Frontiers in Microbiology

Fri, 10/11/2019 - 03:17
The purpose of this review is to present information about the role of activation of aflatoxins and other mycotoxins, of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway. Aflatoxins and other mycotoxins are a diverse group of secondary metabolites that can be contaminants in a broad range of agricultural products and feeds. Some species of Aspergillus, Alternaria, Penicilium, and Fusarium are major...
Fri, 10/11/2019 - 03:17
Campylobacter jejuni is the most common bacterial cause of foodborne zoonosis in the European Union. Infections are often linked to the consumption and handling of poultry meat. The aim of the present study was to investigate the caecal microbiota of birds infected with C. jejuni at different ages. Therefore, a total of 180 birds of the laying hybrid Lohmann Brown-Classic were housed in 12...
Fri, 10/11/2019 - 03:17
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent the largest group of endogenous compounds and serves as a novel alternative to traditional antibiotics for the treatment of pathogenic microorganisms. Moricin is an important α-helical AMP plays a crucial role in insect humoral defense reactions. The present study was designed to identify and characterize novel AMP moricin (Px-Mor) from diamondback moth (...
Fri, 10/11/2019 - 03:17
Necrotic enteritis (NE) causes huge economic losses to the poultry industry. Probiotics are used as potential alternatives to antibiotics to prevent NE. It is known that Clostridium butyricum can act as a probiotic that can prevent infection. However, whether or not it exerts a beneficial effect on NE in chickens remains elusive. Therefore, we investigated the impact of C. butyricum on immune...
Thu, 10/10/2019 - 03:17
Microcins are low-molecular-weight, ribosomally produced, highly stable, bacterial-inhibitory molecules involved in competitive, and amensalistic interactions between Enterobacteriaceae in the intestine. These interactions take place in a highly complex chemical landscape, the intestinal eco-active chemosphere, composed of chemical substances that positively or negatively influence bacterial...
Thu, 10/10/2019 - 03:17
Colistin is a last resort antibiotic used for the treatment of human infections associated with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriales. Here, we evaluated the occurrence of mcr-1 and -2 plasmid-mediated colistin resistance in colistin and/or carbapenem resistant human clinical Enterobacteriales and other gram-negative bacteria (n = 543) as well as third generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GCR...
Wed, 10/09/2019 - 03:17
ObjectivesTo examine the relevance of co-resistance to amoxicillin and tetracycline as an indicator of multidrug resistance (MDR) in animal health.MethodsEscherichia coli isolates collected between 2012 and 2016 by the French surveillance network for antimicrobial resistance in diseased animals (RESAPATH) were analyzed. The proportions of MDR isolates and the proportions of isolates presenting co...
Wed, 10/09/2019 - 03:17
Bactrocera minax (Enderlein) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is an oligophagous insect pest that damages citrus fruit, especially in China. Due to larvae living within a highly septic environment, a wide variety of microorganisms exist in the larval gut of B. minax. However, a systematic study of the intestinal microbiota of this harmful insect pest is still lacking. Here, we comprehensively investigated...
Wed, 10/09/2019 - 03:17
A laboratory-based study testing 9 Listeria innocua strains independently and a cocktail of 11 Listeria monocytogenes strains was carried out. The aim was to identify suitable L. innocua strain(s) to model L. monocytogenes in inactivation experiments. Three separate inactivation procedures and a hurdle combination of the three were employed: thermal inactivation (55°C), UV-C irradiation (245 nm...
Sat, 10/05/2019 - 03:16
Land use change alters the accumulation of heavy metals (HMs) in soils and might have significant influence on the assembly and functions of soil microbial community. Although numerous studies have discussed the impacts of either total amounts or availability of metals on soil microbes in land change, there is still limited understanding on which one is more critical. In the present study, soils...
Sat, 10/05/2019 - 03:16
Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne disease and is often associated with the consumption of foods of animal origin. In this study, sixty-six Salmonella isolates were obtained from 631 raw meat samples purchased at small retail suppliers in Hubei Province, China. The most prevalent Salmonella serotypes were Thompson (18.2%) and Agona (13.6%). Frequent antimicrobial resistance was observed...
Sat, 10/05/2019 - 03:16
Aflatoxins produced by the Aspergillus species are highly toxic, carcinogenic, and cause severe contamination to food sources, leading to serious health consequences. Contaminations by aflatoxins have been reported in food and feed, such as groundnuts, millet, sesame seeds, maize, wheat, rice, fig, spices and cocoa due to fungal infection during pre- and post-harvest conditions. Besides these...
Thu, 10/03/2019 - 03:17
Dairy manure, a by-product in the dairy industry, is also a potential source of nutrients for crops. However, improper application of biological soil amendments of animal origin can be a source of contamination with enteric foodborne pathogens. A 2-year field study was conducted to evaluate impacts of dairy manure fertilizer application on the microbial safety of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L)...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
ObjectivesTo describe the molecular characteristics of beta-lactamases in bloodstream-infection Escherichia coli isolated from elderly patients, and to determine the genotypic patterns of blaCMY–2 and blaADC–162.MethodsA total of 50 bloodstream-infection E. coli isolates were obtained from patients aged > 50 years at Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital South Campus during 2015–2018. The isolates...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
Electronic waste (e-waste) has caused a severe worldwide pollution problem. Despite increasing isolation of degradative microorganisms from e-waste contaminated environments, the mechanisms underlying their adaptive evolution in such habitats remain unclear. Sphingomonads generally have xenobiotic-degrading ability and may play important roles in bioremediation. Sphingobium hydrophobicum C1T,...
Tue, 10/01/2019 - 03:17
Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) is a ubiquitous organism that can easily enter the food chain. Infection with L. monocytogenes can cause invasive listeriosis. Since 2014, in Austria, L. monocytogenes isolates from human and food/food-associated samples have been provided on a mandatory basis by food producers and laboratories to the National Reference Laboratory. Since 2017, isolates...
Tue, 10/01/2019 - 03:17
A few reports indicate that livestock might represent a new reservoir for carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). In 2015, VIM-1-producing Escherichia coli were detected at slaughter in colon contents of animals from a German fattening pig farm within the national monitoring on ESBL-producing E. coli. In this study, pooled faces samples from pigs, as well as samples from the barn...
Sat, 09/28/2019 - 03:12
Infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) lead to considerable morbidity and mortality. The elderly population residing in nursing homes are a major reservoir of MDRO. Our objective was to characterize the fecal microbiome of 82 elderly subjects from 23 nursing homes and compare their resistome to that of healthy young persons. Comparisons of microbiome composition and the...
Sat, 09/28/2019 - 03:12
Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal colonizer of both humans and animals, but also an opportunistic pathogen responsible for a multitude of diseases. In recent years, colonization of pigs by methicillin resistant S. aureus has become a problem with increasing numbers of humans being infected by livestock strains. In S. aureus colonization and virulence factor expression is controlled by the agr...
Sat, 09/28/2019 - 03:12
Bovine mastitis is an ongoing significant concern in the dairy and agricultural industry resulting in substantial losses in milk production and revenue. Among the predominant etiological agents of bovine mastitis are Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Escherichia coli. Currently, the treatment of choice for bovine mastitis involves the use of commercial...
Sat, 09/28/2019 - 03:12
Human norovirus (HuNoV) GII.P17-GII.17 (Kawasaki2014 variant) reportedly emerged in 2014 and caused gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. To clarify the evolution of both VP1 and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) regions of GII.P17-GII.17, we analyzed both global and novel Japanese strains detected during 2013–2017. Time-scaled phylogenetic trees revealed that the ancestral GII.17 VP1 region...
Wed, 09/25/2019 - 03:16
Salmonella remains the leading cause of reported bacterial foodborne disease in China. Meat products are recognized as one of the major sources of human salmonellosis; however, there is a lack of comprehensive, quantitative data concerning Salmonella contamination of these foods. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence, bacterial load, and antimicrobial...
Wed, 09/25/2019 - 03:16
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are indigenous microorganisms that have been involved in food fermentations throughout history to preserve food and also to give special characteristics to them. The traditional fermented foods that are still being elaborated in indigenous populations around the world are a potential source of LAB with important biotechnological properties and/or beneficial to health....
Wed, 09/25/2019 - 03:16
Uncertainty analysis is the process of identifying limitations in scientific knowledge and evaluating their implications for scientific conclusions. In the context of microbial risk assessment, the uncertainty in the predicted microbial behavior can be an important component of the overall uncertainty. Conventional deterministic modeling approaches which provide point estimates of the pathogen’s...
Tue, 09/24/2019 - 03:16
Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) is an integrative mobilizable element integrated into the chromosome of bacteria, which plays an important role in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes. Lots of SGI1 variants are found mainly in Salmonella enterica and Proteus mirabilis. In this study, a total of 157 S. enterica and 132 P. mirabilis strains were collected from food-producing...
Tue, 09/24/2019 - 03:16
The emerging threat of drug resistant bacteria has prompted the investigation into bacterial signaling pathways responsible for pathogenesis. One such mechanism by which bacteria regulate their physiology during infection of a host is through a process known as quorum sensing (QS). Bacteria use QS to regulate community-wide gene expression in response to changes in population density. In order to...
Tue, 09/24/2019 - 03:16
Nitric oxide (NO) and its derivatives are important effectors of host innate immunity, disrupting cellular function of infecting pathogens. Transcriptome analysis of Vibrio vulnificus, an opportunistic human pathogen, identified a set of genes induced upon exposure to NO. Among them, VvhmpA (V. vulnificus hmpA), encoding a multidomain NO dioxygenase, was the most greatly induced upon exposure to...
Tue, 09/17/2019 - 20:00
Nitric oxide (NO) plays a major role in the regulation of mammalian biological functions. In recent years, NO has also been implicated in bacterial life cycles, including in the regulation of biofilm formation, and the metabolism of the bacterial second messenger signaling molecule cyclic-di-GMP. In a previous study, we reported the discovery of an NO-responsive quorum sensing (QS) circuit in...
Tue, 09/17/2019 - 20:00
Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of the zoonotic disease Q fever. To date, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the only defined and characterized virulence determinant of C. burnetii. In this study, proteome profiles of C. burnetii Nine Mile phase I (RSA 493, NMI) and its isogenic Nine Mile phase II (RSA 439 NMII) isolate with a deep rough LPS were compared on L-929 mouse fibroblasts and in...
Thu, 09/12/2019 - 20:00
Many pathogenic bacteria use the type III secretion system (T3SS) injectisome to manipulate host cells by injecting virulence-promoting effector proteins into the host cytosol. The T3SS is activated upon host cell contact, and its activation is accompanied by an arrest of cell division; hence, many species maintain a T3SS-inactive sibling population to propagate efficiently within the host. The...
Mon, 09/09/2019 - 20:00
The Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae encodes two nucleases, Dns and Xds, which play a major role during the human pathogen’s lifecycle. Dns and Xds control three-dimensional biofilm formation and bacterial detachment from biofilms via degradation of extracellular DNA and thus contribute to the environmental, inter-epidemic persistence of the pathogen. During intestinal colonization the...
Thu, 09/05/2019 - 20:00
The self-transferring integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) are large genomic segments carrying several bacterial adaptive functions including antimicrobial resistance (AMR). SXT/R391 family is one of the ICEs extensively studied in cholera-causing pathogen Vibrio cholerae. The genetic characteristics of ICE-SXT/R391 in V. cholerae are dynamic and region-specific. These ICEs in V. cholerae...
Thu, 09/05/2019 - 20:00
Increasing knowledge of the deleterious health and economic impacts of aflatoxin in crop commodities has stimulated global interest in aflatoxin mitigation. Current evidence of the incidence of Aspergillus flavus isolates belonging to vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) lacking the ability to produce aflatoxins (i.e., atoxigenic) in Ghana may lead to develop an aflatoxin biocontrol strategy to...
Thu, 09/05/2019 - 20:00
Campylobacter jejuni is the leading bacterial cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide and is of immense significance to public health. C. jejuni primarily lives in the gastrointestinal tracts of poultry and can contaminate meat during processing. Despite a small genome, the metabolic plasticity of C. jejuni allows proliferation in chicken ceca and mammalian host intestines, and survival in...
Tue, 09/03/2019 - 20:00
Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne Gram-positive bacterium causing listeriosis in both animals and humans. It can persist and grow in various environments including conditions countered during saprophytic or intra-host lifestyles. Sigma (σ) subunit of RNA polymerase is a transcriptional factor responsible for guiding the core RNA polymerase and initiating gene expression under normal growth or...
Tue, 08/27/2019 - 20:00
Cronobacter strains harboring CRISPR-Cas systems are important foodborne pathogens that cause serious neonatal infections. CRISPR typing is a new molecular subtyping method to track the sources of pathogenic bacterial outbreaks and shows a promise in typing Cronobacter, however, this molecular typing procedure using routine PCR method has not been established. Therefore, the purpose of this study...
Mon, 08/26/2019 - 20:00
Natural microcin J25 (MccJ25) represent promising alternatives to traditional antibiotics for the treatment of drug-resistant infections. However, little is known about the antibacterial activity of recombinant MccJ25 against foodborne pathogens. Here, the activity of recombinant MccJ25 was examined using a matrix of conditions in order to assess the efficacy of recombinant MccJ25 as a mitigation...
Mon, 08/26/2019 - 20:00
Cyclospora cayetanensis is a coccidian parasite that has been associated with foodborne outbreaks of gastrointestinal illnesses. Raspberries have been implicated as vehicle of infection in some of these outbreaks. Most of the molecular techniques used for the detection of parasites commonly use the 18s rRNA as a target gene, which is highly conserved. The conserved nature of 18s rRNA gene among...
Wed, 08/21/2019 - 20:00
Shigellosis is a public health threat in developed as well as developing countries like India. While antibiotic therapy is the mainstay of treatment for shigellosis, current emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of Shigella spp. has posed the problem more challenging. Lytic bacteriophages which destroy antibiotic resistant Shigella spp. have great potential in this context. In this study we...
Tue, 08/20/2019 - 20:00
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and genotypic characteristics of Cronobacter isolated from powdered infant formula (PIF) manufacturing facilities and identify the potential source of contamination. A total of 42 Cronobacter isolates (5%) were detected in 835 environmental samples collected during the surveillance study. These isolates included C. sakazakii (n=37...
Thu, 08/15/2019 - 20:00
Listeria monocytogenes can persist under a wide range of stress conditions, contributing to its ubiquitous distribution and unique pathogenic traits. Light from light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has recently been shown to inactivate various pathogens. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of light treatment using a 405-nm LED on the subsequent resistance of L. monocytogenes to...
Mon, 08/12/2019 - 20:00
The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence and fluoroquinolone resistant Salmonella isolated from an integrated broiler chicken supply chain and their molecular characterization. In total, 73 Salmonella isolates were recovered from a broiler chicken supply chain in Shanghai. Salmonella isolates were tested for susceptibility to 11 antimicrobial agents using the broth dilution...
Mon, 08/12/2019 - 20:00
Heavy metal accumulation in mesquite trees (Prosopis laevigata) growing in aluminum, titanium, chromium and zirconium-polluted soils (Al up to 61800 mg/kg) of a semi-arid region in Mexico was investigated using wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis. The results showed that P. laevigata trees can hyperaccumulate up to 4100 mg/kg of Al, 14000 mg/kg of Fe, 1600 mg/kg of Ti, 2500 mg/kg of...
Mon, 08/12/2019 - 20:00
An O104:H4 Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) strain caused a large outbreak of bloody diarrhea and the hemolytic uremic syndrome in 2011. We previously developed an ampicillin (Amp)-treated C57BL/6 mouse model to measure morbidity (weight loss) and mortality of mice orally infected with the prototype Stx-EAEC strain C227-11. Here, we hypothesized that mice fed...
Mon, 08/12/2019 - 20:00
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is an emerging pathotype responsible for acute and persistent diarrhea. It can be classified as typical and atypical strains, respectively, based on the presence or absence of the AggR regulon, suggesting a higher virulence for typical EAEC. This study aimed to evaluate in the Galleria mellonella model if there are differences in the virulence profiles...
Thu, 08/08/2019 - 20:00
Wild fruits are an important food and income source for many households in Zambia. Non-cultivated plants may be as susceptible as crops to aflatoxin contamination. Concentrations of aflatoxins in commonly consumed wild fruits from markets and characteristics of associated aflatoxin-producers need to be determined to assess the aflatoxin risk posed by handling, processing, storage and consumption...
Tue, 08/06/2019 - 20:00
Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of human foodborne illness globally, and is strongly linked with the consumption of contaminated poultry products. Several studies have shown that C. jejuni can form sanitizer tolerant biofilm leading to product contamination, however, limited research has been conducted to develop effective control strategies against C. jejuni biofilms. This study...

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