Journal of Dairy Science

The Research Publications track research that is published across national and international peer-reviewed journals. The most recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal Title, Subject, USDA Grant Funding Agencies or FDA Grant Funding Agencies. The research publications are tracked across five subject areas: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, and Viruses.

Fri, 05/15/2020 - 03:21
Traditional procedures for microbial testing typically involve a homogenizing step. These methods give valuable information on the presence or enumeration of a bacterial contaminant, but not where the contaminant was in the original sample. Spatial information could be useful in troubleshooting sources of bacterial contamination in a processing plant. For example, if the contaminant was localized...
Thu, 04/30/2020 - 03:22
Staphylococcus aureus is a significant opportunistic pathogen in humans, dairy cattle, and camels. The presence of antibiotic-resistant and heat-resistant bacteria in camel milk has become a potential public health issue. The phenotypic and molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant staphylococcal strains recovered from pasteurized camel milk distributed in retail markets of Saudi Arabia...
Wed, 04/22/2020 - 03:19
The main objective of this study was to evaluate the barrier characteristics of 3 external teat sealants for dry cows in preventing bacterial penetration by 3 common major mastitis pathogens (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus uberis) via a novel in vitro simulation model using rubber calf-feeding nipples. All feeding nipples were filled with a sterile cotton plug soaked...
Fri, 04/17/2020 - 03:15
Infection and inflammation of the mammary gland, and especially prevention of mastitis, are still major challenges for the dairy industry. Different approaches have been tried to reduce the incidence of mastitis. Genetic selection of cows with lower susceptibility to mastitis promises sustainable success in this regard. Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 18, particularly the region between 43 and 59 Mb,...
Fri, 04/17/2020 - 03:15
Postpasteurization contamination (PPC) of fluid milk remains a challenge for some dairy processors. Pseudomonas is the most common contaminant of fluid milk after pasteurization, and therefore methods to detect PPC should be inclusive of Pseudomonas and other gram-negative contaminants (e.g., coliform bacteria). Our objective was to compare the ability of 3M (St. Paul, MN) coliform and...
Fri, 04/17/2020 - 03:15
This study aims to characterize Bacillus subtilis complex group from raw, pasteurized, and packaged extended shelf-life (ESL) milk samples, to determine their biofilm potential and source-track the microbial contaminants to control their presence during processing. Isolates were characterized using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) with 7 housekeeping genes. The primers used were designed from...
Wed, 04/08/2020 - 03:19
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main causative agents of food poisoning. This bacterium is an important component of cheese microbiota and plays an important role in foodborne diseases. Another important component of the microbiota is the lactic acid bacterium, which actively participates in processes that define the physicochemical, sensorial, and microbiological features of cheese. Of the...
Sat, 04/04/2020 - 03:23
It is well established that intravenous administration of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)—cell wall components from gram-negative bacteria—induce acute inflammatory responses in dairy calves, but the effect of oral administration of LPS to dairy calves is currently unknown. To evaluate the effects of oral administration of LPS derived from Escherichia coli (serotype O111:B4) on innate immune responses...
Sat, 04/04/2020 - 03:23
We hypothesized that delaying by approximately 12 h the artificial insemination (AI) of heifers with sex-sorted semen increases pregnancy per AI (P/AI). Holstein heifers (n = 1,207) were fitted with a collar containing an automated estrus-detection device (HR-LDn tags, SCR Engineers Ltd., Netanya, Israel) at 10.7 ± 0.02 mo of age. Once they reached 330 kg, heifers were enrolled in an ovulation...
Fri, 03/06/2020 - 03:25
The first objective of this study was to determine whether differences would occur among teat end preparation techniques with regard to potential contamination of milk samples collected for bacterial culture. The second objective was to determine whether differences would be detected in genus or species of bacteria isolated from samples collected using the various methods as well as from...
Thu, 02/27/2020 - 03:25
Bovine β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) is recognized as a major allergen in milk. This study aimed to investigate ultrasound-assisted irradiation for reducing the allergenicity of β-LG, since irradiation can reduce the allergenicity of cow milk proteins and ultrasound can improve the quality of milk. The structural changes induced in high purity β-LG, treated by irradiation, with or without sonication,...
Thu, 02/27/2020 - 03:25
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the pathogens most frequently isolated from cases of mastitis worldwide. To decrease the effect of S. aureus mastitis in dairy farming, alternative strategies for controlling mastitis are needed that depend on a better knowledge of cow-to-cow variations in S. aureus antibody production. The present study sought to explore the diversity of S. aureus antibodies...
Thu, 02/27/2020 - 03:25
In this study, we established a rapid, simple, and sensitive method for visual and point-of-care detection of Salmonella spp., Cronobacter spp., and Staphylococcus aureus in powdered infant formula (PIF) based on multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (mLAMP) combined with lateral flow dipstick (LFD). Three different species-specific target genes, siiA of Salmonella spp., internal...
Thu, 02/27/2020 - 03:25
This study was conducted to reveal the prevalence, molecular characterization, and antibiotic susceptibility of Bacillus cereus isolated from dairy products including powdered infant formula, raw milk, pasteurized milk, ultra-high-temperature milk, and cheese. Five hundred samples collected from 5 provinces in China were analyzed in overall experiments. Multilocus sequence typing, distribution of...
Thu, 02/27/2020 - 03:25
Staphylococcus aureus is an important intramammary pathogen for dairy cows that also is remarkably important for public health. Multiple virulence factors can be involved simultaneously during the pathogenesis of a staphylococcal disease, including adhesion proteins, extracellular enzymes, and toxins. The main objective of this study was to assess virulence factors that are associated with cow...
Fri, 02/21/2020 - 03:27
Klebsiella spp. are important opportunistic pathogens commonly defined as environmental clinical mastitis agents. Despite Klebsiella mastitis being clinically impairing in cows and costly to the industry, only a few studies describe Klebsiella isolated from mastitis cases. The aim of this work was to characterize species of Klebsiella involved in clinical mastitis cases in Canada. Klebsiella...
Fri, 02/21/2020 - 03:27
The objective of this study was to describe diversity of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from milk collected at detection of nonsevere (abnormal milk or abnormal udder) clinical mastitis (CM) and during a follow-up period. Cases were detected in cows enrolled in a randomized clinical trial (n = 168) conducted using 2 related Wisconsin dairy farms. Cases were randomly assigned to receive 2 d (n =...
Fri, 02/21/2020 - 03:27
Passion fruit (Passiflora cincinnata Mast.) is a native fruit from the Caatinga, a typical ecoregion in northeastern Brazil, and it has potential for use by the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, we characterized the antimicrobial activity of P. cincinnata and its application in the production of coalho cheese, a traditional Brazilian product. Aqueous extract of P. cincinnata...
Fri, 02/21/2020 - 03:27
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common pathogens associated with bovine mastitis in Germany and Denmark. Successful therapy is strongly linked to the susceptibility of the pathogen to the administered antimicrobial. An increase in resistant pathogens in human and veterinary medicine has become a concern worldwide and hampers therapy due to reduced susceptibility. In the present study,...
Sat, 02/15/2020 - 03:14
Invited review: Advances in nisin use for preservation of dairy products. By Ibarra-Sánchez et al., page 2041. Dairy products, in particular nonfermented products, are prone to contamination with foodborne pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella spp. Nisin, a widely used antimicrobial, is effective in certain dairy products. In this review, we discuss the...
Fri, 02/07/2020 - 03:26
Klebsiella pneumoniae, a common cause of clinical mastitis (CM) in dairy cows, can cause severe clinical symptoms. However, its pathogenicity in the bovine mammary gland is not well understood. Our objectives were to establish an in vitro infection model of K. pneumoniae on bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) to assess (1) cytopathogenicity (adhesive and invasive ability, damage and apoptosis...
Fri, 02/07/2020 - 03:26
Our objective was to assess the enterotoxigenic potential of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolated from bovine milk in Poland. We analyzed CNS isolates collected from 133 bovine milk batches from dairy farms in the Western Pomerania district during 2 milking seasons. A total of 163 isolates were screened by multiplex/duplex PCR for the presence of 18 of 25 enterotoxin genes identified...
Fri, 02/07/2020 - 03:26
Cronobacter spp. are important opportunistic foodborne pathogens in powdered infant formula that cause many serious diseases in neonates and infants. In this study, a novel assay based on dual signal amplification strategy was developed by coupling asymmetric tailing PCR (AT-PCR) with rolling circle amplification (RCA) for the detection of Cronobacter spp. in milk. The tailing single-stranded DNA...
Fri, 01/31/2020 - 03:14
Staphylococcus aureus is recognized worldwide as one of the main contagious mastitis agents in cattle and can express a set of antimicrobial resistance genes and virulence-associated genes that explain the wide range of outcomes of intramammary infections. Staphylococcus aureus strains are heterogeneous: their different resistance and virulence patterns, associated with host-level factors and...
Fri, 01/31/2020 - 03:14
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major pathogens causing mastitis in dairy herds. The colonization of dairy cows and subsequent contamination of raw milk by S. aureus, especially strains exhibiting multidrug resistance and biofilm-forming and toxin-producing abilities, remains an important issue for both dairy farmers and public health. In this study, we investigated the prevalence,...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:14
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main pathogens found in cheeses produced with raw milk, including Minas artisanal cheese from Brazil. However, information about S. aureus isolated from artisanal cheeses and its sources of production in small-scale dairies is very limited. We aimed to characterize the virulence factors of S. aureus isolated from raw milk, endogenous starter culture, Minas...
Thu, 01/16/2020 - 03:13
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important pathogens causing mastitis in cattle, and it is responsible for economic losses in dairy herds worldwide. The PCR amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer (ribosomal spacer PCR, RS-PCR) allows a rapid classification of the strains in genotypes and genotypic clusters (CL), which are characterized by different epidemiological and...
Thu, 01/16/2020 - 03:13
It was previously thought that the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) toxin of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was not the main cause of cow mastitis. However, in recent years, detection of the gene encoding PVL has been increasing in dairy cow mastitis, which implies that PVL may be related to bovine mastitis. Therefore, we wanted to search for drugs inhibiting PVL or PVL-induced apoptosis. In...
Tue, 01/14/2020 - 03:13
Dairy product safety is a global public health issue that demands new approaches and technologies to control foodborne pathogenic microorganisms. Natural antimicrobial agents such as nisin can be added to control the growth of pathogens of concern in dairy foods, namely Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. However, several factors affect the antimicrobial efficacy of nisin when...
Tue, 12/17/2019 - 03:15
United States dairy operations use antibiotics (primarily β-lactams and tetracyclines) to manage bacterial diseases in dairy cattle. Antibiotic residues, antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB), and antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) can be found in dairy manure and may contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance (AR). Although β-lactam residues are rarely detected in dairy manure, tetracycline...
Tue, 12/17/2019 - 03:15
Control of Listeria monocytogenes in queso fresco and other fresh cheeses continues to be a challenge in the United States. These cheese types are particularly challenging due to their high moisture and high pH, which provide favorable conditions for the growth of L. monocytogenes. Protective cultures (i.e., viable strains of lactic acid bacteria that inhibit other microorganisms) have been...
Thu, 12/12/2019 - 03:16
This study investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from cases of subclinical bovine mastitis in China, as well as resistance mechanisms and virulence genes encoding adhesins and toxins. We determined antimicrobial susceptibility using the disk diffusion method, and analyzed resistance, adhesin, and toxin genes using PCR. We...
Thu, 12/12/2019 - 03:16
Mastitis in ruminants is an important disease with major effects on both the economy and animal welfare. It is caused by major pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and minor pathogens such as coagulase-negative staphylococci. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize staphylococci as a cause of sheep mastitis in Algeria. In this study, 123 milk samples were collected...
Thu, 12/12/2019 - 03:16
Unpasteurized milk can contain harmful bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes. In 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration notified the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Atlanta, GA) that L. monocytogenes isolated from unpasteurized chocolate milk from a Pennsylvania dairy was closely related, by whole-genome sequencing, to L. monocytogenes isolates collected from blood specimens of 2...
Thu, 12/12/2019 - 03:16
Food safety and quality management play a pivotal role in the dairy industry. Milk is a highly nutritious food that also provides an excellent medium for growth of pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, dairy industry focuses most of their processes and costs on keeping contamination levels as low as possible. Thermal processes for microbial decontamination may be effective; however, they cannot...
Thu, 12/12/2019 - 03:16
Raw milk contains wide microbial diversity, composed mainly of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are used as probiotics in both human and animal husbandry. We isolated, characterized, and evaluated LAB from indigenous Bangladeshi raw milk to assess probiotic potential, including antagonistic activity (against Escherichia coli O157: H7, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella...
Thu, 12/12/2019 - 03:15
This study was conducted to examine the effects of clay (CL) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP) on the ruminal bacterial community of Holstein dairy cows challenged with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). A second objective was to examine correlations between bacterial abundance and performance measures. Eight lactating dairy cows stratified by milk yield and parity were randomly assigned...
Thu, 12/12/2019 - 03:15
Milk is a nutritious food suitable for infants and adults, and it plays an important role in the human diet. However, it may also be a vehicle for food contaminants. In this report, we developed a method using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap HRMS; Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA) for simultaneous...
Thu, 12/12/2019 - 03:15
Aflatoxin is a potent carcinogen commonly found in animal feeds that can impair rumen fermentation at high concentrations; however, its effects at physiologically relevant concentrations are unknown. This study examined the effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), with or without bentonite clay (CL) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP)–based sequestering agents on in vitro rumen...
Wed, 11/06/2019 - 03:15
Listeria monocytogenes was linked to an outbreak of foodborne illness associated with in-process contaminated ice cream in the United States from 2010 to 2015 that sickened 10 individuals and led to 3 deaths. Ice cream obtained from the outbreak was used in this study to examine the population dynamics of L. monocytogenes as in-process contaminants compared with artificially inoculated cells....
Thu, 10/31/2019 - 03:14
This longitudinal study aimed to evaluate the impact of subclinical intramammary infection (IMI) with non-aureus staphylococcal (NAS) species in the first 18 d in milk (DIM) on the quarter milk somatic cell count (qSCC) and quarter milk yield (qMY) during the first 4 mo of lactation in Holstein Friesian heifers. Quarter milk samples were collected from 82 heifers from 1 to 4 DIM until 130 DIM on...
Thu, 10/24/2019 - 03:18
This study aimed to evaluate the possible inhibitory effect of natural lactic acid bacteria on the growth of 2 Bacillus cereus strains. First, we evaluated the behavior of spores of B. cereus GPe2 and D43 when inoculated before cheesemaking using pasteurized or raw milk; no statistical differences were observed between cheese produced with the 2 types of milk. Then, lactic acid bacteria (LAB)...
Thu, 10/24/2019 - 03:18
Consumers should have confidence that dairy foods are safe to eat. The Food Safety Committee of the Innovation Center for US Dairy (IC), created in 2010 to help processors collectively improve practices and reduce risks in dairy foods, is an industry-wide food safety collaboration that aims to protect the public through its mission to “Strengthen manufacturing practices in all dairy processing...
Thu, 10/17/2019 - 03:17
The objective of this study was to describe weekly quarter-level somatic cell count (QSCC) after occurrence of nonsevere clinical mastitis (CM) that was diagnosed as culture negative, or caused by Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae. All cases occurred in cows enrolled in negatively, controlled randomized clinical trials. We hypothesized that after occurrence of CM, QSCC patterns would vary...
Thu, 10/17/2019 - 03:17
Antimicrobial residues in milk have been discussed as a possible selector for Enterobacteriaceae that produce extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) in dairy herds. Such residues are found in waste milk after antibiotic treatment of mastitis, but antibiotic dry cow therapy might also lead to antibiotic residues in colostrum and in milk during early lactation. While it is known that feeding of...
Thu, 10/10/2019 - 03:17
The aim of this study was to quantify, identify, evaluate antimicrobial resistance, and characterize the virulence factors of enteropathogenic (EPEC), Shiga-toxigenic (STEC), and enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) Escherichia coli in raw milk (RM) and legal (LMFC) and illegal (IMFC) Minas Frescal cheeses in southern and northeast Brazil. Illegal cheeses are those made without official inspection service or...
Fri, 10/04/2019 - 03:16
The aim of this study was to determinate whether coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) from buffalo milk or the milking environment possess virulence factors that are associated with intramammary infections or antimicrobial resistance. Milk samples (n = 320) from 80 lactating buffalo were evaluated for clinical and subclinical mastitis by physical examination, the strip cup test, California...
Thu, 09/26/2019 - 03:12
Feeding pasteurized milk to suckling calves is a popular practice used increasingly on dairy farms. Waste milk is frequently fed to calves because of its high nutritional value and economic benefits compared to milk replacement products. However, one of the disadvantages of feeding waste milk is the potential for exposure to a high number of bacterial contaminants, which may lead to serious...
Thu, 09/26/2019 - 03:12
Considering the growing consumption of artisanal foods worldwide, we aimed to evaluate the microbial safety of Serro artisanal cheese (SAC), produced in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. This cheese is produced with raw milk using 1 of 2 natural starter cultures: “pingo” and “rala.” A total of 53 SAC samples (pingo = 8; rala = 45) were obtained from different farmers and subjected to conventional and...
Wed, 09/11/2019 - 00:00
In this study, we developed a microbiological inhibition method for the rapid screening of antibiotics in milk with Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC12980 as an indicator bacterium and an easy sample pretreatment. We observed that the limits of detection of the kit for 34 common antibiotic residues in milk, including β-lactams (13), aminoglycosides (6), tetracyclines (4), sulfonamides (6),...

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