spp. targeting the conserved sequence of invasion protein A (invA). The Real-time RPA was performed in a portable florescence scanner at 39°C for 20 min. The LFS...
Wed, 02/24/2021 - 16:00
Cattle have been suggested as the primary reservoirs of E. coli O157 mainly as a result of colonization of the recto-anal junction (RAJ) and subsequent shedding into the environment. Although a recent study reported different gene expression at RAJ between super-shedders (SS) and non-shedders (NS), the regulatory mechanisms of altered gene expression is unknown. This study aimed to investigate...

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