Journal of Applied Microbiology

Fri, 10/16/2020 - 22:09
Aims This study aimed to evaluate the effects of three Bacillus probiotics on Salmonella Typhimurium, and interleukin‐8 (IL‐8) gene expression in the co‐culture of the Bacillus and the pathogen in vitro. Methods and Results Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus indicus, and Bacillus coagulans were initially turned to spore and heat‐inactivated forms. The cellular damages of the probiotics on the HT‐29...
Fri, 10/09/2020 - 22:10
ABSTRACT Aims The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of Cronobacter strains isolated from foods (n=50) and clinical samples (n=6) in Brazil and genotype selected strains (n=18) using multi‐locus sequence typing (MLST). Methods and Results The cytotoxic activity of C. sakazakii (n=29), C. dublinensis (n=13), C. malonaticus (n=6), C. turicensis (n=6), and C. muytjensii (...
Thu, 10/08/2020 - 22:08
Aim To test whether engineered nanopores on the outer membrane (OM) of Escherichia coli can increase expression of heterologous proteins by making additional nutrients available to the host. Methods and Results Outer membrane nanopores were generated by expressing recombinant Vibrio parahaemolyticus CsgG (rVpCsgG), which spontaneously assembles into a pore forming channel on the OM, allowing...
Thu, 10/08/2020 - 22:08
ABSTRACT Aims The efficacy of a novel photochemical method for generating chlorine dioxide (photoClO2) was evaluated against human noroviruses (HuNoV) surrogate, bacteriophage MS2, and Clostridium difficile endospores. Methods and Results Chlorine dioxide was generated by mixing 1% sodium chlorite with 10 parts‐per‐million (ppm) Eosin Y and irradiating with a photo‐activator‐excitable light....
Thu, 10/08/2020 - 22:08
Aims We aim to investigate the prevalence, putative virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance of mesophilic Aeromonas isolated from ready‐to‐eat (RTE) seafood available on the Norwegian market, and to assess the potential risks by consuming RTE seafood to consumers. Methods and Results The prevalence of mesophilic Aeromonas in 148 RTE seafood was investigated and the highest prevalence was...
Mon, 10/05/2020 - 22:08
ABSTRACT Aims To determine inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and reduction of Escherichia coli and enterococci in cattle slurry added aqueous ammonia. Methods and Results Escherichia coli, enterococci and non‐viable C. parvum oocysts (DAPI+ PI+) were enumerated every second day for two weeks in cattle slurry amended with 60 mmol l‐1 aq. ammonia and compared with untreated slurry at...
Mon, 10/05/2020 - 22:08
ABSTRACT Aims This study investigated the diversity of Colletotrichum isolates recovered from Conyza bonariensis leaves through the use of morphological characteristics, growth rate, carbon sources utilization and phylogenetic analysis. Methods and Results Thirty Colletotrichum isolates recovered from Conyza bonariensis leaves showing symptoms of disease were included in the present study. Based...
Fri, 09/25/2020 - 22:09
Aims This work aimed to identify secondary metabolites from aerial parts of Euphorbia species functional for control of toxigenic Fusarium species responsible of cereal grain rots. Methods and Results Aerial parts of Euphorbia serpens, E. schickendantzii and E. collina were sequentially extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. The extracts were tested against strains of F....
Wed, 09/23/2020 - 22:08
Aims Current study was designed to analyze the prevalence of class 1 and class 2 integron integrase genes among antibiotic resistant coliform bacteria isolated from paper currency circulating in Pakistan. Methods and Results 500 individual currency notes were collected from different food vending sites at Lahore, Pakistan. Bacterial population were identified by biochemical and PCR techniques....
Tue, 09/22/2020 - 22:09
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), widely used as starter cultures for the fermentation of a large variety of food, can improve the safety, shelf life, nutritional value and overall quality of the fermented products. In this regard, the selection of strains delivering health‐promoting compounds is now the main objective of many researchers. Although most LAB are auxotrophic for several vitamins, it is...
Sat, 09/12/2020 - 22:09
Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are a global health concern. Antibiotic resistance occurs naturally, but misuse of antibiotics in humans and animals is accelerating the process of antibiotic resistance emergency, which has been aggravated by exposure to molecules of antibiotics present in clinical and agricultural settings and the engagement of many countries in water reuseespecially in Middle...
Fri, 09/11/2020 - 22:08
Aims To identify and evaluate the application of two novel monoclonal antibody (mAb) 2G12 against outer membrane protein (Omp) C and mAb 12B1 targeting the O chain of the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ECO157). Methods and Results The sensitivity and specificity of these two antibodies were evaluated with eight ECO157 strains and 68 untargeted strains. mAb 2G12 and 12B1...
Sun, 09/06/2020 - 22:09
Aim To study the impact of incorporating micro‐nano‐bubbles (MNBs) in commonly used food antimicrobials (AMs) against Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EC) and Listeria monocytogenes (LM). Methods and Results Air, carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen (N2) were used to incorporate MNBs in city water. Nine‐milliliter AM solutions (with or without MNBs) were individually taken into sterile test‐tubes and mixed...
Sat, 09/05/2020 - 22:10
Aim To analyse the prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter spp. in northern Spain. Methods and results Campylobacter was isolated from 139 samples of broiler meat and faecal dropping of broiler and swine with a prevalence of 35.4%, 62% and 42.8%, respectively. Campylobacter jejuni (n=55) and Campylobacter coli (n=31) were identified by multiplex‐PCR in meat...
Fri, 09/04/2020 - 22:09
Aims This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles and genotypes of Streptococcus suis from Jiangxi Province, China. Methods and Results A total of 314 nasal swab samples were collected from clinically healthy pigs, with a positive isolation rate of S. suis of 34.08%. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that more than 80% of the isolates were susceptible to...
Thu, 09/03/2020 - 22:09
ABSTRACT Aims This study aimed to determine the toxin genotypes, virulence determinants, and antibiogram of Clostridium perfringens isolated from poultry, animals, and humans. Biofilm formation and the efficacy of disinfectants on C. perfringens biofilms were studied. Methods and Results Thirty C. perfringens isolates (20 clinical and 10 from chicken carcasses) were genotyped by PCR and all...
Thu, 09/03/2020 - 22:09
Aims Antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) are often associated with mobile genetic elements (MGEs), which facilitate their movement within and between bacterial populations. Detection of mobility is therefore important to understand the dynamics of MGE dissemination and their associated genes, especially in resistant clinical isolates that often have multiple ARGs associated with MGEs. Therefore...
Wed, 09/02/2020 - 22:09
Aims To investigate the effects of L. plantarum on inflammatory responses induced by ETEC K88 and explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. Methods and Results Intestinal porcine cells (IPEC‐1) were incubated with 0 or 1 × 108 CFU well‐1 L. plantarum for 4 h, and then these cells were challenged with 0 or 1 × 108 CFU well‐1 ETEC K88 for 2 h. The results showed that pre‐treatment of IPEC‐1...
Wed, 09/02/2020 - 22:09
Aims In previous work, following a pressure treatment of S. aureus wild type, we obtained piezotolerant isolates showing altered phenotypic characteristics. This work focuses on understanding the genetic background of their altered phenotype. Methods and Results AK23, a representative piezotolerant isolate was subjected to DNA microarrays, corroborated by PCR product sequencing and revealed 10‐...
Tue, 09/01/2020 - 22:09
Aims To identify the bacteria nodulating Sulla spinosissima growing profusely in a lead and zinc mine tailings in Eastern Morocco. Methods and Results Thirty two rhizobial cultures, isolated from root nodules of S. spinosissima growing in soils of the mining site, were tolerant to different heavy metals. The ERIC‐PCR fingerprinting analysis clustered the isolates into 7 different groups, and the...
Tue, 09/01/2020 - 22:09
Some meat dry products, including dry cured ham and dry beef cecina, are cured in the air at cold temperature allowing the growth of a lawn of fungi on their surface. During the curing process, frequently these products became contaminated with fungivore mites of the Acaridae family that feed on fungal mycelium and spores. Aims The aim of this article is to study the possible biological control...
Sat, 08/15/2020 - 22:10
Cold plasma technology is an efficient, environmental‐friendly, economic and non‐invasive technology; and in recent years these advantages placed this novel technology at the center of diverse studies for food industry applications. Dried food ingredients including spices, herbs, powders and seeds are an important part of the human diet; and the growing demands of consumers for higher quality and...
Wed, 08/12/2020 - 22:08
Aims To determine if antibiotics associated with conventional pig farming have a direct role in altering the populations of key soil micro‐organisms isolated from piggery environments with and without exposure to antibiotics. Methods and Results Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. and the Bacillus cereus group from soils adjacent to four conventional piggeries (use of antibiotics) exposed to effluent (...
Wed, 08/12/2020 - 22:08
Aims Characterization of quinolone‐resistant Salmonella Kentucky and Typhimurium isolates in Tunisia from various sources, detection of some PMQR genes, and the genetic relatedness. Methods A total of 1,404 isolates of S. Kentucky (n = 1,059) / S. Typhimurium (n = 345) from various sources from all over Tunisia were tested for quinolone resistance by disk diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory...
Sat, 08/08/2020 - 22:08
Aims Describe the temporal trends in E. coli pathotypes and antimicrobial resistance detected in isolates from diseased‐pig cases submitted to the EcL from 2008 to 2016, in Quebec, Canada, and investigate the presence of spatio‐temporal and phylogenetic clusters. Methods and Results Detection of 12 genes coding for virulence factors in pathogenic E. coli in pigs by PCR and antimicrobial...
Sat, 08/08/2020 - 22:08
Aim The aim of the present study was to examine the vaccine immune response in ewes supplemented with Bacillus toyonensis BCT‐7112T during a period of 5‐day supplementation before vaccination against a recombinant Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin (rETX). Methods and Results Ewes were vaccinated with 200 µg of rETX adjuvanted with 10% aluminum hydroxide. The treat group was orally...
Wed, 08/05/2020 - 22:08
Aim Bacteriocins with antimicrobial activity are considered as potential natural bio‐preservatives to control the growth of food spoilage bacteria. The aim of this work is to characterize a novel bacteriocin BM1029 discovered from Lactobacillus crustorum MN047 and evaluate its antibacterial mechanism. Methods and Results Bacteriocin BM1029 was purified by cation‐exchange chromatography and...
Mon, 08/03/2020 - 22:09
Aims This study aims to investigate the presence and spatial‐seasonal variability of human and fish viruses in coastal marine systems using Ravenna’s harbor area (Adriatic Sea, Italy) as a model. Methods and Results Human viruses (noroviruses and hepatitis A virus) and one of the most threatening finfish pathogens, the nervous necrosis virus (NNV), were investigated in mussels living inside and...
Sun, 08/02/2020 - 22:08
Aims Diagnosis of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is important in various diseases from hospital‐acquired infections to foodborne diseases. This work reports two new luminescent affiprobes for specific detection of S. aureus. Methods and Results To develop advanced luminescent affiprobes, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was flanked by single and double repeats of ZpA963 affibody using...
Sat, 08/01/2020 - 22:08
Aims This study aimed synergistic effects of three herbs in Salmonella via increased membrane permeability and apoptosis. Methods and Results Using high‐performance liquid chromatography, four types of phenylethyl glycosides and a lignan were detected in the herb mixture (Brassica juncea, Forsythia suspensa, and Inula britannica). During treatment with the herb mixture (1 ×, 2 ×, or 4 × the MIC...
Thu, 07/30/2020 - 22:08
ABSTRACT Aims This study evaluated the performance of a commercial molecular detection method (mericon Campylobacter triple kit real‐time/quantitative (q)PCR) and a selective plating medium (R&F Campylobacter jejuni/Campylobacter coli Chromogenic Plating Medium (CCPM)) against a culture‐based reference method (ISO 10272‐1:2017 detection procedure B) for the detection of Campylobacter from raw...
Tue, 07/21/2020 - 22:07
Aims To understand the genetics involved in surface attachment and biofilm formation of Listeria monocytogenes. Methods and Results An in vitro screen of a Himar1 transposon library of L. monocytogenes strain 15G01 identified three transposants that produced significantly different biofilm levels when compared to the wild‐type strain; two mutants exhibited enhanced biofilm formation and one...
Tue, 07/21/2020 - 22:07
Aims Bacillus cereus sensu lato (B. cereus sl) is a complex group of closely related bacteria, which are commonly present in the natural environment and food products. These organisms may cause food poisoning and spoilage as well as opportunistic infections. Thus far, their resistance to selected antibiotics has been explored only in part, especially in the context of strain source. Therefore,...
Sat, 07/18/2020 - 22:07
Aims To investigate the microbiological and nutritional quality of liquid finisher pig feed on commercial production units and the factors influencing this. Methods and results Microbiological and physio‐chemical analyses were performed on liquid feed sampled from the mixing tank and troughs of the finisher section of eight commercial pig units. Lactic acid bacteria, yeast and E. coli counts, as...
Mon, 07/13/2020 - 22:07
Aims To evaluate four DNA extraction methods to elucidate the most effective method for bacterial DNA recovery from human milk. Methods and results Human milk DNA was extracted using the following methods: i) QIAGEN MagAttract Microbial DNA Isolation Kit (kit QM), ii) Norgen Milk Bacterial DNA Isolation Kit (kit NM), iii) QIAGEN MagAttract Microbiome DNA/RNA Isolation Kit (kit MM), and iv) TRIzol...
Sat, 07/11/2020 - 22:07
Aim This study aimed to evaluate the patterns and potential risk factors associated with the occurrence of Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli in selected United States swine feed mills. Methods and Results A total of 405 samples were collected during fall 2018, spring and summer 2019 from selected sites including floors, equipment, shoes and feed in six feed mills in the US Midwest region. Each...
Wed, 07/08/2020 - 22:07
Aims This research was performed to investigate the influence of clay and humic acid on E. coli O157 survival in model soils. Additionally, the influence of pH and humic acid on E. coli O157 in liquid culture was investigated. Methods and Results Artificial soil microcosms were prepared with sand, kaolinite, bentonite, and humic acid. Artificial soil microcosms pH was adjusted (6.0 to 7.0) with...
Fri, 07/03/2020 - 22:08
Aims This article presents models of artificial neural networks employed to predict the biological activity of chemical compounds based of their structure. Regression and classification models were designed to determine antimicrobial properties of quaternary ammonium salts against Escherichia coli strain. Methods and Results The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) microbial growth Escherichia...
Fri, 07/03/2020 - 22:08
ABSTRACT Aims The aims of this study were to determine the occurrence of Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) on soybean pods, seeds and roots, including rhizoplane, during the soybean crop in rotation with wheat and to evaluate the FGSC dynamics on wheat and soybean residues during two soybean growing season in rotation with wheat, particularly of F. graminearum sensu stricto (FGss)....
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 22:07
Aim The purpose of this work was to identify and genetically characterize enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) O80:H2 from diarrheic and septicemic calves in Belgium and to comparing them with human EHEC after whole genome sequencing. Methods and Results Ten EHEC and 21 EPEC O80 identified by PCR between 2009 and 2018 from feces, intestinal content and a kidney of...
Sun, 06/28/2020 - 22:07
Aim Quinoline is a recalcitrant pollutant in coking wastewater which has been broadly investigated with many isolates possessing aerobic quinoline degrading ability. However, studies on anaerobic degradation and the corresponding bacteria are very scarce. This study attempted to investigate the role of diverse functional members and the redundancy of quinoline degradation in a lab‐scale quinoline...
Fri, 06/26/2020 - 22:07
Aims Biological techniques can manage plant diseases safely and in environmentally friendly ways, but their efficacy needs improvement. It is of the utmost importance to search for powerful microbes for the effective control of plant diseases. Methods and Results Unheated self‐digestive solutions (SDS) that were heated at 100°C for 30 minutes (H‐SDS) or stored for 12 months at room temperature (S...
Sun, 06/07/2020 - 22:07
Aims The goal was to explore the effects of subinhibitory concentration (SIC) (0.5 MIC=20 µg L‐1) of ciprofloxacin on the transcriptome of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O26:H11 (EHEC) isolate by 60 minutes of exposure. Materials and Results We used a combination of comparative genomic and transcriptomic (RNAseq) analyses. The whole genome of the E. coli O26:H11 #30934 strain of bovine origin...
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 22:07
Aim of the study Effect of internalized phthalyl starch nanoparticles (PSNs) on the antimicrobial ability of Lactococcus lactis (LL) KCTC 2013. Methods and results Phthalyl starch nanoparticles (PSNs) were prepared by self‐assembly of phthalyl starch and the amount of the hydrophobic phthalic moieties were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), PSN1 (DS: 14.3 mol.‐%), PSN2 (DS: 17.8...
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 22:07
Aims we employed a combination of diagnostic tests including single cervical tuberculin test (SCT), rapid lateral‐flow test (RT), TB‐Feron, conventional PCR and culture to investigate the prevalence of M. bovis infections in dairy cattle under the intensive dairy production system in Egypt. Methods and Results In total 2,710 dairy cows from 11 herds in six Governorates were tested by SCT and 444...
Sun, 05/31/2020 - 03:25
Food contaminated by hepatitis A virus (HAV) is responsible of the 2‐7% of all HAV outbreaks worldwide. This review provides a description of the HAV characteristics, its infectivity and epidemiological features. In addition, this review compiles existing original papers reporting HAV prevalence, viral titers in foodstuffs and the risk associated with food contamination. The purpose of this...
Fri, 05/22/2020 - 03:24
Aim To investigate factors influencing Campylobacter spp. colonization of broiler chickens. Methods and Results Campylobacters were isolated from caeca from 319 flocks of two different breeds (199 Cobb and 120 Hubbard), reared as standard (199), Freedom Food/corn fed (57), free‐range (47) or organic (16). The standard category exclusively used Cobb birds slaughtered at 38‐41 days. The Freedom...
Thu, 05/21/2020 - 03:26
Aims To analyze and compare the effect of selection power for antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in coliforms of two kinds of β‐lactams ‐aminopenicillins; ampicillin (Amp) and cephalosporins; cephalexin (Cpn) and ceftiofur (Cef)‐ and tetracycline (Tet) using an approach based on a swine fecal micro‐cosmos. Methods and Results Sixteen fecal samples from 32 pigs (mixed two by two) were treated with Amp...
Tue, 05/19/2020 - 03:24
ABSTRACT Rapid identification of pathogen and its resistance to antimicrobial drugs, and subsequent appropriate antimicrobial treatment are essential for correct patient outcomes. Conventional detection methods of bacterial resistance, such as disk‐diffusion, broth microdilution and automated instruments, are constantly widely used and primarily standardized. Nevertheless, the results cannot be...
Tue, 05/19/2020 - 03:24
Aims The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of Radio frequency (RF) heating and the combination treatment of RF heating with ultraviolet (UV) radiation against foodborne pathogens in roasted grain powder (RGP). Methods and Results Foodborne pathogens inoculated on RGP were subjected to RF heating or RF‐UV combination treatments. After 120 s of RF heating, 4.68, 3.89...

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