Frontiers in Microbiology

Tue, 12/10/2019 - 03:16
Some Brucella isolates are known to require an increased concentration of CO2 for growth, especially in the case of primary cultures obtained directly from infected animals. Moreover, the different Brucella species and biovars show a characteristic pattern of CO2 requirement, and this trait has been included among the routine typing tests used for species and biovar differentiation. By comparing...
Tue, 12/10/2019 - 03:16
The viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state, in which bacteria fail to grow on routine culture media but are actually alive, has been widely recognized as a strategy adopted by bacteria to cope with stressful environments. However, little is known regarding the molecular mechanism of VBNC formation. Here, we aimed to elucidate the specific roles of cell division regulatory proteins and the cell...
Tue, 12/10/2019 - 03:16
We investigated antimicrobial resistance trends and characteristics of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli isolates from pets and whether this correlates with antibiotic usage in the clinic. Clinical samples containing E. coli from diseased cats and dogs were screened for antibiotic sensitivity and associated genotypic features. We identified 127 E. coli isolates from 1886 samples from dogs (n = 1565...
Sat, 12/07/2019 - 03:15
The Cpx response is one of several envelope stress responses that monitor and maintain the integrity of the gram-negative bacterial envelope. While several conditions that are known or predicted to generate misfolded inner membrane proteins activate the Cpx response, the molecular nature of the Cpx inducing cue is not yet known. Studies have demonstrated that mutation of multidrug efflux pumps...
Thu, 12/05/2019 - 03:26
Fluoroquinolones are used to treat serious bacterial infections, including those caused by Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. The emergence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) represent a new challenge to the successful treatment of Gram-negative infections. As part of a long-term strategy to generate a reference database of closed plasmids from antimicrobial resistant...
Thu, 12/05/2019 - 03:26
Salmonella Typhimurium, a bacterial pathogen with high metabolic plasticity, can adapt to different environmental conditions; these traits enhance its virulence by enabling bacterial survival. Neutrophils play important roles in the innate immune response, including the production of microbicidal reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, the myeloperoxidase in neutrophils catalyzes the...
Wed, 12/04/2019 - 03:15
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a naturally occurring bacterium in estuarine waters and is a major cause of seafood-borne illness. The bacterium has been consistently identified in Pacific Northwest waters and elevated illness rates of vibriosis in Washington State have raised concerns among growers, risk managers, and consumers of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas). In order to better understand pre...
Wed, 12/04/2019 - 03:15
The emergence of transferable colistin resistance (mcr genes) poses a threat to the effective use of polymyxins, which are last resort drugs to treat infections by multidrug- and carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. The aims of the study were to investigate the occurrence of colistin resistance, to determine possible resistance mechanisms and then characterize the mcr-positive Escherichia...
Tue, 12/03/2019 - 03:25
The intestine is the main reservoir of bacterial pathogens in most organisms. Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important opportunistic pathogen associated with nosocomial bacterial infections. Intestinal colonization with K. pneumoniae has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of subsequent infections. However, not all K. pneumoniae strains in the intestine cause further infection, and...
Tue, 12/03/2019 - 03:25
Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) form the most important resistance determinants prevalent worldwide. Data on ESBL-producing Escherichia coli from poultry and livestock are scarce in India. We present data on the functional and genomic characterization of ESBL-producing E. coli obtained from poultry in India. The whole genome sequences of 28 ESBL-producing E. coli were analyzed comprising...
Tue, 12/03/2019 - 03:25
Protein secretion plays a crucial role for bacterial pathogens, exemplified by facultative human-pathogen Vibrio cholerae, which secretes various proteinaceous effectors at different stages of its lifecycle. Accordingly, the identification of factors impacting on protein secretion is important to understand the bacterial pathophysiology. PglLVc, a predicted oligosaccharyltransferase of V....
Tue, 12/03/2019 - 03:25
An extensive body of evidence from the last decade has indicated that melatonin enhances plant resistance to a range of biotic and abiotic stressors. This has led to an interest in the application of melatonin in agriculture to reduce negative physiological effects from environmental stresses that affect yield and crop quality. However, there are no reports regarding the effects of melatonin on...
Sat, 11/30/2019 - 03:15
Water is considered to play a role in the dissemination of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria including those encoding Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and carbapenemases. To investigate the role of water for their spread in more detail, we characterized ESBL/Carbapenemase-producing bacteria from surface water and sediment samples using phenotypic and genotypic approaches. ESBL/...
Sat, 11/30/2019 - 03:15
Microbial communities in the coastal Arctic Ocean experience extreme variability in organic matter and inorganic nutrients driven by seasonal shifts in sea ice extent and freshwater inputs. Lagoons border more than half of the Beaufort Sea coast and provide important habitats for migratory fish and seabirds; yet, little is known about the planktonic food webs supporting these higher trophic...
Fri, 11/29/2019 - 03:12
Antimicrobial resistance against enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), an emerging food-borne pathogen, has been observed in an increasing trend recently. In the recent wake of antimicrobial resistance, alternate strategies especially, cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have attracted considerable attention to source antimicrobial technology solutions. This study evaluated the in vitro...
Fri, 11/29/2019 - 03:12
Microbial contamination of beef cattle carcases and subsequent cross-contamination during processing is inevitable and virtually impossible to prevent. The understanding of microbial contamination in the beef industry is currently limited to hypotheses based on traditional microbiological tools. Additionally, the complex structural and functional responses of beef cattle microbial communities to...
Fri, 11/29/2019 - 03:12
Membrane blebs are released from Gram-negative bacteria, however, little is known about Brucella blebs. This work pursued two objectives, the first was to determine and identify the proteins in the membrane blebs by proteomics and in silico analysis. The second aim was to evaluate the use of membrane blebs of Brucella abortus 2308 and B. abortus RB51 as an acellular vaccine in vivo and in vitro....
Fri, 11/29/2019 - 03:12
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an emerging opportunistic pathogen that, on the one hand, causes severe nosocomial infection in immunocompromised populations with a high mortality rate and, on the other hand, is present ubiquitously in the environment. This study, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, isolated and characterized S. maltophilia from leafy green vegetables produced by...
Thu, 11/28/2019 - 03:24
Aspergillus ochraceus is reported to be the major contributor of ochratoxin A (OTA), classified as one of the possible human carcinogen (group 2B) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The heterotrimeric velvet complex proteins, LaeA/VeA/VelB, have been most studied in fungi to clarify the relation between light-dependent morphology and secondary metabolism. To explore possible...
Thu, 11/28/2019 - 03:24
Strategies to reduce economic losses associated with post-weaning diarrhea in pig farming include high-level dietary zinc oxide supplementation. However, excessive usage of zinc oxide in the pig production sector was found to be associated with accumulation of multidrug resistant bacteria in these animals, presenting an environmental burden through contaminated manure. Here we report on zinc...
Wed, 11/27/2019 - 03:15
Salmonella biofilms act as a continuous source for cross-contamination in the food processing environments. In this study, a stable rugose morphotype of Salmonella was first induced by sequential exposure to subinhibitory concentrations (SICs) of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) (ranging from 50 to 300 ppm over 18-day period) in tryptic soy broth. Then, rugose and smooth morphotypes of Salmonella...
Tue, 11/26/2019 - 03:14
The enteric pathogen, Salmonella enterica is a major cause of human gastroenteritis globally and with increasing bacterial resistance to antibiotics, alternative solutions are urgently needed. Single domain antibodies (sdAbs), the smallest antibody fragments that retain antigen binding specificity and affinity, are derived from variable heavy-chain only fragments (VHH) of camelid heavy-chain-only...
Tue, 11/26/2019 - 03:14
The roles of signaling pathway genes related to the aflatoxin reduction trait in maize were studied for the improvement of maize resistance to the fungal pathogen Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus). In this study, 55 maize genes in plant–pathogen interaction signaling pathways were investigated among 12 maize near-isogenic lines (NILs) that carry maize quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with...
Tue, 11/26/2019 - 03:14
Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive bacterium that can be found in a broad range of environments, including soil, food, animals, and humans. L. monocytogenes can cause a foodborne disease manifesting as sepsis and meningo-encephalitis. To evaluate signals of selection within the core genome of neuroinvasive L. monocytogenes strains, we sequenced 122 L. monocytogenes strains from...
Tue, 11/26/2019 - 03:14
Conventionally, the delivery of biomolecules into bacteria for the generation of characterized or functional mutants has relied greatly on horizontal gene transfer techniques. However, the low compatibility of these techniques with novel or hard-to-transform bacteria currently serves as a challenge to the bioengineering field. Here, we explored the use of cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) as an...
Sat, 11/23/2019 - 03:14
Extracellular vesicles secreted by Gram-negative bacteria have proven to be important in bacterial defense, communication and host–pathogen relationships. They resemble smaller versions of the bacterial mother cell, with similar contents of proteins, LPS, DNA, and RNA. Vesicles can elicit a protective immune response in a range of hosts, and as vaccine candidates, it is of interest to properly...
Sat, 11/23/2019 - 03:14
In the United States, the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables has increased during recent years as consumers seek to make healthier lifestyle choices. However, the number of outbreaks associated with fresh produce that involve cases in more than one state (multistate) has increased concomitantly. As the distance along the farm-to-fork continuum has lengthened over time, there are also more...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:14
Aflatoxin contamination in foods is a global concern as they are carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic compounds. The aflatoxin-producing fungi, mainly from the Aspergillus section Flavi, are ubiquitous in nature and readily contaminate various food commodities, thereby affecting human’s health. The incidence of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxins in various types of food, especially...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:14
Concerns about food contamination by Listeria monocytogenes are on the rise with increasing consumption of ready-to-eat foods. Biofilm production of L. monocytogenes is presumed to be one of the ways that confer its increased resistance and persistence in the food chain. In this study, a collection of isolates from foods and food processing environments (FPEs) representing persistent, prevalent,...
Thu, 11/21/2019 - 03:14
The presence of ear rots in maize caused by Aspergillus flavus that are also associated with the production of aflatoxins has evolved into an increasing problem over the last few years. Since no commercial biological control products are still available to control A. flavus in maize in Europe, this study targets to the evaluation of six biopesticides/biostimulants (Botector®, Mycostop®, Serenade...
Wed, 11/20/2019 - 03:24
All organisms depend on symbiotic associations with bacteria for their success, yet how these interspecific interactions influence the population structure, ecology, and evolution of microbial symbionts is not well understood. Additionally, patterns of genetic variation in interacting species can reveal ecological traits that are important to gene flow and co-evolution. In this study, we define...
Wed, 11/20/2019 - 03:24
Besides nutritional components, breast milk contains diverse microbes, which may be involved in colonization of the infant gut. Expressed milk is often stored for few days in the refrigerator. The aim of this study was to determine the abundance, prevalence and diversity of facultative and strict anaerobic bacteria using culture-dependent and -independent methods, and to determine changes in milk...
Wed, 11/20/2019 - 03:24
Cold Atmospheric Plasma (CAP) is a promising novel method for biofilm inactivation as log-reduction values up to 4.0 log10 (CFU/cm2) have been reported. Nevertheless, as the efficacy of CAP itself is not sufficient for complete inactivation of mature biofilms, the hurdle technology could be applied in order to obtain higher combined efficacies. In this study, CAP treatment was combined with a...
Tue, 11/19/2019 - 03:15
Alexandrium minutum is a typical marine toxic dinoflagellate responsible for producing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins. Until now, we know little about the genomic information of A. minutum, so a transcriptome study was conducted to clarify the physiological adaptations related to nutritional deficiency. Here, we performed RNA-Seq analysis to assess the gene expression patterns of A....
Sat, 11/16/2019 - 03:14
Bacterial microcompartments (BMCs) are proteinaceous organelles that optimize specific metabolic pathways referred to as metabolosomes involving transient production of toxic volatile metabolites such as aldehydes. Previous bioinformatics analysis predicted the presence of BMCs in 23 bacterial phyla including foodborne pathogens and a link with gene clusters for the utilization of host-derived...
Sat, 11/16/2019 - 03:14
Unabsorbed proteins reach the colon and are fermented by the microbiota, yielding a variety of harmful metabolites. In the present study, a 16S rRNA gene survey identified the bacterial taxa flourishing in 11 batch fermentations with proteins and peptones as the sole fermentable substrates, inoculated with the feces of six healthy adults. Organic acids, ammonia, and indole resulting from protein...
Fri, 11/15/2019 - 03:14
A Corrigendum on Cell-Free Spent Media Obtained from Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium crudilactis Grown in Media Supplemented with 3′-Sialyllactose Modulate Virulence Gene Expression in Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium
Fri, 11/15/2019 - 03:14
The intertidal zone occupies the shore between the high and low tide marks and is subjected both to natural forces and anthropogenic activities. Compared with the coastal ecosystem, studies comparing diversity and community structure of intertidal planktonic and benthic microeukaryotes are limited. Therefore, the ecological processes mediating their assemblies remain poorly understood....
Fri, 11/15/2019 - 03:14
Since the onset of land application of poultry litter, transportation of microorganisms, antibiotics, and disinfectants to new locations has occurred. While some studies provide evidence that antimicrobial resistance (AMR), an evolutionary phenomenon, could be influenced by animal production systems, other research suggests AMR originates in the environment from non-anthropogenic sources. In...
Fri, 11/15/2019 - 03:14
Aflatoxins pose significant food security and public health risks, decrease productivity and profitability of animal industries, and hamper trade. To minimize aflatoxin contamination in several crops, a biocontrol technology based on atoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus is commercially used in the United States and some African countries. Significant efforts are underway to popularize the use...
Thu, 11/14/2019 - 03:14
Listeria monocytogenes is an important food-borne pathogen that is tolerant to many of the stresses commonly used during food preservation. Outside the host, the bacterium has a saprophytic lifestyle that includes periodic exposure to solar irradiance. The blue component of this light is known to influence the activity of the stress-inducible sigma factor Sigma B (σB). In this study, the...
Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:14
MraW is a 16S rRNA methyltransferase and plays a role in the fine-tuning of the ribosomal decoding center. It was recently found to contribute to the virulence of Staphylococcus aureus. In this study, we examined the function of MraW in Escherichia coli O157:H7 and found that the deletion of mraW led to decreased motility, flagellar production and DNA methylation. Whole-genome bisulfite...
Thu, 11/07/2019 - 03:15
Antimicrobial resistance is an increasing problem worldwide, and Salmonella spp. resistance to quinolone was classified by WHO in the high priority list. Recent studies in Europe and in the US reported the presence of small plasmids carrying quinolone resistance in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from poultry and poultry products. The aims of this study were to identify and characterize plasmid-...
Thu, 11/07/2019 - 03:15
Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae strains, including strains in serogroups O1 and O139 associated with the clinical disease cholera, are ubiquitous in aquatic reservoirs, including fresh, estuarine, and marine environments. Humans acquire cholera by consuming water and/or food contaminated with the microorganism. The genome of toxigenic V. cholerae harbors a cholera-toxin producing prophage (CT-prophage...
Thu, 11/07/2019 - 03:15
Contaminated food-contact surfaces are recognized as the primary reason for recent L. monocytogenes outbreaks in caramel apples and cantaloupes, highlighting the significance of cleaning and sanitizing food-contact surfaces to ensure microbial safety of fresh produce. This study evaluated efficacies of four commonly used chemical sanitizers at practical concentrations against L. monocytogenes...
Thu, 11/07/2019 - 03:15
This study examines treatments of the bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, namely, in the context of its being a major cause of subclinical bovine mastitis. Such infections caused by S. aureus among dairy cows are difficult to detect and can easily become chronic, leading to reduced productivity and large losses for dairy manufacturers. In this study, the role of alternative sigma factor B (...
Thu, 11/07/2019 - 03:15
Shigellosis, caused by Shigella boydii type 1, is understudied and underreported. For 3 years, GEMS study identified 5.4% of all Shigella as S. boydii. We showed the prevalent serotypes of S. boydii in Bangladesh and phage-based diagnosis of S. boydii type 1, a rapid and low-cost approach. Previously typed 793 clinical S. boydii strains were used for serotype distribution. Twenty-eight...
Fri, 11/01/2019 - 03:15
Modern isothermal microcalorimeters (IMC) are able to detect the metabolic heat of bacteria with an accuracy sufficient to recognize even the smallest traces of bacterial contamination of water, food, and medical samples. The modern IMC techniques are often superior to conventional detection methods in terms of the detection time, reliability, labor, and technical effort. What is missing is a...
Fri, 11/01/2019 - 03:15
Antimicrobial agents are crucial for the treatment of many bacterial diseases in pigs, however, the massive use of critically important antibiotics such as colistin, fluoroquinolones and 3rd–4th-generation cephalosporins often selects for co-resistance. Based on a comprehensive characterization of 35 colistin-resistant Escherichia coli from swine enteric colibacillosis, belonging to prevalent...
Fri, 11/01/2019 - 03:15
This study was conducted to compare aerobic culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), lateral flow immunoassay (LFI), and shotgun metagenomics for identification of Salmonella enterica in feces collected from feedlot cattle. Samples were analyzed in parallel using all four tests. Results from aerobic culture and PCR were 100% concordant and indicated low S. enterica prevalence (3/60 samples...

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