Mycotoxin Research

Tue, 10/20/2020 - 02:02
Pork-derived products can contribute to the overall ochratoxin A (OTA) intake via carry-over from contaminated feed or via mould spoilage of meat products (salami, dry-cured ham, sausage). An analytical method using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated in accordance with the specifications laid down by European Commission. It offered...
Sun, 10/18/2020 - 02:02
Fungi of Aspergillus and Penicillium genus can infect peas (Pisum sativum), leading to a contamination with the nephrotoxic and carcinogenic ochratoxin A (OTA). Under unfavourable conditions, a fungus primarily found on lupines, Diapothe toxica, may also grow on peas and produce the hepatotoxic phomopsin A (PHOA). To study the effect of processing on OTA and PHOA content, two model products—wheat...
Fri, 10/16/2020 - 02:02
Chlorpyrifos is one of the most used insecticides in agro-ecosystems and is repeatedly applied due to the increase in pest resistance, which leads to environmental accumulation. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of chlorpyrifos on growth and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production by four Aspergillus section Flavi strains, under different water conditions—aW (0.93, 0.95 and 0.98)—on maize-...
Tue, 10/13/2020 - 02:02
There is little knowledge of the microbial diversity, mycotoxins and associated secondary metabolites in GM maize and isogenic non-GM cultivars (cvs). This study has quantified the microbial populations and dominant fungal genera in 6 cvs of each type representative of herbicide, pesticide or stacked resistance to both. The predominant mycotoxins and targeted metabolomics profiles were also...
Wed, 09/30/2020 - 02:02
Within the European Union (EU), edible insects need to be approved as “Novel Food” according to Regulation (EU) 2015/2283 and must comply with the requirements of European food law with regard to microbiological and chemical food safety. Substrates used for feeding insects are susceptible to the growth of Fusarium spp. and consequently to contamination with trichothecene mycotoxins. Therefore,...
Wed, 09/30/2020 - 02:02
The genotoxic and nephrotoxic mycotoxin Ochratoxin A (OTA) has also been reported to have adverse effects on oocyte maturation and embryo development. Previous studies on the effects of OTA on female fertility have used micromolar concentrations, but no information is available to date on effects in a more relevant nanomolar range. This study used a juvenile sheep model to evaluate the effects of...
Sun, 09/27/2020 - 02:02
Beauvericin (BEA) is a member of the enniatin family of mycotoxins which has received increasing interest because of frequent occurrence in food and feed. By its ionophoric properties, BEA is able to alter membrane ion permeability uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation. It was also shown to alter oocyte mitochondrial function. In this study, the effects of BEA at 0.5, 1, ,3 and 5 μmol/L on...
Mon, 09/21/2020 - 02:02
Elevated serum lactate concentration has been used to predict the risk of fatality in various disease states in acutely ill patients or poisoning with different chemicals. However, its utility in predicting disease progression during acute aflatoxicosis has not been investigated. This study was designed to evaluate changes in blood lactate levels following acute exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)...
Thu, 09/10/2020 - 02:02
The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sodium sulfite (SoS) treatment of maize and its impact on the porcine immune system in the presence of an LPS-induced systemic inflammation. Control maize (CON) and Fusarium-toxin contaminated maize (FUS) were wet-preserved (20% moisture) for 79 days with (+) or without (−) SoS and then included at 10% in a diet, resulting in four...
Sun, 08/23/2020 - 02:02
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most commonly found mycotoxins across the world, and it mainly contaminates staple food crops. This study aims to evaluate the dietary exposure of DON and to provide a geographical profile of DON exposure in China. The concentrations of DON and its acetylated derivatives in 15,004 cereal samples (10,192 wheat flour, 1750 maize meal, 892 oat flakes, and 2170...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 02:02
Ochratoxin A (OTA) and citrinin (CIT) are nephrotoxic mycotoxins, found in various foodstuffs and in animal feed, and may cause adverse effects on animal and human health. Previous biomonitoring data indicate a frequent co-exposure of Bangladeshi adults to these mycotoxins. However, since such data are not yet available for young children, a vulnerable part of the population, we conducted this...
Fri, 08/14/2020 - 02:02
Alternaria molds produce a variety of chemically diverse secondary metabolites with potentially adverse effects on human health. However, data on occurrence in food and human exposure is inconsistent for some of these mycotoxins. Membrane filtration is a frequent step in many sample preparation procedures for LC-MS-based methods analyzing food contaminants. Yet, little is known about the...
Sun, 08/02/2020 - 02:02
The xenoestrogenic mycotoxin zearalenone is a Fusarium-derived food and feed contaminant. In mammals, the reduced (e.g., zearalanone, α-zearalanol, and β-zearalanol) and conjugated (e.g., zearalenone-14-sulfate) metabolites of zearalenone are formed. Furthermore, filamentous fungi and plants are also able to convert zearalenone to conjugated derivatives, including zearalenone-14-sulfate and...
Thu, 07/16/2020 - 02:02
Fungal metabolites including regulated mycotoxins were identified by a validated LC-MS/MS method in 180 individual Turkish dried figs from 2017 and 2018 harvests. Hand-selected dried figs were subjectively classified based on the extent of fluorescence. Forty-three fungal metabolites including eight EU-regulated mycotoxins were identified and quantified. Figs classified as being uncontaminated...
Wed, 07/15/2020 - 02:02
This study aimed to evaluate the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) adsorption capacity of the seaweed Lithothamnium calcareum in vitro and to prevent aflatoxicosis in broiler chickens. In vitro adsorption assays were performed at a single AFB1 concentration (1 μg/mL) and four seaweed concentrations (0.50, 1, 1.5 and 2 mg/mL) at pH 3 and pH 6. The maximum adsorption was obtained at the lowest seaweed content (0...
Wed, 07/15/2020 - 02:02
In this study, melon (n = 60) and sesame (n = 60) seeds purchased from markets within Benue and Nasarawa states, respectively, in Nigeria, during two seasons (dry and wet), were analysed for fungal and mycotoxin contamination in order to determine the safety of these foods for human consumption. Molecular analysis revealed the following seven fungal taxonomic groups in the foods: Aspergillus...
Sun, 07/12/2020 - 02:02
Ochratoxin A (OTA) and citrinin (CIT) are mycotoxins known to co-contaminate human/animal food/feed. Their prominent nephrotoxic effects pose a threat to human and animal health. Studies have shown synergistic or additive effects of these two mycotoxins, but a clear consensus on this phenomenon does not exist. In vitro/vivo studies on OTA and CIT effects showed they elevate oxidative stress...
Sun, 07/12/2020 - 02:02
An analytical method for the simultaneous quantitation of ten trichothecenes of type A (HT-2 toxin, T-2 toxin, diacetoxyscirpenol, and neosolaniol) and type B (3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, nivalenol, and fusarenon-X) in feed has been developed using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Mycotoxins extracted twice from...
Sat, 07/04/2020 - 02:02
The aim of this study was to determine dietary exposure to ochratoxin A (OTA) in Turkish adults. In this study, 500 food samples (50 rice, 50 wheat bread, 50 pasta, 50 raisins, 50 dried figs, 50 pistachios, 50 hazelnuts, 50 almonds, 50 chilli, 25 coffee, and 25 cocoa) collected from Turkey were analysed with a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Moreover, a total of 370...
Wed, 05/06/2020 - 03:24
Fusarium infections have been reported in aquatic animals, but are still poorly investigated in wild salmonids. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of the fungi and their toxins on the health status of brown trout (Salmo trutta morpha trutta) migrating from the Baltic Sea to the freshwater. Individuals from the wild brown trout population exhibiting ulcerative skin lesions were...
Thu, 04/09/2020 - 03:18
Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by specific strains of fungi, especially Aspergillus spp. These natural toxins are mainly found in soil, decaying vegetation and food storage systems and are particularly abundant during drought stress. Aflatoxin contamination is one of the most important threats to food safety and human health due to its toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic properties....
Thu, 02/20/2020 - 03:17
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a type B trichothecenes that is widely contaminating human and animal foods, leading to several toxicological implications if ingested. Induction of oxidative stress and production of lipid peroxides were suggested to be the reasons for DON-induced cytotoxicity. However, detailed and comprehensive profiling of DON-related lipid hydroperoxides was not identified....
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 03:15
Mycotoxins produced by certain fungal species of the Fusarium genus are frequently found as contaminants in cereals and feedstuffs. Fumonisins (FBs), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) are of special concern relative to animal health and productivity. The aim of this work was to analyse the levels of Fusarium mycotoxin contamination in samples of total mixed rations (TMRs) for dairy cows...
Tue, 02/04/2020 - 03:25
This study was conducted to investigate the exposure to ochratoxin A (OTA) of populations living in Nanjing, China. Plasma samples were collected from 147 healthy adults (age 18–63 years) and analyzed for OTA by a reliable and sensitive ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method (limit of detection 0.04 ng/mL). After enzymatic hydrolysis by β-...
Fri, 01/31/2020 - 03:15
Mycotoxins’ exposure by inhalation and/or dermal contact can occur in different branches of industry especially where heavily dusty settings are present and the handling of dusty commodities is performed. This study aims to explore the possible contribution of the occupational exposure to aflatoxins by analysing urine samples for the presence of aflatoxins B1 and M1 and aflatoxin B1-N7-guanine...
Tue, 01/28/2020 - 03:17
Mycotoxin exposure from food occurs globally but is more common in hot humid environments, especially in low-income settings, and might affect pregnancy outcomes. This study aimed to synthesize the evidence from epidemiological studies on the relationship between maternal or fetal exposure to different mycotoxins and the occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Multiple databases were...
Sat, 01/25/2020 - 03:15
Ochratoxin A is one of the most diffused mycotoxin present in a large spectrum of food commodities, mainly produced by Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium verrucosum. EU has set maximum limits for a number of matrices such as cereals, wine, spices and liquorice, whilst other commodities such as beer and meat products that are susceptible of OTA...
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:15
The objectives of this study were to determine the efficacy of metabolites of a Streptomyces strain AS1 on (a) spore germination, (b) mycelial growth, (c) control of mycotoxins produced by Penicillium verrucosum (ochratoxin A, OTA), Fusarium verticillioides (fumonisins, FUMs) and Aspergillus fumigatus (gliotoxin) and (d) identify the predominant metabolites involved in control. Initial screening...
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:15
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxic mycotoxin with nephrocarcinogenic potential found in a broad spectrum of food commodities. The mode of action of this compound, as well as its metabolism, is still not fully understood. To determine whether the conjugation of OTA with glutathione plays an important role in human OTA metabolism, an ochratoxin-glutathione conjugate (OTB-GSH), as well as the...
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:15
Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and can be excreted in milk of cows after consuming aflatoxin (AF)-contaminated feed. The aim of this research was to assess the levels of total AFs in samples of feedingstuff for dairy cows (n = 193) and the levels of AFM1 in raw bulk tank milk samples (n = 375), in order to estimate the ratio of “AFB1 feed input” versus “...
Mon, 01/20/2020 - 03:17
A 10-week feeding experiment was carried out examining the effects of deoxynivalenol (DON)-contaminated maize treated with different sodium sulphite (SoS) concentrations on performance, health and DON-plasma concentrations in fattening pigs. Two maize batches were used: background-contaminated (CON, 0.73 mg/kg maize) and Fusarium-toxin contaminated (DON, 44.45 mg/kg maize) maize. Both were wet...
Wed, 12/18/2019 - 03:26
The aflatoxin (AF) albumin adduct is often used as a biomarker for aflatoxin exposure in humans. An ELISA method previously used for aflatoxin serum albumin in human blood was used to analyse bovine serum samples (n = 22) collected from dairy cattle during an aflatoxin mitigation study in Kenya. Albumin adduct data were compared with aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) levels in corresponding milk samples from...
Sun, 12/15/2019 - 03:15
The exposure to mycotoxins of Swedish adolescents is currently unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the exposure to mycotoxins and their association with food intake, and background characteristics in adolescents of a national dietary survey. About 3000 school students (1000 from the 5th, 8th and 11th school years) were recruited for the survey. The participants completed Web-...
Thu, 12/12/2019 - 03:17
Aspergillus nomius is a potent producer of aflatoxins B and G and is one of the most common species of fungi found in Brazil nuts. Temperature is considered a major abiotic factor that influences fungal colonization and aflatoxin production in nuts during pre- and post-harvest. Therefore, assessment of the response of aflatoxigenic species to different temperatures is important to add information...
Thu, 11/28/2019 - 03:26
The presence of fungi and mycotoxins in silage (fermented maize) for cattle and other ruminants have been studied extensively compared to wrapped haylage (fermented grass) for horses and other monogastric animals. The purpose of this work was to examine the fungal diversity of wrapped haylage and conventional hay and to analyse the forage sample for fungal metabolites. Faeces samples were also...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:16
Fluorescent pseudomonads colonizing wheat ears have a high antagonistic potential against phytopathogenic fungi. To check this hypothesis, the bacterial antagonist Pseudomonas simiae 9 rif+/kan+ was spray-inoculated onto the ears of winter wheat in a locally demarcated experimental field plot. Fusarium and Alternaria fungi naturally occurring on the ears and the formation of their mycotoxins in...
Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:15
Moulds positively contribute to the development of typical characteristic flavour and aroma of dry-fermented sausages. However, some mould species, such as Penicillium nordicum and Penicillium verrucosum, may contaminate this product with ochratoxin A (OTA). For this reason, the control of toxigenic moulds is needed. Strategies based on the use of antifungal microorganisms present in the native...
Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:15
Fusarium mycotoxins and their derivatives are frequently detected in freshly harvested forage maize. This study assessed the time course effects during ensiling of forage maize on the fate of Fusarium mycotoxins, using laboratory-scale silos and artificially contaminated raw material. A multi-mycotoxin liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) method was used to determine...
Tue, 10/22/2019 - 03:19
1-Octen-3-ol is one of the most abundant volatile compounds associated with fungi and functions as a germination and growth inhibitor in several species. By investigating its effect on the biosynthesis of patulin, a mycotoxin made by Penicillium expansum, it was found that a sub-inhibitory level of volatile 1-octen-3-ol increased accumulation of patulin on a medium that normally suppresses the...
Tue, 10/22/2019 - 03:19
Degradation of the mycotoxin patulin (PAT) and the generation of (less toxic) breakdown products, such as (E/Z)-ascladiol (ASC-E/Z) and desoxypatulinic acid (D-PAT), can occur due to chemical, physical and biological treatments. Our study focused on the chemical degradation of PAT in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA) both for pure PAT standard in acidified aqueous solution and for PAT-...
Tue, 10/22/2019 - 03:19
Application of atoxigenic strains to compete against toxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus strains has emerged as one of the practical strategies for reducing aflatoxin contamination in corn, peanut, and tree nuts. The actual mechanism that results in aflatoxin reduction is not fully understood. Real-time RT-PCR and relative quantification of gene expression protocol were applied to elucidate...
Tue, 10/22/2019 - 03:19
Contamination with enniatins A, A1, B and B1 was investigated in 1240 samples of small grain cereals (470 wheat, 260 durum wheat, 282 spring barley, 172 triticale and 56 winter barley) from the French harvests of 2012 to 2014. Associations with Fusarium avenaceum, F. tricinctum and F. poae were assessed, with the identification of Fusarium species by real-time PCR and mycotoxin quantification by...
Tue, 10/22/2019 - 03:19
Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites frequently affecting agronomical crops and consequently imposing a major challenge for food safety and public health. In this study, a total of 67 raw cereals (55 maize and 12 sorghum) were collected from the market of Togo. The samples were investigated on the occurrence of 21 mycotoxins using state-of-the-art high-performance liquid chromatography...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:14
The mycotoxin enniatin B1 (ENN B1) is widely present in grain-based feed and food products. In the present study, we have investigated how this lipophilic and ionophoric molecule can affect the lysosomal stability and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) in wild-type (WT) and in lysosome-associated membrane proteins (LAMP)-1/2 double-deficient (DD) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF). The cell...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:14
The Czech Republic occupies the first place in the world in the frequency of renal and other urinary tract tumours, but their aetiology is unknown. To explore whether carcinogenic and nephrotoxic mycotoxins may contribute to kidney diseases in the Czech population, biomarkers of ochratoxin A (OTA) and citrinin (CIT) exposure were determined in biological specimens from a cohort of 50 patients...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:14
This study deals with the influence of food matrix components on the degradation of the mycotoxins T-2 toxin (T-2) and HT-2 toxin (HT-2) and with the binding of T-2 to starch during thermal food processing. Both mycotoxins were heated in a simulated food environment and subsequently analyzed via HPLC-HRMS to generate degradation curves and to draw conclusions regarding the thermal degradation...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:14
Aquaculture has been a growing sector of food production worldwide in the last decades, and now starts to include new, unconventional species from the Phylum Echinodermata, such as sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) and sea cucumber (Holothuria tubulosa). However, little is known in this context with regard to food safety aspects arising from toxigenic fungi. In this study, samples of feed (n = 7...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:14
The ability of several chelating mycotoxins to form coordination complexes with the lanthanide metals europium and terbium was explored. The mycotoxins examined included ochratoxin A, citrinin, cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), kojic acid, and tenuazonic acid (TeA). Of these compounds, TeA and CPA resulted in the greatest luminescence. Parameters influencing luminescence of TeA were investigated further...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:14
Canadian oat harvest samples, deliveries to processors, and train shipments from primary elevators were collected from mid-2014 through mid-2017 and analyzed for 26 mycotoxins and the fungal biomarker ergosterol. Of the 26 mycotoxins, 7 were not detected in any sample. The most frequently measured mycotoxins were beauvericin (in over 95% of samples analyzed), followed by tentoxin, culmorin,...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:14
Alternariol (AOH) is produced by fungi of the genus Alternaria and can be found in fruits, vegetables, and grains. Besides the oestrogenic activity demonstrated in vitro, this mycotoxin causes DNA damage and cell cycle arrest. Based on this, the effect of AOH was investigated on porcine female gametes during in vitro maturation and subsequent initial embryo development. A first experiment...

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