Journal of Food Protection

Wed, 11/25/2020 - 04:02
The inhibition kinetics of glutathione (GSH) and quercetin on Acrylamide (AA) formation in the low-moisture Maillard systems were investigated at 180 °C. The inhibition rates in an equal-molar asparagine/glucose (Asn/Glc) system was higher than those in asparagine/fructose (Asn/Fru) system, and the maximum inhibition rates for AA were 57.75% with GSH of 10 -2 mol L -1 and 51.38% with quercetin of...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 04:02
The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) is developing an Establishment-based Risk Assessment model for commercial and on-farm mills involved in the manufacture, storage, packaging, labelling or distribution of livestock feed (ERA-Feed Mill model). This model will help inform the allocation of inspection resources based on feed safety risk, including animal health and food safety risk. In a...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 04:02
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a perfluorinated alkyl substance (PFAS) used as surfactant in a wide variety of industrial and consumer products. Over the past decade, concern has increased over the presence of PFOA in biosolids from wastewater treatment plants used as fertilizer on agricultural lands having the potential to enter the food chain. In this study, the uptake of 14C-PFOA from soil...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 04:02
L. monocytogenes was associated with more than 60 produce recalls between 2017 and 2020 including tomato, cherry, broccoli, lemon, and lime recalls. This study describes the effects of temperature, time and food substrate as factors influencing L. monocytogenes behavior on whole intact raw fruits and vegetables. A cocktail of five L. monocytogenes strains previously associated with foodborne...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 04:02
Numerous outbreak investigations and case-control studies of campylobacteriosis have provided evidence that handling Campylobacter -contaminated chicken products is a high risk factor for infection and illness. In this study, the cross-contamination and transfer rates of Campylobacter jejuni from chicken to ready-to-eat foods were determined in various food-handling scenarios. Skinless raw...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 04:02
Environmental hygiene monitoring in the food processing environment has become of much importance in current food safety programmes to ensure safe food production. However, conventional monitoring of surface hygiene based on visual inspection and microbial counts is slow and tedious and thus, is not able to support the current risk-based management system. Therefore, this study was conducted to...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 04:02
Various methods exist for the enrichment and detection of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes from environmental samples. Procedures for the compositing of environmental samples are not as well-defined. In this study, different enrichment procedures involving Buffered Listeria Enrichment Broth (BLEB), University of Vermont Medium (UVM), and Fraser Broth (FB) were evaluated to determine the limits...
Fri, 11/20/2020 - 04:01
Research suggests that small and independent delis are less likely to follow proper sanitation procedures, including slicer inspection, which could lead to a higher likelihood of these delis being a reservoir for Listeria monocytogenes growth and cross-contamination.    This study was undertaken to determine the incidence of L. monocytogenes in counter-sliced turkey deli meat obtained from...
Fri, 11/20/2020 - 04:01
Consumers do not consider flour, a low-moisture food product, a high-risk for microbial contamination. In the past ten years, however, flour has been identified as a source of pathogenic bacteria, including Salmonella and E. coli . Online surveys were conducted to study consumers’ flour-handling practices and their knowledge about food safety risks related to flour. The survey also evaluated...
Fri, 11/13/2020 - 04:02
Staphylococcus aureus causes food intoxication and can become resistant to a large number of drugs. Thus, there is a growing interest in understanding the mechanisms involved in the adaptation of bacterial cells to environmental stresses or to antimicrobial agents. In this context, we evaluated the cinnamaldehyde (CIN) MBC for two contaminating food strains of S. aureus (GL 5674 and GL 8702) and...
Fri, 11/13/2020 - 04:02
Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported foodborne illness in Europe and many other parts of the world. Campylobacter can colonize the intestines of broilers, most often in large amounts. Broilers are usually slaughtered in a high-speed automated system that can rupture the intestines during evisceration, resulting in contamination of carcasses with intestinal bacteria such as...
Fri, 11/13/2020 - 04:02
We investigated whether the co-occurrence of phytopathogens ( Clavibacter michiganensis  subsp.  michiganensis [ Cmm ] and  Xanthomonas gardneri  [ Xg ]) frequently encountered in tomato production and  Salmonella   enterica  subsp.  enterica  serotype Typhimurium (JSG626) affects the persistence of these pathogens in tomato plant tissues during the early stages of plant growth .  We observed...
Sun, 11/08/2020 - 04:02
Following two O121 STEC outbreaks linked to wheat flour, this study was conducted to gain baseline information on the occurrence of bacterial pathogens and levels of indicator organisms in wheat flour in Canada. A total of 347 pre-packaged wheat flour samples were analyzed for Salmonella spp., Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli (STEC), Listeria monocytogenes ( L. monocytogenes ) , aerobic...
Sun, 11/08/2020 - 04:02
The occurrence, concentrations and variables associated with tetracycline, polyether ionophore and anthelmintic residues in the livers of chickens sold in the informal market in South Africa were determined. An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was used to simultaneously analyze for four tetracyclines, five polyether ionophores and six...
Sun, 11/08/2020 - 04:02
Different methods for determining the thermal inactivation kinetics of microorganisms could result in discrepancies of the resulting thermal resistance values. This study determined the thermal resistance of Salmonella in whole milk powder using three methods (Thermal death time (TDT) disk in water bath, pouches in water bath, and TDT Sandwich). Samples from three separate production lots of...
Sun, 11/08/2020 - 04:02
ABSTRACT While high temperature heat treatments can efficiently reduce pathogen levels, they also affect the quality and nutritional profile of foods, as well as increase the cost of processing. The food additive butyl para-hydroxybenzoate (BPB) was investigated for its potential to synergistically enhance the thermal inactivation at mild heating temperatures (54 – 58 ºC). Four foodborne...
Sun, 11/08/2020 - 04:02
Escherichia albertii is an emerging foodborne pathogen. The source of infection in most foodborne outbreaks is unknown, as it is difficult to isolate E. albertii from suspected foods or water. E. albertii has a broad host range among birds and can be isolated from chicken meat. In this study, PCR assay, enrichment and isolation conditions for detecting E. albertii in chicken meat were evaluated....
Sat, 10/31/2020 - 04:02
Poultry processing establishments utilize antimicrobial processing aids on broiler parts to minimize Campylobacter contamination. A stabilized hydrogen peroxide (SHP) product was assessed for use as an antimicrobial processing aid. In a series of experiments, wing segments with skin were inoculated with 103 - 107 cells of Campylobacter coli followed by treatment with SHP at 15,000 or 30,000 mg/L...
Sat, 10/31/2020 - 04:02
Cucumbers found in retail markets are often waxed to improve visual appeal and retard moisture loss. This waxing may affect bacterial survival and the waxing process may facilitate cross-contamination between cucumbers. This study assessed survival of Salmonella on waxed and un-waxed cucumbers and the potential for Salmonella cross-contamination during the waxing process. Fresh waxed or un-waxed...
Sat, 10/31/2020 - 04:02
Plant-derived proteases, bromelain, papain, and ficin are broad-acting enzymes with generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status for foods and have current application in several food industries. These proteases have also been reported to have antimicrobial properties. This study investigated the efficacy of commercially-prepared bromelain, papain, and ficin, individually and combined (2500 ppm...
Sat, 10/31/2020 - 04:02
The microbial safety concern in thermally processed extended shelf-life (ESL) refrigerated foods is associated with spore-forming pathogens such as nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum types B, E, and F. These are traditionally regarded as the target pathogens in validation of thermally processed ESL foods. Their use is restricted due to their designation as select agents. In this study, the heat...
Wed, 10/28/2020 - 04:02
Many foodborne pathogens including E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica can develop biofilms on contact surfaces at meat processing plants. Due to the high tolerance of the biofilm cells associated with the 3-dimensional biofilm structure and the well-expressed bacterial polymeric extracellular substances (EPS), it is a real challenge to completely inactivate and remove mature biofilms as well...
Wed, 10/28/2020 - 04:02
Padaek is a salt-fermented freshwater fish product popularly used in Laos as a shelf-stable all-purpose seasoning. For padaek production, the fish is fermented with salt and rice bran at ambient temperature. Although it is considered edible after 2–3 months of fermentation, 6–12 months is required to enhance its palatability. Its long shelf life and abundance of free amino acids such as glutamate...
Wed, 10/28/2020 - 04:02
When developing protective starter cultures for application in cheese technologies, monitoring growth interactions between starter and adjunct LAB species and in situ expression of bacteriocin genes in the mixtures, are crucial. This study firstly aimed to monitor growth of mixed LAB strain populations during milk model fermentations by microbial counts and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The...
Wed, 10/28/2020 - 04:02
Novel foods such as edible insects and food products based on insects could play an important role in both human and animal nutrition in the future. The identification of dangers associated with insect consumption is fundamental to guarantee consumer safety and adequate regulatory guidelines for operators of the food sector. While former studies have focused on the microbiological contamination...
Wed, 10/28/2020 - 04:02
Norovirus food poisoning outbreaks in Korea (South) appeared in 2000s and have been increasing since then. We aimed to investigate the epidemiological features of norovirus food poisoning outbreaks in Korea over the past years (2002 ~ 2017), based on official food poisoning statistics and available reports, and to find their association with climate factors. Norovirus was the most common cause of...
Wed, 10/28/2020 - 04:02
In this essay we investigate mainly 18 pesticide residues with different chemical structures in fresh vegetables, including organochlorine pesticides, organophosphorus pesticides, carbamate pesticides and pyrethroid pesticides. At the same time, it is estimated that the potential health risks for residents. A total of 313 samples were collected from 12 kinds of vegetables from Changchun, the...
Fri, 10/16/2020 - 04:02
Raw pet food, comprised of raw meat and vegetables, has increased in popularity in recent years. Multiple surveys and frequent recalls indicate that this commodity has a high risk of contamination with Salmonella and other foodborne pathogens. Improved screening methods are needed to meet the growing demand for testing. This matrix verification study aimed to apply a Salmonella loop-mediated...
Fri, 10/16/2020 - 04:02
Red meat is associated with Salmonella outbreaks resulting in negative impacts for the processing industry. Little work has been reported on the use of dry heat as opposed to moist heat against Salmonella on red meat. We determined the effect of drying at 25°C and dry heat at 70°C with ~10% relative humidity (RH) for 1 h against eleven Salmonella strains of multiple serovars on beef, lamb, goat,...
Sun, 10/11/2020 - 04:01
Persistent contamination of food manufacturing environments by Listeria monocytogenes is an important public health risk because such contamination events defy standard sanitization protocols, for example, the application of quaternary ammonium compounds such as benzalkonium chloride (BC), providing a source for prolonged dissemination of the bacteria in food products. We performed whole-genome...
Sun, 10/11/2020 - 04:01
During routine handling, cultured oysters are removed from the water and exposed to elevated temperatures, causing growth of Vibrio vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus within. Farmers can resubmerse oysters in the water, allowing elevated Vibrio spp. levels to return to ambient levels within the oysters. Previous resubmersion research is limited to one aquaculture gear type during studies...
Fri, 10/02/2020 - 04:02
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are major foodborne human pathogens that cause mild to hemorrhagic colitis, which could lead to complications of hemolytic uremic syndrome.  Seven serogroups, O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145 and O157, account for the majority of the STEC illnesses in the US.  Shiga toxins 1 and 2, encoded by stx 1 and stx 2, respectively, and intimin, encoded by eae...
Fri, 10/02/2020 - 04:02
Contaminated raw meat and meat products with Clostridioides difficile could be a vehicle to spread community-associated C. difficile infection. This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of C. difficile in pork and poultry meat samples (n=325) from retail establishments, and in edible giblet samples (n=36) from a poultry processing plant in Murcia (southeastern Spain). Clostridioides...
Fri, 10/02/2020 - 04:02
Water use for antimicrobial intervention application for beef harvest has come under increased scrutiny in recent years in an effort to enhance water conservation during beef harvest and fabrication. This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of beef safety interventions for reducing surrogates of the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) on beef cuts while lowering intervention-...
Fri, 10/02/2020 - 04:02
Salmonella is a foodborne pathogen commonly associated with poultry products. The aims of this work were to 1) estimate the impact of critical steps of the slaughter process on Salmonella detection from broiler chicken carcasses in two commercial poultry slaughter plants in Quebec, Canada, 2) investigate the presence of the pathogen in the slaughter plant environment, 3) describe, using a high...
Fri, 10/02/2020 - 04:02
Grocery stores handle fresh produce in large quantities daily. According to the Food and Drug Administration Food Code, food is to be stored at least 15 cm above the floor, and all foods shall be protected from any source of contamination or otherwise discarded. It is reported in the literature that dropped produce could be a potential source of microbial contamination. Both consumers and...
Fri, 10/02/2020 - 04:02
Growing consumer desires for clean label, “natural” products drives more meat processors to cure meat products with natural sources of nitrate or nitrite such as celery juice powder (CJP). One particular challenge for these producers is to identify safe cooling rates in CJP-cured products where extended cooling could allow growth of pathogens. USDA FSIS recently added guidelines for stabilization...
Sat, 09/26/2020 - 04:02
Salmonella Enteritidis is responsible for a significant proportion of foodborne Salmonellosis in the United States and continues to be attributable to table eggs, despite increased federal oversight in recent years. Technologies, including feed additives, continue to be evaluated for pre-harvest application of their potential food safety benefits. Here, Diamond V Original XPC™, a Saccharomyces...
Sat, 09/26/2020 - 04:02
The International Food Safety Authorities Network (INFOSAN) is a global network of national food safety authorities from 190 countries, managed jointly by FAO and WHO, which facilitates the rapid exchange of information during food safety incidents. Until now, INFOSAN has never been characterized or examined as a functional community of practice and its value, as understood from the perspective...
Sat, 09/26/2020 - 04:02
A total of 482 veal cutlet, 555 ground veal, and 540 ground beef samples were purchased from retail establishments in the Mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. over a non-contiguous, two-year period between 2014 and 2017. Samples (325 g each) were individually enriched and screened via real-time PCR for all seven regulated serogroups of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Presumptive STEC...
Sat, 09/26/2020 - 04:02
The study evaluated the antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of the combinations of nisin (NS), tea polyphenols (TP), rosemary extract (RE) and chitosan (CS) on low-temperature chicken sausage. An orthogonal test revealed that the most effective antimicrobial compositions were equal-quantity mixtures of 0.05% NS + 0.05% TP + 0.03% RE + 0.55% CS . The mixture also produced strong antimicrobial...
Sat, 09/26/2020 - 04:02
Arcobacter species are Gram-negative rods that have been implicated in food- and waterborne illness. Although various cultural isolation methods have been proposed, the current procedures are unable to fully suppress growth of background microbiota present in food samples which inhibits Arcobacter isolation. The purpose of this study was to develop a selective enrichment broth and chromogenic...
Sat, 09/26/2020 - 04:02
Verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC; also known as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli ) are a significant cause of foodborne illnesses around the world. Due to the serological and genomic diversity of VTEC, methods of detection for VTEC in food samples require detection of verotoxin or its gene vt (also known as stx ). The current taxonomy of vt identifies three vt1 (a,c,d) and seven vt2 (a to...
Sat, 09/26/2020 - 04:02
Sake (Japanese rice wine) has been recognized as being low-risk in terms of its microbiological safety. However, a confirmation of the food safety aspects of sake based on scientific evidence is important for establishing consumer confidence, in part because consumer concerns regarding food safety have increased. The presence of Bacillus cereus spores in refined rice wine has been reported, and...
Sat, 09/26/2020 - 04:02
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are known to produce lipophilic marine biotoxins (LMTs) such as okadaic acid (OA) (and its analogues dinophysistoxins (DTXs)), yessotoxins (YTXs), pectenotoxins (PTXs), and azaspiracids (AZAs), all of which can accumulate in bivalve mollusks and exert noxious effects on humans. Health regulations indicate a limit up to 160 µg/kg for OA/DTXs, PTXs or AZAs, and 3.75 mg/...
Sat, 09/26/2020 - 04:02
Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is one of the leading causes of death due to foodborne illness, affecting the elderly, pregnant women, neonates and the immune compromised. Serologically, Lm can be classified into 13 serotypes, though only four are typically linked with food contamination and illness. Since 2000, a shift in serotypes involved in listeriosis outbreaks was observed, suggesting that...
Sat, 09/26/2020 - 04:02
Hot-air drying processes are used to provide specific quality attributes to products, such as dehydrated apple pieces. To comply with the U. S. Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act, there is a need to understand microbial lethality during these processes. The objective of this study was to determine the level of inactivation provided by hot-air drying on a Salmonella...
Sat, 09/12/2020 - 04:01
Kitfo is a version of beef tartar widely consumed in the Ethiopian community. It is made from raw minced beef and a blend of powdered spice and butter. Although previous studies have shown that kitfo contains several bacteria that are of public health concern, the status of their antibiotic resistance is not known. In this study, the antibiotic resistance of bacterial isolates from twenty-six...
Sat, 09/12/2020 - 04:01
Bacterial foodborne diseases are one of the most important public health issues worldwide but in Ecuador reports on the microbiological quality of foods are scarce. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 450 samples of high-demand Ecuadorian food, including bolon, encebollado, sauces, ceviche, fruits, fruit juices, fruit salads, cheese, raw chicken and ground beef were collected from popular...
Sat, 09/12/2020 - 04:01
The differences in the recovery of Salmonella from rendered chicken fat treated with sodium bisulfate (SBS) when inoculated with a dry vs wet inoculum was evaluated. Food grade rendered chicken fat was inoculated with a dry and wet inoculum containing a Salmonella cocktail (S. Enteritidis, S. Heidelberg, and S. Typhimurium). In addition, the effect of an antimicrobial treatment (sodium bisulfate...

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