Genes

The Research Publications track research that is published across national and international peer-reviewed journals. The most recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal Title, Subject, USDA Grant Funding Agencies or FDA Grant Funding Agencies. The research publications are tracked across five subject areas: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, and Viruses.

Wed, 07/08/2020 - 00:00
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) plays an important role for evolutionary innovations within prokaryotic communities and is a crucial event for their survival. Several computational approaches have arisen to identify HGT events in recipient genomes. However, this has been proven to be a complex task due to the generation of a great number of false positives and the prediction disagreement among the...
Tue, 07/07/2020 - 00:00
Life expectancy has gradually grown over the last century. This has deeply affected healthcare costs, since the growth of an aging population is correlated to the increasing burden of chronic diseases. This represents the interesting challenge of how to manage patients with chronic diseases in order to improve health care budgets. Effective primary prevention could represent a promising route. To...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 00:00
Leishmaniasis (Leishmania species), sleeping sickness (Trypanosoma brucei), and Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi) are devastating and globally spread diseases caused by trypanosomatid parasites. At present, drugs for treating trypanosomatid diseases are far from ideal due to host toxicity, elevated cost, limited access, and increasing rates of drug resistance. Technological advances in...
Tue, 06/09/2020 - 00:00
Acanthogobius ommaturus is a euryhaline fish widely distributed in coastal, bay and estuarine areas, showing a strong tolerance to salinity. In order to understand the mechanism of adaptation to salinity stress, RNA-seq was used to compare the transcriptome responses of Acanthogobius ommaturus to the changes of salinity. Four salinity gradients, 0 psu, 15 psu (control), 30 psu and 45 psu were set...
Sun, 06/07/2020 - 00:00
Pneumonia is the sixth largest cause of death in the UK. It is usually caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, which healthy individuals can carry in their nose without symptoms of disease. Antimicrobial resistance further increases mortality and morbidity associated with pneumococcal infection, although few studies have analysed resistance in naturally circulating pneumococcal isolates in adult...
Mon, 05/04/2020 - 03:19
Switchgrass (Panicum Virgatum L.) has been recognized as the new energy plant, which makes it ideal for the development of phytoremediation on heavy metal contamination in soils with great potential. This study aimed to screen the best internal reference genes for the real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in leaves and roots of switchgrass for investigating its response to various heavy metals,...
Tue, 04/07/2020 - 03:25
Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most extensively used genetic model organisms for studying LTR retrotransposons that are represented by various groups in its genome. However, the phenomenon of molecular domestication of LTR retrotransposons has been insufficiently studied in Drosophila, as well as in other invertebrates. The present work is devoted to studying the role of the domesticated...
Fri, 04/03/2020 - 03:14
Interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) is known as the master transcription factor of the type I interferon response in mammalian species along with IRF3. Yet birds only have IRF7, while they are missing IRF3, with a smaller repertoire of immune-related genes, which leads to a distinctive immune response in chickens compared to in mammals. In order to understand the functional role of IRF7 in the...
Tue, 03/24/2020 - 03:22
Shigella flexneri is the principal cause of bacillary dysentery, contributing significantly to the global burden of diarrheal disease. The appearance and increase in the multi-drug resistance among Shigella strains, necessitates further genetic studies and development of improved/new drugs against the pathogen. The presence of an abundance of hypothetical proteins in the genome and how little is...
Sat, 03/14/2020 - 03:13
RIG-I and MDA5 are two key pattern recognition receptors that sense RNA virus invasion, but RIG-I is absent in chickens. Although chickens have intact MDA5, the genes downstream of chicken MDA5 (chMDA5) that may mediate antiviral response are not well studied. We compared the transcriptional profile of chicken embryonic fibroblasts (DF1) transfected with chMDA5, and poly(I:C), using RNA-seq....
Thu, 03/12/2020 - 03:14
Environmental DNA (eDNA) techniques are gaining attention as cost-effective, non-invasive strategies for acquiring information on fish and other aquatic organisms from water samples. Currently, eDNA approaches are used to detect specific fish species and determine fish community diversity. Various protocols used with eDNA methods for aquatic organism detection have been reported in different eDNA...
Wed, 03/11/2020 - 03:14
Genetic engineering is the use of molecular biology technology to modify DNA sequence(s) in genomes, using a variety of approaches. For example, homologous recombination can be used to target specific sequences in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell genomes or other cultured cells, but it is cumbersome, poorly efficient, and relies on drug positive/negative selection in cell culture for success. Other...
Sat, 02/29/2020 - 03:15
Large-scale screening of drug sensitivity on cancer cell models can mimic in vivo cellular behavior providing wider scope for biological research on cancer. Since the therapeutic effect of a single drug or drug combination depends on the individual patient’s genome characteristics and cancer cells integration reaction, the identification of an effective agent in an in vitro model by...
Fri, 02/28/2020 - 03:15
Disorders of sex development (DSD) and reproduction are not uncommon among horses, though knowledge about their molecular causes is sparse. Here we characterized a ~200 kb homozygous deletion in chromosome 29 at 29.7–29.9 Mb. The region contains AKR1C genes which function as ketosteroid reductases in steroid hormone biosynthesis, including androgens and estrogens. Mutations in AKR1C...
Fri, 01/31/2020 - 03:14
Antibiotic-resistant pathogens claim the lives of thousands of people each year and are currently considered as one of the most serious threats to public health. Apart from clinical environments, soil ecosystems also represent a major source of antibiotic resistance determinants, which can potentially disseminate across distinct microbial habitats and be acquired by human pathogens via horizontal...
Fri, 01/24/2020 - 03:13
Papaver somniferum L. is an important medical plant that produces analgesic drugs used for the pain caused by cancers and surgeries. Recent studies have focused on the expression genes involved in analgesic drugs biosynthesis, and the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) technique is the main strategy. However, no reference genes have been reported for gene expression...
Fri, 01/17/2020 - 03:13
The velvet regulator VosA plays a pivotal role in asexual sporulation in the model filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. In the present study, we characterize the roles of VosA in sexual spores (ascospores) in A. nidulans. During ascospore maturation, the deletion of vosA causes a rapid decrease in spore viability. The absence of vosA also results in a lack of trehalose biogenesis and...
Sun, 12/29/2019 - 03:15
Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative diseases and are characterized by the accumulation of abnormal prion protein (PrPSc) in the brain. During the outbreak of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic in the United Kingdom, prion diseases in several species were reported; however, horse prion disease has not been reported thus far. In previous studies, the shadow of prion protein...
Sat, 12/28/2019 - 03:14
Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen and an important cause of livestock infections. More than 20 staphylococcal enterotoxins with emetic activity can be produced by specific strains responsible for staphylococcal food poisoning, one of the most common food-borne diseases. Whole genome sequencing provides a comprehensive view of the genome structure and gene content that have largely...
Tue, 12/24/2019 - 03:14
Maize lethal necrosis (MLN), caused by co-infection of maize chlorotic mottle virus and sugarcane mosaic virus, can lead up to 100% yield loss. Identification and validation of genomic regions can facilitate marker assisted breeding for resistance to MLN. Our objectives were to identify marker-trait associations using genome wide association study and assess the potential of genomic prediction...
Sat, 12/21/2019 - 03:22
Functional (meta) genomics allows the high-throughput identification of functional genes in a premise-free way. However, it is still difficult to perform Sanger sequencing for high GC DNA templates, which hinders the functional genomic exploration of a high GC genomic library. Here, we developed a procedure to resolve this problem by coupling the Sanger and PacBio sequencing strategies....
Tue, 12/17/2019 - 03:15
ICEpMERPH, the first integrative conjugative element (ICE) of the SXT/R391 familyisolated in the United Kingdom and Europe, was analyzed to determine the nature of its adaptivefunctions, its genetic structure, and its homology to related elements normally found in pathogenicVibrio or Proteus species. Whole genome sequencing of Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolate K802 (whichcontains the ICEpMERPH)...
Sun, 12/08/2019 - 03:29
Non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (nsCL/P) ranks among the most common human congenital malformations, and has a multifactorial background in which both exogenous and genetic risk factors act in concert. The present report describes a genome-wide association study (GWAS) involving a total of 285 nsCL/P patients and 1212 controls from the Netherlands and Belgium. Twenty of the...
Thu, 12/05/2019 - 03:25
Listeria monocytogenes is a highly fatal foodborne causative agent that has been implicated in numerous outbreaks and related deaths of listeriosis in the world. In this study, six L. monocytogenes isolated from ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products were analysed using Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) to identify virulence and resistance genes, prophage sequences, PCR-serogroups, and sequence types (STs...
Thu, 12/05/2019 - 03:25
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a reliable and easily detectable reproductive marker for the fertility competence of many farm animal species. AMH is also a good predictor of superovulation in cattle, sheep, and mares. In this review, we have summarized the recent findings related to AMH and its predictive reliability related to fertility and superovulation in domestic animals,...
Fri, 11/29/2019 - 03:12
Salmonella is one of the most common food-borne pathogens. It can be transmitted between chickens, as well as to people by contaminated poultry products. In our study, we distinguished chickens with different resistances mainly based on bacterial loads. We compared the cecal tonsil transcriptomes between the susceptible and resistant chickens after Salmonella infection, aiming to identify the...
Wed, 11/06/2019 - 03:15
Intermediate-salinity environments are distributed around the world. Here, we present a snapshot characterization of two Peruvian thalassohaline environments at high altitude, Maras and Acos, which provide an excellent opportunity to increase our understanding of these ecosystems. The main goal of this study was to assess the structure and functional diversity of the communities of microorganisms...
Thu, 10/31/2019 - 03:14
Polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM) are both classified as idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. They share a few common characteristics such as inflammation and muscle weakness. Previous studies have indicated that these diseases present aspects of an auto-immune disorder; however, their exact pathogenesis is still unclear. In this study, three gene expression datasets (PM: 7, DM: 50,...
Sun, 10/20/2019 - 03:17
Captive breeding has been used as an effective approach to protecting endangered animals but its effect on the gut microbiome and the conservation status of these species is largely unknown. The giant panda is a flagship species for the conservation of wildlife. With integrated efforts including captive breeding, this species has been recently upgraded from “endangered” to...
Mon, 09/30/2019 - 17:10
Binding of transcription factors (TFs) to cis-regulatory elements (DNA) could modulate the expression of downstream genes, while interactions between TFs and other proteins might inhibit them binding to DNA. Nowadays, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) approaches are usually employed to detect the inhibitory effect. However, EMSA might not reflect...