Frontiers in Microbiology

The Research Publications track research that is published across national and international peer-reviewed journals. The most recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal Title, Subject, USDA Grant Funding Agencies or FDA Grant Funding Agencies. The research publications are tracked across five subject areas: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, and Viruses.

Fri, 07/03/2020 - 16:00
The objective of this study was to explore the genetic and biological features of the tet(M)-harboring plasmid pTS14 in Salmonella enterica strain S14 isolated from a chicken fecal sample. Plasmid pTS14 was identified by conjugation, S1-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), Southern hybridization, and plasmid sequencing. The biological characteristics of pTS14 were assessed via stability,...
Fri, 07/03/2020 - 16:00
Bacillus cereus is one of the most important foodborne pathogenic microorganisms, which can lead to gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal diseases. However, the potential risk of B. cereus in aquatic products in China has not been comprehensively evaluated yet. In this study, a total of 860 aquatic samples from three types of retail aquatic products were collected from 39 major cities in...
Fri, 07/03/2020 - 16:00
In natural environments, the production of neurotoxic and bioaccumulative methylmercury (MeHg) is mediated by microorganisms carrying the genes hgcA and hgcB. However, the contribution of these microorganisms to mercury (Hg) methylation or MeHg accumulation in the ocean is poorly understood. Here we determined the total Hg (THg) and MeHg concentrations in seawater samples and conducted a...
Thu, 07/02/2020 - 16:00
Signaling molecule receptors play a central role in quorum sensing and in the coordination onset of specialized metabolite biosynthesis in Streptomyces due to their dual function in signal detection and gene expression control through DNA-binding in the promoter region of their target genes. In Streptomyces ambofaciens the alp biosynthetic gene cluster includes the signaling molecule receptor...
Thu, 07/02/2020 - 16:00
The inhibitory properties of novel antimicrobial proteins against food-borne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes offer extensive benefits to the food and medical industries. In this study, we have identified antimicrobial proteins from a milk curd–derived bacterial isolate that exhibits antilisterial activity using genome mining and mass spectrometry analysis. The analysis of the draft...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 16:00
CexE is a 12 kDa protein that was originally reported to be present in just three strains of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC); a frequent cause of diarrheal illnesses worldwide. However, an examination of sequenced genomes has revealed that CexE is actually present in a majority of ETEC strains. In addition, homologs of CexE are present in enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), Yersinia...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 16:00
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) poses a global human and animal health threat, and predicting AMR persistence and transmission remains an intractable challenge. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing can help overcome this by enabling characterization of AMR genes within all bacterial taxa, most of which are uncultivatable in laboratory settings. Shotgun sequencing, therefore, provides a more...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 16:00
Grapholita molesta, the oriental fruit moth, is a serious global pest of many Rosaceae fruit trees. Gut microorganisms play important roles in host nutrition, digestion, detoxification, and resistance to pathogens. However, there are few studies on the microbiota of G. molesta, particularly during metamorphosis. Here, the diversity of gut microbiota across the holometabolous life cycle of G....
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 16:00
Recent in vitro studies reported the exceptional ability of some bacterial species to form biofilm-like aggregates in human and animal synovial fluids (SF), but evidences from infected clinical samples are still lacking. In this study, we investigated whether this bacterial phenotype was present in infected SFs collected from joint infections and if it was maintained in in vitro settings. SFs...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 16:00
Escherichia coli strains carrying Shiga toxins 1 and 2 (stx1 and stx2), intimin (eae), and hemolysin (ehxA) production genes were found in grass shoot, rhizosphere soil, and stable manure samples from a small-scale cattle farm located at the center of Netherlands, using cultivation-dependent and -independent microbiological detection techniques. Pasture land with grazing heifers in the first year...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 16:00
ObjectiveThe aims of this study were to describe azithromycin (AZM) susceptibility patterns among Shigella isolates in Anhui, China and identify predictors of resistance with mobile element-mediated genes.MethodsA total of 517 non-duplicate Shigella isolates (449 S. flexneri and 68 S. sonnei) were collected in the Anhui Province of China from September 2011–September 2015, and screened for the...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 16:00
To investigate the mechanisms of phospholipase C (PLC)-mediated calcium (Ca2+) signaling in Alternaria alternata, the regulatory roles of PLC were elucidated using neomycin, a specific inhibitor of PLC activity. Three isotypes of PLC designated AaPLC1, AaPLC2, and AaPLC3 were identified in A. alternata through genome sequencing. qRT-PCR analysis showed that fruit wax extracts significantly...
Fri, 06/26/2020 - 16:00
Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) is a ubiquitous foodborne pathogen that comprises 14 serotypes, of which serovar 4h is a novel serotype recently reported. Serovar 4h L. monocytogenes belonging to hybrid sub-lineage II exhibit hypervirulent features. Conventional biochemical tests and widely used PCR-based serogrouping schemes could not distinguish serovar 4h strains. In this study, we...
Fri, 06/26/2020 - 16:00
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood-borne bacterial poisoning in China and is a threat to human health worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the antibiotic resistance profiles and distribution of heavy metal resistance of V. parahaemolyticus isolates from Penaeus vannamei from freshwater farms, seawater farms, and their corresponding markets in Zhejiang, China and to...
Fri, 06/26/2020 - 16:00
Cucumber fermentations are one of the most important vegetable fermentations in the United States. The fermentation is usually driven by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) indigenous to fresh cucumbers. But LAB are greatly outnumbered by many Gram-negative bacteria on fresh cucumbers, which may influence the growth of LAB and the incidence of bloater defect (hollow cavities formed inside fermented...
Fri, 06/26/2020 - 16:00
Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of hospital- and community-acquired infections placing a significant burden on the healthcare system. With the widespread of multidrug-resistant bacteria and the lack of effective antibacterial drugs, fosfomycin has gradually attracted attention as an “old drug.” Thus, investigating the resistance mechanisms and epidemiology of fosfomycin-resistant S. aureus...
Thu, 06/25/2020 - 16:00
All RNA viruses encode the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) which replicates and transcribes viral RNA. This essential viral enzyme does not exist in mammalian cells, thus presents a main target for the development of antiviral drugs with potential pan-antiviral activity. In this study, we take advantage of the structurally equivalent site in the dengue virus (DENV) RdRp, the N-pocket, and in...
Thu, 06/25/2020 - 16:00
Listeria monocytogenes is one of the major foodborne pathogens. Isolates of PCR-serogroups IIb (n = 17) and IVb (n = 31) recovered from food (n = 33) and food processing environment (n = 15) in Poland were characterized using whole genome sequencing. Most isolates belonged to Multi-Locus Sequence Type (MLST) ST2 (31.3%) and ST5 (22.9%). Core genome MLST (cgMLST) analysis classified isolates into...
Thu, 06/25/2020 - 16:00
Nitrile hydratases have received significant interest both in the large-scale industrial production of acrylamide and nicotinamide, and the remediation of environmental contamination with nitrile-containing pollutants. Almost all known nitrile hydratases include an α-subunit (AnhA) and β-subunit (AnhB), and a specific activator protein is crucial for their maturation and catalytic activity. Many...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 16:00
BackgroundThe prevalence of colonization with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) among healthy adults in the community is largely unknown. This study investigated the colonization rate of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in the community in Taiwan, and compared the gut microbiota between MDRO...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 16:00
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause for clinical infections and food intoxications, causing over 100,000 yearly cases of bacteremia in the United States and 434 food-borne outbreaks in the European Union. Approximately 30% of the population permanently carry S. aureus asymptomatically in their nasal cavity. The risk of infection and transmission to food items or the environment is higher in...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 16:00
The biofloc system is a relatively new aquaculture technology that offers practical solution to maintain culture water quality by recycling nutrients and improves the health status and resistance of shrimps against microbial infection, yet the mode of action involved remains unclear. This study aimed to unravel the underlying mechanism behind the protective effect of a biofloc system using...
Tue, 06/23/2020 - 16:00
Mobile genetic elements, including plasmids, drive the evolution of prokaryotic genomes through the horizontal transfer of genes allowing genetic exchange between bacteria. Moreover, plasmids carry accessory genes, which encode functions that may offer an advantage to the host. Thus, it is expected that in a certain ecological niche, plasmids are enriched in accessory functions, which are...
Tue, 06/23/2020 - 16:00
In December, 2019, a highly infectious and rapidly spreading new pneumonia of unknown cause was reported to the Chinese WHO Country Office. A cluster of these cases had appeared in Wuhan, a city in the Hubei Province of China. These infections were found to be caused by a new coronavirus which was given the name “2019 novel coronavirus” (2019-nCoV). It was later renamed “severe acute respiratory...
Tue, 06/23/2020 - 16:00
Campylobacter is a zoonotic pathogen that causes foodborne diarrheal illness globally. To better understand health risks in Southeastern China, Campylobacter spp. were surveyed in humans and representative poultry products over 3 years. One hundred and ninety-five representative isolates (n = 148, Campylobacter jejuni; n = 45, Campylobacter coli; n = 2 Campylobacter hyointestinalis) were examined...
Tue, 06/23/2020 - 16:00
On-site detection demands are quickly increasing to control foodborne pathogenic bacteria along with the long food supply chains. Combining the isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) with lateral flow strips (LFSs) is a promising molecular detection approach for the short reaction time, low isothermal condition, and simple and “instrument-free” procedure. However, the method comes...
Fri, 06/19/2020 - 16:00
BackgroundNeonatal sepsis is a nuisance to clinicians and medical microbiologists, particularly those cases caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Thus, we aimed at investigating the profile and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance and the clonal relationships between K. pneumoniae isolated from neonates at the largest tertiary care hospital’s neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in Minia, Egypt....
Fri, 06/19/2020 - 16:00
We report here the complete genome sequence and characterization of Yersinia bacteriophage vB_YenP_ϕ80-18. ϕ80-18 was isolated in 1991 using a Y. enterocolitica serotype O:8 strain 8081 as a host from a sewage sample in Turku, Finland, and based on its morphological and genomic features is classified as a podovirus. The genome is 42 kb in size and has 325 bp direct terminal repeats characteristic...
Fri, 06/19/2020 - 16:00
Campylobacter jejuni, the most frequent cause of food-borne bacterial gastroenteritis, is a fastidious organism when grown in the laboratory. Oxygen is required for growth, despite the presence of the metabolic mechanism for anaerobic respiration. Amino acid auxotrophies are variably reported and energy metabolism can occur through several electron donor/acceptor combinations. Overall, the...
Fri, 06/19/2020 - 16:00
Corn (Zea mays L.) is not only an important food source, but also has numerous uses, including for biofuels, fillers for cosmetics, glues, and so on. The amount of corn grown in the U.S. has significantly increased since the 1960’s and with it, the demand for synthetic fertilizers and pesticides/fungicides to enhance its production. However, the downside of the continuous use of these products,...
Thu, 06/18/2020 - 16:00
Dispersin is a 10.2 kDa-immunogenic protein secreted by enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC). In the prototypical EAEC strain 042, dispersin is non-covalently bound to the outer membrane, assisting dispersion across the intestinal mucosa by overcoming electrostatic attraction between the AAF/II fimbriae and the bacterial surface. Also, dispersin facilitates penetration of the intestinal...
Thu, 06/18/2020 - 16:00
Horizontal gene transfer is a major driver of bacterial evolution and adaptation to environmental stresses, occurring notably via transformation of naturally competent organisms. The Deinococcus radiodurans bacterium, characterized by its extreme radioresistance, is also naturally competent. Here, we investigated the role of D. radiodurans players involved in different steps of natural...
Thu, 06/18/2020 - 16:00
Multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and hypervirulent K. pneumoniae (hvKP) have traditionally been considered two individual populations; however, strains displaying both phenotypes have emerged during the recent decade. Understanding the genotypic and phenotypic basis of the convergence could be of clinical importance. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the pathogenicity associated with...
Wed, 06/17/2020 - 16:00
This study identifies a strain of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis that harbors a highly unusual virulence plasmid. During the characterisation of a group of S. Enteritidis isolates, 10 isolates recovered from Canadian duck production facilities, of which seven were phage type 9b and three were closely related atypical phage types, failed detection by a PCR targeting...
Wed, 06/17/2020 - 16:00
Antimicrobial use in agricultural animals is known to be associated with increases in antimicrobial resistance. Most prior studies have utilized culture and susceptibility testing of select organisms to document these phenomena. In this study we aimed to detect 66 antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes for 10 antimicrobial agent classes directly in swine fecal samples using our previously developed...
Wed, 06/17/2020 - 16:00
Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is the method of choice for bacterial subtyping and it is rapidly replacing the more traditional methods such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Here we used the high-resolution core genome single nucleotide variant (cgSNV) typing method to characterize clinical and food from Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg isolates in the context of source...
Wed, 06/17/2020 - 16:00
Campylobacter fetus is commonly associated with venereal disease and abortions in cattle and sheep, and can also cause intestinal or systemic infections in humans that are immunocompromised, elderly, or exposed to infected livestock. It is also believed that C. fetus infection can result from the consumption or handling of contaminated food products, but C. fetus is rarely detected in food since...
Wed, 06/17/2020 - 16:00
The overwhelming majority of studies examining environmental change deliver treatments abruptly, although, in fact, many important changes are gradual. One example of a gradually increasing environmental stressor is heavy metal contamination. Essential heavy metals, such as copper, play an important role within cells of living organisms but are toxic at higher concentrations. In our study, we...
Wed, 06/17/2020 - 16:00
Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic Gram-negative pathogen that could cause meningitis and necrotizing enterocolitis. Several Gram-negative bacteria use the PmrA/PmrB system to sense and adapt to environmental change by resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides of host immune systems. The PmrA/PmrB two-component system regulates several genes to modify LPS structure in the bacterial...
Wed, 06/17/2020 - 16:00
Raw milk is a frequent vehicle for transmission of thermophilic Campylobacter, leading to reported outbreaks. Milk is a challenging food matrix for pathogen detection, due to its high protein and lipid content. Limited detection of Campylobacter colony-forming unit (CFU) in raw milk might underestimate the pathogen’s infectious potential. We optimized a viability real-time PCR (qPCR) for...
Tue, 06/16/2020 - 16:00
As a common foodborne pathogen, Escherichia coli O157:H7 produces toxins causing serious diseases. However, traditional methods failed in detecting E. coli O157:H7 cells in the viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state, which poses a threat to food safety. This study aimed at investigating the formation, control, and detection of the VBNC state of E. coli O157:H7. Three factors including medium,...
Tue, 06/16/2020 - 16:00
Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium and its monophasic variant are among the most common Salmonella serovars associated with human salmonellosis each year. Related infections are often due to consumption of contaminated meat of pig, cattle, and poultry origin. In order to evaluate novel microbial subtyping methods for source attribution, an approach based on weighted...
Tue, 06/16/2020 - 16:00
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the main pathogen of hepatitis worldwide. However, its infection biology and pathogenesis remain largely unknown. Suitable small-animal models are required to advance the study of HEV infection. Although an efficient model of genotype 1 (gt1) and gt3 HEV infection has been established in human liver chimeric mice, the infectivity of gt4 HEV infection in mice has not...
Fri, 06/12/2020 - 16:00
Yaks provide necessities such as meat and milk for Tibetans living at high altitudes on and around the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Enterococci are ubiquitous members of the animal gut microbiota that can cause biofilm-associated opportunistic infections. Meanwhile, multidrug-resistant Enterococcus also poses a serious threat to public health. This study aims to characterize antibiotic resistance,...
Fri, 06/12/2020 - 16:00
Evaluating the risk of colorectal metachronous adenoma (MA), which is a precancerous lesion, is necessary for metachronous colorectal cancer (CRC) precaution among CRC patients who had underwent surgical removal of their primary tumor. Here, discovery cohort (n = 41) and validation cohort (n = 45) of CRC patients were prospectively enrolled in this study. Mucosal and fecal samples were used for...
Thu, 06/11/2020 - 16:00
Aflatoxins are highly toxic carcinogens that detrimentally influence profitability of agriculture and the health of humans and domestic animals. Several phylogenetically distinct fungi within Aspergillus section Flavi have S-morphology (average sclerotial size < 400 μm), and consistently produce high concentrations of aflatoxins in crops. S-morphology fungi have been implicated as important...
Thu, 06/11/2020 - 16:00
The protein inhibitor of the activated STAT2 (PIAS2) has been implicated in many cellular processes and can also regulate viral replication in mammals. However, the role of PIAS2 in the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 replication in ducks is still unclear. Through liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay, we identified that duck PIAS2 (duPIAS2) was one...
Wed, 06/10/2020 - 16:00
Cell-density dependent quorum sensing (QS) is fundamental for many coordinated behaviors among bacteria. Most recently several studies have revealed a role for bacterial QS communication in bacteriophage (phage) reproductive decisions. However, QS based phage-host interactions remain largely unknown, with the mechanistic details revealed for only a few phage-host pairs and a dearth of information...
Wed, 06/10/2020 - 16:00
The majority of environmental microbiomes are not amenable to cultivation under standard laboratory growth conditions and hence remain uncharacterized. For environmental applications, such as bioremediation, it is necessary to isolate microbes performing the desired function, which may not necessarily be the fast growing or the copiotroph microbiota. Toward this end, cultivation and isolation of...
Tue, 06/09/2020 - 16:00
Cronobacter sakazakii is foodborne pathogen that causes serious illnesses such as necrotizing enterocolitis, meningitis and septicemia in infants. However, the virulence determinants and mechanisms of pathogenicity of these species remain unclear. In this study, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed on 34 C. sakazakii strains and two strains with the same sequence type (ST) but distinct...

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