Journal of Applied Poultry Research

Mon, 04/08/2019 - 20:00
SUMMARYA series of experiments were conducted to measure the effects of adding antimicrobials for 2 d: cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), hydrogen peroxide (HP), and/or sodium bisulfate (SB) to water drinker lines of market-age broilers on water usage, feed consumption, and inoculated Salmonella retention during feed and water withdrawal. The following experiments were evaluated: Salmonella...
Fri, 03/15/2019 - 20:00
SUMMARYThe increase in multidrug-resistant (MDR) E. coli, which may have been caused by indiscriminate use of antimicrobial agents in humans and animals, has become a serious threat to public health. This study was screened MDR-E. coli isolates from chicken meat in Korea for the presence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes and class 1 integrons to determine the correlation...
Fri, 02/08/2019 - 19:00
SUMMARYTo determine the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes (LM) and other species in different stages of the processing of broiler chickens, comparing a real-time PCR protocol with standard morphological and biochemical proofs as confirmatory tests for LM, 100 samples from 5 monitoring points (carcass after evisceration, carcass after chilling, packaged frozen carcass, knives and boards of the...
Thu, 01/31/2019 - 19:00
SUMMARYThe welfare and healthy farming of poultry under intensive rearing conditions are closely related to the farming environment. This study aims to investigate the bacterial community diversity in PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter) and PM10 (particulate matter between 2.5 and 10 μm in diameter) within broiler houses during different broiler growth stages under intensive...
Mon, 01/21/2019 - 19:00
SUMMARYWe investigated the antibacterial efficacy of a dairy-origin probiotic bacterium, Propionibacterium freudenreichii freudenreichii B3523 (PF), on a multidrug-resistant strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg (SH) in growing turkeys. In 2 independent experiments, day-old poults (N = 24/experiment) were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups (8 turkeys/group). The groups were: a...
Mon, 01/14/2019 - 19:00
SUMMARYRestrictions on the use of antibiotics in broiler chicken production have led to a resurgence in necrotic enteritis (NE) and heightened interest in non-antibiotic alternatives to control the problem. Probiotics, which are beneficial bacteria that improve the enteric microbial balance, and which range from defined single-organism products to complex mixtures of undefined normal gut flora (...
Tue, 12/18/2018 - 19:00
SUMMARYThe depopulation of healthy birds during a disease outbreak can impact recovery and further disrupt the food supply. In 2015, the United States faced one of the largest outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza ever confirmed. Many of the 7 million pullets depopulated were healthy but could not be moved to laying facilities because of their location in quarantine zones. The objective...
Tue, 12/11/2018 - 19:00
SUMMARYCommercial duck hatching eggs have high microbial loads due to their highly soiled nature. Thus, duck hatching eggs are commonly washed in commercial settings. Previous studies with chicken eggs determined that hatching egg sanitization with a combination of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ultraviolet (UV) light decreased the total microbial load on eggshells and improved hatchability. The...
Tue, 12/11/2018 - 19:00
SUMMARYThe disposal of by-products, such as poultry litter, and carcasses is a serious issue because of risks associated with microbial pathogens, and controlling the pathogen risks requires identifying improved pre-treatment methods capable of inactivating pathogens. As poultry litter and carcasses are known to be major reservoirs of pathogenic microorganisms such as Salmonella and Escherichia...
Sun, 11/04/2018 - 19:00
SUMMARYChitosan is known to have antimicrobial properties against a range of microbes. In this study, three different molecular weight (MW) chitosan preparations were used: low (LMW), medium (MMW), and coarse (CMW), in acetic acid (AA) as carrier to elucidate antimicrobial effects. Broiler cecal contents were inoculated with 105 CFU of S. Typhimurium and cultured anaerobically at 40°C with AA,...
Wed, 10/10/2018 - 20:00
SUMMARYAnimal well-being, evolving feed manufacturing regulations, human health, and consumer perception drive the continued need to provide safe feed to food animals. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of antimicrobial inclusion and conditioning temperature variations on feed manufacturing metrics (EXP1) and the inactivation of Enterococcus faecium, a Salmonella surrogate (...
Sun, 10/07/2018 - 20:00
SUMMARYAflatoxicosis is a major problem associated with poultry production in the tropics. We tested the ability of 3 low-cost and locally available adsorbents (activated charcoal, bentonite, and fuller's earth) to detoxify poultry feeds contaminated with aflatoxin. Bentonite was the most effective adsorbent and lowered the total aflatoxin concentration from 120 ± 38 μg/kg to 15 ± 5.0 μg/kg. The...
Tue, 09/25/2018 - 20:00
SUMMARYCampylobacter is a human food-borne pathogen frequently associated with poultry and poultry products and can be found in high numbers within the gut contents of colonized broilers. The number of Campylobacter on broiler carcasses increases markedly during automated defeathering as rubber picker fingers press on the abdomen and can force gut contents out of the cloaca. One method to prevent...
Wed, 09/05/2018 - 20:00
SUMMARYWhile the consumption of duck eggs has gained popularity over the past few years, little is known about the prevalence of Salmonella in duck flocks and the associated potential Public Health impact. In order to detect Salmonella infection in duck flocks, sensitive sampling methods are essential; however, sampling costs and the practicalities of sampling have to be reasonable to allow...
Wed, 09/05/2018 - 20:00
SUMMARYOne of the most effective approaches for reducing consumer risk of foodborne illness in poultry is to utilize effective antimicrobials. The objectives of this study were to determine antimicrobial properties of a United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Services-approved vinegar-based ingredient (VBI) on Salmonella Typhimurium inoculated (105 CFU/g) ground chicken...
Fri, 08/10/2018 - 20:00
SUMMARYTwo experiments were conducted in a commercial broiler hatchery to evaluate the use of a spray probiotic formulation as an alternative method to control the bacterial bloom within a broiler hatch cabinet vs. formaldehyde fumigation. In Exp 1, 2 independent trials were conducted to compare hatchery sanitation between the current formaldehyde drip method vs. spray application of the...
Tue, 08/07/2018 - 20:00
SUMMARYIn commercial farming, frequent use of antimicrobial agents probably results in the occurrence of resistance in bacterial flora present in the gastrointestinal tract. Backyard/free range chicken farming is known as a typical example of backyard farming. This kind of poultry farming differs in many ways from commercial poultry farming, e.g., in feeding regimes, antibiotic use, and access to...
Mon, 08/06/2018 - 20:00
SUMMARYEliminating the contamination of broiler carcasses by pathogens such as Salmonella that can cause human illness continues to be a tremendous challenge and concern for the poultry industry and government regulatory agencies. One source for the introduction of these pathogens in poultry production can be the feed. Extended heat conditioning of diets prior to pelleting combined with the...
Wed, 07/04/2018 - 20:00
SUMMARYA variety of necrotic enteritis (NE) research methodologies exist in the literature, many with components that do not represent standard industry practices. The models tested here aimed to investigate multiple NE methods that represent common broiler production systems. Two preliminary experiments compared Eimeria maxima (EM) plus NetB-negative Clostridium perfringens (CP) and NetB-...
Wed, 07/04/2018 - 20:00
SUMMARYIn 2015, the United States experienced an extensive outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza resulting in the depopulation of 42.1 million commercial egg-laying hens. Existing mass depopulation methods in multilevel caged systems utilized throughout the egg industry provide a challenge for producers and emergency personnel. An alternative depopulation method with potential for use in...
Wed, 06/27/2018 - 20:00
SUMMARYFree-range animals with unavoidable exposure to dirt and dung easily carry harmful bacteria, but little is known about the effect of dietary fermented supplement on bacterial loads. This study investigated the effect of fermented broccoli residue (FB) on the growth performance, harmful bacterial loads, and meat antioxidation of free-range broilers from 42 to 84 d of age. Six free-range...
Mon, 06/18/2018 - 20:00
SUMMARYSalmonella enteritidis (S.E.) was the most common serotype in human infections in 2016. Various yeast products have been shown to inhibit colonization of chickens by Salmonella and could be a useful adjunct in an S.E. control strategy. This study sought to determine whether feeding a yeast cell wall product (Celmanax SCP) at 100 ppm to commercial layer pullets either from 1 d to 17 wk or...
Tue, 06/05/2018 - 20:00
SUMMARYA significant point of entry for Salmonella into a processing plant is within the broilers to be processed. Prior to transport to the processing plant, feed (4 h) and water are withdrawn from the broilers on the farm before they are caught and cooped. During catching, an increased presence of dust in the house air is visible and may affect the presence of bacteria within the broiler's...
Tue, 05/15/2018 - 20:00
SUMMARYAt the end of the production cycle, laying hens are intended for industrial slaughter; however, they may be also being sold to small farmers and thereby transmit pathogens under uncontrolled production practices. This study was developed with the objective of evaluating the physical characteristics of laying birds in the final cycle and investigating Salmonella presence. A total of 22...
Mon, 05/14/2018 - 20:00
SUMMARYThis study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of different levels of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cell wall or a yeast culture in reducing the direct colonization and horizontal transmission of Salmonella Heidelberg in broiler chickens. At d of hatch, 2,000 male broiler chicks were randomly assigned into 5 treatment groups with 8 replicate pens per treatment. Birds were...
Sun, 05/13/2018 - 20:00
SUMMARYAvian influenza in domestic poultry can have varied impacts on the health and welfare of birds and an economic burden on producers, consumers, and animal health agencies including the cost to control and eradicate avian influenza. Low pathogenic avian influenza has historically been a recurring issue in U.S. live bird markets, but rarely studied. Live bird markets source various species of...
Sun, 05/13/2018 - 20:00
SUMMARYThis study was conducted to develop linear regression equations to estimate nutrients, fatty acids, heavy metals, color characteristics (L,* a,* b*), and deoxynivalenol (DON) level of corn grains (n = 54) collected from different feed mills in Turkey. Procc corr and reg procedures were used to analyze the data. Among the nutrients, asit detergent lignin, Ca, and P had the highest...
Thu, 05/10/2018 - 20:00
SUMMARYEarthworms have been studied as a feed additive and animal protein source for poultry for many years. The interest in earthworm use for manure management has greatly increased over the past few decades. However, it is unknown whether earthworm powder in the diet poses a potential heavy metal risk for broiler pullets. This study was conducted to investigate the safety of adding earthworm...
Wed, 02/22/2017 - 00:00
Campylobacteriosis is considered to be the most frequently reported cause of zoonotic illness globally, with poultry being the main source of infection. Reducing the colonization level of Campylobacter spp. in broilers entering the processing unit could make an effective contribution at reducing the incidence of zoonotic transmission of this pathogen. It is essential to search for new, natural,...
Thu, 02/16/2017 - 00:00
Poultry meat represents the primary source of Campylobacter-associated foodborne illness. Current methods set forth by USDA-FSIS for qualitative detection of Campylobacter from poultry involve selective enrichment to enhance recovery of cells. Due to the time and expense associated with these methods, there is a demand for more effective and economical methods of analysis. This research was...
Thu, 11/17/2016 - 12:05
Salmonella and Campylobacter are frequent colonizers of the intestinal tracts of poultry and have often been associated with human foodborne illness. The entry, transmission, and prevalence of both pathogens have been extensively studied in chickens but little information is available for turkeys. This project monitored turkey breeder hens and toms from d of hatch to 65 wk of age with the...
Thu, 11/17/2016 - 12:05
Increasing emergence of salmonellosis presents a threat to the effective control of foodborne disease in humans. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of drug susceptibility and molecular characteristics of non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) isolated from laying hens (LH) in 3 Moroccan regions, Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaër (RSZZ), Souss-Massa-Drâa (SMD), and the...
Tue, 10/04/2016 - 00:00
Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. are considered to be the major pathogens associated with human transmissible infectious diseases in the air of poultry houses. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is an effective biocide against a wide range of microorganisms. Accordingly, this study investigated the efficiency of gaseous ClO2 application for disinfecting broiler houses by collecting air samples before...
Sat, 09/24/2016 - 00:00
In China, consumers sometimes get special eggs, which are characterized by the pasty, firm, and elastic texture of yolk from hard-boiled eggs and are usually called “rubber eggs” by Chinese customers. Consumers do not like the texture of rubber eggs and often associate the odd texture of the yolk to food safety risks. The objective of this study was to assess the physical and chemical...
Tue, 09/06/2016 - 00:00
Campylobacter is associated with live broilers and chicken meat products. There is some discussion in the literature about the possibility that Campylobacter prevalence in broilers could be affected by season or weather conditions. The objective of this study was to measure the flock prevalence of Campylobacter by sampling cecal contents from multiple flocks in one commercial slaughter plant over...
Mon, 09/05/2016 - 20:00
AbstractCampylobacter is associated with live broilers and chicken meat products. There is some discussion in the literature about the possibility that Campylobacter prevalence in broilers could be affected by season or weather conditions. The objective of this study was to measure the flock prevalence of Campylobacter by sampling cecal contents from multiple flocks in one commercial slaughter...
Thu, 08/04/2016 - 12:31
Competitive exclusion (CE) cultures, given as a single dose on the day of hatch, together with good hygienic practices has been shown to be a novel approach to control Salmonella in poultry. The ability of the CE product Broilact and 2 probiotics, FloraMax-B11 and Colostrum, to prevent Salmonella colonization in newly hatched chickens was evaluated employing a slightly modified Mead-model chicken...
Thu, 08/04/2016 - 12:31
Avian influenza virus subtypes H5, H7, and H9 related epidemics are accountable for huge losses to the poultry and avian industry in Pakistan. Well-timed and accurate diagnosis of subtype(s) concomitant with a specific epidemic allows a margin of prophylaxis to farmers through requisite vaccination. The current study was designed to develop and validate a rapid, accurate, and efficient diagnostic...
Wed, 05/11/2016 - 23:15
An evaluation of poultry farm water supplies was conducted to determine the impact of broiler farm daily water system sanitation practices on microbial levels. The water systems of 4 commercial poultry barns were sanitized daily with 0.5 to one ppm of free chlorine (Cl) residual, which resulted in an Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP) value of ≥ 600 mV at the beginning of the...
Wed, 05/11/2016 - 23:15
This experimental study focuses on the changes to the physical and chemical characteristics of poultry slaughterhouse wastewater sludge exposed to varying microwave radiation energy levels, exposure time, and pH. Soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), protein, and PO4-P releases obtained from the sludge were quantified as a function of irradiation energy, exposure time, and pH with the help of...
Wed, 05/11/2016 - 23:15
Salmonella enterica has more than 2,500 different serovars that have been described as causes of human infections, and S. enterica serovar Enteritidis is the most prevalent of these serovars. In some regions in Brazil, S. enterica serovar Minnesota was prevalent in 37.93% of broiler samples. This study evaluated the effect of a prebiotic (PREB) based on mannan oligosaccharide on the immune...
Wed, 02/03/2016 - 11:48
The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of various levels of dietary Nigella sativa seeds on immune-responsiveness and pathogenesis of H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) in turkeys. The experiment was performed on 80 unvaccinated turkey poults, divided into four groups of 20 birds each. Group A was kept as a non-infected, non-treated negative control; group B was inoculated...
Wed, 02/03/2016 - 11:48
Acid injury could prevent detection of Salmonella in feed and feed-type samples. A previous study showed that after incubation in commonly used pre-enrichment media, mixed feeds and feed ingredients reached a pH (4.0 to 5.0), capable of injuring or killing Salmonella. Approximately 105 colony forming units (CFU) of S. Enteritidis (SE), S. Heidelberg (SH), S. Kentucky (SK), or S. Typhimurium (ST)...
Wed, 02/03/2016 - 11:48
The enumeration and evaluation of bacteria and mold are important elements in the evaluation of hatchery sanitation programs. However, detection of bacteria and mold in fluff samples is time consuming and cumbersome. The PetrifilmTM aerobic count plate (ACP) and the Petrifilm yeast/mold count plate are ready-to-use alternatives to the traditional enumeration media used for bacteria and mold...
Wed, 02/03/2016 - 11:48
A study was conducted examining the effects of prebiotics and probiotics separately and in combination on growth parameters, fecal and cecal microbiota. Six dietary treatments consisted of: 1) control, 2) control + 0.2 lb/ton calculated to contain 1 x 1010 Pediococcus acidilactici/kg, 3) control + 0.2 lb/ton calculated to contain 2 x 1010 live Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii/kg, 4) control + 2...
Sat, 11/14/2015 - 00:56
Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a powerful biocide that has long been used commercially to control microbial activity in various sectors. This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of dietary ClO2 on growth performance, intestinal and excreta microorganisms, and the emission of odorous gas from broiler excreta. A total of 120 one-day-old broiler chicks were provided with experimental...
Sat, 11/14/2015 - 00:56
Current regulatory guidelines to control poultry-borne pathogens, more specifically Campylobacter jejuni, necessitate the need for novel applications of antimicrobials during poultry processing. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of peracetic acid (PAA; 100 and 200 ppm) and sodium hypochlorite (SH; 25 and 50 ppm) as antimicrobial interventions to reduce C. jejuni...
Tue, 08/18/2015 - 01:33
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a blend of organic acids (OAs) in diets with or without antibiotic growth promoter (AGP) in chickens challenged with Clostridium perfringens. Day-old male broiler chicks were used in a trial with 4 treatments and 6 replicates of 50 birds per pen, for 43 days, in a completely randomized design. The treatments in a 2x2 factorial arrangement...
Tue, 08/18/2015 - 01:33
Campylobacter occur in fresh retail poultry products as a result of their colonization of the gastro-intestinal tract of chickens during growth. Feed additives could be used for suppression of Campylobacter levels in the chickens prior to slaughter. To address this opportunity, feed manufacturers are targeting natural antimicrobials from plant material as new forms of consumer-accepted feed...
Tue, 08/18/2015 - 01:33
Salmonella enterica is a zoonotic pathogen which can readily pass from animal to man through the consumption of contaminated food. The prevalence of Salmonella enterica associated with poultry and poultry meat products has been well-documented and this prevalence has both public health and economic implications. The estimated total cost for nontyphoidal Salmonella is in excess of 14 billion...

Pages