Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

Mon, 01/11/2021 - 16:00
Development of novel anti-tuberculosis combination regimens that increase efficacy and reduce treatment timelines will improve patient compliance, limit side-effects, reduce costs, and enhance cure rates. Such advancements would significantly improve the global TB burden and reduce drug resistance acquisition. Bioenergetics has received considerable attention in recent years as a fertile area for...
Fri, 01/08/2021 - 16:00
Campylobacter jejuni (CJ) is the most prevalent zoonotic pathogen of chicken meat and related products, which may lead to gastroenteritis and autoimmune diseases in humans. Although controlling this bacterium is important, CJ strains resistance against traditional antibiotic therapy has been increased. Vegetable oils and fats are natural biomaterials explored since the Ancient times, due to their...
Fri, 01/08/2021 - 16:00
Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection may result in severe outcomes in immunocompromised individuals such as AIDS patients, transplant recipients, and neonates. To date, no vaccines are available and there are only few drugs for anti-HCMV therapy. Adverse effects and the continuous emergence of drug-resistance strains require the identification of new drug candidates in the near future....
Fri, 01/08/2021 - 16:00
In Brucella spp., the type IV secretion system (T4SS) is essential for bacterial intracellular survival and inhibition of the host innate immune response. The Brucella T4SS secretes 15 different effectors to escape host immunity and promote intracellular replication. Among them, BspF has a GNAT-family acetyltransferase domain, implying its acetyltransferase activity. We confirmed that BspF has...
Fri, 01/08/2021 - 16:00
Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, which has motivated the monitoring of genetic profiles circulating in Luxembourg since 13 years. From our integrated surveillance using a genotyping strategy based on an extended MLST scheme including gyrA and porA markers, an unexpected endemic pattern was discovered in the temporal distribution of genotypes. We aimed to...
Wed, 12/23/2020 - 16:00
PGLYRP1/Tag-7/PGRP-S is one of mammalian peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs). Here, we demonstrate that human recombinant PGLYRP1/Tag-7/PGRP-S potentiates the response of murine macrophage-like ANA-1 cells and human macrophages to facultative intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. PGLYRP1/Tag-7/PGRP-S binds to the surface of L. monocytogenes and other bacterial cells but has no...
Mon, 12/21/2020 - 16:00
Genetic plasticity promotes evolution and a vast diversity in Escherichia coli varying from avirulent to highly pathogenic strains, including the emergence of virulent hybrid microorganism. This ability also contributes to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. These hybrid pathogenic E. coli (HyPEC) are emergent threats, such as O104:H4 from the European outbreak in 2011, aggregative...
Fri, 12/18/2020 - 16:00
Giardia lamblia is an important causative agent of persistent diarrhea in humans, domestic animals, and cattle. Basic research is usually performed with the strain WBC6 and includes genetic manipulations such as transfections. Here, we investigate how transfection with a plasmid causing stable expression of a foreign gene affects the whole proteome pattern. Using shotgun mass spectrometry, we...
Thu, 12/17/2020 - 16:00
Helicobacter pylori antibiotic resistance is increasing worldwide, emphasizing the urgent need for more rapid resistance detection prior to the administration of H. pylori eradication regimens. Macrolides and fluoroquinolones are widely used to treat H. pylori. In this study, we aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of A) 23SrDNA qPCR (with melting curve analysis) and an in-house developed...
Thu, 12/17/2020 - 16:00
Salmonella are common enteric bacterial pathogens that infect both humans and animals. Intestinal epithelial barrier, formed by a single layer of epithelial cells and apical junctional complex (AJC), plays a crucial role in host defense against enteric pathogens to prevent bacterial translocation. However, the underlying mechanisms of intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction caused by Salmonella...
Thu, 12/17/2020 - 16:00
Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) are recognized as one of the leading bacterial causes of infantile diarrhea worldwide. Weaned C57BL/6 mice pretreated with antibiotics were challenged orally with wild-type EPEC or escN mutant (lacking type 3 secretion system) to determine colonization, inflammatory responses and clinical outcomes during infection. Antibiotic disruption of intestinal microbiota...
Wed, 12/16/2020 - 16:00
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is the causative agent of typhoid fever, a disease that kills an estimated 200,000 people annually. Previously, we discovered an antimicrobial pathway dependent on Rab32 and BLOC-3 (BRAM) that is critical to kill S. Typhi in murine macrophages. The BLOC-3 complex is comprised of the two sub-units HPS1 and HPS4 and exhibits guanine-nucleotide exchange...
Fri, 12/11/2020 - 16:00
ObjectiveThe gut microbiota is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We isolated the Escherichia coli strain NF73-1 from the intestines of a NASH patient and then investigated its effect and underlying mechanism.Methods16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) amplicon sequencing was used to detect bacterial profiles in healthy controls, NAFLD patients and NASH patients. Highly enriched E...
Wed, 12/09/2020 - 16:00
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a leading seafood-borne pathogen that can cause acute gastroenteritis and even death in humans. In aquatic ecosystems, phages constantly transform bacterial communities by horizontal gene transfer. Nevertheless, biological functions of prophage-related genes in V. parahaemolyticus remain to be fully unveiled. Herein, for the first time, we studied one such gene...
Tue, 12/08/2020 - 16:00
Campylobacter jejuni express the high temperature requirement protein A (HtrA), a secreted serine protease, which is implicated in virulence properties of the pathogen. Previous studies have shown that C. jejuni HtrA can cleave the epithelial transmembrane proteins occludin and E-cadherin in the tight and adherens junctions, respectively. In the present report, we studied the interaction of HtrA...
Fri, 12/04/2020 - 16:00
Macrophages are the first encounters of invading bacteria and are responsible for engulfing and digesting pathogens through phagocytosis leading to initiation of the innate inflammatory response. Intracellular digestion occurs through a close relationship between phagocytic/endocytic and lysosomal pathways, in which proteolytic enzymes, such as cathepsins, are involved. The presence of cathepsins...
Mon, 11/30/2020 - 16:00
Salmonella infection associates with tissue hypoxia, while inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), relying for its activity on molecular oxygen, stands as a central host defence measure in murine salmonellosis. Here, we have detailed hypoxia and iNOS responses of murine macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells upon infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. We noted that only a proportion of...
Mon, 11/30/2020 - 16:00
Toxoplasma gondii secretes a number of virulence-related effector proteins, such as the rhoptry protein 18 (ROP18). To further broaden our understanding of the molecular functions of ROP18, we examined the transcriptional response of human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293T) to ROP18 of type I T. gondii RH strain. Using RNA-sequencing, we compared the transcriptome of ROP18-expressing HEK293T cells...
Mon, 11/30/2020 - 16:00
Clinical microbiology laboratories are the first line to combat and handle infectious diseases and antibiotic resistance, including newly emerging ones. Although most clinical laboratories still rely on conventional methods, a cascade of technological changes, driven by digital imaging and high-throughput sequencing, will revolutionize the management of clinical diagnostics for direct detection...
Thu, 11/26/2020 - 16:00
Shiga toxin-producing Shigella species and Escherichia coli (STEC) are pathogenic bacteria that cause the bloody diarrheal diseases bacillary dysentery (Shigella spp.) and hemorrhagic colitis (STEC). Unfortunately, patients with these diarrheal diseases are at risk for developing potentially lethal extraintestinal complications such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), resulting in acute renal...
Thu, 11/26/2020 - 16:00
Molecular rapid diagnostic assays associated with antimicrobial stewardship have proven effective for the early adaptation of empiric therapy in bloodstream infections. The ePlex® BCID (GenMark Diagnostics) Panels allow identification of 56 bacteria and fungi and 10 resistance genes in 90 min directly from positive blood cultures. We prospectively evaluated 187 sepsis episodes at Grenoble...
Thu, 11/26/2020 - 16:00
The difference between left- and right-sided colon cancer has become the focus of global attention, and researchers have found differences in the morbidity, molecular biological characteristics, and response to targeted drug therapy between left- and right-sided colon cancer. Therefore, the identification of more effective predictive indicators is critical for providing guidance to future...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 16:00
Cryptosporidium and Giardia are two important zoonotic intestinal protozoa responsible for diarrheal diseases in humans and animals worldwide. Feces from infected hosts, water and food contaminated by Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts as well as predictors such as poverty have been involved in their transmission. Myanmar is one of the world’s most impoverished countries. To date, there...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 16:00
Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease affecting human, livestock and cat. Prophylactic strategies would be ideal to prevent infection. In a One Health vaccination approach, the objectives would be the prevention of congenital disease in both women and livestock, prevention/reduction of T. gondii tissue cysts in food-producing animals; and oocyst shedding in cats. Over the last few years, an...
Mon, 11/23/2020 - 16:00
Central nervous system (CNS) infections continue to be associated with significant neurological morbidity and mortality despite various existing therapies. Adjunctive steroid therapy has been employed clinically to reduce inflammation in the treatment of CNS infections across various causative pathogens. Steroid therapy can potentially improve clinical outcomes including reducing mortality rates...
Fri, 11/20/2020 - 16:00
Stapylococcus aureus is a common infectious agent in e.g. sepsis, associated with both high mortality rates and severe long-term effects. The cytolytic protein α-hemolysin has repeatedly been shown to enhance the virulence of S. aureus. Combined with an unhindered spread of multi drug-resistant strains, this has triggered research into novel anti virulence (i.e. anti α-hemolysin) drugs. Their...
Fri, 11/20/2020 - 16:00
Human milk contains a dynamic and complex site-specific microbiome, which is not assembled in an aleatory way, formed by organized microbial consortia and networks. Presence of some genera, such as Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Corynebacterium, Cutibacterium (formerly known as Propionibacterium), Lactobacillus, Lactococcus and Bifidobacterium, has been detected by both culture-dependent and...
Mon, 11/16/2020 - 16:00
The microaerophilic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is a leading bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis in developed countries. Even though it has a reputation as a fastidious organism, C. jejuni is widespread and can be easily isolated from various animals, food, and environmental sources. It is suggested that an ability to form biofilms is probably necessary for the survival of C. jejuni under...
Fri, 11/13/2020 - 16:00
Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of the zoonotic disease Q fever. Following uptake by alveolar macrophages, the pathogen replicates in an acidic phagolysosomal vacuole, the C. burnetii-containing vacuole (CCV). Effector proteins translocated into the host cell by the type IV secretion system (T4SS) are important for the establishment of the CCV. Here...
Wed, 11/11/2020 - 16:00
Several MALDI-TOF MS-based methods have been proposed for rapid detection of antimicrobial resistance. The most widely studied methods include assessment of β-lactamase activity by visualizing the hydrolysis of the β-lactam ring, detection of biomarkers responsible for or correlated with drug-resistance/non-susceptibility, and the comparison of proteomic profiles of bacteria incubated with or...
Wed, 11/11/2020 - 16:00
Microbial communities infiltrate the respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis patients, where chronic colonization and infection lead to clinical decline. This report aims to provide an overview of the diversity of bacterial and fungal species from the airway secretion of three young CF patients with severe pulmonary disease. The bacterial and fungal microbiomes were investigated by culture isolation...
Tue, 11/10/2020 - 16:00
Extracellular vesicles are encapsulated lipid nanoparticles secreted by a variety of cell types in living organisms. They are known to carry proteins, metabolites, nucleic acids, and lipids as their cargoes and are important mediators of intercellular communication. The role of extracellular vesicles in chronic liver disease has been reported. Chronic liver disease such as viral hepatitis...
Tue, 11/10/2020 - 16:00
A novel strain of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease (COVID-19) has been recently identified as an infectious disease affecting the respiratory system of humans. This disease is caused by SARS-CoV-2 that was identified in Chinese patients having severe pneumonia and flu-like symptoms. COVID-19 is a contagious disease that spreads rapidly via droplet particles...
Thu, 11/05/2020 - 16:00
Autophagy is a fundamental and highly conserved eukaryotic process, responsible for maintaining cellular homeostasis and releasing nutrients during times of starvation. An increasingly important function of autophagy is its role in the cell autonomous immune response; a process known as xenophagy. Intracellular pathogens are engulfed by autophagosomes and targeted to lysosomes to eliminate the...
Mon, 11/02/2020 - 16:00
Salmonella Typhimurium expresses on its outer membrane the protein Rck which interacts with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) of the plasma membrane of the targeted host cells. This interaction activates signaling pathways, leading to the internalization of Salmonella. Since EGFR plays a key role in cell proliferation, we sought to determine the influence of Rck mediated infection on...
Fri, 10/30/2020 - 16:00
Background:L. monocytogenes meningoencephalitis has a mortality rate of up to 50% and neurofunctional sequelae are common. Type I restriction-modification systems (RMS) are capable of adding methyl groups to the host genome. Some contain multiple sequence recognition (hsdS) genes that recombine, resulting in distinct DNA methylation patterns and patterns of gene expression. These phenotypic...
Thu, 10/29/2020 - 16:00
Campylobacter infections are the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. In Europe, over 246,000 cases are confirmed annually. Infections are often transmitted via contaminated food, such as poultry products, but water may be the source of infection as well. The aim of this study was to characterise a selection of Campylobacter jejuni human isolates, together with a water isolate, from a...
Thu, 10/29/2020 - 16:00
The ADP ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPase activation protein ASAP1 possesses multiple biological functions, including regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics, small GTP-binding protein receptor recycling, and intracellular vesicle trafficking. Recently, ASAP1 polymorphisms have been reported to be associated with human susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) according to a large-scale genome-wide...
Wed, 10/28/2020 - 16:00
The glycolytic enzyme and bacterial virulence factor of Listeria monocytogenes, the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, Lmo2459), ADP-ribosylated the small GTPase, Rab5a, and blocked phagosome maturation. This inhibitory activity localized within the NAD binding domain of GAPDH at the N-terminal 1–22 peptides, also conferred listeriosis protection when used in dendritic cell-based...
Mon, 10/26/2020 - 16:00
Ingestion of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) can result in a range of illness severity from asymptomatic to hemorrhagic colitis and death; thus risk assessment of STEC strains for human pathogenicity is important in the area of food safety. Illness severity depends in part on the combination of virulence genes carried in the genome, which can vary between strains even of identical...
Mon, 10/26/2020 - 16:00
Tularemia is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis. The predominant sources, routes of infection, and clinical manifestations of human infections greatly vary according to the geographic area considered. Moreover, clinical suspicion of tularemia is often tricky because of the lack of specificity of the clinical manifestations. Because F. tularensis isolation is tedious...
Mon, 10/26/2020 - 16:00
Various adjuvant effects on the immunogenicity of the candidate inactivated Puumala virus vaccine were detected in BALB/c mice. Adjuvants under study were: aluminum hydroxide, spherical particles of Tobacco mosaic virus coat protein, B subunit of heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli, and low endotoxic lipopolysaccharide of Shigella sonnei. Aluminum hydroxide (1 mg/ml) did not affect...
Mon, 10/26/2020 - 16:00
Aeromonas hydrophila resides in a variety of aquatic environments. Infections with A. hydrophila mainly occur after contact with fresh or brackish water. Nosocomial infections with A. hydrophila can also occur. A. hydrophila infections can be difficult to treat due to both intrinsic and acquired antimicrobial resistance (AMR) mechanisms. In 2018–19, we isolated multi-drug resistant (MDR) A....
Fri, 10/23/2020 - 16:00
Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, could proliferate in aquatic environment and infect humans through contaminated food and water. Enormous microorganisms residing in human gastrointestinal tract establish a special microecological system, which immediately responds to the invasion of V. cholerae, through “colonization resistance” mechanisms, such as antimicrobial peptide production...
Fri, 10/23/2020 - 16:00
Background: Offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have increased risk of developing metabolic disorders as they grow up. Microbial colonization of the newborn gut and environmental exposures affecting the configuration of the gut microbiota during infancy have been linked to increased risk of developing disease during childhood and adulthood. In a convenience sample, we...
Thu, 10/22/2020 - 16:00
In 2019, the United States Food and Drug Administration accorded restricted approval to Sanofi Pasteur's Dengvaxia, a live attenuated vaccine (LAV) for dengue fever, a mosquito-borne viral disease, caused by four antigenically distinct dengue virus serotypes (DENV 1-4). The reason for this limited approval is the concern that this vaccine sensitized some of the dengue-naïve recipients to severe...
Thu, 10/22/2020 - 16:00
Biofilm formation in Vibrio cholerae empowers the bacteria to lead a dual lifestyle and enhances its infectivity. While the formation and dispersal of the biofilm involves multiple components—both proteinaceous and non-proteinaceous, the key to the regulatory control lies with the ubiquitous secondary signaling molecule, cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP). A number of different cellular components may...
Wed, 10/21/2020 - 16:00
Radiation enteritis (RE) is a common complication in cancer patients receiving radiotherapy. Although studies have shown the changes of this disease at clinical, pathological and other levels, the dynamic characteristics of local microbiome and metabolomics are hitherto unknown. We aimed to examine the multi-omics features of the gut microecosystem, determining the functional correlation between...
Wed, 10/21/2020 - 16:00
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the most frequent bacterial infections in humans, being Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the most common etiological agent. The ability of UPEC to invade urothelial cells and to form intracellular bacterial communities (IBC) has been described. Therefore, UPEC can persist in the urinary tract producing recurrent infections, resisting antibiotic...
Tue, 10/20/2020 - 16:00
The pathogenesis of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) and membranous nephropathy (MN) is characterized by immune dysregulation, which is related to gut dysbiosis. The aim of the study was to compare the gut microbiota of patients with IgAN and MN vs. healthy controls. We used 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing to investigate the bacterial communities of 44 patients with kidney biopsy-proven IgAN, 40...

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