Genes

Mon, 10/19/2020 - 00:00
One integral step in the transition from a nucleic acid encoded-genome to functional proteins is the aminoacylation of tRNA molecules. To perform this activity, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) activate free amino acids in the cell forming an aminoacyl-adenylate before transferring the amino acid on to its cognate tRNA. These newly formed aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA) can then be used by the...
Sat, 10/17/2020 - 00:00
Multidrug resistance (MDR) often results from the acquisition of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) that encode MDR gene(s), such as conjugative plasmids. The spread of MDR plasmids is founded on their ability of horizontal transference, as well as their faithful inheritance in progeny cells. Here, we investigated the genetic factors involved in the prevalence of the IncI conjugative plasmid pESBL,...
Thu, 10/15/2020 - 00:00
The zoonotic human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is known for its ability to induce DNA-damage and cell death pathology in humans. The molecular mechanism behind this phenomenon involves nuclear translocation by Cas9, a nuclease in C. jejuni (CjeCas9) that is the molecular marker of the Type II CRISPR-Cas system. However, it is unknown via which cellular pathways CjeCas9 drives human intestinal...
Tue, 10/13/2020 - 00:00
The pathogen Vibrio cholerae has multiple iron acquisition systems which allow bacteria to exploit a variety of iron sources across the different environments on which it thrives. The expression of such iron uptake systems is highly regulated, mainly by the master iron homeostasis regulator Fur but also by other mechanisms. Recently, we documented that the expression of many of the iron-...
Tue, 09/22/2020 - 00:00
Aliarcobacter butzleri is the most prevalent Aliarcobacter species and has been isolated from a wide variety of sources. This species is an emerging foodborne and zoonotic pathogen because the bacteria can be transmitted by contaminated food or water and can cause acute enteritis in humans. Currently, there is no database to identify antimicrobial/heavy metal resistance and virulence-associated...
Wed, 09/16/2020 - 00:00
Heavy metals are typical cumulative pollutants that can enter and poison the human body through the food chain. However, the molecular mechanism of heavy metal-induced oxidative stress is unclear. In this study, we characterize PvKelch-like-1 from P. vannamei and explore its antioxidant roles in immune regulation of crustaceans. PvKelch-like-1 full length contains 2107 nucleotides, consists of a...
Fri, 09/04/2020 - 00:00
Bacillary dysentery caused by Shigella flexneri is a major cause of under-five mortality in developing countries, where a novel S. flexneri serotype 1c has become very common since the 1980s. However, the origin and diversification of serotype 1c remain poorly understood. To understand the evolution of serotype 1c and their antimicrobial resistance, we sequenced and analyzed the whole-genome of...
Wed, 09/02/2020 - 00:00
Salmonella is a leading cause of bacterial infections in animals and humans. We sequenced a collection of 450 Salmonella strains from diseased animals to better understand the genetic makeup of their virulence and resistance features. The presence of Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs) varied by serotype. S. Enteritidis carried the most SPIs (n = 15), while S. Mbandaka, S. Cerro, S....
Sat, 08/29/2020 - 00:00
The intracellular pathogenic bacteria belonging to the genus Brucella must cope with acidic stress as they penetrate the host via the gastrointestinal route, and again during the initial stages of intracellular infection. A transcription-level regulation has been proposed to explain this but the specific molecular mechanisms are yet to be determined. We recently reported a comparative...
Thu, 08/20/2020 - 00:00
Environmental pollution in the aquatic environment poses a threat to the immune system of benthic organisms. The Macrophthalmus japonicus crab, which inhabits tidal flat sediments, is a marine invertebrate that provides nutrient and organic matter cycling as a means of purification. Here, we characterized the M. japonicus p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) gene, which plays key roles in...
Thu, 08/13/2020 - 00:00
The sewage sludge isolate Pseudomonas nitroreducens HBP-1 was the first bacterium known to completely degrade the fungicide 2-hydroxybiphenyl. PacBio and Illumina whole-genome sequencing revealed three circular DNA replicons: a chromosome and two plasmids. Plasmids were shown to code for putative adaptive functions such as heavy metal resistance, but with unclarified ability for self-transfer....
Sun, 08/09/2020 - 00:00
In humans, sexual dimorphism can manifest in many ways and it is widely studied in several knowledge fields. It is increasing the evidence that also cells differ according to sex, a correlation still little studied and poorly considered when cells are used in scientific research. Specifically, our interest is on the sex-related dimorphism on the human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) transcriptome...
Sun, 07/26/2020 - 00:00
Dairy cattle health, wellbeing and productivity are deeply affected by stress. Its influence on metabolism and immune response is well known, but the underlying epigenetic mechanisms require further investigation. In this study, we compared DNA methylation and gene expression signatures between two dairy cattle populations falling in the high- and low-variant tails of the distribution of milk...
Thu, 07/16/2020 - 00:00
Itaconic acid is an immunoregulatory metabolite produced by macrophages in response to pathogen invasion. It also exhibits antibacterial activity because it is an uncompetitive inhibitor of isocitrate lyase, whose activity is required for the glyoxylate shunt to be operational. Some bacteria, such as Yersinia pestis, encode enzymes that can degrade itaconic acid and therefore eliminate this...
Wed, 07/08/2020 - 00:00
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) plays an important role for evolutionary innovations within prokaryotic communities and is a crucial event for their survival. Several computational approaches have arisen to identify HGT events in recipient genomes. However, this has been proven to be a complex task due to the generation of a great number of false positives and the prediction disagreement among the...
Tue, 07/07/2020 - 00:00
Life expectancy has gradually grown over the last century. This has deeply affected healthcare costs, since the growth of an aging population is correlated to the increasing burden of chronic diseases. This represents the interesting challenge of how to manage patients with chronic diseases in order to improve health care budgets. Effective primary prevention could represent a promising route. To...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 00:00
Leishmaniasis (Leishmania species), sleeping sickness (Trypanosoma brucei), and Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi) are devastating and globally spread diseases caused by trypanosomatid parasites. At present, drugs for treating trypanosomatid diseases are far from ideal due to host toxicity, elevated cost, limited access, and increasing rates of drug resistance. Technological advances in...
Tue, 06/09/2020 - 00:00
Acanthogobius ommaturus is a euryhaline fish widely distributed in coastal, bay and estuarine areas, showing a strong tolerance to salinity. In order to understand the mechanism of adaptation to salinity stress, RNA-seq was used to compare the transcriptome responses of Acanthogobius ommaturus to the changes of salinity. Four salinity gradients, 0 psu, 15 psu (control), 30 psu and 45 psu were set...
Sun, 06/07/2020 - 00:00
Pneumonia is the sixth largest cause of death in the UK. It is usually caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, which healthy individuals can carry in their nose without symptoms of disease. Antimicrobial resistance further increases mortality and morbidity associated with pneumococcal infection, although few studies have analysed resistance in naturally circulating pneumococcal isolates in adult...
Mon, 05/04/2020 - 03:19
Switchgrass (Panicum Virgatum L.) has been recognized as the new energy plant, which makes it ideal for the development of phytoremediation on heavy metal contamination in soils with great potential. This study aimed to screen the best internal reference genes for the real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in leaves and roots of switchgrass for investigating its response to various heavy metals,...
Tue, 04/07/2020 - 03:25
Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most extensively used genetic model organisms for studying LTR retrotransposons that are represented by various groups in its genome. However, the phenomenon of molecular domestication of LTR retrotransposons has been insufficiently studied in Drosophila, as well as in other invertebrates. The present work is devoted to studying the role of the domesticated...
Fri, 04/03/2020 - 03:14
Interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) is known as the master transcription factor of the type I interferon response in mammalian species along with IRF3. Yet birds only have IRF7, while they are missing IRF3, with a smaller repertoire of immune-related genes, which leads to a distinctive immune response in chickens compared to in mammals. In order to understand the functional role of IRF7 in the...
Tue, 03/24/2020 - 03:22
Shigella flexneri is the principal cause of bacillary dysentery, contributing significantly to the global burden of diarrheal disease. The appearance and increase in the multi-drug resistance among Shigella strains, necessitates further genetic studies and development of improved/new drugs against the pathogen. The presence of an abundance of hypothetical proteins in the genome and how little is...
Sat, 03/14/2020 - 03:13
RIG-I and MDA5 are two key pattern recognition receptors that sense RNA virus invasion, but RIG-I is absent in chickens. Although chickens have intact MDA5, the genes downstream of chicken MDA5 (chMDA5) that may mediate antiviral response are not well studied. We compared the transcriptional profile of chicken embryonic fibroblasts (DF1) transfected with chMDA5, and poly(I:C), using RNA-seq....
Thu, 03/12/2020 - 03:14
Environmental DNA (eDNA) techniques are gaining attention as cost-effective, non-invasive strategies for acquiring information on fish and other aquatic organisms from water samples. Currently, eDNA approaches are used to detect specific fish species and determine fish community diversity. Various protocols used with eDNA methods for aquatic organism detection have been reported in different eDNA...
Wed, 03/11/2020 - 03:14
Genetic engineering is the use of molecular biology technology to modify DNA sequence(s) in genomes, using a variety of approaches. For example, homologous recombination can be used to target specific sequences in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell genomes or other cultured cells, but it is cumbersome, poorly efficient, and relies on drug positive/negative selection in cell culture for success. Other...
Sat, 02/29/2020 - 03:15
Large-scale screening of drug sensitivity on cancer cell models can mimic in vivo cellular behavior providing wider scope for biological research on cancer. Since the therapeutic effect of a single drug or drug combination depends on the individual patient’s genome characteristics and cancer cells integration reaction, the identification of an effective agent in an in vitro model by...
Fri, 02/28/2020 - 03:15
Disorders of sex development (DSD) and reproduction are not uncommon among horses, though knowledge about their molecular causes is sparse. Here we characterized a ~200 kb homozygous deletion in chromosome 29 at 29.7–29.9 Mb. The region contains AKR1C genes which function as ketosteroid reductases in steroid hormone biosynthesis, including androgens and estrogens. Mutations in AKR1C...
Fri, 01/31/2020 - 03:14
Antibiotic-resistant pathogens claim the lives of thousands of people each year and are currently considered as one of the most serious threats to public health. Apart from clinical environments, soil ecosystems also represent a major source of antibiotic resistance determinants, which can potentially disseminate across distinct microbial habitats and be acquired by human pathogens via horizontal...
Fri, 01/24/2020 - 03:13
Papaver somniferum L. is an important medical plant that produces analgesic drugs used for the pain caused by cancers and surgeries. Recent studies have focused on the expression genes involved in analgesic drugs biosynthesis, and the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) technique is the main strategy. However, no reference genes have been reported for gene expression...
Fri, 01/17/2020 - 03:13
The velvet regulator VosA plays a pivotal role in asexual sporulation in the model filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. In the present study, we characterize the roles of VosA in sexual spores (ascospores) in A. nidulans. During ascospore maturation, the deletion of vosA causes a rapid decrease in spore viability. The absence of vosA also results in a lack of trehalose biogenesis and...
Sun, 12/29/2019 - 03:15
Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative diseases and are characterized by the accumulation of abnormal prion protein (PrPSc) in the brain. During the outbreak of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic in the United Kingdom, prion diseases in several species were reported; however, horse prion disease has not been reported thus far. In previous studies, the shadow of prion protein...
Sat, 12/28/2019 - 03:14
Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen and an important cause of livestock infections. More than 20 staphylococcal enterotoxins with emetic activity can be produced by specific strains responsible for staphylococcal food poisoning, one of the most common food-borne diseases. Whole genome sequencing provides a comprehensive view of the genome structure and gene content that have largely...
Tue, 12/24/2019 - 03:14
Maize lethal necrosis (MLN), caused by co-infection of maize chlorotic mottle virus and sugarcane mosaic virus, can lead up to 100% yield loss. Identification and validation of genomic regions can facilitate marker assisted breeding for resistance to MLN. Our objectives were to identify marker-trait associations using genome wide association study and assess the potential of genomic prediction...
Sat, 12/21/2019 - 03:22
Functional (meta) genomics allows the high-throughput identification of functional genes in a premise-free way. However, it is still difficult to perform Sanger sequencing for high GC DNA templates, which hinders the functional genomic exploration of a high GC genomic library. Here, we developed a procedure to resolve this problem by coupling the Sanger and PacBio sequencing strategies....
Tue, 12/17/2019 - 03:15
ICEpMERPH, the first integrative conjugative element (ICE) of the SXT/R391 familyisolated in the United Kingdom and Europe, was analyzed to determine the nature of its adaptivefunctions, its genetic structure, and its homology to related elements normally found in pathogenicVibrio or Proteus species. Whole genome sequencing of Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolate K802 (whichcontains the ICEpMERPH)...
Sun, 12/08/2019 - 03:29
Non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (nsCL/P) ranks among the most common human congenital malformations, and has a multifactorial background in which both exogenous and genetic risk factors act in concert. The present report describes a genome-wide association study (GWAS) involving a total of 285 nsCL/P patients and 1212 controls from the Netherlands and Belgium. Twenty of the...
Thu, 12/05/2019 - 03:25
Listeria monocytogenes is a highly fatal foodborne causative agent that has been implicated in numerous outbreaks and related deaths of listeriosis in the world. In this study, six L. monocytogenes isolated from ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products were analysed using Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) to identify virulence and resistance genes, prophage sequences, PCR-serogroups, and sequence types (STs...
Thu, 12/05/2019 - 03:25
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a reliable and easily detectable reproductive marker for the fertility competence of many farm animal species. AMH is also a good predictor of superovulation in cattle, sheep, and mares. In this review, we have summarized the recent findings related to AMH and its predictive reliability related to fertility and superovulation in domestic animals,...
Fri, 11/29/2019 - 03:12
Salmonella is one of the most common food-borne pathogens. It can be transmitted between chickens, as well as to people by contaminated poultry products. In our study, we distinguished chickens with different resistances mainly based on bacterial loads. We compared the cecal tonsil transcriptomes between the susceptible and resistant chickens after Salmonella infection, aiming to identify the...
Wed, 11/06/2019 - 03:15
Intermediate-salinity environments are distributed around the world. Here, we present a snapshot characterization of two Peruvian thalassohaline environments at high altitude, Maras and Acos, which provide an excellent opportunity to increase our understanding of these ecosystems. The main goal of this study was to assess the structure and functional diversity of the communities of microorganisms...
Thu, 10/31/2019 - 03:14
Polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM) are both classified as idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. They share a few common characteristics such as inflammation and muscle weakness. Previous studies have indicated that these diseases present aspects of an auto-immune disorder; however, their exact pathogenesis is still unclear. In this study, three gene expression datasets (PM: 7, DM: 50,...
Sun, 10/20/2019 - 03:17
Captive breeding has been used as an effective approach to protecting endangered animals but its effect on the gut microbiome and the conservation status of these species is largely unknown. The giant panda is a flagship species for the conservation of wildlife. With integrated efforts including captive breeding, this species has been recently upgraded from “endangered” to...
Mon, 09/30/2019 - 17:10
Binding of transcription factors (TFs) to cis-regulatory elements (DNA) could modulate the expression of downstream genes, while interactions between TFs and other proteins might inhibit them binding to DNA. Nowadays, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) approaches are usually employed to detect the inhibitory effect. However, EMSA might not reflect...