Infection, Genetics and Evolution

Sun, 01/12/2020 - 03:22
Author(s): Felipe Pinheiro Vilela, Carolina Nogueira Gomes, Mário Henrique Paziani, Vânia Santos Braz, Dália dos Prazeres Rodrigues, Renata Garcia Costa, Monique Ribeiro Tiba Casas, Marcia Regina von Zeska Kress, Juliana Pfrimer Falcão, Fábio CampioniAbstractSalmonella Dublin is a strongly cattle-adapted serovar that is also responsible for severe invasive infections in humans. Although invasive...
Sun, 01/12/2020 - 03:22
Author(s): J. Comin, A. Chaure, A. Cebollada, D. Ibarz, J. Viñuelas, M.A. Vitoria, M.J. Iglesias, S. SamperAbstractThe genotyping is applied to analyse tuberculosis detected in Aragon, Spain, since 2004. The new sequencing technologies were applied to analyse an outbreak which, the first time the responsible Myocbacterium tuberculosis strain of the outbreak appeared was in 2014, spreading to 14...
Thu, 01/09/2020 - 03:40
Author(s): Ada Kazi, Che Muhammad Khairul Hisyam Ismail, Anthony Amy Amilda, Candy Chuah, Chiuan Herng Leow, Boon Huat Lim, Kirnpal Kaur Banga Singh, Chiuan Yee LeowAbstractShigellosis is one of the most common diseases found in the developing countries, especially those countries that are prone flood. The causative agent for this disease is the Shigella species. This organism is one of the third...
Thu, 01/09/2020 - 03:40
Author(s): Barbara Araújo dos Santos, Jessica da Silva de Oliveira, Bruna Marcela Parmanhani-da-Silva, Rachel Leite Ribeiro, Lúcia Martins Teixeira, Felipe Piedade Gonçalves NevesAbstractWe aimed to investigate the occurrence of CRISPR elements in the genomes of vancomycin-resistant (VRE) and vancomycin-susceptible (VSE) enterococci and their association with the presence of antimicrobial...
Thu, 01/09/2020 - 03:40
Author(s): Nolwazi Londiwe Bhembe, Ezekiel GreenAbstractDrug-resistant tuberculosis prevalence is still a global challenge. Making it imperative to examine the molecular epidemiology of drug resistant tuberculosis. Molecular epidemiology methods can evaluate transmission patterns and risk factors, ascertain transmission cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and furthermore determine...
Wed, 01/08/2020 - 03:26
Author(s): Wen Luo, Lin Tian, Yingde Gan, Enlong Chen, Xuejuan Shen, Junbin Pan, David M. Irwin, Rui-Ai Chen, Yongyi ShenAbstractAvian influenza A viruses (AIVs) classify into 18 hemagglutinin (HA) and 11 neuraminidase (NA) subtypes. Even though H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes usually circulate among humans leading to infection, occasionally, H5, H6, H7, H9, and H10 that circulate in poultry also infect...
Wed, 01/08/2020 - 03:26
Author(s): Tatiana Umpeleva, Kseniya Belousova, Ludmila Golubeva, Tatiana Boteva, Irina Morozova, Anna Vyazovaya, Igor Mokrousov, Natalia Eremeeva, Diana VakhrushevaAbstractThe aim of this study was to perform a molecular characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains circulating in one of the “closed” Russian cities under conditions of the limited population migration and high HIV...
Wed, 12/11/2019 - 03:48
Author(s): Silva Tafaj, Igor Mokrousov, Emanuele Borroni, Alberto Trovato, Perlat Kapisyzi, Donika Bardhi, Hasan Hafizi, Silvana Bala, Anyla Bulo, Silvia Bino, Nalin Rastogi, Daniela CirilloAbstractAlbania is a Balkan country with moderate to low incidence of tuberculosis (TB) and very low prevalence of drug resistant TB. Here, we analyzed a country-wide multi-year Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
Sat, 11/23/2019 - 03:24
Author(s): Kien Trung Le, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Lam Thanh Nguyen, Keita Matsuno, Duc-Huy Chu, Tien Ngoc Tien, Tung Thanh Le, Hiroshi Kida, Yoshihiro SakodaAbstractDuring the annual surveillance of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in Vietnam in 2018, three H7N7 AIV isolates were identified in domestic ducks in a single flock in Vinh Long province. The present study is the first documented report of...
Thu, 11/21/2019 - 03:24
Author(s): Kelvin B. Musyoka, John N. Kiiru, Eva Aluvaala, Protus Omondi, William K. Chege, Terry Judah, Daniel Kiboi, Joseph K. Nganga, Francis T. KimaniAbstractResistance to the mainstay antimalarial drugs is a major concern in the control of malaria. Delayed Plasmodium falciparum parasite clearance has been associated with Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the kelch propeller region (...
Tue, 11/05/2019 - 03:26
Author(s): A.S. Gladkikh, S.I. Feranchuk, A.S. Ponomareva, N.O. Bochalgin, L.V. MironovaАbstractCurrently, the spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global trend and poses a severe threat to public health. The causative agent of cholera, an extremely virulent disease with pandemic expansion, becomes more and more resistant to a wider range of drugs with every coming year. The Vibrio...
Sat, 11/02/2019 - 03:25
Author(s): Yongjian Liu, Hanping Li, Xiaolin Wang, Jingwan Han, Lei Jia, Tianyi Li, Jingyun Li, Lin LiAbstractThere is increasing evidence that naturally occurring HIV-1 genetic diversity can have an impact on drug resistance. Recently, our previous study has demonstrated the natural presence of the V179D and K103R/V179D mutations associated with resistance to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase...
Sat, 11/02/2019 - 03:25
Author(s): Yoon-Gi Baek, Yu-Na Lee, Dong-Hun Lee, Sun-Ha Cheon, Soo-Jeong Kye, Yu-Ri Park, Young-Jae Si, Myoung-Heon Lee, Youn-Jeong LeeAbstractSince 2017, clade 2.3.4.4b H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have been detected over a broad geographic region, including Eurasia. These viruses have evolved through reassortment with Eurasian low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (...
Wed, 10/23/2019 - 03:33
Author(s): Shoko Okitsu, Pattara Khamrin, Sayaka Takanashi, Aksara Thongprachum, Sheikh Ariful Hoque, Haruko Takeuchi, Md Alfazal Khan, S.M. Tafsir Hasan, Tsutomu Iwata, Hiroyuki Shimizu, Masamine Jimba, Satoshi Hayakawa, Niwat Maneekarn, Hiroshi UshijimaAbstractA number of molecular epidemiological studies reported the detection of enteric viruses in asymptomatic children. The role of these...
Wed, 10/23/2019 - 03:33
Author(s): Bojan Papić, Darja Kušar, Irena Zdovc, Majda Golob, Mateja PateAbstractListeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis, a serious disease affecting both humans and animals. While listeriosis outbreaks in humans are commonly investigated in detail, routine typing of L. monocytogenes is generally not performed in animal outbreaks. Here, seven presumable listeriosis outbreaks...
Wed, 10/23/2019 - 03:33
Author(s): Ismari Perini Furlaneto, Marília Lima da Conceição, Emilyn Costa Conceição, Maria Luíza Lopes, Yan Corrêa Rodrigues, Beatriz Reis Macelino, Harrison Magdinier Gomes, Philip Noel Suffys, Ricardo José de Paula Souza e Guimarães, Marlei Gomes da Silva, Rafael Silva Duarte, Loreno da Costa Francez, Alexandre do Rosário Casseb, Volney de Magalhães Câmara, Washington Luiz Assunção Pereira,...
Wed, 10/23/2019 - 03:33
Author(s): Henry M. Kariithi, Catharine N. Welch, Helena L. Ferreira, Elizabeth A. Pusch, Leonard O. Ateya, Yatinder S. Binepal, Auleria A. Apopo, Thomas D. Dulu, Claudio L. Afonso, David L. SuarezAbstractPoultry production plays an important role in the economy and livelihoods of rural households in Kenya. As part of a surveillance program, avian influenza virus (AIV)-specific real-time RT-PCR (...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:21
Author(s): Iman Yassine, Rayane Rafei, Marwan Osman, Hassan Mallat, Fouad Dabboussi, Monzer HamzeAbstractQuinolones are an important antimicrobial class used widely in the treatment of enterobacterial infections. Although there are multiple mechanisms of quinolone resistance, attention should be paid to plasmid-mediated genes due to their ability to facilitate the spread of quinolone resistance,...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:21
Author(s): Pilleriin Soodla, Kristi Huik, Merit Pauskar, Lize Cuypers, Kristel Van Laethem, Heli Rajasaar, Eveli Kallas, Helen Lepa, Anna Velts-Lindh, Ene-Ly Jõgeda, Irja Lutsar, Radko AviAbstractBackgroundDue to the widespread use of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) as part of first-line therapies to curb the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in Eastern-European...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:21
Author(s): Edyta Świętoń, Monika Olszewska-Tomczyk, Aleksandra Giza, Krzysztof ŚmietankaAbstractThe process of avian influenza virus (AIV) evolution in a new host was investigated in the experiment in which ten serial passages of a turkey-derived H9N2 AIV were carried out in specific pathogen free chickens (3 birds/group) inoculated by oculonasal route. Oropharyngeal swabs collected 3 days post...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:21
Author(s): Georgia Diakoudi, Gianvito Lanave, Cristiana Catella, Maria Cristina Medici, Flora De Conto, Adriana Calderaro, Daniela Loconsole, Maria Chironna, Floriana Bonura, Giovanni Maurizio Giammanco, Kristián Bányai, Kentaro Tohma, Gabriel Ignacio Parra, Vito Martella, Simona De GraziaAbstractNoroviruses are important human enteric pathogens and monitoring their genetic diversity is important...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:21
Author(s): Si-Yang Huang, Jing-Zhi Gong, Bin Yang, Yi-Min Fan, Na Yao, Chun-Ren WangAbstractFasciolosis, a foodborne zoonotic disease, caused by Fasciola species which is considered an important problem for human health and livestock husbandry development. Snails are intermediate hosts of F. hepatica, the epidemiological surveillance of snails can evaluate the transmission risk of this disease in...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:21
Author(s): Jie Sun, Yuanyuan Zhang, Shuo Gao, Jing Yang, Yi Tang, Youxiang DiaoAbstractHepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome (HHS) is an acute infectious disease caused by fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4), which mainly infects broilers aged 3–5 weeks. In March 2018, a pathogenic disease, which was characterized by symptoms similar to HHS, broke out in 10-day-old broiler flocks in Shandong...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:21
Author(s): Lize Cuypers, Marijn Thijssen, Arash Shakibzadeh, Ward Deboutte, Jamal Sarvari, Farzaneh Sabahi, Mehrdad Ravanshad, Mahmoud Reza PourkarimAbstractA tremendous upscale of screening and treatment strategies is required to achieve elimination of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Iran by 2030. Among treated patients, at least 5–10% is expected to experience treatment failure. To efficiently...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:21
Author(s): Anzaan Dippenaar, Margaretha De Vos, Florian M. Marx, Sabir A. Adroub, Paul D. van Helden, Arnab Pain, Samantha L. Sampson, Robin M. WarrenAbstractRecurrent tuberculosis (TB) after successful TB treatment occurs due to endogenous reactivation (relapse) or exogenous reinfection. We revisited the conclusions of relapse in a high TB incidence setting that were drawn on the basis of IS6110...