Journal of Dairy Science

Thu, 12/24/2020 - 08:03
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common mastitis-causing bacteria in dairy cows. It is associated with reduced production performance in animals and with huge financial losses for the dairy industry worldwide. An accurate and sensitive method for the early diagnosis and identification of Staph. aureus in milk samples is essential. The present study aimed to establish a closed-tube...
Thu, 12/24/2020 - 08:03
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent pathogens causing intramammary infections in dairy herds. Consequently, virulence factors, pathobiology, and epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus strains have been widely assessed through the years. Nevertheless, not much has been described about the epidemiology of Staph. aureus strains from bulk tank milk (BTM) and adherences on milking...
Thu, 12/24/2020 - 08:03
Staphylococcus aureus can elicit mild to more severe degrees of mastitis in cattle, depending on the response of the host's immune system and the virulence factors of the specific isolate. Several virulence factors are controlled by a global regulatory system, designated accessory gene regulator (agr). Thus, the objective was to examine associations between different capsular and agr types and...
Thu, 12/24/2020 - 08:03
Staphylococcus aureus is a widespread foodborne pathogen that threatens human health. In particular, multidrug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are emerging problems in modern health care, food safety, and animal health, which require the development of new antimicrobials to replace overused conventional antibiotics. Dairy products can potentially act...
Fri, 12/11/2020 - 08:01
Fresh unripened curd cheese has long been a well-known Eastern European artisanal dairy product; however, due to possible cross-contamination from manual production steps, high moisture content (50–60%), and metabolic activity of present lactic acid bacteria, the shelf life of curd cheese is short (10–20 d). Therefore, the aim of this study was to improve the shelf life of Eastern European acid-...
Fri, 12/11/2020 - 08:01
The objective of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the effect of bovine coronavirus (BCoV), bovine rotavirus (BRoV), and Cryptosporidium parvum on dairy calf health and performance and to determine the prevalence of these pathogens. A total of 198 male dairy calves housed at a grain-fed veal facility were examined from June 11, 2018, to October 9, 2018. Calves were fed milk...
Fri, 12/11/2020 - 08:01
Food loss and waste is a major concern in the United States and globally, with dairy foods representing one of the top categories of food lost and wasted. Estimates indicate that in the United States, approximately a quarter of dairy products are lost at the production level or wasted at the retail or consumer level annually. Premature microbial spoilage of dairy products, including fluid milk,...
Tue, 12/01/2020 - 08:02
In this study, a new vancomycin (Van)-modified poly-l-lysine (PLL) magnetic bead (MB) technique was developed for isolation of gram-positive bacteria. The method combines magnetic separation with a multiplex PCR (mPCR) assay and gel electrophoresis for easy and rapid detection of Bacillus cereus. Vancomycin was used as a molecular ligand between the MB and the d-alanyl-d-alanine moieties on the...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 08:02
Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic and environmental mastitis-causing pathogen, with potential for contagious transmission. Repetitive element sequence-based PCR was used to determine genetic diversity and explore potential transmission and reservoirs for mastitis caused by K. pneumoniae on 2 large Chinese dairy farms. A total of 1,354 samples was collected from the 2 dairy farms,...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 08:02
Rapid and sensitive detection technology is the key to preventing food-borne disease outbreaks. In this study, a low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) biosensor based on polyamidoamine dendrimers was prepared for the rapid detection of Salmonella in milk. The polyamidoamine dendrimer was biotinylated by amide reaction and chelated to diethylene triamine pentacetate acid and gadolinium to...
Thu, 11/12/2020 - 08:02
We conducted a longitudinal study to evaluate the effect of non-aureus staphylococci (NAS) causing subclinical intramammary infections (IMI) on quarter milk somatic cell count (qSCC) and quarter milk yield (qMY). In total, 324 quarters of 82 Holstein Friesian heifers were followed from calving to 130 d in milk (DIM) and were sampled 10 times each at 14-d intervals. The IMI status of each quarter...
Thu, 11/12/2020 - 08:02
Digital dermatitis is a bacterial infection that causes lesions above the heel bulbs on cattle hooves, and several bacterial species from the genus Treponema are suspected to be causative agents of this polymicrobial condition. Transmission of the bacteria to healthy cows is understudied, particularly with regard to potential insect vectors. Therefore, the objective of this research was to...
Thu, 11/12/2020 - 08:02
Our aim was to investigate the associations between management factors, compliance with current legislation, and herd-level calf mortality. In a national calf welfare audit, veterinary inspectors from the Norwegian Food Safety Authority assessed compliance with current legislation on calf welfare (n = 912 herds). Nine criteria were assessed and rated as satisfactory (1) or not satisfactory (0):...
Thu, 11/12/2020 - 08:02
While the increase in thermal resistance of microorganisms at reduced water activity is demonstrated for low-moisture food products, the effect of storage time on the thermal resistance of microorganisms in low-moisture foods is not well established. As low-moisture foods are stored for long periods and are used as ingredients, cross-contamination can occur at any time period before the lethality...
Fri, 11/06/2020 - 08:02
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) compose a group of mycobacteria that do not belong to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex group. They are frequently isolated from environmental samples such as water, soil, and, to a lesser extent, food samples. Isolates of NTM represent a major health threat to humans worldwide, especially those who have asthma or are immunocompromised. Human disease is...
Fri, 11/06/2020 - 08:02
We identified 199 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from quarter milk samples of 1,289 dairy cattle between 2014 and 2018. About 66% of the isolates were resistant to at least 1 antimicrobial agent; the highest rate of resistance was to penicillin, followed by resistance to ampicillin, erythromycin, and sulfadimethoxine. We obtained 30 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains from 6 farms in 3...
Fri, 10/30/2020 - 08:01
Cheeses are able to serve as suitable matrices for supplying probiotics to consumers, enabling appropriate conditions for bacteria to survive gastric transit and reach the gut, where they are assumed to promote beneficial processes. The present study aimed to evaluate the microbiological, immunological, and histological changes in the gut of Salmonella Enteritidis-challenged rats fed goat cheese...
Fri, 10/23/2020 - 08:02
Little is known about the effects of commonly found levels of Fusarium mycotoxins on the performance, metabolism, and immunity of dairy cattle. We investigated the effects of regular contamination levels, meaning contamination levels that can be commonly detected in dairy feeds, of deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FB) in total mixed ration (TMR) on the performance, diet digestibility, milk...
Thu, 10/15/2020 - 08:03
Dairy production is rapidly increasing in developing countries and making significant contributions to health, nutrition, environments, and livelihoods, with the potential for still greater contributions. However, dairy products can also contribute to human disease in many ways, with dairyborne disease likely being the most important. Health risks may be from biological, chemical, physical, or...
Thu, 10/15/2020 - 08:03
The aim of this study was to generate knowledge on the most important milk quality and safety attributes, including somatic cell count (SCC), total bacterial count (TBC), Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Brucella spp. antibodies and antibiotic residues in milk in the chain from farm to milk collection center (MCC) in Rwanda. In addition, we investigated farm and management factors associated...
Fri, 10/09/2020 - 08:02
The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence and distribution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on 20 German dairy farms. Farms were selected based on previous MRSA reports from phenotypic susceptibility testing of mastitis pathogens. Samples were collected from predefined groups of cows, young stock, farm personnel, and the environment. A high MRSA-positive...
Fri, 10/09/2020 - 08:02
Listeria monocytogenes contamination is of great concern in queso fresco (QF), and listeriosis outbreaks linked to consumption of QF continue to happen. Hurdle approaches such as combining antimicrobials provide an alternative to improve QF safety. In this work, the efficacy of antimicrobial combinations of nisin (NIS), lauric arginate (LAE), and ε-polylysine (EPL) to inhibit L. monocytogenes...
Fri, 09/25/2020 - 08:02
Dairy products are an essential part of a healthy diet, and dairy is an emerging food industry in China. With rapid economic development, Chinese consumers are increasingly health-conscious and are becoming more selective about the quality and safety of dairy products. Adopting a qualitative approach, we explored Chinese consumers' perception of dairy food safety and attitudes toward traceable...
Fri, 09/25/2020 - 08:02
Staphylococcus aureus is a common foodborne pathogen that is ubiquitous in nature. Consumption of contaminated foods, such as dairy products, can lead to food poisoning caused by heat-stable staphylococcal toxins that are not easily destroyed during pasteurization. The objective of this study was to investigate the growth kinetics of S. aureus and background microorganisms in camel milk stored at...
Fri, 09/25/2020 - 08:02
The emergence of antimicrobial resistance in the food chain and the consumer's demand for safe food without chemical preservatives have generated much interest in natural antimicrobials. Thus, our main goal was to study the mode of action of the crude extract, the enterocins, and the organic acid produced by a bacteriocinogenic Enterococcus faecium strain S6 previously isolated from raw camel...
Fri, 09/11/2020 - 08:02
Authentication of dairy and meat products is important to ensure fair competition, consumer benefit, and food safety. The large difference in price between camel and cow milk may be an incentive to adulterate camel dairy products with cow-derived foodstuffs. However, no studies so far have used triplex real-time PCR with an endogenous control to identify camel and cow origins in dairy and meat...
Fri, 09/11/2020 - 08:02
Non-aureus staphylococci (NAS) are predominantly isolated from bovine milk samples of quarters suffering from subclinical mastitis. They are also abundantly present on dairy cows' teat apices and can be recovered from bovine fecal samples, as recently described. Differences in ecology, epidemiology, effect on udder health, and virulence or protective traits have been reported among the species...
Fri, 09/11/2020 - 08:02
Predictions of drug residues in milk are critical in food protection and are a major consideration in the economics of treatment of mastitis in dairy cows. Nonlinear mixed-effects modeling (NLME) has been advocated as a suitable pharmaco-statistical method for the study of drug residues in milk. Recent developments in physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling of intramammary drugs...
Sun, 09/06/2020 - 08:01
Staphylococcus aureus is a widely recognized pathogen responsible for many serious diseases in both humans and animals. It is also one of the major causative agents of bovine mastitis. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), although relatively rare in this pathology, has been increasingly reported in livestock animals, mainly in pigs, but also cattle, sheep, and poultry. The recent emergence of...
Thu, 08/27/2020 - 08:03
Despite the considerable advances that have been made to improve dairy food safety, there is rising concern that pasteurization is not sufficient for the destruction of plasmid-mediated antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes of resistant bacteria and could stimulate bacteria to enter into a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state. In the current study, we surveyed the prevalence of 1 genomic and 9...
Thu, 08/27/2020 - 08:03
The purpose of this study was to elucidate the antibacterial activity and possible mechanism of action of Amaranthus tricolor crude extract (ATCE) against Cronobacter sakazakii isolated from powdered infant formula (PIF). The antibacterial activity of ATCE was assessed by measuring the diameter of inhibition zone (DIZ), minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal...
Fri, 07/24/2020 - 08:01
Various cheese products are involved in outbreaks of listeriosis worldwide due to high consumption and prolonged refrigerated storage. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of using lactic acid bacteria and packaging with grapefruit seed extract (GSE) for controlling Listeria monocytogenes growth in soft cheese. Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus curvatus isolated...
Fri, 07/24/2020 - 08:01
Antibiotic residues are major contaminants in milk because of their frequent use in agriculture and animal husbandry. In particular, streptomycin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic, is a potential risk to consumers because of its ototoxicity, anaphylaxis, and growth inhibition. Herein, monoclonal antibodies for streptomycin were conjugated with europium microspheres to serve as detection probes for...
Fri, 07/17/2020 - 08:01
Marbofloxacin (MBF) is a key class of synthetic fluoroquinolone antibiotic that is commonly used as a veterinary drug. However, excess residue of MBF in animal-derived food samples, such as milk, is harmful to consumers. In this study, 4 mAb against MBF, namely, M4E3, M7A6, M3C7, and M5C6, were produced. Indirect competitive (ic) ELISA revealed that the M4E3 exhibited the highest sensitivity with...
Fri, 07/17/2020 - 08:01
In this study a total of 220 isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) recovered from 10 types of Brazilian artisanal cheeses marketed in 4 main regions of Brazil were evaluated regarding their safety and ability to produce diacetyl (a precursor of aromatic compounds), exopolysaccharides (EPS; from different sugar sources), and antagonistic activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus...
Thu, 07/02/2020 - 08:02
Staphylococcus aureus is an important cause of bovine mastitis, and intramammary infections caused by this pathogen are often characterized as mild, chronic, or persistent. The strains of Staph. aureus associated with mastitis belong to several distinct bovine-adapted bacterial lineages. Studies of host-pathogen interactions have demonstrated that significant differences exist between Staph....
Sat, 06/27/2020 - 08:01
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an extremely serious foodborne pathogen accounting for a vast number of hospitalizations. In this system, a simple, rapid, and safe compound method was developed based on carbonyl iron powder (CIP) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Then, the CIP@MWCNT-based aptasensor was constructed by strong π-stacking between nanocomposite and aptamer, single-strand DNA,...
Fri, 06/19/2020 - 08:02
In recent years, pesticide residues in food have increasingly become the focus of public attention. However, the standard system of pesticide maximum residue limits in fermented food is imperfect, which can lead to potential safety risks to consumers. In this context, the aim of the study was to assess the potential effects of paclobutrazol residue on the yogurt fermentation process. We examined...
Fri, 06/19/2020 - 08:02
Farmers prefer fast, sensitive, and on-site tests for treatment decisions on mastitis. Due to the time to results of the currently available diagnostic tools, these are rarely used for that purpose. Genotypic tests that do not require a growth step may be suitable for on-site testing, for example loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), which has been described as a sensitive test that can...
Thu, 06/11/2020 - 08:02
This study aimed to compare the thermal resistance of Salmonella Senftenberg 775 W with other serovars of Salmonella in nonfat dry milk (NDM) and hydrated NDM. The scientific literature suggests that Salmonella Senftenberg 775 W is the most heat-resistant serovar in high-water-activity foods such as milk, but little is known about the heat resistance of Salmonella Senftenberg 775 W compared with...
Thu, 06/04/2020 - 03:23
Due to the lack of electricity and thermostatic instruments in certain settings for convenient detection of Cronobacter species in powdered infant formula (PIF), a novel investigation was conducted to establish an electricity-free visual detection system for rapid detection of Cronobacter species in PIF. This system included a portable electricity-free heater that could use the exothermic...
Thu, 06/04/2020 - 03:23
Staphylococcus aureus is a major foodborne pathogen that causes severe disease in humans. It is commonly found in milk and dairy products, particularly in fresh brined cheese. Our aim was to investigate the behavior of Staph. aureus and enterotoxin production during the storage of white-brined cheese prepared with or without a starter culture and stored in a 10 or 15% NaCl brine at 10°C and 25°C...
Fri, 05/29/2020 - 03:22
The objectives of the current study were to determine the effects of supplementing a blend of probiotic bacteria (Provida Calf, MB Nutritional Sciences, Lubbock, TX) on the pathophysiological response to an oral Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium challenge in neonatal Jersey calves. Twenty-four Jersey bull calves within 24 h of birth were acquired from a local calf ranch, blocked by total...
Fri, 05/29/2020 - 03:22
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a common harmful foodborne pathogen that can cause severe diseases at low infectious doses. Traditional lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) for the rapid screening of E. coli O157:H7 in food suffers from low sensitivity due to its dependence on 20- to 40-nm gold nanoparticles (AuNP) with insufficient brightness as labels. To address this issue, we reported for the first...
Fri, 05/29/2020 - 03:22
Postpasteurization contamination (PPC) with gram-negative bacteria adversely affects the quality and shelf-life of milk through the development of flavor, odor, texture, and visual defects. Through evaluation of milk quality at 4 large fluid milk processing facilities in the northeast United States, we examined the efficacy of 3 strategies designed to reduce the occurrence of PPC in fluid milk: (...
Fri, 05/29/2020 - 03:22
Mastitis is one of the major causes for antimicrobial use on dairy cattle farms. On farms with an automatic milking system (AMS), diagnostics differ from those with a conventional milking system (CMS), with potentially a different attitude toward mastitis treatment. This may result in differences in antimicrobial usage (AMU) between these 2 types of farms. The aims of this study were (1) to...
Fri, 05/29/2020 - 03:22
Persistence of Salmonella in milk powders has caused several foodborne outbreaks. The determination of proper pasteurization processing conditions requires an understanding of the thermal inactivation kinetics of Salmonella in milk powders. However, there is a lack of knowledge related to the effects of water activity (aw) and fat content on Salmonella inactivation in milk powder during thermal...
Fri, 05/15/2020 - 03:21
Traditional procedures for microbial testing typically involve a homogenizing step. These methods give valuable information on the presence or enumeration of a bacterial contaminant, but not where the contaminant was in the original sample. Spatial information could be useful in troubleshooting sources of bacterial contamination in a processing plant. For example, if the contaminant was localized...
Thu, 04/30/2020 - 03:22
Staphylococcus aureus is a significant opportunistic pathogen in humans, dairy cattle, and camels. The presence of antibiotic-resistant and heat-resistant bacteria in camel milk has become a potential public health issue. The phenotypic and molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant staphylococcal strains recovered from pasteurized camel milk distributed in retail markets of Saudi Arabia...
Wed, 04/22/2020 - 03:19
The main objective of this study was to evaluate the barrier characteristics of 3 external teat sealants for dry cows in preventing bacterial penetration by 3 common major mastitis pathogens (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus uberis) via a novel in vitro simulation model using rubber calf-feeding nipples. All feeding nipples were filled with a sterile cotton plug soaked...

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