Genes

Fri, 06/11/2021 - 00:00
Cryptosporidiosis is ranked sixth in the list of the most important food-borne parasites globally, and it is an important contributor to mortality in infants and the immunosuppressed. Recently, the number of genome sequences available for this parasite has increased drastically. The majority of the sequences are derived from population studies of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis...
Fri, 06/11/2021 - 00:00
Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) in gallinaceous poultry are associated with viral infection of the endothelium, the induction of a ‘cytokine storm, and severe disease. In contrast, in Pekin ducks, HPAIVs are rarely endothelial tropic, and a cytokine storm is not observed. To date, understanding these species-dependent differences in pathogenesis has been hampered by the absence...
Wed, 05/26/2021 - 00:00
Haloferax mediterranei is an extremely halophilic archaeon, able to live in hypersaline environments with versatile nutritional requirements, whose study represents an excellent basis in the field of biotechnology. The transcriptional machinery in Archaea combines the eukaryotic basal apparatus and the bacterial regulation mechanisms. However, little is known about molecular mechanisms of gene...
Wed, 05/26/2021 - 00:00
Susceptibility to diseases is inherited and can be transmitted between populations. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in genes related to immune response is associated with diseases in cattle. This study investigated SNPs in the genomic region of cytokines in 702 samples of Curraleiro Pé-Duro cattle and associated them with the occurrence of antibodies in brucellosis, leptospirosis,...
Sun, 04/11/2021 - 00:00
Iris lactea var. chinensis (Fisch.) (I. lactea var. chinensis) is a well-known cadmium (Cd)-tolerant plant and we have previously shown that the metallothionein gene, IlMT2a, of the plant may be playing a key role in conferring the Cd tolerance. In this study, we have identified several proteins interacting with the IlMT2a by screening yeast two-hybrid library constructed from cDNAs isolated from...
Fri, 03/26/2021 - 00:00
Resistance to and survival under acidic conditions are critical for Salmonella to infect the host. As one of the most prevalent serotypes identified in pigs and humans, how S. Derby overcomes acid stress remains unclear. Here, we de novo sequenced the genome of a representative S. Derby strain 14T from our S. Derby strain stock and identified its acid resistance-associated genes using Tn-seq...
Wed, 03/24/2021 - 00:00
Anemone flaccida Fr. Schmidt is a traditional medicinal herb in southwestern China and has multiple pharmacological effects on bruise injuries and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A new drug with a good curative effect on RA has recently been developed from the extract of A. flaccida rhizomes, of which the main medicinal ingredients are triterpenoid saponins. Due to excessive exploitation, the wild...
Thu, 03/18/2021 - 00:00
The primary focus of our research was to obtain global gene expression data in baker’s yeast exposed to sub-lethal doses of quantum dots (QDs), such as green-emitting CdSe/ZnS and InP/ZnS, to reveal novel insights on their unique mechanisms of toxicity. Despite their promising applications, their toxicity and long-lasting effects on the environment are not well understood. To assess toxicity, we...
Sun, 03/14/2021 - 00:00
Listeriosis is a food-borne illness caused by Listeria monocytogenes. Ampicillin (AMP) alone or in combination with gentamicin (GEN) is the first-line treatment option. Membrane vesicle (MV) production in L. monocytogenes under antibiotic stress conditions and pathologic roles of these MVs in hosts have not been reported yet. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the production of MVs in...
Mon, 03/01/2021 - 00:00
As a prevalent existing post-transcriptional modification of RNA, N6-methyladenosine (m6A) plays a crucial role in various biological processes. To better radically reveal its regulatory mechanism and provide new insights for drug design, the accurate identification of m6A sites in genome-wide is vital. As the traditional experimental methods are time-consuming and cost-prohibitive, it is...
Wed, 02/24/2021 - 00:00
Bisphenol S (BPS) is used as an alternative plasticizer to Bisphenol A (BPA), despite limited knowledge of potential adverse effects. BPA exhibits endocrine disrupting effects during development. This article focuses on the impact of bisphenols during oocyte maturation. Connexins (Cx) are gap junctional proteins that may be affected by bisphenols, providing insight into their mechanism during...
Fri, 02/12/2021 - 00:00
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a xenoestrogen chemical commonly used to manufacture polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resin and might affect various human organs. However, the cellular effects of BPA on the eyes have not been widely investigated. This study aimed to investigate the cellular cytotoxicity by BPA exposure on human retinoblastoma cells. BPA did not show cytotoxic effects, such as apoptosis,...
Tue, 02/02/2021 - 00:00
Hermetia illucens larvae are among the most promising insects for use as food or feed ingredients due to their ability to convert organic waste into biomass with high-quality proteins. In this novel food or feed source, the absence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and their antibiotic resistance (AR) genes, which could be horizontally transferred to animal or human pathogens through the food...
Thu, 01/28/2021 - 00:00
Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas sp. GC01, a cadmium-resistant Antarctic bacterium capable of biosynthesizing CdS fluorescent nanoparticles (quantum dots, QDs) employing a unique mechanism involving the production of methanethiol (MeSH) from methionine (Met). To explore the molecular/metabolic components involved in QDs biosynthesis, we conducted a comparative genomic...
Mon, 01/25/2021 - 00:00
Pseudomonas mendocina is an environmental bacterium, rarely isolated in clinical specimens, although it has been described as producing endocarditis and sepsis. Little is known about its genome. Whole genome sequencing can be used to learn about the phylogeny, evolution, or pathogenicity of these isolates. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the resistome, virulome, and phylogenetic...
Mon, 01/25/2021 - 00:00
Gene dysfunction and immune cell infiltration play an essential role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). We aimed to investigate the immune landscape and novel differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of IPAH. In addition, potential druggable molecular targets for IPAH were also explored. In this study, the GSE117261 dataset was reanalyzed to explore the immune...
Thu, 12/31/2020 - 00:00
The aim was to describe the safety of indefinite administration of antibiotics, the so-called suppressive antibiotic therapy (SAT) and to provide insight into their impact on gut microbiota. 17 patients with SAT were recruited, providing a fecal sample. Bacterial composition was determined by 16S rDNA massive sequencing, and their viability was explored by PCR-DGGE with and without propidium...
Sat, 12/26/2020 - 00:00
The human serine protease serine 2 TMPRSS2 is involved in the priming of proteins of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and represents a possible target for COVID-19 therapy. The TMPRSS2 gene may be co-expressed with SARS-CoV-2 cell receptor genes angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and Basigin (BSG), but only TMPRSS2 demonstrates tissue-specific expression in...
Fri, 12/25/2020 - 00:00
Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders characterized by vacuolation and gliosis in the brain. Prion diseases have been reported in several mammals, and genetic polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP) play an essential role in the vulnerability of prion diseases. However, to date, investigations of PRNP polymorphisms are rare in cats, which are the major host of feline...
Sat, 12/19/2020 - 00:00
Salmonella Infantis carrying extended spectrum β-lactamase blaCTX-M-65 on a pESI-like megaplasmid has recently emerged in United States poultry. In order to determine the carriage rate and gene content variability of this plasmid in U.S. Salmonella Infantis, whole genome sequences of Salmonella isolates from humans and animals in the U.S. and internationally containing the pESI-like...
Tue, 12/15/2020 - 00:00
Escherichia coli are among the most common foodborne pathogens associated with infections reported from meat sources. This study investigated the virulome, pathogenicity, stress response factors, clonal lineages, and the phylogenomic relationship of E. coli isolated from different meat sources in Ghana using whole-genome sequencing. Isolates were screened from five meat sources (beef, chevon,...
Wed, 12/09/2020 - 00:00
Heavy metal resistance is more than the tolerance one has towards a particular music genera. The study of metal resistance mechanisms in bacteria traces back to the 1970s and through to the mid 1990s. During these early days, specific metal or metalloid ion resistance determinants, consisting of single metal(loid) resistance genes (MRGs) to large complex operons, were being identified on large...
Thu, 11/26/2020 - 00:00
As the field of forensic DNA analysis has started to transition from genetics to genomics, new methods to aid in crime scene investigations have arisen. The development of informative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers has led the forensic community to question if DNA can be a reliable “eye-witness” and whether the data it provides can shed light on unknown...
Thu, 11/19/2020 - 00:00
Typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), is a global health concern and its treatment is problematic due to the rise in antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Rapid detection of patients infected with AMR positive S. Typhi is, therefore, crucial to prevent further spreading. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats and CRISPR-associated genes (CRISPR-Cas),...
Sat, 11/14/2020 - 00:00
Cytochrome P450 enzymes encoded by MORE AXILLARY GROWTH1 (MAX1)-like genes produce most of the structural diversity of strigolactones during the final steps of strigolactone biosynthesis. The diverse copies of MAX1 in Oryza sativa provide a resource to investigate why plants produce such a wide range of strigolactones. Here we performed in silico analyses of transcription factors and microRNAs...
Fri, 11/13/2020 - 00:00
Feed safety is a necessity for animal health and welfare as well as prerequisite for food safety and human health. Wheat gluten (WG) is considered as a valuable protein source in fish feed due to its suitability as a feed binder, high digestibility, good amino acid profile, energy density and most importantly, due to its relatively low level of anti-nutritional factors (ANFs). The main aim of...
Thu, 11/12/2020 - 00:00
Acidity is one of the principal physicochemical factors that influence the behavior of microorganisms in any environment, and their response to it often determines their ability to grow and survive. Preventing the growth and survival of pathogenic bacteria or, conversely, promoting the growth of bacteria that are useful (in biotechnology and food production, for example), might be improved...
Thu, 11/05/2020 - 00:00
Salmonella enterica is one of the most common bacterial foodborne pathogens in the United States, causing illnesses that range from self-limiting gastroenteritis to more severe, life threatening invasive disease. Many Salmonella strains contain plasmids that carry virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and/or transfer genes which allow them to adapt to diverse environments, and these can include...
Fri, 10/30/2020 - 00:01
Cancerous and non-cancerous cells secrete exosomes, a type of nanovesicle known to carry the molecular signature of the parent for intercellular communications. Exosomes secreted by tumor cells carry abnormal DNA, RNA, and protein molecules that reflect the cancerous status. DNA is the master molecule that ultimately affects the function of RNA and proteins. Aberrations in DNA can potentially...
Fri, 10/30/2020 - 00:01
Multidrug-resistant (MDR; resistance to >3 antimicrobial classes) Salmonella enterica serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- strains were linked to a 2015 foodborne outbreak from pork. Strain USDA15WA-1, associated with the outbreak, harbors an MDR module and the metal tolerance element Salmonella Genomic Island 4 (SGI-4). Characterization of SGI-4 revealed that conjugational transfer of SGI-4 resulted in...
Thu, 10/29/2020 - 00:00
Plants have evolved a number of defense and adaptation responses to protect themselves against challenging environmental stresses. Genes containing a heavy metal associated (HMA) domain are required for the spatiotemporal transportation of metal ions that bind with various enzymes and co-factors within the cell. To uncover the underlying mechanisms mediated by StHMA genes, we identified 36 gene...
Fri, 10/23/2020 - 00:00
Bacterial conjugation, also referred to as bacterial sex, is a major horizontal gene transfer mechanism through which DNA is transferred from a donor to a recipient bacterium by direct contact. Conjugation is universally conserved among bacteria and occurs in a wide range of environments (soil, plant surfaces, water, sewage, biofilms, and host-associated bacterial communities). Within these...
Mon, 10/19/2020 - 00:00
One integral step in the transition from a nucleic acid encoded-genome to functional proteins is the aminoacylation of tRNA molecules. To perform this activity, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) activate free amino acids in the cell forming an aminoacyl-adenylate before transferring the amino acid on to its cognate tRNA. These newly formed aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA) can then be used by the...
Sat, 10/17/2020 - 00:00
Multidrug resistance (MDR) often results from the acquisition of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) that encode MDR gene(s), such as conjugative plasmids. The spread of MDR plasmids is founded on their ability of horizontal transference, as well as their faithful inheritance in progeny cells. Here, we investigated the genetic factors involved in the prevalence of the IncI conjugative plasmid pESBL,...
Thu, 10/15/2020 - 00:00
The zoonotic human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is known for its ability to induce DNA-damage and cell death pathology in humans. The molecular mechanism behind this phenomenon involves nuclear translocation by Cas9, a nuclease in C. jejuni (CjeCas9) that is the molecular marker of the Type II CRISPR-Cas system. However, it is unknown via which cellular pathways CjeCas9 drives human intestinal...
Tue, 10/13/2020 - 00:00
The pathogen Vibrio cholerae has multiple iron acquisition systems which allow bacteria to exploit a variety of iron sources across the different environments on which it thrives. The expression of such iron uptake systems is highly regulated, mainly by the master iron homeostasis regulator Fur but also by other mechanisms. Recently, we documented that the expression of many of the iron-...
Tue, 09/22/2020 - 00:00
Aliarcobacter butzleri is the most prevalent Aliarcobacter species and has been isolated from a wide variety of sources. This species is an emerging foodborne and zoonotic pathogen because the bacteria can be transmitted by contaminated food or water and can cause acute enteritis in humans. Currently, there is no database to identify antimicrobial/heavy metal resistance and virulence-associated...
Wed, 09/16/2020 - 00:00
Heavy metals are typical cumulative pollutants that can enter and poison the human body through the food chain. However, the molecular mechanism of heavy metal-induced oxidative stress is unclear. In this study, we characterize PvKelch-like-1 from P. vannamei and explore its antioxidant roles in immune regulation of crustaceans. PvKelch-like-1 full length contains 2107 nucleotides, consists of a...
Fri, 09/04/2020 - 00:00
Bacillary dysentery caused by Shigella flexneri is a major cause of under-five mortality in developing countries, where a novel S. flexneri serotype 1c has become very common since the 1980s. However, the origin and diversification of serotype 1c remain poorly understood. To understand the evolution of serotype 1c and their antimicrobial resistance, we sequenced and analyzed the whole-genome of...
Wed, 09/02/2020 - 00:00
Salmonella is a leading cause of bacterial infections in animals and humans. We sequenced a collection of 450 Salmonella strains from diseased animals to better understand the genetic makeup of their virulence and resistance features. The presence of Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs) varied by serotype. S. Enteritidis carried the most SPIs (n = 15), while S. Mbandaka, S. Cerro, S....
Sat, 08/29/2020 - 00:00
The intracellular pathogenic bacteria belonging to the genus Brucella must cope with acidic stress as they penetrate the host via the gastrointestinal route, and again during the initial stages of intracellular infection. A transcription-level regulation has been proposed to explain this but the specific molecular mechanisms are yet to be determined. We recently reported a comparative...
Thu, 08/20/2020 - 00:00
Environmental pollution in the aquatic environment poses a threat to the immune system of benthic organisms. The Macrophthalmus japonicus crab, which inhabits tidal flat sediments, is a marine invertebrate that provides nutrient and organic matter cycling as a means of purification. Here, we characterized the M. japonicus p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) gene, which plays key roles in...
Thu, 08/13/2020 - 00:00
The sewage sludge isolate Pseudomonas nitroreducens HBP-1 was the first bacterium known to completely degrade the fungicide 2-hydroxybiphenyl. PacBio and Illumina whole-genome sequencing revealed three circular DNA replicons: a chromosome and two plasmids. Plasmids were shown to code for putative adaptive functions such as heavy metal resistance, but with unclarified ability for self-transfer....
Sun, 08/09/2020 - 00:00
In humans, sexual dimorphism can manifest in many ways and it is widely studied in several knowledge fields. It is increasing the evidence that also cells differ according to sex, a correlation still little studied and poorly considered when cells are used in scientific research. Specifically, our interest is on the sex-related dimorphism on the human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) transcriptome...
Sun, 07/26/2020 - 00:00
Dairy cattle health, wellbeing and productivity are deeply affected by stress. Its influence on metabolism and immune response is well known, but the underlying epigenetic mechanisms require further investigation. In this study, we compared DNA methylation and gene expression signatures between two dairy cattle populations falling in the high- and low-variant tails of the distribution of milk...
Thu, 07/16/2020 - 00:00
Itaconic acid is an immunoregulatory metabolite produced by macrophages in response to pathogen invasion. It also exhibits antibacterial activity because it is an uncompetitive inhibitor of isocitrate lyase, whose activity is required for the glyoxylate shunt to be operational. Some bacteria, such as Yersinia pestis, encode enzymes that can degrade itaconic acid and therefore eliminate this...
Wed, 07/08/2020 - 00:00
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) plays an important role for evolutionary innovations within prokaryotic communities and is a crucial event for their survival. Several computational approaches have arisen to identify HGT events in recipient genomes. However, this has been proven to be a complex task due to the generation of a great number of false positives and the prediction disagreement among the...
Tue, 07/07/2020 - 00:00
Life expectancy has gradually grown over the last century. This has deeply affected healthcare costs, since the growth of an aging population is correlated to the increasing burden of chronic diseases. This represents the interesting challenge of how to manage patients with chronic diseases in order to improve health care budgets. Effective primary prevention could represent a promising route. To...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 00:00
Leishmaniasis (Leishmania species), sleeping sickness (Trypanosoma brucei), and Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi) are devastating and globally spread diseases caused by trypanosomatid parasites. At present, drugs for treating trypanosomatid diseases are far from ideal due to host toxicity, elevated cost, limited access, and increasing rates of drug resistance. Technological advances in...
Tue, 06/09/2020 - 00:00
Acanthogobius ommaturus is a euryhaline fish widely distributed in coastal, bay and estuarine areas, showing a strong tolerance to salinity. In order to understand the mechanism of adaptation to salinity stress, RNA-seq was used to compare the transcriptome responses of Acanthogobius ommaturus to the changes of salinity. Four salinity gradients, 0 psu, 15 psu (control), 30 psu and 45 psu were set...

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