Infection, Genetics and Evolution

Thu, 01/21/2021 - 06:12
Author(s): Murari Bhandari, Amy V. Jennison, Irani U. Rathnayake, Flavia Huygens Vibrio cholerae is the etiological agent of cholera, a severe diarrheal disease, which can occur as either an epidemic or sporadic disease. Cholera pandemic-causing V. cholerae O1 and O139 serogroups originated from the Indian subcontinent and spread globally and millions of lives are lost each year, mainly in...
Wed, 01/20/2021 - 06:06
Author(s): Kattareeya Kumthip, Pattara Khamrin, Hiroshi Ushijima, Niwat Maneekarn Norovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of nonbacterial foodborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis. Individuals who are asymptomatically infected may act as reservoirs to facilitate transmission of NoV. This retrospective study was conducted to identify the viral agent and investigate potential transmission of NoV...
Sun, 01/10/2021 - 06:06
Author(s): Renata Galetti, Rafael Antonio Casarin Penha Filho, Joseane Cristina Ferreira, Alessandro M. Varani, Pavelas Sazinas, Lars Jelsbak, Ana Lúcia Costa Darini The rapid emergence of resistant bacteria is occurring worldwide. The understanding of the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance using high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics approaches is providing valuable insights into...
Mon, 01/04/2021 - 06:06
Author(s): Takako Utsumi, Maria Inge Lusida, Zayyin Dinana, Rury Mega Wahyuni, Soegeng Soegijanto, Soetjipto, Alpha Fardah Athiyyah, Subijanto Marto Sudarmo, Reza Gunadi Ranuh, Andy Darma, Juniastuti, Laura Navika Yamani, Yen Hai Doan, Hiroyuki Shimizu, Koji Ishii, Chieko Matsui, Lin Deng, Takayuki Abe, Kazuhiko Katayama, Ikuo ShojiAbstract Noroviruses are recognized as a leading cause of...
Mon, 12/07/2020 - 06:09
Author(s): Matthew W. Hopken, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Kristy L. Pabilonia, James Pierce, Theodore Anderson, Courtney Pierce, Zaid Abdo Isolation and cultivation of wild-type viruses in model organism cells or tissues is standard practice in virology. Oftentimes, the virus host species is distantly related to the species from which the culture system was developed. Thus, virus culture in these...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Cooper J. Park, Jinfeng Li, Xinglu Zhang, Fengxiang Gao, Christopher S. Benton, Cheryl P. Andam Salmonella enterica, the causative agent of gastrointestinal diseases and typhoid fever, is a human and animal pathogen that causes significant mortality and morbidity worldwide. In this study, we examine the genomic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of 63 S. enterica isolates from...
Sat, 11/14/2020 - 06:23
Author(s): Jeyaprakash Rajendhran Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by certain species of Brucella. Each species has its preferred host animal, though it can infect other animals too. For a longer period, only six classical species were recognized in the genus Brucella. No vaccine is available for human brucellosis. Therefore, human brucellosis can be controlled only by controlling...
Fri, 11/13/2020 - 06:13
Author(s): Nutthawan Nonthabenjawan, Patcharaporn Boonyos, Benjarat Phattanawiboon, Worakarn Towayunanta, Kobkool Chuntrakool, Karn Ngaopravet, Kriangsak Ruchusatsawat, Ballang Uppapong, Somchai Sangkitporn, Eisuke Mekada, Yoshiharu Matsuura, Masashi Tatsumi, Hiroto Mizushima Norovirus is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Norovirus shedding typically lasts one week to one month...
Wed, 11/04/2020 - 06:12
Author(s): Matías Castells, Rubén Darío Caffarena, María Laura Casaux, Carlos Schild, Felipe Castells, Daniel Castells, Matías Victoria, Franklin Riet-Correa, Federico Giannitti, Viviana Parreño, Rodney Colina Uruguay is a leading exporter of bovine meat and dairy products, and cattle production is one of the principal economic backbones in this country. A main clinical problem faced by livestock...
Thu, 10/29/2020 - 06:24
Author(s): Pengwei Hu, Chuyun Liu, Jiawen Ruan, Meng Yuan, Changyan Ju, Yanping Ma, Yueming Yuan, Hui Chen, Muhua Yu, Yongxiang Duan Foodborne illness outbreaks can be caused by a great many of gastrointestinal microorganisms including bacteria, viruses and parasites. Acute gastroenteritis is most commonly found in such patients infected with at least one pathogen through food intake. The stool...
Fri, 09/18/2020 - 06:11
Author(s): Lijun Zheng, Hanming Zhang, Jie Ma, Jinjin Liu, Shuhuan Ma, Mingchen Wang, Yuqi Huo Noroviruses (NoVs) are a major cause of acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. In this study, we report the isolation, near-complete genome sequencing, and expression and biological characterization of the major capsid protein (VP1) of a GI.3 NoV isolated from a child presenting acute...
Sat, 09/12/2020 - 06:17
Author(s): Nor Raihan Mohammad Shabani, Munirah Mokhtar, Chiuan Herng Leow, Qi Ying Lean, Candy Chuah, Kirnpal Kaur Banga Singh, Chiuan Yee Leow Shigella is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes bacterial dysentery called shigellosis. The assessment of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators produced by immune cells against this bacteria are vital in identifying the effectiveness of the...
Thu, 08/27/2020 - 06:16
Author(s): Mahmoud M. Tawfick, Andrew Rosser, Kumar Rajakumar Fimbriae mediate adhesion of Salmonella enterica organisms to the intestinal epithelium, which is an essential step in the pathogenesis process preceding invasion and/or systemic spread. In addition, Salmonella fimbrial genes transcripts were detected in the blood samples from Salmonella infected human patients, which supports the...
Fri, 07/24/2020 - 06:09
Author(s): Marzieh Safari, Sharareh Moghim, Mahshid Salehi, Rasool Jafari, Bahram Nasr Esfahani Tuberculosis is an infectious disease, which requires special medical attention due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains. The present study aimed to assess drug resistance to first-line anti-mycobacterial drugs, including rifampin (RIF), isoniazid (...
Sun, 07/19/2020 - 06:09
Author(s): Yanhua Wang Clostridium perfringens is an important human and animal pathogen that is the primary causative agent of necrotizing enteritis and enterotoxemia in many types of animals. C. perfringens produces a variety of toxins, including NetF which may plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of foal and canine necrotizing enteritis. In this study, we used several bioinformatics...
Thu, 07/02/2020 - 06:12
Author(s): Xiao Fei, Qiuchun Li, John Elmerdahl Olsen, Xinan Jiao S. Pullorum and S. Enteritidis are closely related in genetic terms, but they show very different pathogenicity and host range. S. Enteritidis infects many different hosts, usually causing acute gastroenteritis, while S. Pullorum is restricted to avian, where it causes systemic disease in young animals. The reason why they differ...
Thu, 07/02/2020 - 06:12
Author(s): Sinosh Skariyachan, Roshini Ravishankar, Dharshini Gopal, Aditi G. Muddebihalkar, Akshay Uttarkar, Prinith Kaveramma Uluvangada Praveen, Vidya Niranjan Pseudomonas aeruginosa has become a global concern due to its extreme resistance to most of the last resort antibiotics. Present study focuses on the screening of potential molecular targets involved in regulation of biofilm formation...
Sat, 06/20/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Sonia Ktari, Boutheina Ksibi, Kais Ghedira, Laetitia Fabre, Sophie Bertrand, Sonda Maalej, Basma Mnif, Faouzia Rhimi, Simon Le Hello, Adnene Hammami Typhimurium is one of the main Salmonella serovar responsible for non-typhoidal gastro-enteritis in Tunisia. Here, we aimed to assess the genetic diversity of 88 clinical Salmonella Typhimurium strains recovered during 14 years from 2000...
Wed, 05/06/2020 - 03:35
Author(s): Mohammed Asaad, M.A. Abo-kadoum, Lambert Nzungize, Moure UAE, N.Z.A.O.U. Stech, Jianping Xie Methylation epigenetically regulates many pivotal biological processes. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the pathogen of tuberculosis, can modulate host methylome. The methylated genes, sites, signaling pathway, chromatin remodeling, especially the immune related genes such as cytokines and...
Thu, 04/30/2020 - 03:34
Author(s): Lean Huat Yu, Cindy Shuan Ju Teh, Kien Pong Yap, Eng Huan Ung, Kwai Lin Thong Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is an important shrimp disease of economic importance which causes mass mortality of cultivated penaeid shrimps in Southeast Asian countries, Mexico and South America. This disease was originally caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VPAHPND) which is reported to...
Wed, 04/15/2020 - 03:23
Author(s): Manojit Bhattacharya, Ashish Ranjan Sharma, Garima Sharma, Prasanta Patra, Niladri Mondal, Bidhan Chandra Patra, Sang-Soo Lee, Chiranjib Chakraborty Gram-negative bacteria are among the causative microorganisms for zoonotic diseases in humans and teleosts. Outer membrane proteins (Omps) of Aeromonas hydrophila, a gram-negative bacterium, are critical for the subcellular integration to...
Fri, 04/10/2020 - 03:25
Author(s): Samia Zeb, Sardar Muhammad Gulfam, Habib Bokhari Cholera is an endemic disease in many regions of Asia including, Pakistan. Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is considered as one of the best adapted bacteria due to its ability to withstand severe environmental stresses. The V. cholerae genome is very plastic with many gene additions and deletions. In this study, we...
Tue, 04/07/2020 - 03:40
Author(s): Sinosh Skariyachan, Aditi G. Muddebihalkar, Vaishnavi Badrinath, Bindu Umashankar, Daniya Eram, Akshay Uttarkar, Vidya Niranjan The current study aimed to identify putative drug targets of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAb) and study the therapeutic potential of natural epiestriol-16 by computer aided virtual screening and in vitro studies. The clinical isolates (n = 5...
Sun, 04/05/2020 - 03:21
Author(s): Mohan Amarasiri, Etsuko Utagawa, Daisuke Sano, Kazuhiko Katayama We analyzed 46 pediatric fecal samples collected between the years 1997 and 2000 to retrospectively evaluate the norovirus strains circulating during that era and to identify possible re-emergence patterns. From the tested fecal samples, we detected GII.1, GII.3, GII.4 (95/96-US) and GII.6 strains. Most importantly, two...
Fri, 04/03/2020 - 03:22
Author(s): Shengyi Han, Wen Hu, Wei Kan, Zhiyi Ge, Xiangyang Song, Lingxia Li, Youjun Shang, Qiaoying Zeng, Jian-hua Zhou Salmonella is an important pathogen for public health due to food poisoning and acute infectious intestinal disease by zoonotic trait. We isolated Salmonella enterica QH which represents the normal growth condition in Luria-Bertani culture and displays a wide range of...
Wed, 03/11/2020 - 03:23
Author(s): Carina Pacheco Cantelli, Tulio Machado Fumian, Fábio Correia Malta, Denise Cotrim da Cunha, Patricia Brasil, Johan Nordgren, Lennart Svensson, Marize Pereira Miagostovich, Marcia Terezinha Baroni de Moraes, José Paulo Gagliardi Leite Norovirus has emerged as an important viral agent of acute pediatric gastroenteritis, with a growing genetic diversity reported in the last decades. Histo...
Sat, 02/22/2020 - 03:25
Author(s): Yingyin Liao, Liang Xue, Junshan Gao, Aiwu Wu, Xiaoxia KouAbstractBackgroundNorovirus is responsible for the viral gastroenteritis burden worldwide. Histo-blood type antigens (HBGAs) are the only well-known factor regarding their effect on the pathogenesis of norovirus. Here, we performed the study to further investigate the association of the ABO blood group with norovirus...
Fri, 02/21/2020 - 03:46
Author(s): Zhitao Wang, Yanbing Zhang, Leyi Wang, Jianchao Wei, Ke Liu, Donghua Shao, Beibei Li, Lihong Liu, Frederik Widén, Zhiyong Ma, Yafeng QiuAbstractBackgroundBordetella bronchiseptica (B. bronchiseptica), as an opportunistic pathogen, can cause respiratory diseases in a variety of animals, including humans. In additional to being involved in porcine atrophic rhinitis through coinfection...
Thu, 02/20/2020 - 03:25
Author(s): Wenhui Chang, Mengyan Zhang, Qiang Ren, Yangfan Zou, Lifang Dong, Hua Jia, Feng LiuAbstractHIV-1 genetic distribution and recombinant patterns are important in understanding the HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM). In this study, 83 HIV-positive MSM infections were confirmed at a sentinel surveillance site in Xi'an city, China in 2018. HIV-1 genotypes were determined by...
Mon, 02/10/2020 - 03:42
Author(s): Xu Li, Lin Zhao, He Gao, Long Chen, Fenxia Fan, Zhe Li, Yufeng Fan, Jie Li, Weili Liang, Bo Pang, Biao KanAbstractIn Vibrio cholerae, the lysogenic bacteriophage CTXΦ carries the cholera toxin genes ctxAB, which can be transferred from toxigenic strains to nontoxigenic strains through infection and lysogenic conversion of CTXΦ. This phage also has the precursor genome which does not...
Fri, 02/07/2020 - 03:45
Author(s): Adrian R. Allen, Georgina Milne, Kevin Drees, Eleanor Presho, Jordon Graham, Paul McAdam, Kerri Jones, Lorraine Wright, Robin Skuce, Adrian M. Whatmore, Judith Graham, Jeffrey T. FosterAbstractBackgroundIn the recent past (1997–2012), Northern Ireland (NI) in the United Kingdom (UK), suffered an outbreak of Brucella abortus, which at its height affected over 200 cattle herds. Initially...
Fri, 01/31/2020 - 03:24
Author(s): Joana Isidro, Susana Ferreira, Miguel Pinto, Fernanda Domingues, Mónica Oleastro, João Paulo Gomes, Vítor BorgesAbstractArcobacter butzleri is a foodborne emerging human pathogen, frequently displaying a multidrug resistant character. Still, the lack of comprehensive genome-scale comparative analysis has limited our knowledge on A. butzleri diversification and pathogenicity. Here, we...
Sun, 01/12/2020 - 03:22
Author(s): Felipe Pinheiro Vilela, Carolina Nogueira Gomes, Mário Henrique Paziani, Vânia Santos Braz, Dália dos Prazeres Rodrigues, Renata Garcia Costa, Monique Ribeiro Tiba Casas, Marcia Regina von Zeska Kress, Juliana Pfrimer Falcão, Fábio CampioniAbstractSalmonella Dublin is a strongly cattle-adapted serovar that is also responsible for severe invasive infections in humans. Although invasive...
Sun, 01/12/2020 - 03:22
Author(s): J. Comin, A. Chaure, A. Cebollada, D. Ibarz, J. Viñuelas, M.A. Vitoria, M.J. Iglesias, S. SamperAbstractThe genotyping is applied to analyse tuberculosis detected in Aragon, Spain, since 2004. The new sequencing technologies were applied to analyse an outbreak which, the first time the responsible Myocbacterium tuberculosis strain of the outbreak appeared was in 2014, spreading to 14...
Thu, 01/09/2020 - 03:40
Author(s): Ada Kazi, Che Muhammad Khairul Hisyam Ismail, Anthony Amy Amilda, Candy Chuah, Chiuan Herng Leow, Boon Huat Lim, Kirnpal Kaur Banga Singh, Chiuan Yee LeowAbstractShigellosis is one of the most common diseases found in the developing countries, especially those countries that are prone flood. The causative agent for this disease is the Shigella species. This organism is one of the third...
Thu, 01/09/2020 - 03:40
Author(s): Barbara Araújo dos Santos, Jessica da Silva de Oliveira, Bruna Marcela Parmanhani-da-Silva, Rachel Leite Ribeiro, Lúcia Martins Teixeira, Felipe Piedade Gonçalves NevesAbstractWe aimed to investigate the occurrence of CRISPR elements in the genomes of vancomycin-resistant (VRE) and vancomycin-susceptible (VSE) enterococci and their association with the presence of antimicrobial...
Thu, 01/09/2020 - 03:40
Author(s): Nolwazi Londiwe Bhembe, Ezekiel GreenAbstractDrug-resistant tuberculosis prevalence is still a global challenge. Making it imperative to examine the molecular epidemiology of drug resistant tuberculosis. Molecular epidemiology methods can evaluate transmission patterns and risk factors, ascertain transmission cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and furthermore determine...
Wed, 01/08/2020 - 03:26
Author(s): Wen Luo, Lin Tian, Yingde Gan, Enlong Chen, Xuejuan Shen, Junbin Pan, David M. Irwin, Rui-Ai Chen, Yongyi ShenAbstractAvian influenza A viruses (AIVs) classify into 18 hemagglutinin (HA) and 11 neuraminidase (NA) subtypes. Even though H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes usually circulate among humans leading to infection, occasionally, H5, H6, H7, H9, and H10 that circulate in poultry also infect...
Wed, 01/08/2020 - 03:26
Author(s): Tatiana Umpeleva, Kseniya Belousova, Ludmila Golubeva, Tatiana Boteva, Irina Morozova, Anna Vyazovaya, Igor Mokrousov, Natalia Eremeeva, Diana VakhrushevaAbstractThe aim of this study was to perform a molecular characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains circulating in one of the “closed” Russian cities under conditions of the limited population migration and high HIV...
Wed, 12/11/2019 - 03:48
Author(s): Silva Tafaj, Igor Mokrousov, Emanuele Borroni, Alberto Trovato, Perlat Kapisyzi, Donika Bardhi, Hasan Hafizi, Silvana Bala, Anyla Bulo, Silvia Bino, Nalin Rastogi, Daniela CirilloAbstractAlbania is a Balkan country with moderate to low incidence of tuberculosis (TB) and very low prevalence of drug resistant TB. Here, we analyzed a country-wide multi-year Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
Sat, 11/23/2019 - 03:24
Author(s): Kien Trung Le, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Lam Thanh Nguyen, Keita Matsuno, Duc-Huy Chu, Tien Ngoc Tien, Tung Thanh Le, Hiroshi Kida, Yoshihiro SakodaAbstractDuring the annual surveillance of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in Vietnam in 2018, three H7N7 AIV isolates were identified in domestic ducks in a single flock in Vinh Long province. The present study is the first documented report of...
Thu, 11/21/2019 - 03:24
Author(s): Kelvin B. Musyoka, John N. Kiiru, Eva Aluvaala, Protus Omondi, William K. Chege, Terry Judah, Daniel Kiboi, Joseph K. Nganga, Francis T. KimaniAbstractResistance to the mainstay antimalarial drugs is a major concern in the control of malaria. Delayed Plasmodium falciparum parasite clearance has been associated with Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the kelch propeller region (...
Tue, 11/05/2019 - 03:26
Author(s): A.S. Gladkikh, S.I. Feranchuk, A.S. Ponomareva, N.O. Bochalgin, L.V. MironovaАbstractCurrently, the spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global trend and poses a severe threat to public health. The causative agent of cholera, an extremely virulent disease with pandemic expansion, becomes more and more resistant to a wider range of drugs with every coming year. The Vibrio...
Sat, 11/02/2019 - 03:25
Author(s): Yongjian Liu, Hanping Li, Xiaolin Wang, Jingwan Han, Lei Jia, Tianyi Li, Jingyun Li, Lin LiAbstractThere is increasing evidence that naturally occurring HIV-1 genetic diversity can have an impact on drug resistance. Recently, our previous study has demonstrated the natural presence of the V179D and K103R/V179D mutations associated with resistance to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase...
Sat, 11/02/2019 - 03:25
Author(s): Yoon-Gi Baek, Yu-Na Lee, Dong-Hun Lee, Sun-Ha Cheon, Soo-Jeong Kye, Yu-Ri Park, Young-Jae Si, Myoung-Heon Lee, Youn-Jeong LeeAbstractSince 2017, clade 2.3.4.4b H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have been detected over a broad geographic region, including Eurasia. These viruses have evolved through reassortment with Eurasian low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (...
Wed, 10/23/2019 - 03:33
Author(s): Shoko Okitsu, Pattara Khamrin, Sayaka Takanashi, Aksara Thongprachum, Sheikh Ariful Hoque, Haruko Takeuchi, Md Alfazal Khan, S.M. Tafsir Hasan, Tsutomu Iwata, Hiroyuki Shimizu, Masamine Jimba, Satoshi Hayakawa, Niwat Maneekarn, Hiroshi UshijimaAbstractA number of molecular epidemiological studies reported the detection of enteric viruses in asymptomatic children. The role of these...
Wed, 10/23/2019 - 03:33
Author(s): Bojan Papić, Darja Kušar, Irena Zdovc, Majda Golob, Mateja PateAbstractListeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis, a serious disease affecting both humans and animals. While listeriosis outbreaks in humans are commonly investigated in detail, routine typing of L. monocytogenes is generally not performed in animal outbreaks. Here, seven presumable listeriosis outbreaks...
Wed, 10/23/2019 - 03:33
Author(s): Ismari Perini Furlaneto, Marília Lima da Conceição, Emilyn Costa Conceição, Maria Luíza Lopes, Yan Corrêa Rodrigues, Beatriz Reis Macelino, Harrison Magdinier Gomes, Philip Noel Suffys, Ricardo José de Paula Souza e Guimarães, Marlei Gomes da Silva, Rafael Silva Duarte, Loreno da Costa Francez, Alexandre do Rosário Casseb, Volney de Magalhães Câmara, Washington Luiz Assunção Pereira,...
Wed, 10/23/2019 - 03:33
Author(s): Henry M. Kariithi, Catharine N. Welch, Helena L. Ferreira, Elizabeth A. Pusch, Leonard O. Ateya, Yatinder S. Binepal, Auleria A. Apopo, Thomas D. Dulu, Claudio L. Afonso, David L. SuarezAbstractPoultry production plays an important role in the economy and livelihoods of rural households in Kenya. As part of a surveillance program, avian influenza virus (AIV)-specific real-time RT-PCR (...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:21
Author(s): Iman Yassine, Rayane Rafei, Marwan Osman, Hassan Mallat, Fouad Dabboussi, Monzer HamzeAbstractQuinolones are an important antimicrobial class used widely in the treatment of enterobacterial infections. Although there are multiple mechanisms of quinolone resistance, attention should be paid to plasmid-mediated genes due to their ability to facilitate the spread of quinolone resistance,...

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