Journal of Food Safety

The Research Publications track research that is published across national and international peer-reviewed journals. The most recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal Title, Subject, USDA Grant Funding Agencies or FDA Grant Funding Agencies. The research publications are tracked across five subject areas: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, and Viruses.

Sat, 06/27/2020 - 22:10
The antimicrobial calcium‐alginate‐based films containing the self‐microemulsifying (SME) thyme essential oil (TEO) formulations were fabricated successfully. A Ca‐alginate film containing nano‐emulsified TEO as well as a neat Ca‐alginate film were considered as the controls. The SME films released the TEO completely within 155 min and inhibited the growth of S. aureus and E. coli in in vitro...
Fri, 06/19/2020 - 22:10
Nyjer and flax seeds are important oilseeds that are used for both human and animal consumption. Aspergilluscarbonariusproduced ochratoxin A (OTA) up to 271 μg/kg on ground nyjer seeds incubated with 0.98 awat 20°C, while A. carbonarius produced the highest OTA (146 μg/kg) on ground flax seeds incubated with 0.94 awat 20°C. Overall, ground nyjer seed is better than flax seed to support growth and...
Tue, 06/09/2020 - 22:11
Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide and the most frequently reported foodborne pathogen in the European Union (EU). The predominant source of infection is poultry. The reduction of Campylobacter spp. in the poultry meat chain in the EU can only be achieved with an integrated meat safety assurance approach. Abstract Campylobacter is the most common cause...
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 03:28
Microbial inspections were conducted at a hospital kitchen in both Vietnam and JapanThe mean general viable bacteria found on cookware and equipment in the Vietnamese hospital kitchen was significantly higher than in the Japanese kitchen.Coliform and E. coli were detected in cooked foods in the Vietnamese, but not the Japanese, hospital kitchen. Abstract This study aimed to assess food safety in...
Thu, 05/28/2020 - 03:29
Antimicrobial effect of oregano and thyme essential oils (1%) in minced pork was assessed after storage at 3°C/7 days in a vacuum. The inhibition of S. Typhimurium depended mainly on the fat content (logarithmic dependence) and to a lesser degree on the pH, whereas pH was not found to be a significant predictor in the case of L. monocytogenes. The results show that only lean minced meat (up to 5...
Thu, 05/28/2020 - 03:29
Royal jelly (RJ) and propolis were able to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 3,200 and 100 μg/ml, respectively. Combination of RJ and propolis resulted in synergistic interaction with MICs of 200 and 25 μg/ml, respectively, and a fractional inhibitory concentration index of 0.312. RJ and propolis were able to down‐regulate the...
Mon, 05/25/2020 - 03:26
A novel selective enrichment broth (SLB) combined with a loop‐mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) kit was developed for inspection of Salmonella in ready‐to‐eat fruits and vegetables. A novel selective enrichment broth was developed for the inspection of Salmonella. The recovery of injured Salmonella in SLB was superior to Selenite Cystine Broth. The growth of Salmonella and inhibitory non‐...
Fri, 05/08/2020 - 03:27
The main compounds of LC‐EO were citral and nerol. In the present study, gram‐negative bacteria had greater sensitivity to LC‐EO than gram‐positive bacteria. LC‐EO could lead to damage to the cell wall and membrane, resulting in the leakage of cell contents, such as electrolytes and nucleic acids, and eventual cell death. Abstract Litsea cubeba essential oil (LC‐EO) has been reported as...
Thu, 05/07/2020 - 03:26
PDT is an emerging new antimicrobial technology, which uses a combination of photosensitizers and light. This study, for the first time, demonstrated that ERY (Red No. 3)‐mediated PDT can be an alternative antimicrobial treatment strategy to the conventional treatments used in tomato juice. Abstract The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of erythrosine B (ERY, Red No. 3)‐...
Wed, 05/06/2020 - 03:28
The present study investigated the effects of combined ultrasound (37 kHz, 380 W for 5 min) and peroxyacetic acid (PAA; 50–200 ppm) treatment on the reduction of Salmonella Typhimurium and Campylobacter jejuni on chicken skin. Ultrasound was not sufficient to inactivate S. Typhimurium (0.48 log CFU/g reduction) or C. jejuni (0.25 log CFU/g reduction), whereas PAA significantly (p < .05)...
Sun, 04/26/2020 - 03:24
S. enteritidis and P. aeruginosa had an inhibitory effect on L. plantarum. L. plantarum had no effects on S. enteritidis and P. aeruginosa. Lotka–Volterra model with six interaction coefficients could quantitatively describe the interaction among Salmonella enteritidis, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Abstract This paper was to investigate the interactions among Salmonella...
Fri, 04/24/2020 - 03:25
Cronobacter sakazakii (C. sakazakii) is an opportunistic, neonatal, and food borne pathogen primarily associated with the contamination of powdered infant formula (PIF). The pathogen is reported to overcome the food safety barriers such as increased acidity, heat treatment, and so on. This study evaluates the thermal tolerance of C. sakazakii strains independently at 52, 55, and 58°C in...
Fri, 04/24/2020 - 03:25
Innovation in colorimetric sensors to detect early signs of food spoilage is a growing interest in food safety and quality control. Currently available chemical dyes for sensor applications have concern because of their possible migration into food packaging and food in contact. In this study, a colorimetric indicator was developed using natural butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea) anthocyanin with...
Thu, 04/23/2020 - 03:24
Graphical Abstract Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) combined with ultrasonic cleaning (USC) significantly reduced the TVC of crab materials. Antibacterial treatments combined with natural chemicals can be utilized commercially to maintain the quality and safety of marinated raw crab paste during storage at −20°C. Abstract The effects of antibacterial treatments and several natural chemicals on the...
Thu, 04/23/2020 - 03:24
Prolonged exposure of foodborne pathogens (Salmonella Enteritidis [SE], Escherichia coli O157:H7 [EC], and Listeria monocytogenes [LM]) to acid, salt, and cold stress alters their antibiotic resistance. However, the effect of acid, salt, and cold stress on bacterial antibiotic resistance depend on both the bacterial species and the specific antibiotic. Abstract Bacteria with antibiotic‐resistant...
Thu, 04/23/2020 - 03:24
The study was conducted to characterize Staphylococcus aureus strains from swabs and drips of dressed chicken carcasses sold at outlets in six townships in the informal market in Gauteng province, South Africa, using molecular and phenotypic methods. Seven genes (6 toxins and 1 antimicrobial resistance) comprising staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), B (SEB), C (SEC), D (SED), exfoliative toxin A...
Thu, 04/09/2020 - 03:21
High oleic peanuts were inoculated with Enterococcus faecium and roasted in a convection oven at 190°C. There was a 6 log CFU/g reduction at 480 s. D‐values for high oleic peanut butter at 110, 120, and 125°C were 438.9, 165.1, and 80.6 s, respectively. The z‐value was calculated to be 20.8°C. High oleic peanut butter was inoculated with E. faecium and agitated in a heated mixer for 21.5 min. E....
Tue, 04/07/2020 - 03:32
This study aimed at evaluating the physicochemical and microbiological quality, besides the occurrence of aflatoxins M1 and B1, in samples (229) of the whole, semi‐skimmed and skimmed milk processed by the ultra‐high‐temperature system, in the three Brazilian southern states (Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná). After incubation at 37°C for 7 days, it was found, a sample that had...
Tue, 04/07/2020 - 03:32
Fresh‐cut apples were dip‐coated in antimicrobial/antibrowning solutions. The developed solutions had the dual effectiveness of both controlling browning and reducing pathogenic bacterial populations, which maintained the fresh‐like appearance and texture of apple slices for 35 days and reduced populations of Salmonella to undetectable levels (<1 log) without growth throughout the storage at 4...
Mon, 04/06/2020 - 03:17
This study was aimed to evaluate the efficiency of the organic chlorine and acetic acid solutions on the inactivation of adhered cells of Escherichia coli, Cronobacter sakazakii and Klebsiella pneumoniae to lettuce. Besides, the growth and inactivation of K. pneumoniae adhered to lettuce was modeled. According to the findings, the use of chlorine solution (170 mg/ml of total residual chlorine)...
Mon, 04/06/2020 - 03:17
Viable but nonculturable (VBNC) cells were able to recover at 25°C, but their recovery extent was affected by the types of prestressed treatment and strain. Cold‐stressed, and tetracycline‐resistant Vibrio cells were more rapidly converted to VBNC state than nonstressed cells. V. cholerae has a higher risk than V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in frozen seafood. Abstract We compared the fate...
Thu, 04/02/2020 - 03:17
The real‐time recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) could complete the reaction at 35°C in 20 min, which is much faster and cheaper than real‐time polymerase chain reaction. Salmonella enterica serovars, Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium, were detected simultaneously by multiplex real‐time RPA method for the first time. The LOD of S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium without...
Fri, 03/27/2020 - 03:30
Gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a promising sanitizer for frozen products because of its efficacy under nonthermal and waterless conditions. Our pilot‐scale treatment of blueberries demonstrated that a significant reduction of 1.5 log CFU/g can be achieved against coliforms after ClO2 exposure. Our findings demonstrate a cost‐effective procedure that could be adapted to commercial processing....
Fri, 03/27/2020 - 03:30
The combination of nisin, EDTA, and sulfite at a low dose of 0.625% exhibited higher antimicrobial activity than did a high dose of sulfite (1.25%) for shrimp preservation. Based on aerobic bacteria counts, psychrotrophic bacteria, and TVB‐N, shrimp treatment with combination of nisin, EDTA, and low‐dose sulfite were still acceptable within 10 days of storage. Abstract This study aims to...
Thu, 03/26/2020 - 03:18
The study was to evaluate the food safety knowledge and hygiene practices among food handlers. A total of 42 food handlers in 13 basic schools under the School Feeding Scheme, Soweto, South Africa were recruited for the study using purposive and convenience sampling methods for the respondents and institutions, respectively. A piloted self‐administered questionnaire was used. All the respondents...
Mon, 03/16/2020 - 03:17
Salmonella typhimurium is able to form biofilms as a resistance mechanism against antimicrobials; therefore, it represents a problem for assuring food safety and highlights the importance of research on anti‐biofilm technologies. In this study, S. typhimurium biofilms were inactivated with the combination of clove essential oil (CEO) and ultraviolet light (UV‐C). The volatile composition of the...
Wed, 03/11/2020 - 03:18
In this study, a novel dual priming oligonucleotide (DPO) system‐based polymerase chain reaction (PCR; DPO system‐based PCR) assay, which detected the fimY gene of Salmonella, was developed for the fast food testing. The DPO system‐based PCR assay allowed a wide range of annealing temperatures at 48–68°C to efficiently amplify fimY gene with an analytical detection limit of 1.2 × 102 CFU/ml for...
Wed, 03/04/2020 - 03:31
The use of nutmeg essential oil‐loaded sage seed mucilage‐based coating with oxygen barrier effect along with antioxidant and antimicrobial activity enhanced the beef shelf‐life by lowering the moisture losses, microbial growth rate, and oxidation reaction progression, as well as by improving the sensory properties of the product. Therefore, the nutmeg essential loaded edible coating with...
Fri, 02/28/2020 - 03:19
The study conducted on 39‐layer farms in Gauteng Province, South Africa determined the prevalence and resistance of enteropathogens, and antimicrobial residues in table eggs collected from the farms. Eggs were tested for the presence of bacteria using standard methods. The resistance of bacteria to eight antimicrobial agents was determined using the disc diffusion method. Antimicrobial residues...
Mon, 02/24/2020 - 03:33
A model for growth of Salmonella Newport on Romaine lettuce as a function of time and temperature was developed and validated in Excel using Neural Tools and @Risk. The model simulates growth of a chicken isolate of Salmonella Newport on Romaine lettuce following cross‐contamination from raw chicken during meal preparation. The model fills an important data gap in risk assessments for Salmonella...
Fri, 02/21/2020 - 03:35
A key unmet food safety need remains the objective assessment of human milk spoilage. Experiments were conducted using a simplified human milk spoilage model based on goat's milk as a human milk surrogate, spiked with a single bacterial strain (S. epidermidis), in which pH and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration were measured along with bacteria count over 160 hr. Bacteria count correlated highly...
Fri, 02/21/2020 - 03:35
Key findings: The biodegradable coating of chitosan with extract and EO of lemon verbena had a significant effect on chemical changes and microbial population in rainbow trout meat and as they kept the sensory properties including color, taste, texture, odor, and overall acceptance scores. The CH‐LVE 1%‐LVEO 0.5% coating treatment prepared a kind of active coating that may be applied as an...
Mon, 02/17/2020 - 03:17
Assays to evaluate killing of Listeria monocytogenes by the protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis were developed. Listeria were killed at an exponential rate for the first 4 hr of coculture with Tetrahymena. Nineteen diverse strains of Listeria were equally susceptible to killing by Tetrahymena. Tetrahymena phagocytized and killed both planktonic and adherent Listeria. Abstract Bactivory by protozoa...
Thu, 02/13/2020 - 03:29
Fish gelatin‐pectin (GelExt/Pec) composite films incorporated with Mentha pulegium essential oil (MEO) and Lavandula angustifolia essential oil (LEO) at two concentrations (0.5% and 1.5%) were developed and their physicochemical, mechanical, and antimicrobial properties were determined. GelExt/Pec‐based film incorporated with 1.5% MEO (GelExt/Pec + 1.5% MEO) showed the highest antimicrobial...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 03:17
Study objective was to determine efficacy of a bacteriophage suspension against Listeria spp. when applied to three common types of materials used in food manufacturing facilities. Materials included two food contact materials (stainless steel and polyurethane thermoplastic belting) and one noncontact material (epoxy flooring). Coupons of each material were inoculated with a cocktail containing L...
Wed, 02/05/2020 - 03:19
The study assessed the antibacterial and antifungal effect of Moringa oleifera seed marinade on smoked Clarias gariepinus stored at ambient temperature for 15 days. The optimum effective concentration of moringa seed marinade that acts as antibacterial was found best to be 11.2 g/kg of fish moringa marinade. While 12.08 g/kg exhibited the highest anti‐yeast effect in Clarias gariepinus and 10.6 g...
Thu, 01/30/2020 - 03:18
Many laboratories sampling foods for Salmonella are interested only in presence or absence of Salmonella, so only one colony may be selected. The objectives of this study were to use two selective enrichment broths and two selective agar plating media for Salmonella recovery from naturally contaminated broiler carcass rinsates and evaluate these media combinations on Salmonella serotypes...
Thu, 01/30/2020 - 03:18
Arabic gum has an interesting antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Arabic gum can be used as a natural emulsifier and egg substitution in vegan mayonnaise. The manufacture of mayonnaise with Arabic gum was useful in controlling the development of rancidity. Abstract The main factors affecting the spoilage of mayonnaise are lipid oxidation and microbial contamination. Therefore, the...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:18
A newly isolated Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophage CJ01 was partially characterized and might be a potential biocontrol agent to improve food safety. Abstract Campylobacter jejuni is a major foodborne pathogen causing acute bacterial enteritis worldwide. Screening of novel bacteriophages as biocontrol tools to eliminate C. jejuni in food during pre‐ and postharvest is an emerging research field...
Fri, 01/17/2020 - 03:16
Process lethality during a 5 min resting period for E. coli O157 C37 and J3, and E. coli AW1.7 in patties cooked to 71°C. F2, single‐sided cooking with flipping twice; F3, single‐sided cooking with flipping three times; D, double‐sided cooking. Abstract This study assessed the adequacy of the current cooking recommendations in relation to heat resistant Escherichia coli by evaluating eight...
Fri, 01/17/2020 - 03:16
Pasteurized trim milk was irradiated through coiled tube ultraviolet (UV‐C) reactor. Pasteurization followed by UV‐C treatment can increase shelf life of milk. UV‐C can inactivate spores under ambient conditions. Abstract The demand for minimally processed foods has increased in the last few years and gains high acceptability among consumers as it has better nutritional value than highly...
Wed, 01/15/2020 - 03:17
The present study investigated in vitro antimicrobial activity of Eryngium caeruleum essential oil (EEO) against some of the fish spoilage and fish‐borne pathogenic bacteria. Moreover, its effects on specific spoilage microorganisms, inoculated Listeria monocytogenes, and its sensory changes in minced fish were evaluated. The results showed that EEO had a significant in vitro antimicrobial effect...
Sat, 01/11/2020 - 03:17
Alpha diversity boxplots showing the distribution of Chao1 diversity for produce items. The Chao1 alpha diversity is presented for samples from farm fresh (cucumbers, tomatoes, and kale) and organic (squash and green bell peppers) produce items collected 1, spiepr146 24, and 96 hr after treatment with water, chlorine, PAA, or SalmoFresh. Abstract Diets rich in minimally processed foods are...
Sat, 01/11/2020 - 03:17
Salmonella were detected in 3 of 24 cucumbers, all of which were multidrug‐resistant and one was acid‐resistant. In addition, developed dynamic model showed that the Salmonella isolates proliferated gradually in cucumber under changing temperature, simulating storage condition. These results suggest that cross‐contaminated Salmonella could increase during storage. It may lead to human infection,...
Wed, 01/08/2020 - 03:20
The apple‐, carrot‐, and hibiscus‐based edible films containing carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde showed antimicrobial effects against Escherichia coli O157:H7 on organic leafy greens in sealed plastic bags. All three types of 3% carvacrol‐containing films reduced E. coli O157:H7 population by about 5 log CFU/g at day 0. The 1.5% carvacrol‐containing films reduced E. coli O157:H7 population by 1–4...
Tue, 01/07/2020 - 03:18
The current study demonstrated that SEU promoted the proinflammatory activity of macrophage via upregulation of AIF‐1 expression. The expression of AIF‐1 was inferred by RNAi and the interference abolished the increase of cell proliferation and inflammatory cytokine TNFα, IL6 secretion. Abstract Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are a wide array of virulence factors produced by Staphylococcus...
Sat, 01/04/2020 - 03:18
Boning of dry‐cured hams involves additional handling which increases the risk of contamination with Listeria monocytogenes. This work studies the ability of E‐beam to eliminate this pathogen from boned dry‐cured ham (BDH). The destruction kinetics of four L. monocytogenes strains (S2, S4‐2, S12‐1, and S7‐2) and L. innocua NCTC 11288 as a surrogate were determined at doses up to 3 kGy. L. innocua...
Thu, 01/02/2020 - 03:18
The combined effect of the 222‐nm krypton‐chlorine (KrCl) excilamp and ohmic heating for the inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice was investigated in this study. When ohmic heating and a KrCl excilamp were applied to apple juice simultaneously, the reduction level of E. coli O157:H7 following 70 s (target...
Tue, 12/24/2019 - 03:18
Enzymatic treatment is capable of removing the biofilm matrix so that the subsequent disinfection can be more effective. Abstract Bacterial biofilms are highly difficult to control, hence significant economic resources have been allocated to develop strategies to eradicate them. This study evaluated the effect of an enzymatic treatment to be used as a cleaning product to control the presence of...
Sat, 12/21/2019 - 03:30
Concentration of free chlorine before and after 15 min of exposure to washing water added of lettuce residues for each sodium hypochlorite treatment. Abstract Salmonella spp. is one of the main lettuce pathogens and should be inactivated during the disinfection of these vegetables before consumption. In minimally processed vegetable industries, residues of organic matter can prevent the...

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