Journal of Clinical Microbiology

The Research Publications track research that is published across national and international peer-reviewed journals. The most recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal Title, Subject, USDA Grant Funding Agencies or FDA Grant Funding Agencies. The research publications are tracked across five subject areas: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, and Viruses.

Thu, 03/26/2020 - 03:24
The Revogene Carba C assay (formerly GenePOC Carba assay) is a multiplex nucleic acid-based in vitro diagnostic test intended for the detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) from cultured colonies. This assay was evaluated directly on colonies of 118 well-characterized Enterobacterales with reduced susceptibility to carbapenems and on 49 multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas...
Thu, 03/26/2020 - 03:24
Aztreonam-avibactam is a combination antimicrobial agent with activity against carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) with metallo-β-lactamases (MβLs). Although aztreonam-avibactam is not yet approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), clinicians can administer this combination by using two FDA-approved drugs: aztreonam and ceftazidime-avibactam. This combination...
Thu, 03/26/2020 - 03:23
Whole-genome sequencing has enhanced surveillance and facilitated detailed monitoring of the transmission of Shigella species in England. We undertook an epidemiological and phylogenetic analysis of isolates from all cases of shigellosis referred to Public Health England between 2015 and 2018 to explore recent strain characteristics and the transmission dynamics of Shigella species. Of the 4,950...
Thu, 03/26/2020 - 03:23
Rapid identification from positive blood cultures is standard of care (SOC) in many clinical microbiology laboratories. The GenMark Dx ePlex Blood Culture Identification Gram-Positive (BCID-GP) Panel is a multiplex nucleic acid amplification assay based on competitive DNA hybridization and electrochemical detection using eSensor technology. This multicenter study compared the investigational-use-...
Thu, 03/26/2020 - 03:23
Plasmid-mediated colistin resistance (PMCR) is a global public health concern, given its ease of transmissibility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate two methods for the detection of PMCR from bacterial colonies: (i) the NG-Test MCR-1 lateral flow immunoassay (LFA; NG Biotech, Guipry, France) and (ii) the EDTA-colistin broth disk elution (EDTA-CBDE) screening test method. These methods...
Thu, 03/26/2020 - 03:23
U.S. gonorrhea rates are rising, and antibiotic-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (AR-Ng) is an urgent public health threat. Since implementation of nucleic acid amplification tests for N. gonorrhoeae identification, the capacity for culturing N. gonorrhoeae in the United States has declined, along with the ability to perform culture-based antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST). Yet AST is...
Thu, 03/26/2020 - 03:23
Candida auris is a multidrug-resistant yeast which has emerged in health care facilities worldwide; however, little is known about identification methods, patient colonization, environmental survival, spread, and drug resistance. Colonization on both biotic (patients) and abiotic (health care objects) surfaces, along with travel, appear to be the major factors for the spread of this pathogen...
Thu, 03/26/2020 - 03:23
A rapid and accurate method to identify the species and antibiotic resistance of Candida spp. in blood is vital to increase the survival rates of patients with bloodstream infections. However, the extremely low levels of Candida spp. in blood make rapid diagnosis by standard blood culture difficult. In this study, we constructed a direct blood culturing method (i.e., the M1 method) by a rapid...
Thu, 03/26/2020 - 03:23
Bartonella spp. are etiological agents of life-threatening zoonotic diseases in dogs worldwide. Due to the poor sensitivity of immunofluorescent-antibody assays (IFAs), a reliable serodiagnostic test for canine bartonelloses is of clinical importance. The utility of Western blotting (WB) for the serodiagnosis of canine bartonelloses has not been critically investigated. The objective of this...
Thu, 03/26/2020 - 03:23
Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for bloodstream infections (BSIs) decrease the time to organism identification and resistance detection. RDTs are associated with early deescalation of therapy for Gram-positive BSIs. However, it is less clear how RDTs influence antibiotic management for Gram-negative BSIs and whether RDT results are acted on during off-hours. We performed a single-center,...
Tue, 02/25/2020 - 03:27
Empirical gonorrhea treatment at initial diagnosis reduces onward transmission. However, increasing resistance to multiple antibiotics may necessitate waiting for culture-based diagnostics to select an effective treatment. There is a need for same-day culture-free diagnostics that identify infection and detect antimicrobial resistance. We investigated if Nanopore sequencing can detect sufficient...
Tue, 02/25/2020 - 03:27
Antibiotic resistance in Mycoplasma genitalium is rising globally, and resistance-guided diagnostics can facilitate targeted and timely treatment. The ResistancePlus MG FleXible (RPMG Flex) assay for the detection of M. genitalium and macrolide resistance-mediating mutations (MRMM) was evaluated for analytical sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and inhibition in the presence of...
Tue, 02/25/2020 - 03:27
The emergence of drug resistance in Helicobacter pylori has resulted in a greater need for susceptibility-guided treatment. While the alleles associated with resistance to clarithromycin and levofloxacin have been defined, there are limited data regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance to other antimicrobials. Using H. pylori isolates from 42 clinical specimens, we compared...
Tue, 02/25/2020 - 03:27
Escherichia coli serogroups O157, O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145, when carrying major virulence genes, the Shiga toxin genes stx1 and stx2 and the intimin gene eae, are important foodborne pathogens. They are referred to as the "top 7" Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) serogroups and were declared by the USDA as adulterants to human health. Since top 7 serogroup-positive cattle feces and...
Wed, 01/29/2020 - 03:43
From 2015 to 2017, 11 confirmed brucellosis cases were reported in New York City, leading to 10 Brucella exposure risk events (Brucella events) in 7 clinical laboratories (CLs). Most patients had traveled to countries where brucellosis is endemic and presented with histories and findings consistent with brucellosis. CLs were not notified that specimens might yield a hazardous organism, as the...
Wed, 01/29/2020 - 03:43
Several commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of phase II IgG or IgM antibodies against Coxiella burnetii were compared. In addition, an indirect immunofluorescence test was used as a confirmation test. In all, 70 serum samples for IgG and 43 serum samples for IgM were tested. The ELISAs showed large differences in sensitivity and specificity, which...
Wed, 01/29/2020 - 03:43
Piperacillin-tazobactam (P/T) is a β-lactam–β-lactamase inhibitor combination frequently used in the hospital setting. Etest is a gradient diffusion method that represents an alternative to broth microdilution (BMD) for performing antimicrobial susceptibility testing. We conducted a multicenter evaluation of the performance of the new P/T Etest compared to that of BMD following U....
Tue, 12/24/2019 - 03:23
We evaluated the performance of a fourth-generation antigen/antibody (Ag/Ab) assay for detecting HIV-1 infection on dried blood spots (DBS) both in a conventional laboratory environment and in an epidemiological survey corresponding to a real-life situation. Although a 2-log loss of sensitivity compared to that with plasma was observed when using DBS in an analytical analysis, the median delay of...
Tue, 12/24/2019 - 03:23
Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) of clonal complex (CC) 398 has become a rising issue for public health. While it is known that >80% of pig farmers are colonized with LA-MRSA, only a few studies have assessed the situation for humans with occasional livestock contact. Recently it was shown that over 75% of scientific fieldworkers visiting pigsties were...
Tue, 12/24/2019 - 03:23
Hybrid Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strains of multilocus sequence type 141 (ST141) cause both urinary tract infections and diarrhea in humans and are phylogenetically positioned between STEC and UPEC strains. We used comparative genomic analysis of 85 temporally and spatially diverse ST141 E. coli strains, including 14 STEC/UPEC hybrids,...
Tue, 12/24/2019 - 03:23
Influenza is a major global public health threat as a result of its highly pathogenic variants, large zoonotic reservoir, and pandemic potential. Metagenomic viral sequencing offers the potential for a diagnostic test for influenza virus which also provides insights on transmission, evolution, and drug resistance and simultaneously detects other viruses. We therefore set out to apply the Oxford...
Tue, 12/24/2019 - 03:23
Meropenem-vaborbactam (MEV) is a novel carbapenem–beta-lactamase inhibitor combination antibiotic approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of complicated urinary tract infections, including pyelonephritis, in adults. In this study, we evaluated the performance of Etest MEV (bioMérieux, Marcy l’Etoile, France) compared to that of broth microdilution...
Sat, 11/23/2019 - 03:25
Polymyxin antibiotics are a last-line treatment for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. However, the emergence of colistin resistance, including the spread of mobile mcr genes, necessitates the development of improved diagnostics for the detection of colistin-resistant organisms in hospital settings. The recently developed MALDIxin test enables detection of colistin resistance by matrix-...
Sat, 11/23/2019 - 03:25
Blood cultures are routinely collected in pairs of aerobic and anaerobic bottles. Artificial sterilization of Gram-negative bacteria in aerobic bottles containing clinically meaningful antibiotic concentrations has previously been observed. This study assessed recovery from anaerobic bottles with and without antibiotic binding resins. We studied the recovery of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella...
Thu, 10/24/2019 - 03:32
There are sparse data to indicate the extent that macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MRMp) occurs in the United States or its clinical significance. Between 2015 and 2018, hospitals in 8 states collected and stored respiratory specimens that tested positive for M. pneumoniae and sent them to the University of Alabama at Birmingham, where real-time PCR was performed for detection of 23S...
Thu, 10/24/2019 - 03:32
Enterobacteriaceae represent a diverse and medically important family of bacteria that are difficult to identify to the species level using the standard molecular method of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Prior work has demonstrated the value of dnaJ gene sequence analysis in resolving different members of the family. However, existing protocols are not optimized for clinical use and exhibit several...
Thu, 10/24/2019 - 03:32
Genomic surveillance that combines bacterial sequencing and epidemiological information will become the gold standard for outbreak detection, but its clinical translation is hampered by the lack of automated interpretation tools. We performed a prospective pilot study to evaluate the analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) genomes using the Next Gen Diagnostics (NGD)...
Thu, 10/24/2019 - 03:32
Mycoplasma genitalium causes a common sexually transmitted infection with a marked propensity to develop antimicrobial resistance. As few treatment options exist, this poses significant challenges to clinicians. Recent diagnostic advances have resulted in tests that report the simultaneous detection of M. genitalium and any resistance to macrolides, the first-line treatment. This allows for...
Thu, 10/24/2019 - 03:32
Rifampin heteroresistance—where rifampin-resistant and -susceptible tuberculosis (TB) bacilli coexist—may result in failed standard TB treatment and potential spread of rifampin-resistant strains. The detection of rifampin heteroresistance in routine rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) allows for patients to receive prompt and effective multidrug-resistant-TB treatment and may improve...
Thu, 10/24/2019 - 03:32
Pathogen cell-free DNA (pcfDNA) in blood and urine is an attractive biomarker; however, the impact of preanalytical factors is not well understood. Blood and urine samples from healthy donors spiked with cfDNA from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Salmonella enterica, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and samples from tuberculosis patients were used to evaluate the impact of blood...
Wed, 09/25/2019 - 03:26
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and the STEC subgroup enterohemorrhagic E. coli cause intestinal infections with symptoms ranging from watery diarrhea to hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). A key tool for the epidemiological differentiation of STEC is serotyping. The serotype in combination with the main virulence determinants gives important insight into the virulence potential of a...
Wed, 09/25/2019 - 03:26
Recommendations for first-line and second-line drug testing and organism group, specific methodologies, and reporting recommendations have been addressed by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and are important in the selection of appropriate antimicrobial treatment regimens for nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) disease. This review also includes recent information on new...
Wed, 09/25/2019 - 03:26
Blood culture bottles containing antibiotic binding resins are routinely used to minimize artificial sterilization in the presence of antibiotics. However, the resin binding kinetics can differ between antibiotics and concentrations. This study assessed the impact of clinically meaningful peak, midpoint, and trough concentrations of meropenem, imipenem, cefepime, cefazolin, levofloxacin, and...
Wed, 09/25/2019 - 03:26
With multidrug-resistant (MDR) Enterobacterales on the rise, a nontoxic antimicrobial agent with a unique mechanism of action such as fosfomycin seems attractive. However, establishing accurate fosfomycin susceptibility testing for non-Escherichia coli isolates in a clinical microbiology laboratory remains problematic. We evaluated fosfomycin susceptibility by multiple methods with 96 KPC-...
Wed, 09/25/2019 - 03:26
Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection (CDI) is the most common causative pathogen of health care-associated gastrointestinal infections; however, due to the overlap of clinical symptoms with those of other causes of acute gastroenteritis, the selection of the most appropriate laboratory test is difficult. From April to October 2018, 640 stool samples requested for CDI testing were...
Wed, 09/25/2019 - 03:26
Due to the atypical serological profile of some patients with primary Q fever infection who do not develop IgM against Coxiella burnetii, we developed an avidity test to distinguish recent or past infections. We tested 39 serum samples by immunofluorescence with conventional assay and after urea treatment from 26 patients at different stages of the disease. We observed a strong avidity in the 15...
Wed, 09/25/2019 - 03:26
The multidrug-resistant yeast pathogen Candida auris continues to cause outbreaks and clusters of clinical cases worldwide. Previously, we developed a real-time PCR assay for the detection of C. auris from surveillance samples (L. Leach, Y. Zhu, and S. Chaturvedi, J Clin Microbiol 56:e01223-17, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.01223-17). The assay played a crucial role in the ongoing...
Wed, 09/25/2019 - 03:26
Colistin has become increasingly important in the treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Resistance to colistin has emerged globally, necessitating the need for an accurate method to detect colistin resistance. The colistin NP test has shown promise as a rapid screening assay for colistin resistance. This study compared the performance of an in-house-prepared colistin NP test...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:22
Urinalysis (UA) has routinely been used as a screening tool prior to urine culture set up. BacterioScan 216Dx is an FDA-cleared semiautomated system to detect bacterial growth in urine. The aim of this study was to evaluate 216Dx in comparison to UA for diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children. Clean-catch, unpreserved urine samples from children aged <18 years were tested by...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:22
Laboratory surveillance plays an important role in the detection and control of hepatitis A outbreaks and requires the application of rapid and accurate molecular diagnostic tools for hepatitis A virus (HAV) RNA detection, subgenotype identification, and sequence-based genotyping. We describe the development and validation of a triplex real-time, reverse transcription-PCR (triplex rRT-PCR) assay...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:22
The conventional methodology for gastrointestinal pathogen detection remains time-consuming, expensive, and of limited sensitivity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the BD Max enteric viral panel (Max EVP) assay for identification of viral pathogens in stool specimens from individuals with symptoms of acute gastroenteritis, enteritis, or colitis. Prospective and...
Mon, 08/26/2019 - 11:00
Laboratory surveillance plays an important role in the detection and control of hepatitis A outbreaks and requires the application of rapid and accurate molecular diagnostic tools for hepatitis A virus (HAV) RNA detection, subgenotype identification, and sequence-based genotyping. We describe the development and validation of a triplex real-time, reverse transcription-PCR (triplex rRT-PCR) assay...
Mon, 08/26/2019 - 11:00
The conventional methodology for gastrointestinal pathogen detection remains time-consuming, expensive, and of limited sensitivity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the BD Max enteric viral panel (Max EVP) assay for identification of viral pathogens in stool specimens from individuals with symptoms of acute gastroenteritis, enteritis, or colitis. Prospective and...
Fri, 07/26/2019 - 11:00
Quality management and independent assessment of high-throughput sequencing-based virus diagnostics have not yet been established as a mandatory approach for ensuring comparable results. The sensitivity and specificity of viral high-throughput sequence data analysis are highly affected by bioinformatics processing using publicly available and custom tools and databases and thus differ widely...
Fri, 07/26/2019 - 11:00
Due to Australia’s management of antimicrobial use in poultry, particularly the discontinued use of avoparcin for nearly 20 years, it is hypothesized that vancomycin-resistant enterococci associated with human disease are not derived from poultry isolates. This study evaluated antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of five enterococcal species isolated from Australian meat chickens, genomic...
Fri, 05/24/2019 - 11:00
Although enteric multianalyte syndromic panels are increasingly employed, direct comparisons with traditional methods and the inclusion of host phenotype correlations are limited. Luminex xTAG gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GPP) and culture results are highly concordant. However, phenotypic and microbiological confirmatory testing raises concerns regarding the accuracy of the GPP, especially...
Fri, 04/26/2019 - 11:01
Foodborne pathogen surveillance in the United States is transitioning from strain identification using restriction digest technology (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE]) to shotgun sequencing of the entire genome (whole-genome sequencing [WGS]). WGS requires a new suite of analysis tools, some of which have long histories in academia but are new to the field of public health and regulatory...
Thu, 03/28/2019 - 11:00
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a major cause of diarrhea in children from developing countries and presents high genetic variability. We aimed to characterize the EPEC virulence-related gene (VRG) distribution and copathogens associated with diarrhea and nutrition-related outcomes in children from the low-income Brazilian semiarid region. A cross-sectional case-control study of...
Thu, 03/28/2019 - 11:00
Shigella spp. are a leading cause of human diarrheal disease worldwide, with Shigella flexneri being the most frequently isolated species in developing countries. This serogroup is presently classified into 19 serotypes worldwide. We report here a multicenter validation of a multiplex-PCR-based strategy previously developed by Q. Sun, R. Lan, Y. Wang, A. Zhao, et al. (J Clin Microbiol 49:3766...
Thu, 03/28/2019 - 11:00
Azithromycin (AZM) has been recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics for the treatment of shigellosis in children. In this study, 502 Shigella species isolated between 2004 and 2014 were tested for AZM epidemiological cutoff values (ECV) by disk diffusion. AZM MICs and the presence of the macrolide resistance genes [erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), ere(A), ere(B), mph(A), mph(B), mph(D), mef(A),...

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