Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

Thu, 01/21/2021 - 04:02
2-O-β-d-Glucopyranosyl l-ascorbic acid (AA-2βG) is a stable, bioavailable vitamin C (AA) derivative. We report the distribution and seasonal variation of AA-2βG in apples and its occurrence in other domesticated crops and in wild harvested Ma̅ori foods. Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analyses showed high AA-2βG concentrations in crab apples (Malus sylvestris) but low concentrations in...
Wed, 01/13/2021 - 04:02
Luo Han Guo fruit extract (Siraitia grosvenorii), mainly composed of mogroside V (50%), could be considered a suitable alternative to free sugars; however, its commercial applications are limited by its unpleasant off-notes. In the present work, a central composite design method was employed to optimize the transglycosylation of a mogroside extract using cyclodextrin glucosyltransferases (CGTases...
Wed, 01/06/2021 - 04:02
4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD, EC 1.13.11.27) has been recognized as one of the most promising targets in the field of herbicide innovation considering the severity of weed resistance currently. In a persistent effort to develop effective HPPD-inhibiting herbicides, a structure-guided strategy was carried out to perform the structural optimization for triketone-quinazoline-2,4-diones...
Wed, 01/06/2021 - 04:02
Products of dark brown sugar (DBS) from different production processes and raw materials may bring different risks and benefits to human health. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the quality of natural and commercial DBS products. Results showed that physicochemical properties, including pH value, turbidity, and browning degree have no significant difference between natural and...
Fri, 01/01/2021 - 04:01
Fungal infections could cause tremendous decreases in crop yield and quality. Natural products, including flavonoids and (iso)quinolines, have always been an important source for lead discovery in medicinal and agricultural chemistry. To promote the discovery and development of new fungicides, a series of 3-(iso)quinolinyl-4-chromenone derivatives was designed and synthesized by the active...
Thu, 12/31/2020 - 04:02
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are the most commonly used signal materials in lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA). However, the assay sensitivity of traditional AuNP-based LFIA is usually limited by the incomplete competition between free target analytes and immobilized antigens for the binding of AuNP-labeled antibodies. To unfreeze this limitation, here, asymmetric Au–SiO2 Janus NPs (about 66 nm) were...
Thu, 12/31/2020 - 04:01
A new protein microarray method for multiplex mycotoxin detection in parallel has been established on a stable TiO2-modified porous silicon (PSi) surface. A typical competitive immunoassay microarray protocol has been developed for simultaneous detection of multiplex mycotoxins including aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), ochratoxin A (OTA), and fumonisin B1 (FB1) on the TiO2-PSi surface. The epoxy groups were...
Thu, 12/31/2020 - 04:01
According to a simple guest-replacement fluorescence turn-on mechanism, we constructed a fluorescent probe system based on cucurbit[10]uril (Q[10]) and protonated acridine (AD) to detect the pesticide dodine (DD). Formation of a homoternary inclusion complex AD2@Q[10] in both aqueous solution and solid state was studied by means of 1H NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. Although AD can...
Wed, 12/30/2020 - 04:01
A zero-background method based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was developed for the rapid determination of cymoxanil residue in food. Because of the influence of complex matrices, conventional Raman spectroscopy has multiple peaks that overlap with those of target molecules, which makes qualitative and quantitative detection difficult. However, the cyano group (C≡N) of cymoxanil...
Sun, 12/27/2020 - 04:02
Rhamnolipid is the main group of biosurfactants predominantly produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a ubiquitous and opportunistic pathogen, which limits its large-scale exploitation. Thus, cost-effective rhamnolipid production from a newly isolated nonpathogenic Enterobacter sp. UJS-RC was investigated. The highest rhamnolipid production (4.4 ± 0.2 g/L) was achieved in a medium constituting...
Fri, 12/25/2020 - 04:02
Unadorned carbon nitride was synthesized via different nitrogen-rich precursors by thermal polymerization and applied to multifungicides for simultaneous photodegradation in the present study. Urea-derived carbon nitride (UCN) was verified to be most efficient in fungicide removal. The influences of catalyst dosage and pH were studied during the photodegradation process. Hydroxyl radical (•OH)...
Thu, 12/24/2020 - 04:02
α-Linolenic acid (ALA) and its non-enzymatic oxidized products, namely, phytoprostanes and phytofurans, are found in some nuts. The uptake and deposition of these compounds are not well-defined. Walnut has high ALA and a considerable amount of phytoprostanes and phytofurans compared to other common nuts. When fed to rodents, ALA and eicosapentaenoic acid levels increased in the liver and heart...
Tue, 12/22/2020 - 04:02
Residual pesticides in soil may be taken up by crops and negatively affect food safety. The uptake mechanism of imidacloprid and propiconazole was studied using wheat roots. The factors affecting root uptake were also studied with different crops and in different soils. Imidacloprid and propiconazole were taken up by wheat roots mainly through the symplastic and apoplastic pathways, respectively...
Tue, 12/22/2020 - 04:02
Weeds are notorious plant species exhibiting a harmful impact on crops. Biological weed control is an efficient and environmentally friendly technique, usually constitutes naturally derived compounds, including bioherbicidal metabolites produced by Streptomyces sp. The isolation and structural identification of phytotoxic compounds from Streptomyces have recently been proposed as an effective way...
Mon, 12/21/2020 - 04:02
Seaweeds have been consumed by billions of people around the world and are increasingly popular in United States (US) diets. Some seaweed species have been associated with adverse health effects—such as heavy metal toxicity—and higher priced seaweeds may be more prone to adulteration. Knowing which species of seaweeds are being marketed in the US is important for protecting human health and...
Fri, 12/18/2020 - 04:02
This study presents a method for modifying pectin with phenolic acids catalyzed by lipase in a two-phase system of water/tetrahydrofuran. Salicylic acid (SA) and its isomers, including m-hydroxybenzoic acid (MHBA) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA), were grafted onto pectin, and the products were characterized via UV–vis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and 1H NMR analyses to...
Sun, 12/13/2020 - 04:01
The study was aimed to investigate the combined effect of acid blanching (AB) and high-voltage electric field cold plasma (HVCP) on carrot juice quality. Before juice extraction, carrots were separated into three parts: control, blanched (100 °C for 5 min) with non-acidified water, and blanched with acidified water (35 g/L citric acid at pH 1.34). Carrot juice was then subjected to dielectric...
Sun, 12/13/2020 - 04:01
Pyruvate is an important platform material widely used in food, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries. Pyruvate-tolerant Klebsiella oxytoca PDL-0 was chosen as a chassis for pyruvate production via metabolic engineering. Genes related to by-product generation were knocked out to decrease the production of 2,3-butantediol, acetate, ethanol, and succinate. The NADH oxidase encoding gene nox was...
Sun, 12/13/2020 - 04:01
Studies on the possible alternative supplements to breastmilk are gaining research interests. Although milk from cow, goat, and mare is nutritious, its effects on the relationship between the immune system, metabolites, and gut microbiota remain unclear. This study aimed to comprehensively evaluate the effects of cow, goat, and mare milk on the immune system, metabolites, and gut microbiota of...
Sun, 12/13/2020 - 04:01
Cysteine is a semiessential amino acid and plays an important role in metabolism and protein structure and has also been applied in various industrial fields, such as pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic, and animal feed industries. Metabolic engineering studies have been conducted for the cysteine production through bacterial fermentation, but studies on the cysteine biosynthetic pathway in...
Sat, 12/12/2020 - 04:01
Twenty key odorants recently identified in raw and roasted ginger were quantitated by means of stable isotope dilution assays, of which six assays were newly developed. Odor activity values (OAV; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) revealed 1,8-cineol (eucalyptus-like) with by far the highest value of 65 000 followed by myrcene (geranium-like), for which an OAV of 19 000 was calculated. In...
Fri, 12/11/2020 - 04:02
The intestine is an important digestive organ of the human body, and its barrier is the guardian of the body from the external environment. The impairment of the intestinal barrier is believed to be an important determinant in various foodborne diseases. Food hazards can lead to the occurrence of many foodborne diseases represented by inflammation. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of the...
Thu, 12/10/2020 - 04:02
Consumption of seafood is a common route of cadmium ion (Cd2+) exposure to consumers. The seafood matrices may alter the toxicity profile of Cd2+ due to the interaction between Cd2+ and biomacromolecules in seafood. In this study, enhanced cytotoxicity of Cd2+ was found in the presence of an abalone gonad sulfated polysaccharide (AGSP) and the mechanism was investigated at a metabolic level. The...
Tue, 12/08/2020 - 04:02
The combined action of biosorption and biodegradation can achieve a remarkable reduction of organic pollutants. In this study, Pseudomonas sp. SDR4 and Mortierella alpina JDR7 were selected as the representative microorganisms to investigate adsorption and degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil using immobilization technology and the subsequent change of the microbial...
Fri, 12/04/2020 - 04:02
To control the development of resistance to conventional insecticides acting as γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor antagonists (e.g., fipronil), new GABAergic 5,5-disubstituted 4,5-dihydropyrazolo[1,5-a]quinazolines were designed via a scaffold-hopping strategy and synthesized with a facile method. Among the 50 target compounds obtained, compounds 5a, 5b, 7a, and 7g showed excellent insecticidal...
Sat, 11/21/2020 - 04:01
Plant cell cultures can be used to identify the metabolic degradation of pesticides in crops. Therefore, Brassica napus L., Glycine max (L.) Merr., Zea mays L. and Triticum aestivum L. were used to elucidate the metabolic degradation of the following pesticides: tebuconazole, flurtamone, fenhexamid, and metalaxyl-M. Callus cultures were treated with 10 μM of the named pesticides by passive...
Fri, 11/20/2020 - 04:02
β-Ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III (KAS III, FabH) is essential for bacterial fatty acid biosynthesis. Recent studies indicate that FabH can be a potential target for bactericide development. In the present study, an immobilized FabH column was developed and used to screen FabH inhibitors from complex natural product extracts. Combined with HPLC, four secondary metabolites, alternariol...
Thu, 11/19/2020 - 04:03
Animal husbandry is the second largest source of steroid estrogen (SE) pollutants in the environment, and it is significant to investigate the occurrence and fate of SEs discharged from concentrated animal feeding operations. In this research, with a Chinese typical concentrated dairy farm as the object, the concentrations of SEs (E1, 17α-E2, 17β-E2, E3, and E1-S3) in slurry, lagoon water, and...
Thu, 11/19/2020 - 04:03
As a widely used plant growth regulator, the gibberellic acid (GA3) residue in tea has potential risk for human health. Herein, the degradation of GA3 and its conversion into main metabolites were investigated during tea planting, manufacturing, and brewing using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The metabolite iso-GA3 was first discovered during the tea...
Wed, 11/18/2020 - 04:01
A strain isolated from the gut of Pantala flavescens was characterized as Trichoderma harzianum QTYC77. The strain was assessed as a potential biocontrol agent against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC). Mycoparasitism and competing abilities of T. harzianum QTYC77 lead to inhibition of the mycelial growth of FOC, with the inhibition rate of 70.99%, in dual culture assays. Activities of...
Tue, 11/17/2020 - 04:02
An ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) method was established for the determination of four highly polar agricultural antibiotics kasugamycin, validamycin A, ningnanmycin, and polyoxin B in plant-derived foods. The samples were extracted with a 0.2% formic acid solution, purified by hydrophilic–lipophilic balance and mixed-mode cation-exchange solid-...
Sun, 11/15/2020 - 04:01
Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), chemicals frequently used in agriculture, are a group of highly toxic and persistent organic pollutants. This study assesses the distribution and congener profiles of residual OCPs in 11 types of vegetable oils collected from Chinese markets. All samples were extracted using the modified QuEChERS method prior to analysis by gas chromatography–triple quadrupole...
Fri, 11/13/2020 - 04:02
Food is the major cadmium (Cd)-exposure pathway from agricultural soils to humans and other living entities and must be reduced in an effective way. A plant can select beneficial microbes, like plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), depending upon the nature of root exudates in the rhizosphere, for its own benefits, such as plant growth promotion as well as protection from metal toxicity....
Thu, 11/12/2020 - 04:02
Fumonisin contamination of maize damaged by Fusarium verticillioides and related species is a major problem when it is grown under warm and dry conditions. Consumption of fumonisin contaminated food and feed is harmful to both humans and livestock. Novel tools for reducing or eliminating fumonisin toxicity may be useful to the agri-feed sector to deal with this worldwide problem. Enzymes capable...
Sun, 11/08/2020 - 04:02
A cleanup procedure based on hydrophobic magnetic nanoparticles for QuEChERS extraction followed by GC-MS method for the simultaneous determination of 16 organochlorine pesticides was developed. The type and amount of cleanup adsorbents (C18/GCB/Fe3O4/Fe3O4@Triton), the volume and polarity of the extraction solvent were optimized. The method was validated according to SANTE/11813/2017 and ICH/...
Sat, 11/07/2020 - 04:02
Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO, EC 1.3.3.4) is an important target for green agrochemical discovery. Herein, a novel N-phenylisoxazoline-thiadiazolo[3,4-a]pyridazine herbicidal active scaffold was designed by the scaffold hybridization strategy. Systematic structural optimization enabled the discovery of a series of derivatives with excellent weed control at 9.375–150 g ai/ha by the post-...
Fri, 11/06/2020 - 04:02
Chitinases are the glycosyl hydrolase for catalyzing the degradation of chitin and play an indispensable role in bacterial pathogenesis, fungal cell wall remodeling, and insect molting. Thus, chitinases are attractive targets for therapeutic drugs and pesticides. Here, we present a strategy of developing a novel chemotype of chitinase inhibitors by the construction of planar heterocycles that can...
Fri, 11/06/2020 - 04:02
Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are redox-active enzymes that cleave insoluble polysaccharides by an oxidative reaction. In the present study, we have characterized four recombinant putative chitin-active LPMOs from Streptomyces griseus (SgLPMO10B, -C, -D, and -F) and evaluated their potential in enhancing hydrolysis of α- and β-chitin by three families of 18 chitinases of Serratia...
Tue, 11/03/2020 - 04:02
The group of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) comprises thousands of chemicals, which are used in various industrial applications and consumer products. In this study, a feeding experiment with laying hens and feed grown on a contamination site was conducted, and PFAS were analyzed in the feed and eggs to assess the transfer of PFAS into eggs. A targeted analysis of perfluoroalkyl acids...
Sun, 11/01/2020 - 03:02
Monoterpenoid alkaloids are well known for their broad and excellent biological activities, but their extremely low content and complex chemical structure limit their practical application. This study used the biosynthetic precursor genipin as a basic material to conduct a biomimetic synthesis of iridoid alkaloids. The structures of the iridoid alkaloids were characterized by 1H and 13C NMR...
Tue, 10/27/2020 - 04:02
Fungicides are commonly used to prevent and treat grape (Vitis vinifera L.) diseases; however, they are potentially toxic to humans. Herein, we show that the application of S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) accelerated the metabolism of various fungicides in Cabernet Sauvignon berries. The substances and enzymes involved in the metabolism of fungicides were analyzed to elucidate the effects of SAM....
Thu, 10/22/2020 - 04:04
Liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) complements standard triple–quadrupole mass spectrometry in veterinary drug residue control. LC-HRMS offers the opportunity for nontargeted screening for metabolites and biomarkers representing metabolic changes. In this work, the feasibility of a nontargeted metabolomics approach based on LC-HRMS data (LC-Q-Orbitrap...
Tue, 10/20/2020 - 04:02
Mercury, as a global toxic pollutant, is easy to be accumulated in aquatic products and poses a great threat to human health. In this work, we proposed a mix-to-read, label-free, and robust assay for detecting mercury pollution in aquatic products by engineering a ratiometric-enhanced G-quadruplex probe. The transformation from the G-quadruplex to a hairpin-like structure allows us to confer a...
Sat, 10/17/2020 - 04:02
Carbendazim (CBZ), which is a fungicide widely used for the management of plant diseases, has been detected in a number of food products. The negative effects of CBZ to human health have stimulated the reduction of the maximum residue limits (MRLs), and subsequently the development of reliable and sensitive detection methods. Here, we are reviewing for the first time all reported chromatographic...
Thu, 10/15/2020 - 04:02
Citrinin (CIT), a known nephrotoxic mycotoxin, is mainly produced by Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Monascus species. It is a natural contaminant in cereal grains, foods, and feedstuff. Liupao tea (or Liubao tea) is a typical Chinese dark tea obtained via indigenous tea fermentation facilitated by microorganisms. Certain fungi present in Liupao tea that may produce CIT are a potential threat to...
Wed, 10/14/2020 - 04:01
Pesticide residue analysis is critically important for ensuring food safety and regulating international trade. In a greenhouse setting, we assessed pesticide residue and exposure patterns using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry and Allura Red tracer analysis. Our results show significant effects of eggplant canopy position and spray concentration on deposition parameters. Specifically,...
Sat, 10/10/2020 - 04:01
In plants, glutathione (GSH) is crucial for the detoxification and tolerance of heavy metals. However, the change characteristics and decisive enzymes involved in GSH metabolism under heavy metal exposure are still unclear. Based on long-term exposure cultivation of spinach and monitoring of the change trends of enzyme activity and GSH contents in response to cadmium (Cd) stress, these issues...
Sat, 10/10/2020 - 04:01
Research groups have put significant emphasis on the evaluation of nutritional, health-promoting, and other biological activities of secondary metabolites from buckwheat. Among these phytochemicals, phenolic and lipophilic antioxidants, particularly, phenolic acids, flavonoids, and tocopherols, have been the focus of the latest studies since antioxidant activity has recently been associated with...
Fri, 10/09/2020 - 04:02
The fastest and most effective way to control pests is to use pesticides. However, with the accumulation of pesticide resistance and the difficulties of rapidly producing new pesticides, it is of great significance to create new pesticides through new synthetic methods. In this study, we report a computer-aided drug design (CADD)-assisted method to obtain two lead sulfonamides by homology...
Wed, 10/07/2020 - 04:02
Antibiotics are widely used in aquaculture. Intensive farming drives indiscriminate use of antibiotics, which results in residues of antibiotics in cultured aquatic products and bacterial resistance. This perspective attempts to present a brief update on usage, regulations, residues, and potential human health risk of antibiotics used in aquaculture. Through the comprehensive literature review,...

Pages