Frontiers in Microbiology

The Research Publications track research that is published across national and international peer-reviewed journals. The most recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal Title, Subject, USDA Grant Funding Agencies or FDA Grant Funding Agencies. The research publications are tracked across five subject areas: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, and Viruses.

Sat, 02/15/2020 - 03:14
The increase in global warming has favored growth of a range of opportunistic environmental bacteria and allowed some of these to become more pathogenic to humans. Aeromonas hydrophila is one such organism. Surviving in moist conditions in temperate climates, these bacteria have been associated with a range of diseases in humans, and in systemic infections can cause mortality in up to 46% of...
Thu, 02/13/2020 - 03:22
Species of the highly diverse fungal genus Aspergillus are well-known agricultural pests, and, most importantly, producers of various mycotoxins threatening food safety worldwide. Mycotoxins are studied predominantly from the perspectives of human and livestock health. Meanwhile, their roles are far less known in nature. However, to understand the factors behind mycotoxin production, the roles of...
Thu, 02/13/2020 - 03:22
The emergence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae poses a significant threat to public health worldwide. Here, we reported a multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli strain with two different blaNDM–5-carrying plasmids from China. Illumina short-read and MinION long-read whole genome sequencing were performed. Genomic analysis found that one blaNDM–5 gene together with mphA was located on a 55...
Thu, 02/13/2020 - 03:22
Pathogenic fungi must respond effectively to changes in environmental pH for successful host colonization, virulence and toxin production. Aspergillus carbonarius is a mycotoxigenic pathogen with the ability to colonize many plant hosts and secrete ochratoxin A (OTA). In this study, we characterized the functions and addressed the role of PacC-mediated pH signaling in A. carbonarius pathogenicity...
Tue, 02/11/2020 - 03:14
Group A streptococcus (GAS) is a versatile pathogen that causes a wide spectrum of diseases in humans. Invading host cells is a known strategy for GAS to avoid antibiotic killing and immune recognition. However, the underlying mechanisms of GAS resistance to intracellular killing need to be explored. Endothelial HMEC-1 cells were infected with GAS, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (...
Tue, 02/11/2020 - 03:14
Currently, Gram-negative bacteria have developed multidrug and broad-spectrum drug resistance, and the numbers of species and strains carrying mcr or blaNDM genes are increasing. In this study, mcr-1 and blaNDM distribution of 12,858 Gram-negative bacteria isolated from wildlife, patients, livestock, poultry and environment in 14 provinces of China from 2010 to 2019 and the antibiotics resistance...
Tue, 02/11/2020 - 03:14
Recent advances in technology over the last decades have strived to elucidate the diverse and abundant ecosystem of the human microbiome. The intestinal microbiota represents a densely inhabited environment that offers a plethora of beneficial effects to the host’s wellbeing. On the other hand, it can serve as a potential reservoir of Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) bacteria and their antibiotic-...
Sat, 02/08/2020 - 03:13
Cronobacter spp. can cause systemic infections, such as meningitis, sepsis, and necrotizing enterocolitis, in immunocompromised patients, especially neonates. Although some virulence factors have been reported previously, the pathogenesis of Cronobacter remains unclear. In this study, we compared genome sequences from different Cronobacter species, sequence types, and sources, with the virulence...
Sat, 02/08/2020 - 03:13
The highly heavy metal resistant strain Cupriavidus metallidurans BS1 was isolated from the Zijin gold–copper mine in China. This was of particular interest since the extensively studied, closely related strain, C. metallidurans CH34 was shown to not be only highly heavy metal resistant but also able to reduce metal complexes and biomineralizing them into metallic nanoparticles including gold...
Fri, 02/07/2020 - 03:26
The increasing rates of resistance to traditional anti-Salmonella agents have made the treatment of invasive salmonellosis more problematic, which necessitates the search for new antimicrobial compounds. In this study, the action mode of BSN-37, a novel antibacterial peptide (AMP) from bovine spleen neutrophils, was investigated against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium)....
Wed, 02/05/2020 - 03:15
In the original article, there was a mistake in Table 1 as published. The company that provided the product named “Botector” with the biological agent Aureobasidium pullulans strains is not “Syngenta” company but “BIO-FERM.” Also, the company that provided the product named “Vacciplant” with the active ingredient Laminarin is not “Arysta” company but “GOEMAR.”
Wed, 02/05/2020 - 03:15
Fast response to environmental changes plays a key role in the transmission and pathogenesis of Yersinia enterocolitica. Osmoregulated periplasmic glucans (OPGs) are known to be involved in environmental perception of several Enterobacteriaceae pathogens; however, the biological function of OPGs in Y. enterocolitica is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of OPGs in Y....
Wed, 02/05/2020 - 03:15
Fresh foods are vulnerable to foodborne pathogens which cause foodborne illness and endanger people’s life and safety. The rapid detection of foodborne pathogens is crucial for food safety surveillance. An in situ-synthesized gene chip for the detection of foodborne pathogens on fresh-cut fruits and vegetables was developed. The target genes were identified and screened by comparing the specific...
Wed, 02/05/2020 - 03:15
The accurate identification of the assortment of antibiotic resistance genes within a collection of genomes enables the discernment of intricate antimicrobial resistance (AMR) patterns while depicting the diversity of resistome profiles of the analyzed samples. The availability of large amount of sequence data, owing to the advancement of novel sequencing technologies, have conceded exciting...
Tue, 02/04/2020 - 03:23
Acinetobacter baumannii has become increasingly resistant to leading antimicrobial agents since the 1970s. Increased resistance appears linked to armed conflicts, notably since widespread media stories amplified clinical reports in the wake of the American invasion of Iraq in 2003. Antimicrobial resistance is usually assumed to arise through selection pressure exerted by antimicrobial treatment,...
Tue, 02/04/2020 - 03:23
Resistance to antibiotics is one of the most relevant public health concerns in the world. Aquatic environments play an important role because they are reservoirs for antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotic-resistant strains, contributing to the spread of resistance. The present study investigated the resistome in Lake Bolonha (three sampling sites) in the Amazon region using a metagenomics...
Tue, 02/04/2020 - 03:23
The polymyxin antibiotic colistin has been used in decades for treatment and prevention of infectious diseases in livestock. Nowadays, it is even considered as last-line treatment option for severe human infections caused by multidrug- and carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, the discovery of plasmid-mediated mobile colistin resistance (mcr) genes raised major public health...
Tue, 02/04/2020 - 03:23
Fungi-forming biofilm would produce various toxins in food. The toxin contamination will cause great harm to food and human health. Herein, a novel graphene-based steganographic aptasensor was assembled for multifunctional applications, which depended on the specific recognition and information encoding ability of DNA aptamers [mycotoxins, including zearalenone (ZEN) and ochratoxin A (OTA)...
Tue, 02/04/2020 - 03:23
Aflatoxins are carcinogenic and toxic compounds produced principally by fungal species Aspergillus flavus (Link: Fries) and A. parasiticus (Speare), which are common contaminants of food and feed. Aflatoxins can be found at dangerously high levels and can readily contaminate pre-harvest maize (Zea mays L.) grain. Sources of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation in maize have been identified,...
Sat, 02/01/2020 - 03:24
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the main course for acute hepatitis in humans throughout the world. Human associated genotypes 1 and 2 as well as zoonotic genotypes 3 and 4 are grouped in the species Orthohepevirus A. In addition, a large variety of HEV-related viruses has been found in vertebrates including carnivores, rats, bats, and chickens, which were classified in species Orthohepevirus B-D. In...
Sat, 02/01/2020 - 03:24
Bacterial spores are extremely resistant life-forms that play an important role in food spoilage and foodborne disease. The return of spores to a vegetative cell state is a three-step process, these being activation, germination, and emergence. High-pressure (HP) processing is known to induce germination in part of the spore population and even to inactivate a high number of Bacillus spores when...
Thu, 01/30/2020 - 03:14
Deciphering the evolutionary history of pathogenic bacteria and their near neighbors may help to understand the genetic or ecological bases which led to their pathogenic behavior. The Brucellaceae family comprises zoonotic pathogenic species belonging to the genus Brucella as well as the environmental genus Ochrobactrum for which some species are considered as opportunistic pathogens. Here, we...
Thu, 01/30/2020 - 03:14
Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp), a major food-borne pathogen, is responsible for severe infections such as gastroenteritis and septicemia, which may be accompanied by life-threatening complications. While studies have evaluated factors that affect the virulence of the pathogen, none have investigated the interaction of Vp with gut microbiota. To address this knowledge gap, we compared the effect of...
Thu, 01/30/2020 - 03:14
Epigenetic agents, histone deacetylase inhibitor (SAHA) and DNA methyltransferase inhibitor (5-Aza), were added to Czapek-Dox medium to trigger the chemical diversity of marine-derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor XS-20090066. By HPLC and 1H NMR analysis, the diversity of fungal secondary metabolites was significantly increased compared with the control. With the aid of MS/MS-based molecular...
Wed, 01/29/2020 - 03:23
Microbiological contamination and oxidative damage are the two main challenges in maintaining quality and improving shelf-life of foods. Here, we developed a Lactococcus lactis fermentation system that could simultaneously produce nisin, an antimicrobial peptide, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an antioxidant agent. In this system, we metabolically engineered a nisin producing strain L. lactis...
Wed, 01/29/2020 - 03:23
Insect tea is a unique beverage that is native to Southwestern China and traditionally produced by local farmers in an elaborate process. It consists of insect larvae excrements that are commonly obtained from meal moths (Pyralis farinalis Linnaeus 1758) reared on a specific plant-based diet. We have reconstructed the whole production process under laboratory conditions in order to obtain...
Wed, 01/29/2020 - 03:23
Two transgenic strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae, 3841-PsMT1 and 3841-PsMT2, were obtained. These strains contain the genetic constructions nifH-PsMT1 and nifH-PsMT2 coding for two pea (Pisum sativum L.) metallothionein genes, PsMT1 and PsMT2, fused with the promoter region of the nifH gene. The ability of both transgenic strains to form nodules on roots of the pea wild-type SGE and...
Wed, 01/29/2020 - 03:23
The role of agriculture in the transfer of drug resistant pathogens to humans is widely debated and poorly understood. Escherichia coli is a valuable indicator organism for contamination and carriage of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in foods. Whilst whole genome sequences for E. coli from animals and associated meats are common, sequences from produce are scarce. Produce may acquire drug...
Sat, 01/25/2020 - 03:13
The whole-cell bioreporters based on the cop-operon sensing elements have been proven specifically useful in the assessment of bioavailable copper ions in water environments. In this study, a series of experiments was conducted to further improve the sensitivity and robustness of bioreporters. First, an Escherichia coli △copA△cueO△cusA mutant with three copper transport genes knocked out was...
Sat, 01/25/2020 - 03:13
Contamination of edible produce leaves with human bacterial pathogens has been associated with serious disease outbreaks and has become a major public health concern affecting all aspects of the market, from farmers to consumers. While pathogen populations residing on the surface of ready-to-eat produce can be potentially removed through thorough washing, there is no disinfection technology...
Fri, 01/24/2020 - 03:13
Poultry is a major reservoir for the pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. C. jejuni inhabits the poultry gastrointestinal tract as a part of the gut microbiota. The objective of this study was to evaluate both the survival of C. jejuni and the changes in the population dynamics of the cecal microbiome during an in vitro C. jejuni inoculation in the presence or absence of the functional metabolites of...
Fri, 01/24/2020 - 03:13
Increased prevalence of antibiotic resistance in skin and soft tissue infections is a concerning public health challenge currently facing medical science. A combinatory, broad spectrum biocidal antiseptic has been developed (“ASP”) as a topically applied solution to potential resistant and polymicrobial infected wounds that may be encountered in this context. The ASP-105 designate was evaluated...
Fri, 01/24/2020 - 03:13
Yersinia enterocolitica, a zoonotic foodborne pathogen, is able to withstand low temperatures. This psychrotrophic ability allows it to multiply in food stored in refrigerators. However, little is known about the Y. enterocolitica cold response. In this study, isolate-specific behavior at 4°C was demonstrated and the cold response was investigated by examining changes in phenotype, gene...
Fri, 01/24/2020 - 03:13
Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen that is associated with nosocomial infections, as well as food poisoning. This bacterium is resistant to antimicrobial agents and can survive in a wide range of environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to measure the uptake and release of amino acids by S. aureus at mid-exponential and stationary phases of growth following exposure to a...
Fri, 01/24/2020 - 03:13
The existence of an antisense Open Reading Frame (ORF) that encodes a putative AntiSense Protein (ASP) on the proviral genome of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) was a source of debate for 30 years. During the last years, some progresses have been made to characterize the cellular immune response against ASP in HIV-1 seropositive patients. However, no tools were available for the...
Thu, 01/23/2020 - 03:14
The aim of this study was the assessment of the effect of time exposure, temperature, distance, and organic contaminants on radiant catalytic ionization (RCI) microbicidal effectiveness. The number of all examined bacteria decreased together with time exposure of RCI. The lowest recovery was obtained, both from the rubber surface (6.36 log CFU × cm–2) and steel (6.04 log CFU × cm–2) in the case...
Thu, 01/23/2020 - 03:14
Phage lytic proteins are promising antimicrobials that could complement conventional antibiotics and help to combat multi-drug resistant bacteria that cause important human and animal infections. Here, we report the characterization of endolysin LysRODI (encoded by staphylophage phiIPLA-RODI) and its application as a prophylactic mastitis treatment. The main properties of LysRODI were compared...
Thu, 01/23/2020 - 03:14
Simultaneous detection technology has become a hot topic in analytical chemistry; however, very few reports on how to simultaneously detect small molecular contaminants and microorganisms have been in place. Aflatoxins are a group of highly toxic and carcinogenic compounds, which are produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus from section Flavi responsible for aflatoxin...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:14
Brucellosis, caused by intracellular gram-negative pathogens of the genus Brucella, continues to be one of the most pandemic zoonotic diseases in most countries. At present, the therapeutic treatment of brucellosis relies on a combination of multiple antibiotics that involves a long course of treatment, easy relapse, and high side effects from the use of certain antibiotics (such as streptomycin...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:14
The foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes survives exposure to a variety of stresses including desiccation in the food industry. Strand-specific RNA sequencing was applied to analyze changes in the transcriptomes of two strains of L. monocytogenes (Lm 568 and Lm 08-5578) during desiccation [15°C, 43% relative humidity (RH)] on food grade stainless steel surfaces over 48 h to simulate a...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:14
Previous studies on the influence of food matrix fat content on thermal inactivation kinetics of food pathogens have shown contradictory results due to the combined influence of fat content and other factors such as composition. Therefore, thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes at 59, 64, and 69°C was systematically investigated in emulsion and gelled emulsion food model systems with...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:14
Oral exposure to the heavy metal lead (Pb) causes various dysfunctions in animals. However, the influence of gut bacteria on Pb absorption, bioaccumulation, and excretion is largely unknown. In this study, we use a mouse model to investigate the relationship between gut microbiota, Pb-intolerant intestinal microbes and Pb toxicity. First, mice were treated with a broad-spectrum antibiotic...
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:13
Listeria monocytogenes is a well-characterized pathogen that represents a major threat to food safety. In this study, we examine the chromosomal and plasmid transcriptomes of two different L. monocytogenes strains, 6179 [belonging to sequence type (ST) 121] and R479a (ST8), in response to 30 min exposure to oxidative (0.01% hydrogen peroxide) and acid (1% lactic acid, pH 3.4) stress. The exposure...
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:13
In its native environment of rotting vegetation, the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans encounters a range of bacteria. This includes species from the ESKAPE group of pathogens that pose a clinical problem in acquired hospital infections. Here, we investigated three Gram-negative members of the ESKAPE group, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Acinetobacter baumannii....
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:13
aEPEC are associated with persistent diarrhea, and diarrheal outbreaks in both humans and animals worldwide. They are differentiated from typical EPEC by the lack of bundle-forming pili, and from EHEC by the lack of phage-mediated stx toxins. However, phylogenetic analyses often associate aEPEC with EHEC, promoting the hypothesis that aEPEC are the progenitors of EHEC, which is supported by aEPEC...
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:13
Aim of this study was to genetically characterize two carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli strains obtained from a pediatric patient affected by diarrhea, expressing OXA-181 and/or NDM-5 type enzymes. The above microorganisms were collected in the same Desenzano hospital (Northern Italy) where the blaNDM–5 gene was detected for the first time in Italy 3 years ago. One strain (5P), belonged to...
Sat, 01/18/2020 - 03:13
Nuclear production and industrial activities led to widespread contamination of the Department of Energy (DOE) managed Savannah River Site (SRS), located in South Carolina, United States. The H-02 wetland system was constructed in 2007 for the treatment of industrial and storm water runoff from the SRS Tritium Facility. Albeit at low levels, mercury (Hg) has been detected in the soils of the H-02...
Sat, 01/18/2020 - 03:13
Halobacterium salinarum R1 is an extremely halophilic archaeon capable of adhesion and forming biofilms, allowing it to adjust to a range of growth conditions. We have recently shown that living in biofilms facilitates its survival under Cu2+ and Ni2+ stress, with specific rearrangements of the biofilm architecture observed following exposition. In this study, quantitative analyses were performed...
Sat, 01/18/2020 - 03:13
Biofilms provide bacteria with protection from environmental stresses and host immune defenses. The pathogenic marine bacterium Vibrio vulnificus forms biofilms and colonizes environmental niches such as oysters. The cabABC operon encodes an extracellular matrix protein CabA and the corresponding type I secretion system, which are essential for biofilm and rugose colony development of V....
Sat, 01/18/2020 - 03:13
As the most carcinogenic, toxic, and economically costly mycotoxins, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is primarily biosynthesized by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxin biosynthesis is related to oxidative stress and functions as a second line of defense from excessive reactive oxygen species. Here, we find that ethanol can inhibit fungal growth and AFB1 production by A. flavus in a dose...

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