Journal of Food Protection

The Research Publications track research that is published across national and international peer-reviewed journals. The most recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal Title, Subject, USDA Grant Funding Agencies or FDA Grant Funding Agencies. The research publications are tracked across five subject areas: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, and Viruses.

Thu, 05/21/2020 - 03:38
Infant formula is a major source of food and nutrition for infants and toddlers. However, the presence of contaminants, such as toxic metals, may pose increased health risks to infants. An investigation on the occurrence of the metals: aluminum (Al), barium (Ba) and chromium (Cr), in baby formulae marketed in Lebanon was performed. Infant formula samples were collected from all the brands (n=39)...
Tue, 05/19/2020 - 03:36
Listeria monocytogenes (L. mono) is commonly found in retail deli environments. Proper types and concentrations of sanitizers must be used to eliminate this pathogen from surfaces and reduce the consumer’s risk for infection. In 2012, the CDC’s Environmental Health Specialists Network completed a study on practices in retail delis that can help prevent cross-contamination and growth of L. mono....
Tue, 05/19/2020 - 03:36
Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in poultry meat pose a threat to public health. This is the first report of the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli in retail poultry meat with different antibiotic-use label claims in Korea. A total of 719 E. coli strains were isolated from 1107 raw poultry (chicken and duck) meat samples purchased from nationwide retail stores between 2017 and...
Tue, 05/19/2020 - 03:36
Berries are potential vehicles for the transmission of parasites and have been implicated in illness outbreaks in various countries around the world, particularly in the USA. Although data on contamination of fresh produce with foodborne parasites have been obtained from different global regions, data from Colombia are lacking despite South America being a major producer of fresh produce, which...
Tue, 05/19/2020 - 03:36
In 1996, the Food Safety and Inspection Service published its Pathogen Reduction; Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (PR;HACCP) rule. The intention of this program was to reduce microbial contamination on meat, poultry, and egg products. The program was implemented in stages between January 1998 and January 2000, with sampling for Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) O157:H7 and/or Salmonella in...
Tue, 05/19/2020 - 03:36
This study investigated the levels of lead, selenium, arsenic, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, chromium, cadmium and nickel in honey and their potential health risks to consumers using standard protocols. The honey samples were obtained from apiary farms at nine different locations in southeast Nigeria. They were digested at optimal conditions and analyzed using flame absorption spectrophotometer...
Tue, 05/19/2020 - 03:36
Listeria monocytogenes (LM) contamination of produce can often be traced back to the environment of packinghouses and fresh-cut facilities. As there is limited information on the detection, prevalence, and distribution of this pathogen in produce operations, environmental “routine sampling” plans for LM and other Listeria spp. were developed and implemented in three packinghouses and five fresh-...
Tue, 05/19/2020 - 03:36
Norovirus is the leading cause of foodborne illness outbreaks in the United States, and restaurants are the most common setting of foodborne norovirus outbreaks. Therefore, prevention and control of restaurant-related foodborne norovirus outbreaks is critical to lowering the burden of foodborne illness in the United States. Data for 124 norovirus outbreaks and outbreak restaurants were obtained...
Tue, 05/19/2020 - 03:36
More efficient sampling and detection methods of pathogens on fresh produce are needed. The purpose of this study was to compare a novel rinse/membrane filtration method (RMFM) to a more traditional sponge rubbing or stomaching method in processing jalapeño peppers and cantaloupe samples for detection of Escherichia coli , Salmonella enterica , and Listeria monocytogenes . For jalapeño peppers...
Tue, 05/19/2020 - 03:36
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducted a sampling assignment in 2014 to ascertain the prevalence of Cronobacter spp. and Salmonella in the processing environment of facilities manufacturing milk powder.Cronobacter was detected in the environment of 38 (69%) of 55 facilities. The average prevalence of Cronobacter in 5,671 subsamples (i.e., swabs/sponges from different facility...
Fri, 05/08/2020 - 03:40
Foodborne viral contamination of fresh produce has been associated with numerous outbreaks. Detection of such contaminated foods is important for protecting public health. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the capability of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Enteric Viruses tiling microarray (FDA-EVIR) for rapid molecular identification of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and human norovirus (NoV...
Tue, 04/28/2020 - 03:35
The assessment of hygienic state or “cleanliness” of contact surfaces has significant implications for food and medical industries seeking to monitor sanitation and exert improved control over a host of operations impacting human health. Methods used to make such assessments commonly involve visual inspections, standard microbial plating practices, and the application of ATP-based assays. Visual...
Tue, 04/28/2020 - 03:35
A wide range of fungal species is associated with post-harvest spoilage of grapes. However, Aspergillus carbonarius is the primary fungus responsible for the contamination of grapes with ochratoxin A, a mycotoxin causing several confirmed health effects to humans and animals. Aiming to find a method, safe for the consumers, to prevent post-harvest decay and ochratoxin A contamination of grapes,...
Tue, 04/28/2020 - 03:35
Physical contact between humans and their pets increases the potential for zoonotic disease transmission. This study used the 2016 FDA Food Safety Survey to compare the food handling behaviors of pet owners and non-pet owners, since poor food handling and hygiene habits can increase the likelihood of disease transmission from animals to humans. Results show that both pet ownership and pet type...
Fri, 04/24/2020 - 03:33
Ready-to-eat (RTE) meat and poultry product samples collected between 2005 and 2017 from RTE producing establishments for the Food Safety and Inspection Service’s (FSIS’s) ALLRTE/RTEPROD_RAND (random) and RTE001/RTEPROD_RISK (risk-based) sampling projects were tested for Listeria monocytogenes ( Lm ). Data for 45,897 ALLRTE/RTEPROD_RAND samples collected from 3607 unique establishments and 112,...
Wed, 04/22/2020 - 03:33
This research study was based on ultraviolet (UVC) light and a combination of UVC-ozone treatments that have recently received attention from the beef processing industry as antimicrobial interventions that leave no chemical residues on products. The objectives were to evaluate effectiveness of UVC and UVC in combination with gaseous ozone treatments for inactivation of pathogenic bacteria on...
Tue, 04/21/2020 - 03:35
Plant-based beverages have been positioned as an alternative to cow's milk. One of the most consumed plant-based beverages are those made with soybeans. Soybean beverages may be an important source of essential elements. However, the soybean plant is exposed to high amounts of contaminants from the soil and the environment, such as toxic metals. For this reason, the objective of this study is to...
Tue, 04/21/2020 - 03:35
This study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) against Salmonella Typhimurium (ATCC 14028) when used in dry dog food kibbles. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of three MCFAs, namely caproic (C6), caprylic (C8) and capric (C10) acids were determined using the broth micro and macro-dilution assay technique.  Using canola oil as a fat coating...
Tue, 04/21/2020 - 03:35
This study investigated the decontamination efficacy of cleaning treatments for whole fresh apples using washes containing surfactants (lauric arginate (LAE), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and Tween 20 (T20)) combined with peracetic acid (PAA), followed by hot air impingement drying. Whole fresh apples ( var . Gala and Granny Smith) were inoculated with Listeria innocua (7 log CFU/mL) using a...
Fri, 04/17/2020 - 03:26
Foodborne diseases are a major cause of illness in Canada. One of the main pathogens causing foodborne illnesses and outbreaks in Canada is Escherichia coli O157:H7.In Canada, from 2008 to 2018, 11 outbreaks of E. coli O157:H7 linked to leafy greens were identified, including 7 linked to romaine lettuce (63.6%), 2 linked to iceberg lettuce (18.2%) and 2 linked to other or unspecified types of...
Fri, 04/17/2020 - 03:26
Organic farming, including integrated crop-livestock farms (ICLF) and backyard farming (BF), are gaining popularity in the US, and products from these farms are commonly sold in farmers markets, local stores, or roadside stalls. Due to avoiding use of antibiotics and chemicals, as well as the non-professional harvesting and packaging methods, and the use of composted animal waste, there is an...
Fri, 04/17/2020 - 03:26
Prevalence of heat resistant bacteria in beef poses a potential problem as thermal interventions are routinely used in beef processing to control contamination. Despite extreme heat resistant (XHR) E. coli having been isolated from a ground beef processing plant, there has not been a study to assess the prevalence of XHR E. coli amongst cattle. Therefore, this study utilized a screening assay for...
Fri, 04/17/2020 - 03:26
Domestic and wild animal intrusions are identified as a food safety risk during fresh produce production. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the survival of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in cattle, feral pig, waterfowl, deer, and raccoon feces from sources in California, Delaware, Florida, and Ohio. Fecal samples were inoculated with a cocktail of rifampicin resistant STEC...
Tue, 04/14/2020 - 03:27
Colistin is used as one of the last-resort drugs against lethal infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae family of pathogens. Enterobacteriaceae bacteria carrying the mcr-1 colistin resistance gene are emerging in livestock and poultry, posing a serious threat to human health. However, the prevalence and transmission of mcr-1 along the regional chicken supply chain remain...
Tue, 04/14/2020 - 03:27
Toxoplasmosis has been recognized as a major public health problem worldwide. The consumption of uncooked/undercooked meat infected with Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) tissue cysts is one of the main sources for the transmission of this parasite. Although sheep, goats, and pigs are commonly infected with T. gondii, there is little information concerning the distribution of T. gondii tissue cysts...
Wed, 04/08/2020 - 03:32
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a widespread bacterium in the marine environment and is one of the leading causes of food-derived bacterial poisoning in humans worldwide. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, virulence factors and antibiotic and heavy metal resistance profiles of V. parahaemolyticus in Pacific mackerel from different markets in Zhejiang, People’s Republic...
Wed, 04/08/2020 - 03:32
Preventing the transfer of allergens from one food to another via food-contact surfaces in retail food environments is an important aspect of retail food safety. Existing recommendations for wiping and cleaning food-contact surfaces is mainly focused on preventing microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses from contaminating foods. The effectiveness of these wiping and cleaning recommendations...
Tue, 04/07/2020 - 03:44
Semicarbazide (SEM) is the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) official marker for nitrofurazone use in food animals. The USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service conducted a study to evaluate the source of semicarbazide (SEM) that was identified by a U.S. trading partner in a subset of chicken samples presented for inspection, even though nitrofurazone has been banned from use in U.S. food...
Tue, 04/07/2020 - 03:44
Liposome encapsulated citral was prepared by means of a hot homogenization method. The microstructure, and particle size and zeta potential of the capsules were analyzed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) respectively, in which the results showed a good dispersion stability of the citral-loaded liposome. In vitro tests showed that liposome encapsulated...
Fri, 04/03/2020 - 03:27
Modifications to pathogen detection kits to accomplish simplified protocols with reduced time to results may impact method performance, particularly when combining shortened enrichment times and simplified enrichment procedures. We used Salmonella detection in dark chocolate as a model to test the impact of different enrichment times (minimum and maximum validated times) and procedures on...
Thu, 04/02/2020 - 03:24
In dairy plants, clean-in-place (CIP) apparatus cannot be disassembled and, therefore, it is not easy to clean the inner surface of their pipes. In this study, the inhibitory effects of chemical agents on biofilms formed by three foodborne pathogens, Bacillus cereus , Escherichia coli , and Staphylococcus aureus , were evaluated in a dairy CIP system. First, the experiment was conducted on a...
Tue, 03/31/2020 - 03:26
Fungal pathogens cause surface contamination and potential premature fruit spoilage of  Bambinella , a fruit endemic to the Maltese islands, leading to the loss of fruit during the post-harvest phase. The objective of this study was to isolate, quantify and characterise fungal contaminantsof the small Maltese June Pear and describe their growth kinetics.In total, 284 fungicide-free fruits were...
Thu, 03/19/2020 - 03:25
Contaminated vegetable seeds have been identified as a potential source of foodborne bacterial pathogens.  This study was undertaken to observe the behavior of Salmonella and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) on vegetable seeds, contaminated by direct contact with artificially inoculated soil, during germination.  Sterile sandy soil inoculated with lyophilized cells of four individual...
Wed, 03/18/2020 - 03:25
Aspergillus flavus may colonise hazelnuts and produce aflatoxins in field and during storage. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of drying temperature and exposure times on the viability and ability of A. flavus to produce aflatoxins during the drying process and storage. Hazelnuts were inoculated with A. flavus and dried at different temperatures to reach 6% moisture...
Tue, 03/17/2020 - 03:26
To investigate the drug residue situation in commercial liquid milk products in China, 190 samples, including ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk (n=168) and pasteurized (n=22) milk samples, were collected in 2019. Milk samples were analyzed for the presence of any of the sixty-one veterinary drugs in them by using a screening assay combined with a UPLC-MS/MS analysis. Ten (5.26%) samples were...
Fri, 03/13/2020 - 03:24
Older adults are at higher risk of invasive listeriosis compared with the general population.  Some foods are more likely than others to be contaminated with or contain high levels of Listeria monocytogenes . The objectives of this study were to, 1) determine dietary consumption patterns, among older adults in the United States; 2) evaluate sociodemographic and economic characteristics of older...
Tue, 03/10/2020 - 03:25
This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of 16 well recognized and emerging mycotoxins in black and white sesame seed samples being commercialized in Thailand, and to evaluate health risk assessment in consumers. Samples were extracted and cleaned up by a modified QuEChERS based procedure. Multi-mycotoxins in sesame seed samples were analyzed using a validated liquid chromatography-...
Wed, 03/04/2020 - 01:18
Antimicrobial seed treatments recommended by Canadian guidance for sprouted vegetable production (2,000 ppm hypochlorite for 15-20 minutes or 6-10% hydrogen peroxide for 10 minutes at room temperature) are not fully compliant with organic production principles. We investigated the effect of a sequential treatment consisting of a 10 min soak at 50 0 C in water followed by exposure to a 2.0% H 2 O...
Wed, 03/04/2020 - 01:18
In recent years, numerous state and local health departments have developed systems to disclose restaurant inspection results to consumers. Public disclosure of restaurant inspection results can reduce transmission of foodborne illness by driving improvements in sanitary conditions. In Minnesota, restaurant inspection results are not readily accessible for consumers to use to make decisions about...
Wed, 03/04/2020 - 01:18
Environmental testing for  Salmonella  Enteritidis is required for U.S. shell egg producers with > 3,000 hens on a farm. The egg producer assumes all costs for the mandatory testing. According to the FDA Egg Rule, either manure scraper or drag swabs can be collected according to published guidelines and requirements. The current study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of  Salmonella  ...
Wed, 03/04/2020 - 01:18
The microbiological quality of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods from school cafeterias in Chongqing, China, was evaluated in comparison to a guideline published by a provincial health commission. Based on their preparation processes and potential risks, the RTE foods were divided into 5 types: food type 1, general cooked and hot-held foods; food type 2, cooked meats; food type 3, heated aquatic products...
Wed, 03/04/2020 - 01:18
We evaluated high pressure processing to lower levels of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated into samples of plant or beef burgers. Multi-strain cocktails of STEC and L. monocytogenes were separately inoculated (ca. 7.0 log CFU/g) into plant burgers or ground beef. Refrigerated (i.e., 4°C) or frozen (i.e., -20°C) samples (25-g each) were...
Wed, 03/04/2020 - 01:18
A study was undertaken to examine hygienic control of the slaughter and dressing process for beef cattle at Australian export processing establishments. Samples were collected from two points during the process: immediately after hide removal and at the completion of dressing before the commencement of chilling. Hindquarter (HQ) and forequarter (FQ) samples were collected from 24 establishments,...
Wed, 03/04/2020 - 01:18
Flax seed has become an increasingly popular food ingredient because of its nutrient richness as well as potential health benefits.  Flax seeds are often ground before consumption and flax seed cakes are used as animal feed.  Aflatoxin production may occur subsequently when the ground seeds are stored in an environment supporting fungal growth. The objectives of this study were to determine the...
Wed, 03/04/2020 - 01:18
The economic burden of foodborne illness has been estimated to be as high as $90 billion annually.  For policy purposes, it is often important to understand not just the overall cost of illness, but also the costs associated with individual products or groups of products. In this study, I estimate the cost of foodborne illnesses from 29 pathogens associated with non-game meat and poultry products...
Wed, 03/04/2020 - 01:18
Dehydrated fruit, including dried coconut and dried apple slices, have been the subject of manufacturer recalls due to contamination with Salmonella . A study was conducted to determine the survival of Salmonella on six cultivars of apple slices after dehydration as well as survival following treatment with antimicrobial solutions (0.5%, wt./wt.)  and dehydration. Six apple cultivars (Envy, Gala...
Wed, 03/04/2020 - 01:18
Canadian First Nations communities rely on traditional preservation methods such as  the smoking, drying, and canning of fish and game meats, to ensure long-term food security. Unlike commercial food production, there are no recognized official standards for these methods, thus rendering their efficacy in producing microbiologically safe foods relatively unknown. In this study, 81 fresh or...
Wed, 03/04/2020 - 01:18
Histamine fish poisoning occurs when fish containing high amount of histamine are consumed. Since histamine is thermally stable, control of histamine forming bacteria in seafood is a good strategy to prevent the formation of histamine. One of the potential ways to do this is to apply gamma radiation on the histamine formers. In order to understand the effect of gamma radiation on the histamine...
Wed, 03/04/2020 - 01:18
Irrigation water can be a source of pathogenic contamination of fresh produce. The quality of the water used during primary production is important to control to ensure food safety and protect human health. Several measures to control the microbiological quality of irrigation water are available for growers, including preventative and mitigation strategies. However, clear guidance for growers on...
Wed, 03/04/2020 - 01:18
The documented survival of pathogenic bacteria including Listeria monocytogenes (LM), shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), and Salmonella during the manufacture and aging of some cheeses highlights the need for additional interventions to enhance food safety. Unfortunately, few interventions are compliant with the Standards of Identity for cheese. Protective bacterial cultures (PC)...

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