Journal of Food Protection

Sat, 03/06/2021 - 04:02
Campylobacter is the leading cause of human bacterial diarrhoeal disease worldwide, with poultry meat products accounting for the majority of human cases. Recent surveys by the Food Standards Agency estimate the Campylobacter prevalence in fresh UK retail chicken to be 41.2%. However, such surveys have not distinguished between broiler chickens produced for different consumer demographics, such...
Sat, 03/06/2021 - 04:02
At present, SARS-CoV-2 has not been shown to be transmitted through food, even so the COVID-19 pandemic has changed how consumers view food and food safety. This study assessed consumer food safety practices during the COVID-19 pandemic using (1) surveys and (2) online focus group discussions. From April to August 2020, five waves of surveys were distributed to an online U.S. consumer panel and...
Sat, 02/27/2021 - 04:02
In this study, to investigate the pathogenic characteristics of the isolates, the pathogenic gene ( tdh gene) was identified, and adherence and cytotoxicity assays were performed. Furthermore, genome sequences of the seafood isolates were analyzed using the Illumina Hi-seq 2500 platform. The isolated strains were then mapped by comparing the genomes to the reference genome, and variations in the...
Sat, 02/27/2021 - 04:02
The number of farmers markets registered by the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has seen a significant increase, jumping from 1,755 in 1994 to 8,771 in 2019. Microbial studies have found evidence that produce sold at farmers can yield higher microbial counts than their retail counterparts; however, no previous literature explored the efficacy of microbial (bacteria and virus) persistence...
Sat, 02/27/2021 - 04:02
Foods of animal origin, such as poultry, eggs, and pork, are recognized sources of infection with Salmonella , but determining the proportion of foodborne infections resulting from different food sources has been challenging. In the current study, 141 Salmonella strains isolated from poultry products (n=1322) purchased over a period of one year from retail stores across Seattle, Washington, were...
Sat, 02/27/2021 - 04:02
Recall announcements by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Food Safety Inspection and Service (FSIS) are important communication tools. Nonetheless, previous studies found that effects of recalls on consumer demand are small. Social media analytics can provide insights into public awareness about food safety related incidents. Using the social listening data this study analyzes how the...
Wed, 02/17/2021 - 04:01
Outbreaks of Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) infections have historically been associated with contaminated deli meats, but recent outbreaks have been linked to produce. To date, avocados have not been identified as the source of any outbreaks of L. monocytogenes infections in the United States, but avocado samples have yielded strains that were closely related genetically to clinical L...
Wed, 02/10/2021 - 04:02
Ruminants are natural reservoirs of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC), and the STEC can be easily transferred to carcasses during the conversion of animals to meat. Three experiments were conducted to validate the efficacy of lactic acid (4%; LA), peroxyacetic acid (300 ppm; PAA), and hot water (80˚C; HW) for their individual or combined abilities to reduce STEC surrogates on bob veal...
Wed, 02/10/2021 - 04:02
Salmonella is one of the main causes of foodborne diseases worldwide. Molecular tests such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are rapid and sensitive and are increasingly becoming a preferred method for pathogen detection. However, the presence of PCR inhibiting substances in the analyzed samples could reduce the sensitivity or totally inhibit PCR amplification, which might result in failure...
Wed, 02/10/2021 - 04:02
Public health and regulatory agencies worldwide sequence all Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) isolates obtained as part of routine surveillance and outbreak investigations. Many of these entities submit the sequences to the NCBI Pathogen Detection (NCBI PD) database, which groups the Lm isolates into SNP clusters based on a pairwise SNP difference threshold of 50 SNPs. Our goal was to assess if...
Sat, 02/06/2021 - 04:01
Cross-contamination of raw food to other surfaces, hands, and foods is a serious issue in foodservice.  With individuals eating more meals away from home, contracting a foodborne illness from a food service establishment is an increasing concern.  However, most studies have concentrated on hands or food contact surfaces and neglected atypical and unusual surfaces (surfaces that are not typically...
Fri, 01/29/2021 - 04:02
Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) is a persistent public health concern in the United States and is the third leading cause of death from foodborne illness. Cross-contamination of L. monocytogenes is common in delis (between contaminated and uncontaminated equipment, food and hands) and likely plays a role in the associated with retail deli meats. In 2012, EHS-Net conducted a study to...
Fri, 01/29/2021 - 04:02
Fresh produce-borne enteric bacterial pathogens with resistance to antibiotics have posed serious challenges to food safety and public health worldwide.  This study examined the antibiotic resistance profile of Salmonella enterica (n=33), previously isolated from exotic and indigenous leafy green vegetable samples (n=328) collected from 50 vegetable farms in 12 farming areas and 37 vegetable...
Fri, 01/29/2021 - 04:02
Beef-based medium beef extract (BE) and standard medium tryptic soy broth (TSB) are used as minimally processed food models to study their effects on Escherichia coli O157:H7 biofilm formation. The effects of temperatures (4 °C, 10 °C, 25 °C, 37 °C, and 42 °C), pH values (4.5, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0), strain characteristics, and the expression of functional genes on biofilm formation ability...
Fri, 01/29/2021 - 04:02
This study evaluated the potential impact of environmental factors and harvesting practices on microbial load of macadamia nuts. Three farms located in the main macadamia nut production regions including Mbombela (A), Barberton (B) and White River (C) areas in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa were sampled over a ,rtwo-year period. A total of 264, irrigation water (54), soil (30) and macadamia...
Tue, 01/12/2021 - 04:02
Salad vegetables purchased from farmers’ markets and grocery stores in central Ohio during the summers of 2015 and 2016 were tested for the presence of Enterobacteriaceae resistant to extended spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems, Salmonella contamination, and coliform bacteria count. A total of 364 samples were collected from 36 farmers’ markets and 33 grocery stores. Using selective media we...
Tue, 01/12/2021 - 04:02
Salmonella  has been linked to many food-borne illnesses and epidemics in both humans and animals. This cross-sectional study determined the prevalence, serovars and factors associated with Salmonella contamination of chickens slaughtered in outlets of the informal markets in Gauteng Province, South Africa. A total of 151 chicken carcasses were randomly collected from 47 outlets. Standard...
Tue, 01/12/2021 - 04:02
Although SARS-CoV-2 is not a proven foodborne pathogen, the COVID-19 pandemic has put the food system on alert. Food safety is identified as an important pillar in mitigating the crisis. Therefore, understanding how popular media are used as a vital disseminator of food safety and health information for public use is more important than ever. YouTube deserves particular attention as one of the...
Tue, 01/12/2021 - 04:02
Campylobacter spp. and Arcobacter butzleri are foodborne pathogens associated with the consumption of contaminated raw chicken meat. At the industry level, the combination of new and common antimicrobials could be used as an strategy to control the presence of pathogens in chicken carcasses. The objective of this study was to determine the bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect of a mixture of...
Tue, 01/12/2021 - 04:02
The growing popularity of raw meat-based diets for pets is accompanied by an increasing concern regarding possible health implications of this practice to pet owners, due to the storage and preparation of raw meat. This study aimed to explore pet owners’ knowledge and perceptions about safety of raw meat-based feeding and determine self-reported food safety practices during raw meat-based pet...
Fri, 01/08/2021 - 04:02
The foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes lives as a saprophyte in nature and can adhere to and grows on surfaces as diverse as leaves, sediment, and stainless steel. To discern the mechanisms used by L. monocytogenes for attachment and growth on various surfaces, we studied interactions between the pathogen on lettuce and stainless steel. A panel of 24 strains (23 of Listeria monocytogenes...
Fri, 01/08/2021 - 04:02
Refugee camps provide basic necessities such as food, water, shelter, and medical treatment for displaced persons. Unsanitary conditions in refugee camps due to overcrowding, poor sanitation systems, lack of clean water, minimal ways to cook and store food can lead to an increased risk of foodborne illness. This article reviews the limited literature on the epidemiology of foodborne illness in...
Fri, 01/08/2021 - 04:02
During the 2014–2018 seasons, we conducted a longitudinal study involving enteric virus surveillance in bivalves, including natural oysters and clams harvested in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. Some norovirus (NoV) contaminations were detected in natural oysters, while no enteric virus was found in clams. NoV detected in oysters were of the genotypes GII.4 and GII.6, which are closely related...
Fri, 01/08/2021 - 04:02
Foodborne disease outbreak investigations identify foods responsible for illnesses. However, it is not known the degree to which foods implicated in outbreaks reflect the distribution of food consumption in the U.S. population or the risk associated with their consumption. To examine this, we compared the distribution of foods in 24 categories implicated in outbreaks to the distribution of foods...
Fri, 01/08/2021 - 04:02
Salmonella enterica has been increasingly linked to outbreaks involving consumption of fresh produce. While several studies have identified genes whose products are involved in mediating S. enterica -plant interactions, the use of varying experimental approaches, serovars and plant types have generated variable and conflicting data. The purpose of this study was to determine whether conditions...
Wed, 12/16/2020 - 04:01
In the fight against the spread of antibiotic resistance (ABR), authorities usually require that strains “intentionally added into the food chain” be tested for their antibiotic susceptibility. This applies to strains used in starter or adjunct cultures for the production of fermented foods, such as many strains of Pediococcus pentosaceus . The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommends...
Wed, 12/16/2020 - 04:01
As part of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) activities, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) collected cecal samples from food animal slaughter facilities throughout the country between 2014 and 2018. Of the 26,780 cecal samples from cattle, swine, chicken and turkey , 6,350 (23.71%) tested positive for Salmonella...
Wed, 12/16/2020 - 04:01
Vegetables in Cambodia are commonly sold in informal markets lacking food safety standards and controls. Currently, data on microbial contamination of vegetables in Cambodian informal markets are limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate Salmonella enterica and indicator organisms (generic Escherichia coli and coliforms) on the surface of fresh vegetables sold in informal markets in...
Wed, 12/16/2020 - 04:01
Butter adulteration practices and their health risks were assessed along the supply chains in the central highlands and south-western midlands of Ethiopia. Purposive sampling technique was used to select 1101 respondents. Based on the result of the cross-sectional study, fatty acid profiles of butter samples collected from retailers’ shops were investigated to determine the extent of adulteration...
Fri, 12/11/2020 - 04:02
Ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products, such as deli ham, can support the growth of Listeria monocytogenes (LM) which can cause severe illness in immunocompromised individuals. The objectives of this study were to validate a miniature ham model (MHM) against the ham slice method and screen antimicrobial combinations to control LM on ham using response surface methodology (RSM) as a time- and cost-...
Fri, 12/11/2020 - 04:02
Once pathogens are internalized in fresh produce, they pose a challenging food safety issue since they are not effectively inactivated by conventional rinsing or sanitization. To protect food safety and public health, the objectives were to examine internalized levels of foodborne pathogens in different types of fresh produce and to investigate the effectiveness of photocatalytically enhanced...
Fri, 12/11/2020 - 04:02
Antibiotics used during food-animal production account for approximately 77% of U.S. antimicrobial consumption by mass. Ground beef products labeled as raised without antibiotics (RWA) are perceived to harbor lower antimicrobial resistance (AMR) levels than conventional (CONV) products with no label claims regarding antimicrobial use. Retail ground beef samples were obtained from 6 U. S. cities....
Wed, 12/09/2020 - 04:02
Environmental monitoring for Listeria monocytogenes in food processing environments is key for ensuring the safety of ready-to-eat foods. For sampling, swabs are often hydrated with a wetting or transport medium which may contain neutralizers and other ingredients. After swabbing the environment, the swabs may then be transported or shipped cold to an off-site laboratory for testing, ideally...
Wed, 12/09/2020 - 04:02
A study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of seven decontamination processes in reducing the pesticide mixture load of six insecticides (quinalphos, profenophos, ethion, lambda- cyhalothrin, imidacloprid and acetamiprid) from chilli alongwith one control treatment where the pesticide residues were extracted without following any decontamination procedure. The extraction of the insecticides...
Wed, 12/09/2020 - 04:02
This study investigated the presence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) for the first time in two types of unpasteurized fresh cheese produced in the state of Michoacan, Mexico. We tested for this pathogen along with the others to broaden the study of microbiological quality in a total of 60 samples of cheese, 30 fresh and 30 adobera, which were collected from six artisanal cheese factories (...
Wed, 12/09/2020 - 04:02
Suboptimal food worker health and hygiene has been a common contributing factor in foodborne disease outbreaks for many years. Despite clear FDA Model Food Code recommendations for hand washing and glove use, food worker compliance with handwashing recommendations has remained poor for more than 20 years. Food workers’ compliance with recommended handwashing is adversely impacted by a number of...
Wed, 12/09/2020 - 04:02
Biopreservatives are clean-label ingredients used to control pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms in ready-to-eat foods including cheese. The efficacies of six commercial biopreservatives in controlling L. monocytogenes growth at 4°C were tested in a high-moisture model cheese (pH 6.00, 56% moisture, 1.25% salt) made of cream, micellar casein, water, salt, lactose, lactic acid, and a single...
Fri, 12/04/2020 - 04:02
Foodborne diseases (FBDs) are burdening countries worldwide. Several countries have successfully implemented policies that establish innovative systems for the inspection and grading of food service establishments (FSEs), which greatly contributes to a reduction in FBDs. China’s government has also responded by developing policies to protect consumers’ food safety, including the routine...
Fri, 12/04/2020 - 04:02
The topic of food safety continues to receive increased attention and has ramifications on various human, environmental, policy, and economic levels worldwide. By garnering feedback from 30 food industry experts, this study was undertaken to identify the most critical issues facing the food industry in relation to food safety. According to expert opinion and after three rounds of Delphi inquiry,...
Fri, 12/04/2020 - 04:01
From planting to distribution stages, fresh produce can be contaminated by humans, water, animals, soil, equipment and the environment. Produce growers play an essential role in managing and minimizing on-farm food safety risks. Due to an increase in public awareness about produce safety, farmer food safety education has become an important research and extension topic. This review article...
Fri, 12/04/2020 - 04:01
Fresh and fresh-cut tomatoes are high in phytonutrients. But the illness outbreaks associated with contaminated tomatoes have significantly impacted public health and the industry’s economic well-being. Scientific information is critically needed to develop an effective, practical food safety standard to reduce pathogen contamination.  The aim of this study was to assess factors impacting the...
Fri, 12/04/2020 - 04:01
Outbreaks and recalls associated with microbial contamination of powdered foods have raised concern for the safety of the spray drying process and its products. However, little research on the fate of bacteria during the spray drying process has been done, leaving much unknown about the risks of contamination in spray dryers. Therefore, quantifying the contamination levels of  Salmonella  and ...
Fri, 12/04/2020 - 04:01
This study aimed to assess current food safety gaps among small growers in Texas to identify key areas of focus for potential education and training materials for these stakeholders. Small growers earn ≤$25,000 in annual sales over a 3-year period and have an average food sale of less than $500,000. To this end, a survey tool was designed to determine the gaps in small farm growers’ food safety...
Fri, 12/04/2020 - 04:01
Consumption of animal-derived meat products is suspected as an important exposure route to antimicrobial resistance (AMR), as the presence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (ARB) along the beef supply chain is well-documented. A retail-to-fork quantitative exposure assessment was established to compare consumers’ exposure to various ARB due to the consumption of ground beef with and without “...
Fri, 12/04/2020 - 04:01
Beef slaughter establishments employ many different interventions to help minimize occurrence of pathogens in their products. This study explored the effectiveness of various common interventions on microbial load using the results of the Beef-Veal Carcass Baseline Survey conducted in 2014–2015. For that baseline, FSIS analyzed swab samples taken from 1,135 carcasses at 139 establishments. These...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 04:02
The inhibition kinetics of glutathione (GSH) and quercetin on Acrylamide (AA) formation in the low-moisture Maillard systems were investigated at 180 °C. The inhibition rates in an equal-molar asparagine/glucose (Asn/Glc) system was higher than those in asparagine/fructose (Asn/Fru) system, and the maximum inhibition rates for AA were 57.75% with GSH of 10 -2 mol L -1 and 51.38% with quercetin of...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 04:02
The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) is developing an Establishment-based Risk Assessment model for commercial and on-farm mills involved in the manufacture, storage, packaging, labelling or distribution of livestock feed (ERA-Feed Mill model). This model will help inform the allocation of inspection resources based on feed safety risk, including animal health and food safety risk. In a...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 04:02
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a perfluorinated alkyl substance (PFAS) used as surfactant in a wide variety of industrial and consumer products. Over the past decade, concern has increased over the presence of PFOA in biosolids from wastewater treatment plants used as fertilizer on agricultural lands having the potential to enter the food chain. In this study, the uptake of 14C-PFOA from soil...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 04:02
L. monocytogenes was associated with more than 60 produce recalls between 2017 and 2020 including tomato, cherry, broccoli, lemon, and lime recalls. This study describes the effects of temperature, time and food substrate as factors influencing L. monocytogenes behavior on whole intact raw fruits and vegetables. A cocktail of five L. monocytogenes strains previously associated with foodborne...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 04:02
Numerous outbreak investigations and case-control studies of campylobacteriosis have provided evidence that handling Campylobacter -contaminated chicken products is a high risk factor for infection and illness. In this study, the cross-contamination and transfer rates of Campylobacter jejuni from chicken to ready-to-eat foods were determined in various food-handling scenarios. Skinless raw...

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