Journal of Applied Microbiology

The Research Publications track research that is published across national and international peer-reviewed journals. The most recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal Title, Subject, USDA Grant Funding Agencies or FDA Grant Funding Agencies. The research publications are tracked across five subject areas: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, and Viruses.

Mon, 07/13/2020 - 22:07
Aims To evaluate four DNA extraction methods to elucidate the most effective method for bacterial DNA recovery from human milk. Methods and results Human milk DNA was extracted using the following methods: i) QIAGEN MagAttract Microbial DNA Isolation Kit (kit QM), ii) Norgen Milk Bacterial DNA Isolation Kit (kit NM), iii) QIAGEN MagAttract Microbiome DNA/RNA Isolation Kit (kit MM), and iv) TRIzol...
Sat, 07/11/2020 - 22:07
Aim This study aimed to evaluate the patterns and potential risk factors associated with the occurrence of Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli in selected United States swine feed mills. Methods and Results A total of 405 samples were collected during fall 2018, spring and summer 2019 from selected sites including floors, equipment, shoes and feed in six feed mills in the US Midwest region. Each...
Wed, 07/08/2020 - 22:07
Aims This research was performed to investigate the influence of clay and humic acid on E. coli O157 survival in model soils. Additionally, the influence of pH and humic acid on E. coli O157 in liquid culture was investigated. Methods and Results Artificial soil microcosms were prepared with sand, kaolinite, bentonite, and humic acid. Artificial soil microcosms pH was adjusted (6.0 to 7.0) with...
Fri, 07/03/2020 - 22:08
Aims This article presents models of artificial neural networks employed to predict the biological activity of chemical compounds based of their structure. Regression and classification models were designed to determine antimicrobial properties of quaternary ammonium salts against Escherichia coli strain. Methods and Results The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) microbial growth Escherichia...
Fri, 07/03/2020 - 22:08
ABSTRACT Aims The aims of this study were to determine the occurrence of Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) on soybean pods, seeds and roots, including rhizoplane, during the soybean crop in rotation with wheat and to evaluate the FGSC dynamics on wheat and soybean residues during two soybean growing season in rotation with wheat, particularly of F. graminearum sensu stricto (FGss)....
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 22:07
Aim The purpose of this work was to identify and genetically characterize enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) O80:H2 from diarrheic and septicemic calves in Belgium and to comparing them with human EHEC after whole genome sequencing. Methods and Results Ten EHEC and 21 EPEC O80 identified by PCR between 2009 and 2018 from feces, intestinal content and a kidney of...
Sun, 06/28/2020 - 22:07
Aim Quinoline is a recalcitrant pollutant in coking wastewater which has been broadly investigated with many isolates possessing aerobic quinoline degrading ability. However, studies on anaerobic degradation and the corresponding bacteria are very scarce. This study attempted to investigate the role of diverse functional members and the redundancy of quinoline degradation in a lab‐scale quinoline...
Fri, 06/26/2020 - 22:07
Aims Biological techniques can manage plant diseases safely and in environmentally friendly ways, but their efficacy needs improvement. It is of the utmost importance to search for powerful microbes for the effective control of plant diseases. Methods and Results Unheated self‐digestive solutions (SDS) that were heated at 100°C for 30 minutes (H‐SDS) or stored for 12 months at room temperature (S...
Sun, 06/07/2020 - 22:07
Aims The goal was to explore the effects of subinhibitory concentration (SIC) (0.5 MIC=20 µg L‐1) of ciprofloxacin on the transcriptome of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O26:H11 (EHEC) isolate by 60 minutes of exposure. Materials and Results We used a combination of comparative genomic and transcriptomic (RNAseq) analyses. The whole genome of the E. coli O26:H11 #30934 strain of bovine origin...
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 22:07
Aim of the study Effect of internalized phthalyl starch nanoparticles (PSNs) on the antimicrobial ability of Lactococcus lactis (LL) KCTC 2013. Methods and results Phthalyl starch nanoparticles (PSNs) were prepared by self‐assembly of phthalyl starch and the amount of the hydrophobic phthalic moieties were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), PSN1 (DS: 14.3 mol.‐%), PSN2 (DS: 17.8...
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 22:07
Aims we employed a combination of diagnostic tests including single cervical tuberculin test (SCT), rapid lateral‐flow test (RT), TB‐Feron, conventional PCR and culture to investigate the prevalence of M. bovis infections in dairy cattle under the intensive dairy production system in Egypt. Methods and Results In total 2,710 dairy cows from 11 herds in six Governorates were tested by SCT and 444...
Sun, 05/31/2020 - 03:25
Food contaminated by hepatitis A virus (HAV) is responsible of the 2‐7% of all HAV outbreaks worldwide. This review provides a description of the HAV characteristics, its infectivity and epidemiological features. In addition, this review compiles existing original papers reporting HAV prevalence, viral titers in foodstuffs and the risk associated with food contamination. The purpose of this...
Fri, 05/22/2020 - 03:24
Aim To investigate factors influencing Campylobacter spp. colonization of broiler chickens. Methods and Results Campylobacters were isolated from caeca from 319 flocks of two different breeds (199 Cobb and 120 Hubbard), reared as standard (199), Freedom Food/corn fed (57), free‐range (47) or organic (16). The standard category exclusively used Cobb birds slaughtered at 38‐41 days. The Freedom...
Thu, 05/21/2020 - 03:26
Aims To analyze and compare the effect of selection power for antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in coliforms of two kinds of β‐lactams ‐aminopenicillins; ampicillin (Amp) and cephalosporins; cephalexin (Cpn) and ceftiofur (Cef)‐ and tetracycline (Tet) using an approach based on a swine fecal micro‐cosmos. Methods and Results Sixteen fecal samples from 32 pigs (mixed two by two) were treated with Amp...
Tue, 05/19/2020 - 03:24
ABSTRACT Rapid identification of pathogen and its resistance to antimicrobial drugs, and subsequent appropriate antimicrobial treatment are essential for correct patient outcomes. Conventional detection methods of bacterial resistance, such as disk‐diffusion, broth microdilution and automated instruments, are constantly widely used and primarily standardized. Nevertheless, the results cannot be...
Tue, 05/19/2020 - 03:24
Aims The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of Radio frequency (RF) heating and the combination treatment of RF heating with ultraviolet (UV) radiation against foodborne pathogens in roasted grain powder (RGP). Methods and Results Foodborne pathogens inoculated on RGP were subjected to RF heating or RF‐UV combination treatments. After 120 s of RF heating, 4.68, 3.89...
Mon, 05/18/2020 - 03:24
Staphylococcus aureus is an important agent of contagious bovine intramammary infections in dairy cattle. Its ability to persist inside the udder is based on the presence of important mechanisms such as its ability to form biofilms, polysaccharide capsules, small colony variants (SCVs), and their ability to invade professional and non‐professional cells, which will protect S. aureus from the...
Thu, 05/14/2020 - 03:24
Aims The emergence of carbapenem‐resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) strains has led to increased mortality and morbidity rates. Tigecycline, a new class of broad‐spectrum glycyl‐tetracycline antibiotics, has been used to target multi‐ and pan‐drug resistant bacterial infections. This study aimed to assess the molecular characteristics of CRKP in a tertiary hospital, and its susceptibility to...
Thu, 05/14/2020 - 03:24
ABSTRACT Aims This study measured the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Javiana over a 10–day period on four soil‐free cultivation matrix (SFCM) types in the absence of microgreens and fertilizers. Methods and Results Coco coir (CC), a Sphagnum peat/vermiculite mix, Biostrate®, and hemp mat samples were inoculated with 3 x 106 CFU mL‐1 bacteria,...
Sat, 05/09/2020 - 03:23
Aims Develop an effective laboratory method to consistently recover viral loads sufficient for disinfectant efficacy testing from porous concrete coupons. Investigate the role of matrix pH on the recovery of Foot‐and‐mouth disease virus (FMDV) and African Swine Fever virus (ASFV) from porous concrete. Compare parameters for FMDV and ASFV inactivation on porous and non‐porous surfaces in...
Fri, 05/08/2020 - 03:25
Aim Public health promotion of fruit and vegetables as healthier sources of nutrition in Nigeria has led to an increase in consumption of fruit and vegetables, particularly in the form of ready‐to‐eat (RTE) salads. However, the continual association of drug‐resistant bacteria with fruit and vegetables creates an additional challenge for consumer safety. Hence this study was carried out to...
Sun, 05/03/2020 - 03:24
Aims The study aimed to investigate the inactivation efficacy and mechanisms of plasma activated water (PAW) on selected bacteria in planktonic state. Methods and results PAW was generated using an atmospheric cold plasma jet at 15, 22 and 30 kV for 5 min. Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, Staphylococcus aureus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Shewanella putrefaciens were...
Sun, 05/03/2020 - 03:24
Aims To identify a lambda promoter pL mutant that could extend the thermal stability of the thermo‐inducible λcI857‐pR/pL system and to evaluate the effects of the modified system for the controlled expression of lysis gene E during the production of bacterial ghosts (BGs). Methods and Results The promoter pL mutant was identified by random mutagenesis and site‐directed mutagenesis. The results...
Sun, 05/03/2020 - 03:24
Aim This research aimed to monitor pharmaceutical water system by sampling water from all treatment stages, identify bacterial isolates from each phase and determine the most suitable methods to control them. Methods and results Water samples were collected and examined from pharmaceutical water system in a pharmaceutical factory in Giza, Egypt during twelve months, once per month, (from December...
Fri, 05/01/2020 - 03:24
Aims The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of new and currently used biocides in the mushroom industry for inactivating L. monocytogenes biofilm. Methods and results A lab‐scale study was initially carried out to test the efficacy of eleven biocidal products against a cocktail of five L. monocytogenes strains that were grown to three‐day biofilms on stainless steel coupons. Biocidal...
Fri, 05/01/2020 - 03:24
Aims The aim of this study was to characterize S. aureus isolates of food origin (dairy and meat products, pastries, and sandwiches) determining the carriage in enterotoxin genes and the antimicrobial resistance pheno/genotypes. Methods and results A total of 300 food samples were collected and analyzed for the detection of S. aureus. The presence of enterotoxin genes was investigated by...
Fri, 05/01/2020 - 03:24
Aims The objective of the study was to determine levels of Escherichia coli O157:H7 colonization in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of naturally‐shedding cattle shedding the pathogen at low‐ or super‐shedder levels. Methods and Results Over two years, feedlot cattle were sampled multiple times for faecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7. Just prior to harvest (1 to 2 days), animals that were super‐...
Fri, 04/24/2020 - 03:22
Aims To evaluate tomato epiphyte lactic acid bacteria (LAB) hydrophobicity and auto‐aggregation as an indicator of bacteria adhesion to tomato. Likewise use LAB adhesion and co‐aggregation as mechanisms to antagonize pathogen attachment. Methods and Results Fifty‐four LAB were screened to evaluate their hydrophobic, auto‐ and co‐aggregative properties against Salmonella Typhimurium, Saintpaul,...
Tue, 04/14/2020 - 03:17
Aims of the study The ability of Yersinia enterocolitica strains to form biofilms and the capacity of different alkaloids to inhibit biofilm formation were investigated. Methods and Results The capacity to form biofilm on polystyrene of 31 Y. enterocolitica strains was evaluated. Biofilm and quorum sensing (QS) inhibition of 17 alkaloids were assayed; furthermore, minimum biofilm inhibitory...
Sun, 04/12/2020 - 03:16
Aim This study investigated the in vitro mechanism of action of a commercial citrus EO, Brazilian orange terpenes (BOT), on an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) isolated from pig gut and on Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Methods and Results Firstly, bacteria were exposed sequentially to BOT every 3 h (three times) at sub‐MICs and results showed that sequential exposure to BOT provoked a higher...
Thu, 04/09/2020 - 03:19
Aims The food supply is a potential source of antimicrobial resistance. Current surveillance programs targeting food are limited to beef, pork and poultry and do not capture niche products. In this study, imported reptile and amphibian products were screened for antimicrobial resistant bacteria. Methods and Results Fifty‐three items including soft shell turtles, frog legs, geckos, snakes and a...
Tue, 04/07/2020 - 03:29
Pepper bacterial wilt is caused by the bacterial pathogen, Ralstonia solanacearum. It is the most destructive disease of many Solanaceous crops such as potatoes, tobacco, pepper, tomatoes, and eggplant and is a significant source of crop loss worldwide. Physical, cultural and chemical controls have been employed to combat this destructive disease. However, none of these strategies has been able...
Mon, 03/23/2020 - 03:18
Aims This study aimed to apply the volatile organic compounds from S. philanthi RL‐1‐178 (VOCs RL‐1‐178) as a fumigant to protect soybean seeds against the two aflatoxin‐producing fungi in stored soybean seeds. Methods and Results The antifungal bioassay tests on PDA dishes showed that 30 g L‐1 wheat seed inoculum of S. philanthi RL‐1‐178 exhibited total (100 %) inhibition on A. parasiticus TISTR...
Tue, 03/17/2020 - 03:17
Aim To evaluate biological control agents (BCA) against Fusarium graminearum on infected maize stalks as a means to reduce Fusarium head blight (FHB) in subsequently grown wheat. Methods and Results In the laboratory, BCAs were applied against F. graminearum on maize stalk pieces. Clonostachys rosea inhibited the perithecia development and ascospore discharge when applied before, simultaneously...
Fri, 03/13/2020 - 03:16
Aims To increase biodegradation of phenanthrene (PHE), pyrene (PYR) and fluoranthene (FLU) through mixed cultures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)‐degrading bacteria, using modified repeated batch fermentation. Methods and Results Novel bacterial strains of Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas sp. and Ralstonia eutropha were cultivated and the biodegradation and conversion of mixed PAH to...
Wed, 03/04/2020 - 03:28
Aim The aim was to identify a Lactobacillus strain with potential probiotic characteristics by whole genome sequence analysis and in vitro experimental studies. Methods and Results The whole genome sequencing was carried out using PacBio RSII sequencing method and Illumina's paired‐end sequencing technology. Gene prediction and annotation was achieved using GlimmerVersion 3.02 and NCBI...
Sun, 02/23/2020 - 03:18
Aims This experimental study focuses on survival and consistence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in cold water sediments and how increasing temperature and nutritional availability can affect growth. Methods and Results A pathogenic strain of V. parahaemolyticus was inoculated in seawater microcosms containing bottom sediment. Gradually, during 14 days, the temperature was upregulated from 8 to 21°C....
Fri, 02/21/2020 - 03:32
Aims The aims of this study were to isolate and characterize novel Salmonella phages and evaluate the effectiveness of phage cocktails used as antibacterial agents in dishwashing materials. Methods and Results The effective phages, vB_STy‐RN5i1 and vB_STy‐RN29, were isolated from drain water samples collected from open markets using S. Typhimurium as the host strain. These phages were identified...
Thu, 02/13/2020 - 03:26
Aims Salmonella cells desiccated in an environment with low‐water activity (aw) show longer survival times and enhanced resistance to heat. However, little is known about the cellular ultrastructure of Salmonella in low‐aw environment in relation to the survival and persistence during desiccation. Meterials and Results In this study, Salmonella Enteritidis strain PT30 was dehydrated by exposure...
Thu, 02/13/2020 - 03:26
Aims The aim of this study was to develop a novel selective agar for the specific isolation and detection of Bacillus anthracis. Methods and Results Based on published data on antibiotic resistance and susceptibility of B. anthracis and other closely related species of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group, a new selective agar formulation termed CEFOMA (Bacillus CEreus sensu lato group specific...
Fri, 02/07/2020 - 03:30
Aims Exposure of Listeria monocytogenes to osmotic stress can induce increased resistance to subsequent lethal exposure to cell envelope stressors, such as nisin and bile salts. We wanted to determine if similar cross‐protection phenotypes could occur when L. monocytogenes strains were treated with osmotic stress and exposed to sub‐lethal levels of the cell envelope stressor, bile. Method and...
Fri, 02/07/2020 - 03:30
Aims The purpose of this study was to isolate Lactobacillus from gastrointestinal tract of healthy post‐weaning piglets and investigate its synergistic antimicrobial and probiotic effects with ZnO nanoparticles (nZnO). Methods and Results Out of the 128 isolates, L. plantarum BLPL03 was selected based on its excellent acid and bile salt tolerance properties. L. plantarum BLPL03 was sensitive to β...
Wed, 02/05/2020 - 03:17
Aims The study established the inactivation kinetic parameters of an Acanthamoeba cyst isolate subjected to heating and chlorination. Methods and Results A strain of Acanthamoeba was isolated and purified from an area surrounding a pilot food plant. Mature cysts (14 d) were subjected to heat inactivation studies at 71, 76, 81, 86, and 91 °C; and chlorination at 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ppm....
Thu, 01/30/2020 - 03:17
Aims Evaluate the possible synergistic effect of cranberry juice (CJ) and commercial citrus extract (BS) against FCV‐F9 viral titer in‐vitro in combination with γ‐irradiation to determinate the D10 values and radiosensitivity increase. Methods and Results Virus samples were treated with a formulation containing a mixture of BS or CJ. Results showed a D10 of 0.05 %, 0.42 % and 1.34 kGy for the...
Sun, 01/26/2020 - 03:16
Aim The current study was conducted to determine the incidence, antibiotic resistance and virulence genes of Vibrio strains isolated from ready‐to‐eat shrimps in Edo and Delta States, Nigeria. Methods and Results A total of 1440 ready‐to‐eat shrimp's samples were obtained from open markets from November 2016 to October 2017 and analysed using standard culture‐based procedures. Overall, our result...
Thu, 01/23/2020 - 03:16
Aims This study was conducted to early detect the negative culture bacterial pathogens causing subclinical mastitis for the fast diagnosis of the disease and the reduction of some milk transmitted pathogenic bacteria to human consumers. Methods and Results A total of 171 positive California mastitis test (CMT) milk samples collected from asymptomatic dairy cows in Sharkia Governorate, Egypt were...
Sat, 01/18/2020 - 03:15
Aims To study association between number and positions of mutations with MICs of fluoroquinolone non‐susceptible Haemophilus influenzae. Methods and Results More than 40% of 48 H. influenzae isolated from nursing home residents were not susceptible to fluoroquinolone. Amino acid changes in the quinolone resistance determining regions, and correlation with MICs and inhibition zone diameters were...
Sat, 01/11/2020 - 03:15
Aim Following previous research on improving the cleaning of crates used to transport broiler chickens from the farm to the abattoir, a demonstration project was undertaken to investigate improvements in crate washing on a commercial scale. Methods and Results The soak tank of a conventional crate washing system was replaced with a high‐performance washer fitted with high‐volume, high‐pressure...
Sat, 01/04/2020 - 03:17
Aim To effectively make high‐quality silage in hot and humid area. Methods and Results The natural lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains CZ149, XH358, XH753, and XH761 isolated from corn and Napier grass were screened by the potential of low pH growth and high lactic acid production, and their effect on silage quality, aerobic stability and aflatoxin B1 production of whole‐crop corn were also...
Sun, 12/29/2019 - 03:17
Aims Assessment the quality of fresh whitemouth croaker (Micropogonias furnieri) collected in different seasons the through quantification of histamine‐forming bacteria, determination of histamine content, and characterization of microorganism communities. Methods and Results The histamine content of fresh whitemouth croaker was detected by HPLC‐DAD with a concentration ranging from 258.52 to 604...

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