PLOS ONE

Thu, 11/07/2019 - 03:26
by Sheikh Mansoor, Nazeer Ahmed, Vikas Sharma, Sumira Jan, Sajad Un Nabi, Javid I. Mir, Mudasir A. Mir, Khalid Z. Masoodi Apple scab caused by Venturia inaequalis Cooke (Wint.) is one the important diseases of trade and industrial significance in apple. In present study variability studies in pathogen isolates were studied, which is one of the most important factors for devising management...
Wed, 11/06/2019 - 03:26
by Orna Levran, Matthew Randesi, John Rotrosen, Jurg Ott, Miriam Adelson, Mary Jeanne Kreek There is a reciprocal relationship between the circadian and the reward systems. Polymorphisms in several circadian rhythm-related (clock) genes were associated with drug addiction. This study aims to search for associations between 895 variants in 39 circadian rhythm-related genes and opioid addiction (...
Sat, 11/02/2019 - 03:26
by Sushim K. Gupta, Poonam Sharma, Elizabeth A. McMillan, Charlene R. Jackson, Lari M. Hiott, Tiffanie Woodley, Shaheen B. Humayoun, John B. Barrett, Jonathan G. Frye, Michael McClelland Food animals act as a reservoir for many foodborne pathogens. Salmonella enterica is one of the leading pathogens that cause food borne illness in a broad host range including animals and humans. They can also be...
Fri, 11/01/2019 - 03:26
by Yasna Contreras-Baeza, Sebastián Ceballo, Robinson Arce-Molina, Pamela Y. Sandoval, Karin Alegría, Luis Felipe Barros, Alejandro San Martín Mitochondrial toxicity is a primary source of pre-clinical drug attrition, black box warning and post-market drug withdrawal. Methods that detect mitochondrial toxicity as early as possible during the drug development process are required. Here we...
Thu, 10/31/2019 - 03:25
by Javier Marín, Teresa Blanco, José J. Marín, Alejandro Moreno, Elena Martitegui, Juan C. Aragüés Background Gait analysis with motion capture (MoCap) during rehabilitation can provide objective information to facilitate treatment decision making. However, designing a test to be integrated into healthcare services requires considering multiple design factors. The difficulty of integrating a ‘...
Wed, 10/30/2019 - 03:26
by Mohd Azri Mohd Suan, Salmiah Md Said, Poh Ying Lim, Ahmad Zaid Fattah Azman, Muhammad Radzi Abu Hassan Hepatitis C infection is a global public health problem. This study was designed to identify the risk factors associated with hepatitis C infection among adult patients in Kedah state, Malaysia. A matched, hospital-based, case–control study was conducted at a tertiary hospital. Cases were...
Wed, 10/30/2019 - 03:26
by Jason T. Blackard, Ling Kong, Susan D. Rouster, Rebekah Karns, Paul S. Horn, Shyam Kottilil, M. Tarek Shata, Kenneth E. Sherman Background and aim The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-strand RNA virus that infects millions of people worldwide. Recent advances in therapy have led to viral cure using two- and three- drug combinations of direct acting inhibitors of viral replication. CCR5 is a...
Sat, 10/26/2019 - 03:34
by Po-Yao Chuang, Tien-Yu Yang, Tsan-Wen Huang, Yao-Hung Tsai, Kuo-Chin Huang, Hsu-Huei Weng Background Vibrio vulnificus necrotizing skin and soft tissue infections (VNSSTIs) are associated with a high mortality rate that varies remarkably with host susceptibility. Hepatic disease (HD) is considered the key risk factor for high VNSSTIs incidence and mortality; however, there is limited evidence...
Sat, 10/26/2019 - 03:34
by Khushbu Salian, Vladimir Strezov, Tim J. Evans, Mark Taylor, Peter F. Nelson Industrial sources, including iron ore sintering, municipal waste incineration and non-ferrous metal processing have been prominent emitters of dioxins to the environment. With the expanding industrial sectors, many international conventions were established in order to reduce the emission of dioxins in the past two...
Thu, 10/24/2019 - 03:32
by Stefan M. Ivanov, Ivan Dimitrov, Irini A. Doytchinova Due to its high catalytic activity and readily available supply, ribonuclease A (RNase A) has become a pivotal enzyme in the history of protein science. Moreover, this great interest has carried over to computational chemistry and molecular dynamics, where RNase A has become a model system for various types of studies, all the while being...
Thu, 10/24/2019 - 03:32
by Sam Abraham, Mark O’Dea, Shafi Sahibzada, Kylie Hewson, Anthony Pavic, Tania Veltman, Rebecca Abraham, Taha Harris, Darren J. Trott, David Jordan The World Health Organisation has defined “highest priority critically important antimicrobials” (CIAs) as those requiring the greatest control during food production. Evidence demonstrating that restricted antimicrobial usage prevents the emergence...
Wed, 10/23/2019 - 03:34
by Kasin Yadunandam Anandam, Subrata Sabui, Morgan M. Thompson, Sreya Subramanian, Hamid M. Said Colonocytes possess a specific carrier-mediated uptake process for the microbiota-generated thiamin (vitamin B1) pyrophosphate (TPP) that involves the TPP transporter (TPPT; product of the SLC44A4 gene). Little is known about the effect of exogenous factors (including enteric pathogens) on the colonic...
Tue, 10/22/2019 - 03:28
by Michael Neidlin, Efthymia Chantzi, George Macheras, Mats G. Gustafsson, Leonidas G. Alexopoulos The pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA) involves dysregulation of anabolic and catabolic processes associated with a broad panel of proteins that ultimately lead to cartilage degradation. An increased understanding about these protein interactions with systematic in vitro analyses may give new...
Sat, 10/19/2019 - 03:30
by Claudia Silva, Edmundo Calva, Marcos Fernández-Mora, José L. Puente, Pablo Vinuesa The Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium sequence type 213 (ST213) emerged as a predominant genotype in Mexico. It is characterized by harboring multidrug resistance (MDR) IncC plasmids (previously IncA/C) and the lack of the Salmonella virulence plasmid (pSTV). Here we show that the D6-like plasmid prophage...
Fri, 10/18/2019 - 03:29
by Luis Fernando Viana Furtado, Celi da Silva Medeiros, Luciana Werneck Zuccherato, William Pereira Alves, Valéria Nayara Gomes Mendes de Oliveira, Vivian Jordania da Silva, Guilherme Silva Miranda, Ricardo Toshio Fujiwara, Élida Mara Leite Rabelo The main control strategy for Ascaris lumbricoides is mass drug administration (especially with benzimidazoles), which can select strains of parasites...
Fri, 10/18/2019 - 03:29
by Nematollah Gheibi, Mohammad Ghorbani, Hanifeh Shariatifar, Alireza Farasat Calprotectin is a heterodimeric protein complex which consists of two subunits including S100A8 and S100A9. This protein has a major role in different inflammatory disease and various types of cancers. In current study we aimed to evaluate the structural and thermodynamic changes of the subunits and the complex in...
Fri, 10/18/2019 - 03:29
by Hoshie Iriki, Takefumi Kawata, Tetsuya Muramoto The CRISPR/Cas9 system enables targeted genome modifications across a range of eukaryotes. Although we have reported that transient introduction of all-in-one vectors that express both Cas9 and sgRNAs can efficiently induce multiple gene knockouts in Dictyostelium discoideum, concerns remain about off-target effects and false-positive...
Tue, 10/15/2019 - 03:34
by Juan Delgado-SanMartin, Beate Ehrhardt, Marcin Paczkowski, Sean Hackett, Andrew Smith, Wajahat Waraich, James Klatzow, Adeala Zabair, Anna Chabokdast, Leonardo Rubio-Navarro, Amar Rahi, Zena Wilson Introduction In oncological drug development, animal studies continue to play a central role in which the volume of subcutaneous tumours is monitored to assess the efficacy of new drugs. The tumour...
Tue, 10/15/2019 - 03:34
by Thi T. Hang Pham, Thuy X. Le, Dong T. Nguyen, Chau M. Luu, Bac D. Truong, Phu D. Tran, Mehlika Toy, Selen Bozkurt, Samuel So Background and aim Vietnam’s burden of liver cancer is largely due to its high prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This study aimed to examine healthcare workers’ (HCWs) knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HBV prevention and management....
Sat, 10/12/2019 - 03:29
by Francesca Marotta, Giuliano Garofolo, Lisa di Marcantonio, Gabriella Di Serafino, Diana Neri, Romina Romantini, Lorena Sacchini, Alessandra Alessiani, Guido Di Donato, Roberta Nuvoloni, Anna Janowicz, Elisabetta Di Giannatale Campylobacter jejuni, a common foodborne zoonotic pathogen, causes gastroenteritis worldwide and is increasingly resistant to antibiotics. We aimed to investigate the...
Fri, 10/11/2019 - 03:29
by Philip J. Palumbo, Yinfeng Zhang, Jessica M. Fogel, Xu Guo, William Clarke, Autumn Breaud, Paul Richardson, Estelle Piwowar-Manning, Stephen Hart, Erica L. Hamilton, Ngo T. K. Hoa, Mariya Liulchuk, Latifah Anandari, Tran Viet Ha, Kostyantyn Dumchev, Zubairi Djoerban, Irving Hoffman, Brett Hanscom, William C. Miller, Susan H. Eshleman Background Persons who inject drugs (PWID) have high HIV...
Fri, 10/11/2019 - 03:29
by Shan Lu, Zhongyun Dong Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is essential for DNA replication and repair, and cell growth and survival. Previously, we identified a novel class of small molecules that bind directly to PCNA, stabilize PCNA trimer structure, reduce chromatin-associated PCNA, selectively inhibit tumor cell growth, and induce apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to...
Thu, 10/10/2019 - 03:29
by Tsuyoshi Sekizuka, Shigekazu Iguchi, Takashi Umeyama, Yuba Inamine, Koichi Makimura, Makoto Kuroda, Yoshitsugu Miyazaki, Ken Kikuchi Candida auris is an invasive and multidrug-resistant ascomycetous yeast that is under global surveillance. All clinical cases of C. auris infection diagnosed from 1997 to 2019 in Japan were non-invasive and sporadic otitis media cases. In the present study, we...
Wed, 10/09/2019 - 03:28
by Jin Ling, Hong Wang, Gaomin Li, Zhen Feng, Yufei Song, Peng Wang, Hong Shao, Hu Zhou, Gang Chen Background Escherichia coli is currently unable to be reliably differentiated from Shigella species by routine matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis. In the present study, a reliable and rapid identification method was established for...
Wed, 10/09/2019 - 03:28
by Mizuki Tanaka, Shiori Hasegawa, Satoshi Nakao, Kazuyo Shimada, Ririka Mukai, Kiyoka Matsumoto, Mitsuhiro Nakamura Many drugs can cause hearing loss, leading to sensorineural deafness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of drug-induced hearing loss (DIHL) by using the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) database and to obtain profiles of DIHL onset in clinical settings. We...
Sat, 10/05/2019 - 03:28
by Adrianna R. Tsang, Nagalingam Rajakumar, Mandar S. Jog Parkinson’s disease is associated with hyperactivity of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), contributing to motor and gait disturbances. Although deep brain stimulation of the STN alleviates certain motor dysfunction, its specific effect on gait abnormalities remains controversial. This study investigated the long-term changes in locomotion...
Sat, 10/05/2019 - 03:28
by Karina Orlowska, Sylwia Swigonska, Agnieszka Sadowska, Monika Ruszkowska, Anna Nynca, Tomasz Molcan, Agata Zmijewska, Renata E. Ciereszko 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a toxic man-made chemical compound contaminating the environment and affecting human/animal health and reproduction. Intracellular TCDD action usually involves the activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)....
Sat, 10/05/2019 - 03:28
by Katie Williams, Andrew G. Hughson, Bruce Chesebro, Brent Race Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal prion disease that can infect deer, elk and moose. CWD has now been detected in 26 states of the USA, 3 Canadian provinces, South Korea, Norway, Sweden and Finland. CWD continues to spread from endemic areas, and new foci of infections are frequently detected. As increasing numbers of cervids...
Thu, 10/03/2019 - 03:30
by Lucy L. Furfaro, Barbara J. Chang, Charlene M. Kahler, Matthew S. Payne As a leading cause of neonatal sepsis, Streptococcus agalactiae, commonly known as Group B Streptococcus, is a major neonatal pathogen. Current global screening practices employ risk- or culture-based protocols for detection of these organisms. In Western Australia (WA), universal culture-based screening is provided, with...
Thu, 10/03/2019 - 03:30
by João L. Reis-Cunha, Daniella C. Bartholomeu, Abigail L. Manson, Ashlee M. Earl, Gustavo C. Cerqueira Background Prophages play a significant role in prokaryotic evolution, often altering the function of the cell that they infect via transfer of new genes e.g., virulence or antibiotic resistance factors, inactivation of existing genes or by modifying gene expression. Recently, phage therapy has...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:30
by Giselle de Faria Romero Soldi, Isadora Coutinho Ribeiro, Cintia Mayumi Ahagon, Luana Portes Ozório Coelho, Gabriela Bastos Cabral, Giselle Ibette Silva López Lopes, João Leandro de Paula Ferreira, Luís Fernando de Macedo Brígido, on behalf of the Salvage Therapy Working Group Background Protease inhibitors (PI) are especially important in salvage therapy. Previous treatment failure with a PI...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:30
by Iftekhar Bin Naser, M. Mozammel Hoque, Shah Nayeem Faruque, M. Kamruzzaman, Shinji Yamasaki, Shah M. Faruque Background Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae resides in aquatic reservoirs of cholera-endemic areas mostly in a dormant form known as conditionally viable environmental cells (CVEC) in which the bacteria remain embedded in an exopolysaccharide matrix, and fail to grow in routine bacteriological...
Sat, 09/28/2019 - 03:21
by Markus Rienth, Julien Crovadore, Sana Ghaffari, François Lefort The reduction of synthetic fungicides in agriculture is necessary to guarantee a sustainable production that protects the environment and consumers’ health. Downy mildew caused by the oomycete Plasmopara viticola is the major pathogen in viticulture worldwide and responsible for up to 60% of pesticide treatments. Alternatives to...
Thu, 09/26/2019 - 03:21
by Sangay Tenzin, Abiodun David Ogunniyi, Manouchehr Khazandi, Sergio Ferro, Jonathon Bartsch, Simon Crabb, Sam Abraham, Permal Deo, Darren J. Trott An electrochemically activated solution (ECAS), generated by electrolysis of a dilute sodium chloride solution in a four-chamber electrolytic cell (Ecas4), was tested as a sanitising aerosol in eliminating bacteria from the environment of a weaning...
Thu, 09/26/2019 - 03:21
by Phuc Pham-Duc, Meghan A. Cook, Hanh Cong-Hong, Hang Nguyen-Thuy, Pawin Padungtod, Hien Nguyen-Thi, Sinh Dang-Xuan The use of antibiotics in livestock production is considered a major driver of antibiotic resistance on a global scale. In Vietnam, small- and medium-scale livestock producers dominate the domestic market and regulatory pushes have done little to decrease antibiotic use. In order...
Tue, 09/24/2019 - 03:27
by Gyula Gyebnár, Zoltán Klimaj, László Entz, Dániel Fabó, Gábor Rudas, Péter Barsi, Lajos R. Kozák Quantitative MRI methods have recently gained extensive interest and are seeing substantial developments; however, their application in single patient vs control group comparisons is often limited by inherent statistical difficulties. One such application is detecting malformations of cortical...
Tue, 09/24/2019 - 03:27
by Aung B. Bo, Jae D. Kim, Young S. Kim, Hun T. Sin, Hye J. Kim, Botir Khaitov, Young K. Ko, Kee W. Park, Jung S. Choi Bioactive herbicidal compounds produced by soil microorganisms might be used to creating a bioherbicide for biological weed control. A total of 1,300 bacterial strains were isolated and screened for herbicidal activity against grass and broadleaf weeds. Among primarily selected...
Tue, 09/17/2019 - 17:00
Douglas Barker, Karen T. Gillum, Nancy A. Niemuth, Shantha Kodihalli Botulism neurotoxins are highly toxic and are potential agents for bioterrorism. The development of effective therapy is essential to counter the possible use of these toxins in military and bioterrorism scenarios, and to provide treatment in cases of natural intoxication. Guinea pigs were intoxicated with a lethal dose of...
Thu, 09/12/2019 - 17:00
Sungsu Youk, Dong-Hun Lee, Helena L. Ferreira, Claudio L. Afonso, Angel E. Absalon, David E. Swayne, David L. Suarez, Mary J. Pantin-Jackwood Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H7N3 has been circulating in poultry in Mexico since 2012 and vaccination has been used to control the disease. In this study, eight Mexican H7N3 HPAI viruses from 2015–2017 were isolated and fully...
Wed, 09/11/2019 - 17:00
Mareike Weber, Janine Liedtke, Susanne Plattes, André Lipski Dairy biofilms as a source of contamination of milk and its products are of great concern in the dairy industry. For a reliable risk assessment, knowledge about the microbial community composition of biofilms in the milking systems of dairy farms must be improved. In this work, swab samples of milking machine biofilms of two dairy...
Mon, 09/09/2019 - 17:00
Nadia Velázquez-Hernández, Ana Yuliana Avilés Ávila, Manuel Arturo Rivas-González, Selma Paola Delgado-González, Gustavo Alexis Alvarado-Félix, Ángel Osvaldo Alvarado-Félix, Isabel Beristain-Garcia, Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel We aimed to determine the knowledge and practices regarding toxoplasmosis among housewives in the northern Mexican city of Durango. One hundred eighty-five women (mean age: 41...
Tue, 09/03/2019 - 17:00
Ahmed Loukil, Fériel Bouzid, Djaltou Aboubaker Osman, Michel Drancourt Mycobacterium canettii is a smooth bacillus related to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. It causes lymph nodes and pulmonary tuberculosis in patients living in countries of the Horn of Africa, including Djibouti. The environmental reservoirs of M. canettii are still unknown. We aimed to further decrypt these potential...
Tue, 09/03/2019 - 17:00
Nabanita Mukherjee, Vikki G. Nolan, John R. Dunn, Pratik Banerjee Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection is one of the major causes of diarrheal disease throughout the world. In recent years, an increase in human S. Javiana infection has been reported from the southern part of the United States. However, the sources and routes of transmission of this Salmonella serotype are not well understood...
Tue, 08/20/2019 - 17:00
Sean Giacomucci, Candice Danabé-Nieto Cros, Xavier Perron, Annabelle Mathieu-Denoncourt, Marylise Duperthuy Biofilm formation is a common strategy used bacteria in order to survive and persist in the environment. In Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae), a Gram-negative pathogen responsible for the cholera disease, biofilm-like aggregates are important for the pathogenesis and disease transmission....
Fri, 08/16/2019 - 17:00
Jisoo Lee, Shinae Kim, Hye-mi Kim, Hyun Jeong Kim, Frank H. Yu ND7/23 cells are gaining traction as a host model to express peripheral sodium channels such as NaV1.8 and NaV1.9 that have been difficult to express in widely utilized heterologous cells, like CHO and HEK293. Use of ND7/23 as a model cell to characterize the properties of sodium channels requires clear understanding of the...
Fri, 08/16/2019 - 17:00
Zhenghui Gao, Wenhui Deng, Fen Zhu Hermetia illucens is an important resource insect for the conversion of organic waste. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) is the primary tool of gene expression analysis and a core technology of molecular biology research. Reference genes are essential for qPCR analysis; however, a stability analysis of H. illucens reference genes has not yet been carried out. To find...
Tue, 08/13/2019 - 17:00
Adrián E. Velázquez-Lizárraga, José Luis Juárez-Morales, Ilie S. Racotta, Humberto Villarreal-Colmenares, Oswaldo Valdes-Lopez, Antonio Luna-González, Carmen Rodríguez-Jaramillo, Norma Estrada, Felipe Ascencio Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), caused marine bacteria Vibrio Parahaemolyticus, is a huge problem in shrimp farms. The V. parahaemolyticus infecting material is contained...
Mon, 08/12/2019 - 17:00
Gitishree Das, Jayanta Kumar Patra, Trishna Debnath, Abuzar Ansari, Han-Seung Shin Currently, green nanotechnology-based approaches using waste materials from food have been accepted as an environmentally friendly and cost-effective approach with various biomedical applications. In the current study, AgNPs were synthesized using the outer peel extract of the fruit Ananas comosus (AC), which is a...
Fri, 08/09/2019 - 17:00
Jie Jiang, Meizhen Tang, Junfeng Chen, Yuewei Yang The bacterial strain WD-2, which was capable of efficiently degrading prochloraz-manganese, was isolated from soil contaminated with prochloraz-manganese, selected through enrichment culturing and identified as Bacillus cereus. Test results indicated that the optimal temperature and pH for bacterial growth were 35–40°C and 7.0–8.0, respectively...
Tue, 08/06/2019 - 17:00
Michael DiBartolomeis, Susan Kegley, Pierre Mineau, Rosemarie Radford, Kendra Klein We present a method for calculating the Acute Insecticide Toxicity Loading (AITL) on US agricultural lands and surrounding areas and an assessment of the changes in AITL from 1992 through 2014. The AITL method accounts for the total mass of insecticides used in the US, acute toxicity to insects using honey bee...

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