Frontiers in Microbiology

The Research Publications track research that is published across national and international peer-reviewed journals. The most recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal Title, Subject, USDA Grant Funding Agencies or FDA Grant Funding Agencies. The research publications are tracked across five subject areas: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, and Viruses.

Fri, 03/27/2020 - 03:23
Bacterial persisters are rare phenotypic variants that are temporarily tolerant to high concentrations of antibiotics. We have previously discovered that stationary-phase-cell subpopulations exhibiting high redox activities were less capable of producing proteins and resuming growth upon their dilution into fresh media. The redox activities of these cells were maintained by endogenous protein and...
Fri, 03/27/2020 - 03:23
Campylobacter spp. are one of the most important food-borne pathogens, which are quite susceptible to environmental or technological stressors compared to other zoonotic bacteria. This might be due to the lack of many stress response mechanisms described in other bacteria. Nevertheless, Campylobacter is able to survive in the environment and food products. Although some aspects of the heat stress...
Thu, 03/26/2020 - 03:15
The intestinal gut microbiota is essential for maintaining host health. Concerns have been raised about the possible connection between antibiotic use, causing microbiota disturbances, and the increase in allergic and autoimmune diseases observed during the last decades. To elucidate the putative connection between antibiotic use and immune regulation, we have assessed the effects of the...
Tue, 03/24/2020 - 03:23
There is growing evidence that GreA aids adaptation to stressful environments in various bacteria. However, the functions of GreA among mycobacteria remain obscure. Here, we report on cellular consequences following deletion of greA gene in Mycobacterium spp. The greA mutant strain (ΔgreA) was generated in Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) H37Ra, and M. tuberculosis H37Rv...
Tue, 03/24/2020 - 03:23
The largest outbreak of Salmonella Agona in the United States occurred in 1998. It affected more than 400 patients and was linked to toasted oat cereal. Ten years later, a similar outbreak occurred with the same outbreak strain linked to the same production facility. In this study, whole-genome sequence (WGS) data from a set of 46 Salmonella Agona including five isolates associated with the 1998...
Tue, 03/24/2020 - 03:23
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute hepatitis with approximately 20 million cases per year globally. Based on genetic diversity, HEV is classified into different genotypes, with genotype 3 (HEV-3) being most prevalent in Europe and North America. The transmission of HEV-3 has been shown to be zoonotic and mainly associated with the consumption of raw or undercooked pork products. Herein, we...
Tue, 03/24/2020 - 03:23
Streptomyces is taken as an important resource for producing the most abundant antibiotics and other bio-active natural products, which have been widely used in pharmaceutical and agricultural areas. Usually they are biosynthesized through secondary metabolic pathways encoded by cluster situated genes. And these gene clusters are stringently regulated by interweaved transcriptional regulatory...
Tue, 03/24/2020 - 03:23
FlhF is a key protein required for complete flagellar synthesis, and its deletion results in the complete absence of a flagella and thus motility in Campylobacter jejuni. However, the specific mechanism still remains unknown. In this study, RNA-Seq, EMSAs, ChIP-qPCR and β-Galactosidase assays were performed to elucidate the novel interactions between FlhF and genes involved in flagellar synthesis...
Tue, 03/24/2020 - 03:23
Porcine Escherichia coli ST131 isolates are scarcely documented. Here, whole genome sequencing and core genome (CG) and plasmidome analysis of seven isolates collected from diarrheic piglets and four from pork meat were performed. All of the 11 ST131 isolates belonged to serotype O25b:H4 and clade B and showed fimH22 allele or mutational derivatives. The 11 porcine isolates possessed virulence...
Tue, 03/24/2020 - 03:23
Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus of subtype H9N2 is the most frequently detected subtype among domestic poultry and is a public health concern because of its zoonotic potential. Due to the multiple and complex routes of LPAIV H9N2 between geographic regions, little is known about the spatial diffusion of H9N2 virus to, within, and from Egypt, where it is endemic among poultry since...
Thu, 03/19/2020 - 03:15
Eugenia brejoensis L. (Myrtaceae) is an endemic plant from caatinga ecosystem (brazilian semi-arid) which have an E. brejoensis essential oil (EbEO) with reported antimicrobial activity. In this work, in vitro and in vivo models were used to characterize the inhibitory effects of EbEO in relation to Staphylococcus aureus. EbEO inhibited the growth of all tested S. aureus strains (including...
Thu, 03/19/2020 - 03:15
Cathelicidins (CATHs) are host defense peptides (HDPs) that play an important role in the innate immune response against infections. Although multiple functions of cathelicidins have been described, including direct antimicrobial activity and several immunomodulatory effects on the host, relatively little is known about their antiviral activity. Therefore, in vitro antiviral activity of chicken...
Thu, 03/19/2020 - 03:14
One of the approaches to address cancer treatment is to develop new drugs not only to obtain compounds with less side effects, but also to have a broader set of alternatives to tackle the resistant forms of this pathology. In this regard, growing evidence supports the use of bacteria-derived peptides such as bacteriocins, which have emerged as promising anti-cancer molecules. In addition to test...
Tue, 03/17/2020 - 03:15
Multidrug-resistant hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (MDR-hvKP) has been increasingly reported and is now recognized as a significant threat to public health; however, characterization of MDR-hvKP has not been systematically investigated. In the present study, 124 of 428 (28.92%) K. pneumoniae clinical isolates collected from January 2010 to December 2016 were identified with aerobactin and...
Tue, 03/17/2020 - 03:15
The spread of multidrug antibiotic resistance (MDR) is a widely recognized crisis in the treatment of bacterial infections, including those occurring in military communities. Recently, the World Health Organization published its first ever list of antibiotic-resistant “priority pathogens” – a catalog of 12 families of bacteria that pose the greatest threat to human health with A. baumannii listed...
Tue, 03/17/2020 - 03:15
Aflatoxins are among the most hazardous natural cereal contaminants. These mycotoxins are produced by Aspergillus spp. as polyketide secondary metabolites. Aflatoxigenic fungi including A. flavus express the alternative oxidase (AOX), which introduces a branch in the cytochrome-based electron transfer chain by coupling ubiquinol oxidation directly with the reduction of O2 to H2O. AOX is closely...
Tue, 03/17/2020 - 03:15
Sequence type 59 (ST59) is a predominant clonal lineage of community-acquired, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in Asia. Despite its increasing clinical relevance in China, the evolution and geographic expansion of ST59 has been relatively uncared for. Previous study has shown that ST59 was the predominant clone in food-related MRSA in China. This study compared the genomes...
Sat, 03/14/2020 - 03:14
The “Photorhabdus virulence cassettes” (PVCs) secreted by Photorhabdus are defined as “extracellular contractile injection systems” (eCISs) and can deliver effectors to eukaryotic hosts for cytotoxicity. Previously, we demonstrated the cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure and assembly process of an intact PVC particle from Photorhabdus asymbiotica. In this work, we characterized the...
Fri, 03/13/2020 - 03:14
Strobilurin fungicides have been widely used in agricultural fields for decades. These pesticides are designed to manage fungal pathogens, although their broad-spectrum mode of action also produces non-target impacts. Therefore, the removal of strobilurins from ecosystems has received much attention. Different remediation technologies have been developed to eliminate pesticide residues from soil/...
Fri, 03/13/2020 - 03:14
Chagas disease, caused by the hemoflagellate protist Trypanosoma cruzi, affects nearly 6 million people worldwide, mainly in Latin America. Hematophagous triatomine insects (“kissing bugs”) are the primary vectors of T. cruzi throughout the Americas and feed on a variety of animals, including humans. Control of triatomines is central to the control of T. cruzi infection. Recent advances in...
Fri, 03/13/2020 - 03:14
The enteric pathogen Salmonella enterica can interact with parts of the plant immune system despite not being a phytopathogen. Previous transcriptomic profiling of S. enterica associating with tomato suggested that Salmonella was responding to oxidative and nitrosative stress in the plant niche. We aimed to investigate whether Salmonella was eliciting generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
Thu, 03/12/2020 - 03:15
Aflatoxins (AFs) are secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus spp., known for their hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic activity in humans and animals. AF contamination of staple food commodities is a global concern due to their toxicity and the economic losses they cause. Different strategies have been applied to reduce fungal contamination and AF production. Among them, the use of...
Thu, 03/12/2020 - 03:15
Avian influenza virus (AIV) can cause severe diseases in poultry worldwide. H6N1 AIV was the dominant enzootic subtype in 1985 in the chicken farms of Taiwan until the initial outbreak of a low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H5N2 virus in 2003; thereafter, this and other LPAIs have been sporadically detected. In 2015, the outbreak of three novel H5Nx viruses of highly pathogenic avian...
Thu, 03/12/2020 - 03:15
We report for the first time the isolation of endophytic actinobacteria associated with wild populations of the Chinese medicinal herb Thymus roseus Schipcz obtained from the arid land in Ili and Tacheng of the Xinjiang Province, China. Strains were isolated by special pretreatment of plant tissues and identified based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences, and their antimicrobial activities in vitro...
Wed, 03/11/2020 - 03:15
Salinity stress is a major challenge to agricultural productivity and global food security in light of a dramatic increase of human population and climate change. Plant growth promoting bacteria can be used as an additional solution to traditional crop breeding and genetic engineering. In the present work, the induction of plant salt tolerance by the desert plant endophyte Cronobacter sp. JZ38...
Wed, 03/11/2020 - 03:15
Biological control is emerging as a feasible alternative to chemical pesticides in agriculture. Measuring the microbial biocontrol agent (mBCA) populations in the environment is essential for an accurate environmental and health risk assessment and for optimizing the usage of an mBCA-based plant protection product. We hereby show a workflow to obtain a large number of qPCR markers suitable for...
Wed, 03/11/2020 - 03:15
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are small oxygen-derived molecules that are used to control infections by phagocytic cells. In macrophages, the oxidative burst produced by the NOX2 NADPH-oxidase is essential to eradicate engulfed pathogens by both oxidative and non-oxidative killing. Indeed, while the superoxide anion (O2-) produced by NOX2, and the other ROS derived from its transformation, can...
Wed, 03/11/2020 - 03:15
Due to rhizodeposits and various microbial interactions, the rhizosphere is an extremely dynamic system, which provides a conductive niche not only for bacteria beneficial to plants but also for those that might pose a potential threat to humans. The importance of bioinoculants as biocontrol agents to combat phytopathogens has been widely recognized. However, little information exists with...
Tue, 03/10/2020 - 03:14
The success of Ericaceae in stressful habitats enriched in heavy metals has been ascribed to the distinctive abilities of their mycorrhizal fungal partners to withstand heavy metal stress and to enhance metal tolerance in the host plant. Whereas heavy metal tolerance has been extensively investigated in some ericoid mycorrhizal (ERM) fungi, the molecular and cellular mechanisms that extend...
Tue, 03/10/2020 - 03:14
Human noroviruses (NVs) are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. The majority of outbreaks are caused by genogroup II.4 (GII.4), with new variants emerging every 2 to 4 years. Immunocompromised patients are hypothesized to be important reservoirs where new NV variants emerge. Here, we examined intra-host NV variants and assessed immune-driven NV evolution in chronically...
Tue, 03/10/2020 - 03:14
We sequenced the whole genomes of three mcr-1-positive multidrug-resistant E. coli strains, which were previously isolated from the environment of egret habitat (polluted river) and egret feces. The results exhibit high correlation between antibiotic-resistant phenotype and genotype among the three strains. Most of the mobilized antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are distributed on plasmids in...
Tue, 03/10/2020 - 03:14
Background and AimCronobacter sakazakii (C. sakazakii) has attracted considerable attention as an emerging neonatal pathogen and has been associated with outbreaks of life-threatening septicemia, necrotizing enterocolitis, and meningitis in neonates and infants globally. No data about the role of C. sakazakii as a cause of neonatal sepsis in North Africa is availale. Herein, we aimed to study the...
Tue, 03/10/2020 - 03:14
Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a major concern worldwide, leading to an extensive search for alternative drugs. Promising candidates are antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), innate immunity molecules, shown to be highly efficient against multidrug resistant bacteria. Therefore, it is essential to study bacterial resistance mechanisms against them. For that purpose, we used experimental...
Tue, 03/10/2020 - 03:14
Campylobacter jejuni is a major foodborne pathogen worldwide. As it forms biofilms, it can become a persistent contaminant in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, it was demonstrated that C. jejuni could make more biofilm in aerobic conditions than in microaerobic conditions, and only 13.9% C. jejuni entered coccus (a VBNC state) under microaerobic conditions; however, the rate...
Tue, 03/10/2020 - 03:14
Biosurfactants are amphiphilic molecules which showed application in the food, medical, and cosmetics industries and in bioremediation. In this study, a marine sponge-associated bacteria (MSI 54) was identified as a biosurfactant producer which showed high emulsification and surface tension-reducing property. The isolate MSI 54 was identified as Bacillus sp. and the biosurfactant was chemically...
Sat, 03/07/2020 - 03:13
Antibiotic resistance is a current and expanding threat to the practice of modern medicine. Antibiotic therapy has been shown to perturb the composition of the host microbiome with significant health consequences. In addition, the gut microbiome is known to be a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes. Work has demonstrated that antibiotics can alter the collection of antibiotic resistance genes...
Sat, 03/07/2020 - 03:13
We previously described how four deleterious synonymous mutations in the Salmonella enterica rpsT gene (encoding ribosomal protein S20) result in low S20 levels that can be compensated by mutations that restore [S20]. Here, we have further studied the cause for the deleterious effects of S20 deficiency and found that the S20 mutants were also deficient in four other 30S proteins (S1, S2, S12, and...
Fri, 03/06/2020 - 03:25
Yersinia enterocolitica is generally considered an important food-borne pathogen worldwide, especially in the European Union. A lytic Yersinia phage X1 (Viruses; dsDNA viruses, no RNA stage; Caudovirales; and Myoviridae) was isolated. Phage X1 showed a broad host range and could effectively lyse 27/51 Y. enterocolitica strains covering various serotypes that cause yersiniosis in humans and...
Fri, 03/06/2020 - 03:25
Campylobacter jejuni is a widespread zoonotic pathogen and the leading bacterial cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in humans. Previous infection studies showed disruption of intercellular contacts, induction of epithelial apoptosis, and immune activation, all three contributing to intestinal barrier dysfunction leading to diarrhea. The present study aims to determine the impact of subepithelial...
Thu, 03/05/2020 - 03:16
Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic food-borne disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii, a land-derived protozoan parasite that infects a broad range of terrestrial and aquatic hosts. T. gondii may reach coastal waters via contaminated freshwater runoff and its oocysts may enter into the marine food web. Marine invertebrates as mussels being filter feeders are exposed and may concentrate T. gondii oocysts...
Wed, 03/04/2020 - 03:24
Persistence of infection despite extensive chemotherapy with antibiotics displaying low MICs is a hallmark of lung disease caused by Mycobacterium abscessus (Mab). Thus, the classical MIC assay is a poor predictor of clinical outcome. Discovery of more efficacious antibiotics requires more predictive in vitro potency assays. As a mycobacterium, Mab is an obligate aerobe and a chemo-organo-...
Wed, 03/04/2020 - 03:24
The gut microbiota (GM) displays a profound ability to adapt to extrinsic factors, such as gastrointestinal pathogens and/or dietary alterations. Parasitic worms (helminths) and host-associated GM share a long co-evolutionary relationship, exerting mutually modulatory effects which may impact the health of the host. Moreover, dietary components such as prebiotic fibers (e.g. inulin) are capable...
Wed, 03/04/2020 - 03:24
Aflatoxin M1 contamination of milk in Pakistan, like many developing countries, is poorly understood. The present study was therefore conducted to determine AFM1 contamination of milk and its contributory factors in Pakistan. We sampled milk and feedstuffs from 450 peri-urban dairy farms in seven major cities following a cross-sectional study design. Analysis of milk using ELISA revealed high...
Tue, 03/03/2020 - 03:14
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a food-borne pathogen that causes pathogenic symptoms such as diarrhea and abdominal pain. Currently no studies have shown that either pathogenic and non-pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus possess growth heterogeneity in a human environment, such as in gastric and intestinal fluids. The tlh gene is present in both pathogenic and non-pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains,...
Tue, 03/03/2020 - 03:14
Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by soilborne saprophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus and closely related species that infect several agricultural commodities including groundnut and maize. The consumption of contaminated commodities adversely affects the health of humans and livestock. Aflatoxin contamination also causes significant economic and financial losses to producers. Research...
Tue, 03/03/2020 - 03:14
Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are major food-borne pathogens that cause bacterial gastroenteritis in humans, and poultry is considered as their most important reservoir. Macrolides, such as erythromycin, are the first-line choice for treatment of campylobacteriosis. In this study, of the 143 Campylobacter isolates recovered from poultry in central China during 2015–2017, 25.2% were...
Sat, 02/29/2020 - 03:16
Salmonella can resist various stresses and survive during food processing, storage, and distribution, resulting in potential health risks to consumers. Therefore, evaluation of bacterial survival profiles under various environmental stresses is necessary. In this study, the resistance profiles of five Salmonella isolates [serotypes with Agona, Infantis, Typhimurium, Enteritidis, and a standard...
Fri, 02/28/2020 - 03:15
KPC-producing Enterobacterales represent a serious public health concern. Limited therapeutic options are available for treatment, however, the novel combination of imipenem/relebactam represents a promising alternative. To preserve the activity of this new antibiotic combination, only targeted treatments will be recommended, and rapid tests to detect susceptible bacteria are therefore urgently...
Fri, 02/28/2020 - 03:15
Microbial biosurfactants, produced by fungi, yeast, and bacteria, are surface-active compounds with emulsifying properties that have a number of known activities, including the solubilization of microbial biofilms. In an on-going survey to uncover new or enhanced antimicrobial metabolite-producing microbes from harsh environments, such as oil-rich niches, 123 bacterial strains were isolated from...
Fri, 02/28/2020 - 03:15
Probiotic bacteria have been associated with various health benefits and included in overwhelming number of foods. Today, probiotic supplements are consumed with increasing regularity and record a rapidly growing economic value. With billions of heterogeneous populations of probiotics per serving, probiotic supplements contain the largest quantity of probiotics across all functional foods. They...

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