Journal of Applied Microbiology

Wed, 01/20/2021 - 22:06
Aims To develop a broadly applicable medium free of proteins with well‐defined and reproducible chemical composition for the cultivation of various microorganisms with food safety significance. Methods and Results The defined medium was designed as a buffered minimal salt medium supplemented with amino acids, vitamins, trace metals, and other nutrients. Various strains commonly used for food...
Sat, 01/09/2021 - 22:06
Aims A. hydrophila is a zoonotic pathogen displaying resistance to multiple antibiotics. Here we aim to develop a candidate biocontrol agent against A. hydrophila. Methods and results In this study, we isolated and characterized the phage vB‐AhyM‐AP1 from sewage. It showed lytic activity against A. hydrophila strains. One‐step growth curve revealed that the latent period lasted for 40 min. The...
Fri, 01/08/2021 - 22:06
Aim To investigate the occurrence of ESBL and colistin‐resistant E. coli and its genotypic characterization and identification of virulence determinants in cases of bovine mastitis in three provinces of China. Materials & methods Five hundred and thirty‐five milk samples presenting mastitis symptoms were screened for the presence of ESBL, colistin‐resistant, and different virulence genes....
Sat, 01/02/2021 - 22:06
Aims A Cadmium (Cd)‐tolerant Bacillus megaterium strain A14 was used to investigate the effects and mechanisms of bacterial inoculation on peanut growth, Cd accumulation in grains, and Cd fixation in Cd‐contaminated soil. Methods and Results Spectroscopic analysis showed that A14 has many functional groups (‐OH, ‐NH2 and ‐COO et al.) distributed on its surface. The pot experiment indicated that...
Sat, 01/02/2021 - 22:06
Aims To perform the molecular characterization of 23 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from pigs with signs of infections recovered in Spanish farms during 2018‐2019. Methods and Results The antimicrobial resistance pattern and virulence profile were determined. The molecular typing was performed by different molecular techniques. The transferability of the cfr gene was assessed by conjugation and...
Fri, 01/01/2021 - 22:06
Staphylococcus aureus, an opportunistic pathogen, causes diverse community and nosocomial acquired human infections, including folliculitis, impetigo, sepsis, septic arthritis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, implant associated biofilm infections and contagious mastitis in cattle. In recent days both methicillin‐sensitive and methicillin resistant S. aureus infections have increased. Highly...
Wed, 12/23/2020 - 22:05
Aims Esteya vermicola is an endoparasitic fungus producing lunate conidia, which kill pine wood nematode (PWN), and PWN could cause pine wilt disease (PWD). The aims of this study were to increase production and confirm the resistance (temperature and UV irradiation) of lunate conidia, and further determine the effective concentrations of conidia infecting PWN. Methods and Results In this study,...
Wed, 12/23/2020 - 22:05
Aim To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy and wound healing effect of atmospheric pressure cold plasma (APCP) on an infected pressure ulcer (IPUs) model that was created on rats. Methods A total of 18 rats was divided into APCP, silver sulfadiazine (AgS), and control groups to have six rats in each group. A third‐grade pressure ulcer model was developed on the back of each of the rats, and...
Sun, 12/20/2020 - 22:05
Aims To evaluate the applicability of the Mimosa tenuiflora and Eucalyptus urograndis pyroligneous acids (PAs) as alternative antiseptics in dairy goats. Methods and Results Cytotoxicity was evaluated in vitro using bacteria, as well as in vivo using goats, and the influence of PAs on the physicochemical parameters of fresh milk were examined. The cytotoxicity of PAs was evaluated in terms of...
Sun, 12/20/2020 - 22:05
Aims To investigate the effects of the lectin from Punica granatum sarcotesta (PgTeL) on growth, viability, cell structure, biofilm formation and chitinase activity of Listeria monocytogenes. In addition, the effect of PgTeL on the adhesion and invasion of human cells (HeLa) was determined. Methods and Results PgTeL showed bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects on the strains Listeria...
Thu, 12/17/2020 - 22:07
Aims Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, the causal agent of white mold, can infect several host species, including economically important crops. In this study, we propose and validate a new in vitro system able to mimic the conditions of interaction with the host and promote the induction of S. sclerotiorum effectors. Methods and results For culture media production, we selected three plant species,...
Fri, 12/11/2020 - 22:04
Aim The current study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile and genetic relatedness of Aeromonas spp. isolated from healthcare and urban effluents, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), and river water. Methods and results We detected the presence of genes conferring resistance to β‐lactam, quinolone, and aminoglycoside. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was carried out to...
Thu, 12/10/2020 - 22:04
In food establishments, cleaning and disinfection programs contribute to provide the environmental conditions that are necessary for the production of safe and healthy food. Compliance with validated programs is evaluated through verification activities, in order to establish, through objective evidence, if they are implemented as they were written and if they are effective, achieving continuous...
Thu, 12/10/2020 - 22:04
Aims The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of treatment with the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii with or without metronidazole in experimental giardiasis. Methods and results The effect of treatment with S. boulardii with or without metronidazole on the intestinal mucosa, the antioxidant defence system and the parasitic load was determined in experimental giardiasis. Eight...
Tue, 12/08/2020 - 22:06
Aim Fluorescent semiconductor nanoparticles or Quantum Dots (QDs) have excellent properties as photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy. This is mainly consequence of their nanometric size and the generation of light‐activated redox species. In previous works we have reported the low‐cost biomimetic synthesis of glutathione (GSH) capped QDs (CdTe‐GSH QDs) with high biocompatibility. However, no...
Tue, 12/08/2020 - 22:06
Aims To better understand the persistence dynamics of enteropathogenic bacteria in freshwater wetland habitats, we constructed lab‐scale mesocosms planted with two different wetland plant species using a sub‐surface flow wetland design. Mesocosms were treated with either a high‐ quality or a poor‐quality water source to examine the effects of water quality exposure and plant species on...
Thu, 12/03/2020 - 22:06
Aims The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of probiotics and antibiotics on microbial composition, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) concentration and free fatty acid receptor 2/3 (FFAR2/3) expression in boiler chickens. Methods and Results 150 one‐day‐old male broilers were randomly allocated into 3 groups, control (CON) group, probiotics (PB) group and antibiotics (ATB) group....
Wed, 12/02/2020 - 22:05
This study evaluated the effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (B. amyloliquefaciens) TL106 isolated from Tibetan pigs’ feces, on the growth performance, immune response, intestinal barrier function, morphology of jejunum, cecum and colon, and gut microbiota in the mice with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC)‐induced intestinal diseases.
Mon, 11/30/2020 - 22:08
Aims The study was aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity and efficacy of chestnut and quebracho wood extracts against Salmonella by in vitro assays and in vivo trials. Methods and results The extracts showed inhibitory activity against Salmonella determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration method as well as on the adhesion and invasion of S. Gallinarum (SG) and S. Enteritidis (SE)...
Thu, 11/19/2020 - 22:06
Aims This study evaluated the microbiological quality and safety of minimally processed parsley sold in southeastern Brazilian food markets. Methods and Results One hundred samples were submitted to the enumeration of Enterobacteriaceae by plating on MacConkey agar. Colonies of Enterobacteriaceae were randomly selected and identified by MALDI‐TOF MS. Samples were also tested for Listeria...
Sun, 11/15/2020 - 22:08
Aims In this study, we sought to determine the incidence and diversity of Salmonella in a broad collection of commercial animal feeds collected from animal feed mills across the United States over an eleven‐month period and utilize CRISPR analysis to identify individual serovars. Methods and Results Over two independent trials, 387 feed samples from 135 different animal feed mills in the United...
Sat, 11/14/2020 - 22:08
Aims Infection of seafood with pathogenic species of the genus Vibrio causes human food‐borne illnesses. This study was executed to examine the antimicrobial‐resistance phenotypes, biofilm‐forming capability, and virulence‐associated genes of Vibrio from fish and shellfishes. Methods and results Three hundred fresh water and marine fish and shellfish samples were collected from wet markets and...
Sat, 11/07/2020 - 22:08
Aim Gonorrhoea remains a leading public health burden and the development of vaccine against gonorrhoea becomes more urgent. Here, a novel Neisseria gonorrhoeae DNA vaccine delivered by Salmonella enteritidis ghosts was developed and the immune responses of the vaccine candidate were evaluated. Methods and Results Neisseria gonorrhoeae nspA gene was cloned into the pVAX1 vector. The constructed...
Fri, 11/06/2020 - 22:08
Aim The focus of the present study was the evaluation of the copper ions treatment on the viability of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and other bacterial communities in cow’s milk. Methods and Results A copper ions treatment was evaluated in naturally contaminated cow’s milk to assay MAP load and/or viability; and relative abundance of other bacterial communities. In addition,...
Fri, 11/06/2020 - 22:08
Aims To analyze the non‐glycosylated protein fraction from Melipona beecheii honey for antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7. Methods and Results The proteins from M. beecheii honey were separated according to their degree of glycosylation using Concanavalin A‐affinity chromatography. The total protein extract and its fractions were analyzed by 1D and 2D electrophoresis. We also...
Fri, 11/06/2020 - 22:08
Aims Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus has emerged as a severe bacterial disease of cultured shrimp. To identify the key virulence factors, two AHPND‐causing V. parahaemolyticus (VpAHPND) strains (123 and 137) and two non‐VpAHPND strains (HZ56 and ATCC17082) were selected. Methods and Results Challenge tests showed that the four strains exhibited...
Thu, 11/05/2020 - 22:08
Aims This study compared the capacity of strains of Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis and Dublin isolated in Brazil to invade epithelial cells, to be internalized by and survive within macrophages, and to stimulate cytokine release in vitro. Methods and Results Both serovars infected 75% and 73% Caco‐2 (human) and MDBK (bovine) epithelial cells, respectively. S. Dublin and S. Enteritidis (...
Sun, 11/01/2020 - 22:08
Aims We aimed to elucidate whether the DNA extraction kit and bacteria therein affect the characterisation of bacterial communities associated with butterfly samples harbouring different bacterial abundancies. Methods and Results We analysed bacteria associated with eggs of Pieris brassicae and with adults of this butterfly, which were either untreated or treated with antibiotics (AB). Three DNA...
Fri, 10/30/2020 - 22:09
Aims Cattle are the second most important cause of human campylobacteriosis, after poultry, but there are knowledge gaps regarding Campylobacter in cattle. This study examined the occurrence of Campylobacter, the species present, sequence types, and antibiotic resistance in Swedish cattle. Methods and Results Feces samples collected from 154 calves on seven Swedish farms, and 69 follow‐up samples...
Fri, 10/30/2020 - 22:09
Aims This study aimed to investigate the antibacterial ability and action mechanism of dithiocyano‐methane against Aeromonas hydrophila, so as to provide a reference for its application in farm disinfection. Methods and Results After exposing the bacteria to dithiocyano‐methane, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericide concentration (MBC), activities of alkaline phosphatase...
Mon, 10/26/2020 - 22:08
Aims The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of E. coli O157 and O26 on Belgian dairy cattle farms, the presence of virulence genes in the confirmed isolates, and the association of E. coli O26 presence with calf diarrhea. Methods and Results In total, 233 recto‐anal mucosal swabs (RAMS) were obtained from healthy and diarrheic dairy calves on three farms, each alternately...
Sat, 10/24/2020 - 22:09
Aim In‐depth ‘One Health’ risk assessment of Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichiacoli (ExPEC) strains carrying the traits of urinary tract infection, sepsis, meningitis,and avian colibacillosis in poultry of India. Methods and Results A total of 230 E. coli isolates were recovered from chickensamples representing the different sources (feces vs. ceca), stages (poultry farms vs. retails butcher...
Fri, 10/16/2020 - 22:09
Aims This study aimed to evaluate the effects of three Bacillus probiotics on Salmonella Typhimurium, and interleukin‐8 (IL‐8) gene expression in the co‐culture of the Bacillus and the pathogen in vitro. Methods and Results Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus indicus, and Bacillus coagulans were initially turned to spore and heat‐inactivated forms. The cellular damages of the probiotics on the HT‐29...
Fri, 10/09/2020 - 22:10
ABSTRACT Aims The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of Cronobacter strains isolated from foods (n=50) and clinical samples (n=6) in Brazil and genotype selected strains (n=18) using multi‐locus sequence typing (MLST). Methods and Results The cytotoxic activity of C. sakazakii (n=29), C. dublinensis (n=13), C. malonaticus (n=6), C. turicensis (n=6), and C. muytjensii (...
Thu, 10/08/2020 - 22:08
Aim To test whether engineered nanopores on the outer membrane (OM) of Escherichia coli can increase expression of heterologous proteins by making additional nutrients available to the host. Methods and Results Outer membrane nanopores were generated by expressing recombinant Vibrio parahaemolyticus CsgG (rVpCsgG), which spontaneously assembles into a pore forming channel on the OM, allowing...
Thu, 10/08/2020 - 22:08
ABSTRACT Aims The efficacy of a novel photochemical method for generating chlorine dioxide (photoClO2) was evaluated against human noroviruses (HuNoV) surrogate, bacteriophage MS2, and Clostridium difficile endospores. Methods and Results Chlorine dioxide was generated by mixing 1% sodium chlorite with 10 parts‐per‐million (ppm) Eosin Y and irradiating with a photo‐activator‐excitable light....
Thu, 10/08/2020 - 22:08
Aims We aim to investigate the prevalence, putative virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance of mesophilic Aeromonas isolated from ready‐to‐eat (RTE) seafood available on the Norwegian market, and to assess the potential risks by consuming RTE seafood to consumers. Methods and Results The prevalence of mesophilic Aeromonas in 148 RTE seafood was investigated and the highest prevalence was...
Mon, 10/05/2020 - 22:08
ABSTRACT Aims To determine inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and reduction of Escherichia coli and enterococci in cattle slurry added aqueous ammonia. Methods and Results Escherichia coli, enterococci and non‐viable C. parvum oocysts (DAPI+ PI+) were enumerated every second day for two weeks in cattle slurry amended with 60 mmol l‐1 aq. ammonia and compared with untreated slurry at...
Mon, 10/05/2020 - 22:08
ABSTRACT Aims This study investigated the diversity of Colletotrichum isolates recovered from Conyza bonariensis leaves through the use of morphological characteristics, growth rate, carbon sources utilization and phylogenetic analysis. Methods and Results Thirty Colletotrichum isolates recovered from Conyza bonariensis leaves showing symptoms of disease were included in the present study. Based...
Fri, 09/25/2020 - 22:09
Aims This work aimed to identify secondary metabolites from aerial parts of Euphorbia species functional for control of toxigenic Fusarium species responsible of cereal grain rots. Methods and Results Aerial parts of Euphorbia serpens, E. schickendantzii and E. collina were sequentially extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. The extracts were tested against strains of F....
Wed, 09/23/2020 - 22:08
Aims Current study was designed to analyze the prevalence of class 1 and class 2 integron integrase genes among antibiotic resistant coliform bacteria isolated from paper currency circulating in Pakistan. Methods and Results 500 individual currency notes were collected from different food vending sites at Lahore, Pakistan. Bacterial population were identified by biochemical and PCR techniques....
Tue, 09/22/2020 - 22:09
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), widely used as starter cultures for the fermentation of a large variety of food, can improve the safety, shelf life, nutritional value and overall quality of the fermented products. In this regard, the selection of strains delivering health‐promoting compounds is now the main objective of many researchers. Although most LAB are auxotrophic for several vitamins, it is...
Sat, 09/12/2020 - 22:09
Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are a global health concern. Antibiotic resistance occurs naturally, but misuse of antibiotics in humans and animals is accelerating the process of antibiotic resistance emergency, which has been aggravated by exposure to molecules of antibiotics present in clinical and agricultural settings and the engagement of many countries in water reuseespecially in Middle...
Fri, 09/11/2020 - 22:08
Aims To identify and evaluate the application of two novel monoclonal antibody (mAb) 2G12 against outer membrane protein (Omp) C and mAb 12B1 targeting the O chain of the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ECO157). Methods and Results The sensitivity and specificity of these two antibodies were evaluated with eight ECO157 strains and 68 untargeted strains. mAb 2G12 and 12B1...
Sun, 09/06/2020 - 22:09
Aim To study the impact of incorporating micro‐nano‐bubbles (MNBs) in commonly used food antimicrobials (AMs) against Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EC) and Listeria monocytogenes (LM). Methods and Results Air, carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen (N2) were used to incorporate MNBs in city water. Nine‐milliliter AM solutions (with or without MNBs) were individually taken into sterile test‐tubes and mixed...
Sat, 09/05/2020 - 22:10
Aim To analyse the prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter spp. in northern Spain. Methods and results Campylobacter was isolated from 139 samples of broiler meat and faecal dropping of broiler and swine with a prevalence of 35.4%, 62% and 42.8%, respectively. Campylobacter jejuni (n=55) and Campylobacter coli (n=31) were identified by multiplex‐PCR in meat...
Fri, 09/04/2020 - 22:09
Aims This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles and genotypes of Streptococcus suis from Jiangxi Province, China. Methods and Results A total of 314 nasal swab samples were collected from clinically healthy pigs, with a positive isolation rate of S. suis of 34.08%. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that more than 80% of the isolates were susceptible to...
Thu, 09/03/2020 - 22:09
ABSTRACT Aims This study aimed to determine the toxin genotypes, virulence determinants, and antibiogram of Clostridium perfringens isolated from poultry, animals, and humans. Biofilm formation and the efficacy of disinfectants on C. perfringens biofilms were studied. Methods and Results Thirty C. perfringens isolates (20 clinical and 10 from chicken carcasses) were genotyped by PCR and all...
Thu, 09/03/2020 - 22:09
Aims Antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) are often associated with mobile genetic elements (MGEs), which facilitate their movement within and between bacterial populations. Detection of mobility is therefore important to understand the dynamics of MGE dissemination and their associated genes, especially in resistant clinical isolates that often have multiple ARGs associated with MGEs. Therefore...
Wed, 09/02/2020 - 22:09
Aims To investigate the effects of L. plantarum on inflammatory responses induced by ETEC K88 and explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. Methods and Results Intestinal porcine cells (IPEC‐1) were incubated with 0 or 1 × 108 CFU well‐1 L. plantarum for 4 h, and then these cells were challenged with 0 or 1 × 108 CFU well‐1 ETEC K88 for 2 h. The results showed that pre‐treatment of IPEC‐1...

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