Microbiology

Fri, 04/09/2021 - 03:01
Introduction. Cholix toxin (ChxA) is an ADP-ribosylating exotoxin produced by Vibrio cholerae . However, to date, there is no quantitative assay available for ChxA, which makes it difficult to detect and estimate the level of ChxA produced by V. cholerae . Hypothesis/Gap Statement. It is important to develop a reliable and specific quantitative assay to measure the production level of...
Fri, 04/09/2021 - 03:01
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has caused a pandemic with tens of millions of cases and more than a million deaths. The infection causes COVID-19, a disease of the respiratory system of divergent severity. No treatment exists. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major component of green tea, has several beneficial properties, including antiviral...
Thu, 04/08/2021 - 03:01
Food-borne outbreak investigation currently relies on the time-consuming and challenging bacterial isolation from food, to be able to link food-derived strains to more easily obtained isolates from infected people. When no food isolate can be obtained, the source of the outbreak cannot be unambiguously determined. Shotgun metagenomics approaches applied to the food samples could circumvent this...
Thu, 04/08/2021 - 03:01
As the representative multidrug-resistant pathogen, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has multiple intrinsic and acquired resistances, including carbapenem resistance. In companion animals, the antimicrobial susceptibility and sequence types (STs) of S. maltophilia are not well understood due to its limited isolation rate. We investigated the antimicrobial susceptibilities and multilocus...
Thu, 03/25/2021 - 03:01
The increasing use of PCR for the detection of gastrointestinal pathogens in hospital laboratories in England has improved the detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), and the diagnosis of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). We aimed to analyse the microbiological characteristics and phylogenetic relationships of STEC O26:H11, clonal complex (CC) 29, in England to inform...
Tue, 03/23/2021 - 03:01
Introduction. Carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii ( A. baumannii ) is an emerging global threat. Gap statement. The adaptation strategies of A. baumannii for this emergence as a nosocomial pathogen has been less studied. Aim. This prospective study analysed a sustained outbreak of carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) in the intensive care unit (ICU)...
Thu, 05/23/2019 - 20:00
Vibrio cholerae can survive environmental adversities by entering into a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state and is able to resuscitate under favourable conditions. In this study, an environmental strain of V. cholerae (AN59)...
Thu, 05/23/2019 - 20:00
Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne bacterial pathogen that is responsible for listeriosis, a disease characterized by occasional febrile gastroenteritis in immunocompetent individuals, abortions in pregnant women, meningitis in the newborn and fatal bacteraemia in immunocompromised individuals or the...
Sun, 05/19/2019 - 20:00
In contrast to obligate intracellular pathogens that can remain in relatively stable host-associated environments, the soil-living bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes has to sense and respond to physical and chemical cues in a variety of quite different niches. In particular, the bacterium has to survive the...
Tue, 01/22/2019 - 19:00
Non-typhoidal Salmonella is a leading cause of outbreak and sporadic-associated foodborne illnesses in the United States. These infections have been associated with a range of foods, including retail meats. Traditionally, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) have been used to...
Tue, 01/15/2019 - 19:00
Catecholamine hormones enhance the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Studies in the 1980s made intriguing observations that catecholamines were required for induction of sulfatase activity in many enteric pathogens, including Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. In this report, we show that STM3122 and STM3124, part...
Thu, 11/15/2018 - 19:00
Expression of cholera toxin (CT), the principal virulence factor of the cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae, is positively modulated by the RNA polymerase binding unusual transcription factor DksA (DksAVc) of the stringent response pathway. Here we report that even though CT (encoded by the genes ctxAB) production is downregulated in the V. cholerae ΔdksA (ΔdksAVc ) mutant,...
Mon, 11/12/2018 - 19:00
Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular pathogen that causes acute and chronic Q fever. C. burnetii grows within a eukaryotic host cell in a vacuole highly similar to a phagolysosome. Found worldwide, this environmentally stable pathogen is maintained in nature via chronic infection of ruminants. Aerosol-mediated infection of humans results in infection and usurpation of...
Mon, 10/15/2018 - 20:00
Salmonella enterica is a human pathogen that can produce filamentous cells in response to environmental stress. The molecular mediators and biosynthetic pathways that contribute to the formation of filamentous cells (>10 µm in length) during osmotic stress are mostly unknown. The comparison of filamentous and non-filamentous cells in this study was aided by the use of a...
Wed, 08/15/2018 - 20:00
Campylobacter jejuni is an important human pathogen that causes 96 million cases of acute diarrheal disease worldwide each year. We have shown that C. jejuni CsrA is involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of more than 100 proteins, and altered expression of these proteins is presumably involved in the altered virulence-related phenotypes of a csrA mutant. Mutation of fliW...
Sun, 08/05/2018 - 20:00
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) can cause food- and water-borne illness with diverse clinical manifestations. One key factor for S. typhimurium pathogenesis is the alternative sigma factor σE, which is encoded by the rpoE gene and controls the transcription of genes required for outer-membrane integrity in response to alterations in the bacterial envelope...
Mon, 07/30/2018 - 20:00
Metals are essential micronutrients for virtually all forms of life, but metal acquisition is a double-edged sword, because high concentrations of divalent cations can be toxic to the cell. Therefore, the genes involved in metal acquisition, storage and efflux are tightly regulated. The present study characterizes a nickel-responsive transcriptional regulator in the intracellular mammalian...
Thu, 05/31/2018 - 20:00
Phase variation (PV), involving stochastic switches in gene expression, is exploited by the human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni to adapt to different environmental and host niches. Phase-variable genes of C. jejuni modulate expression of multiple surface determinants, and hence may influence host colonization. Population bottlenecks can rapidly remove the diversity generated by PV, and strict...
Mon, 05/28/2018 - 20:00
Hypervirulent atypical El Tor biotype Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates harbour mutations in the DNA-binding domain of the nucleoid-associated protein H-NS and the receiver domain of the response regulator VieA. Here, we provide two examples in which inactivation of H-NS in El Tor biotype vibrios unmasks hidden regulatory connections. First, deletion of the helix-turn-helix domain of VieA in an hns...
Mon, 04/09/2018 - 20:00
Vibrio cholerae regularly colonizes the chitinous exoskeleton of crustacean shells in the aquatic region. The type 6 secretion system (T6SS) in V. cholerae is an interbacterial killing device. This system is thought to provide a competitive advantage to V. cholerae in a polymicrobial community of the aquatic region under nutrient-poor conditions. V. cholerae chitin sensing is...
Thu, 04/05/2018 - 20:00
RelA is a global regulator for stationary phase development in the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis. The relA gene forms a bicistronic operon with the downstream dtd gene. In this study, we evaluated the significance of RelA and DTD proteins in spore formation and toxin production by an important gastrointestinal pathogen Clostridium perfringens. Our β-glucuronidase assay showed that in C....
Wed, 03/28/2018 - 20:00
Campylobacter jejuni cells have bipolar flagella. Both flagella have similar lengths of about one helical turn, or 3.53±0.52 µm. The flagellar filament is composed of two homologous flagellins: FlaA and FlaB. Mutant strains that express either FlaA or FlaB alone produce filaments that are shorter than those of the wild-type. It is reported that the flaG gene could affect filament...
Tue, 02/27/2018 - 19:00
Shigella species cause diarrhoea by invading and spreading through the epithelial layer of the human colon. The infection triggers innate immune responses in the host that the bacterium combats by translocating into the host cell cytosol via a type 3 secretion system bacterial effector proteins that interfere with host processes. We previously demonstrated that interaction of the...
Mon, 02/26/2018 - 19:00
Verticillium dahliae is a soilborne fungus that causes vascular wilt diseases on numerous plant species worldwide. The production of darkly melanized microsclerotia is crucial in the disease cycle of V. dahliae, as these structures allow for long-term survival in soil. Previously, transcriptomic and genomic analysis identified a cluster of genes in V. dahliae that encodes some...
Sun, 01/21/2018 - 19:00
Ornithine lipids (OLs) are phosphorus-free lipids found in many bacteria grown under phosphate deprivation, a condition that activates the PhoBR system and leads to phosphate uptake and metabolism. Two OL synthesis pathways have already been described. One depends on OlsB and OlsA acyltransferases to add, respectively, the first and second acyl chains to an ornithine molecule. The other pathway...
Mon, 12/18/2017 - 19:00
PrtA is an extracellular serine protease of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and has haemolytic and cytotoxic activities. Many extracellular proteases have been shown to be required for nutrient intake and the infection mechanism of vibrios. In this study, we report that OpaR, a quorum sensing regulator, and RpoS, a general stress response regulator, play important roles in the PrtA regulation pathway....
Thu, 11/16/2017 - 19:00
Herbicides are frequently released into both rural and urban environments. Commercial herbicide formulations induce adaptive changes in the way bacteria respond to antibiotics. Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium and Escherichia coli were exposed to common co-formulants of formulations, and S. enterica sv. Typhimurium was exposed to active ingredients dicamba, 2,4-D and glyphosate to determine...
Thu, 10/26/2017 - 20:00
The phosphoenopyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) enables Vibrio cholerae – and other bacteria – to recognize and transport exogenous carbon sources for energy, including the six-carbon sugar alcohol, mannitol. The mannitol-specific PTS transporter is encoded by mtlA and its expression is expected to be regulated by the putative repressor encoded by the mtlR gene. Here, we show...
Mon, 09/11/2017 - 20:00
Single-celled bacteria are capable of acting as a community by sensing and responding to population density via quorum signalling. Quorum signalling in Chromobacterium violaceum, mediated by the luxI/R homologue, cviI/R, regulates a variety of phenotypes including violacein pigmentation, virulence and biofilm formation. A number of biological and organic molecules have been described as quorum...
Thu, 08/03/2017 - 20:00
The aim of the study was to investigate the neutralizing effect of lactobacilli isolated from indigenous food and human sources on enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) O26 : H11-induced epithelial barrier dysfunction in vitro. This was assessed by transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and permeability assays using intestinal cell lines, HT-29 and Caco-2. Furthermore, the expression and...
Fri, 07/07/2017 - 20:00
Proline utilization (Put) systems have been described in a number of bacteria; however, the importance and functionality of the Put system in the intracellular pathogen Brucellaabortus has not been explored. Generally, bacterial Put systems are composed of the bifunctional enzyme proline dehydrogenase PutA and its transcriptional activator PutR. Here, we demonstrate that the genes putA (bab2_0518...
Wed, 06/07/2017 - 20:00
DksA acts as a co-factor for the intracellular small signalling molecule ppGpp during the stringent response. We recently reported that the expression of the haemagglutinin protease (HAP), which is needed for shedding of the cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae during the late phase of infection, is significantly downregulated in V. cholerae ∆dksA mutant (∆dksAVc ) cells. So far, it...
Wed, 06/07/2017 - 20:00
Phase variation (PV) creates phenotypic heterogeneity at high frequencies and in a reversible manner. This phenomenon allows bacteria to adapt to a variety of different environments and selective pressures. In Campylobacter jejuni this reversible adaptive process is mediated by mutations in homopolymeric G/C tracts. Many C. jejuni-specific phages are dependent on phase-variable...
Thu, 10/27/2016 - 01:20
Numerous aminoglycoside resistance genes have been reported in Campylobacter spp. often resembling those from Gram-positive bacterial species and located in transferable genetic elements with other resistance genes. We discovered a new streptomycin (STR) resistance gene in Campylobacter coli showing 27–34 % amino acid identity to aminoglycoside 6-...
Thu, 10/27/2016 - 01:20
The heat-resistant agglutinin 1 (Hra1) is an integral outer membrane protein found in strains of Escherichia coli that are exceptional colonizers. Hra1 from enteroaggregative E. coli strain 042 is sufficient to confer adherence to human epithelial cells and to cause bacterial autoaggregation. Hra1 is closely related to the Tia invasin, which also confers adherence, but not autoaggregation. Here,...