Parasitology Research

Mon, 01/11/2021 - 02:01
Foodborne zoonotic trematode (FZT) infections are common neglected tropical diseases in Southeast Asia. Their complicated life cycles involve freshwater snails as intermediate hosts. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Yen Bai and Thanh Hoa provinces in North and Central Vietnam, to investigate the diversity of cercariae of potential FZT and to construct the phylogenetic relationship of...
Fri, 01/08/2021 - 02:01
Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread zoonotic protozoan that infects most species of mammals and birds, including poultry. This study aimed to investigate the course of T. gondii infection and the efficacy of diclazuril and Artemisia annua in preventing infection in experimentally infected chickens. Seventy-five 1-month-old chickens, female and male, were randomly divided into five groups (n = 15...
Fri, 01/08/2021 - 02:01
This study aimed to genetically characterize Toxoplasma gondii isolates obtained from free-range chickens reared in the metropolitan region of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and to evaluate the morbidity and histological changes associated with these isolates in mice. A mouse bioassay was used to isolate T. gondii from a pool of tissue samples (brain, heart, and thigh muscles) collected...
Fri, 01/08/2021 - 02:01
Paragonimiasis is a foodborne trematode infection that affects 23 million people, mainly in Asia. Lung fluke infections lead frequently to chronic cough with fever and hemoptysis, and are often confused with lung cancer or tuberculosis. Paragonimiasis can be efficiently treated with praziquantel, but diagnosis is often delayed, and patients are frequently treated for other conditions. To improve...
Fri, 01/08/2021 - 02:01
Trichinella spiralis is a foodborne zoonotic nematode, which causes trichinellosis. During the infection, parasite evades the host immune responses by direct and indirect (through excretory-secretory products) contact with host immune cells. One of the main targets for immunomodulation induced by helminths are macrophages. In this study, we examined whether direct contact of different stages of T...
Thu, 01/07/2021 - 02:01
The probiotic medicinal product TSO (Trichuris suis ova) is administered to patients with active ulcerative colitis in an ongoing clinical phase IIb trial where the typical co-medications are steroids (prednisolone or budesonide) and antibiotics (e.g., phenoxymethylpenicillin). The present pre-clinical study evaluates the effects of these co-medications on the biological activity of TSO in...
Fri, 11/06/2020 - 02:02
Despite significant advances in understanding the role of the immune response in Opisthorchis viverrini-associated carcinogenesis, little is known about how infection induces gall bladder disease. This study investigated whether mast cells are activated in cholecystitis associated with O. viverrini, gall bladder specimens from ninety-two patients who had undergone cholecystectomy at the Khon Kaen...
Thu, 10/08/2020 - 02:02
Mixed infections of Toxoplasma gondii and Eimeria tenella are likely to occur frequently due to the high prevalence of both pathogens in free-ranging chickens. In this study, we investigated the co-occurrence of the two parasites in the same immune-competent host cell towards altered patterns of parasite-host interactions. Chicken blood monocyte–derived macrophages were co-infected with T. gondii...
Tue, 09/22/2020 - 02:02
The cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus has a large impact on cattle production due to its bloodsucking habit and transmission of pathogens that cause babesiosis and anaplasmosis. Application of acaricides constitutes the major control method but is often accompanied by serious drawbacks, including environmental contamination and an increase in acaricide resistance by ticks. The recent...
Tue, 09/22/2020 - 02:02
A comparative study on the strobilar morphology of the tapeworm Proteocephalus percae (Müller, 1780) (Cestoda), a parasite of the perch Perca fluviatilis (L.), showed a high percentage of abnormally developed parasite individuals. The evaluation of biological samples showed seven types of morphological abnormalities, mostly related to reproductive organs of the model tapeworm species. The most...
Mon, 09/14/2020 - 02:02
Toxoplasmosis represents an important public health issue, with the consumption of raw or undercooked meat being a major way of human infection. The role of beef in the transmission of the parasite to humans is questioned due to lower quantity of tissue cysts compared with other meat-producing species. However, the habit of consuming raw beef is regionally diffused, and the risk posed by...
Wed, 09/02/2020 - 02:02
Blastocystis sp. is a common enteric parasite of humans and animals associated with inadequate sanitation and poor personal hygiene. Over the years, the Malaysian thriving economy has been facilitated largely by migrant workers from developing countries, and there is concern that diseases endemic to their countries may be imported. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the current status of...
Tue, 08/18/2020 - 02:02
The efficacy of pyrantel pamoate, pyrvinium pamoate, ivermectin, and piperazine citrate against pinworm in cockroach was evaluated. Laboratory-reared German cockroaches naturally infected with Blatticola blattae were treated with the anthelmintics and necropsied at 3 to 35 days after treatment. Ivermectin at over 5 ppm and piperazine citrate at over 2000 ppm killed all the treated cockroaches....
Tue, 08/18/2020 - 02:02
Due to the increasing consumption of platinum (Pt), especially in automobile exhaust catalysts, environmental concentrations of Pt are of emerging concern worldwide. Limited information exists on environmental concentrations, particularly in Pt mining regions, while South Africa is the world’s main supplier of Pt. Moreover, other metals are also released as by-products of Pt mining, which might...
Tue, 08/18/2020 - 02:02
The problems of parasite resistance, as well as the toxic residues to most of the commercially available antipiroplasmic drugs severely weaken their effective, curative, and environmental safe employment. Therefore, it is clear that the development of treatment options for piroplasmosis is vital for improving disease treatment and control. Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that targets...
Wed, 08/12/2020 - 02:02
The freshwater snail Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos serves as the first intermediate host of liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, a foodborne parasite, of which human infection has persisted in Southeast Asia for decades. The snail Filopaludina martensi martensi has been proposed as a biological control agent against B.s. goniomphalos, but knowledge on the snail ecology and population dynamics...
Wed, 08/12/2020 - 02:02
In wildlife, endoparasite burden can be affected by host life history stage, environmental conditions, host abundance, and parasite co-infections. We tested the effects of these factors on gastrointestinal parasite infection in plains zebras (Equus quagga) in the Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania, using fecal egg counts of two nematode families (Strongylidae and Ascarididae) and the presence/absence...
Tue, 08/04/2020 - 02:02
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, also known as kala-azar) is a vector borne disease caused by obligate intracellular protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani. To overcome the limitations of currently available drugs for VL, molecular target-based study is a promising tool to develop new drugs to treat this neglected tropical disease. One such target we recently identified from L. donovani (Ld) genome (...
Wed, 07/08/2020 - 02:02
Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) can be a severe threat to immunocompromised patients. This is particularly true for those undergoing chemotherapy and hemodialysis. The present research is aimed at identifying intestinal parasites that might be present in immunocompromised patients. In this cross-sectional study 1040 stool samples were collected from March to September 2017. Six hundred and...
Wed, 06/17/2020 - 02:02
Besnoitia besnoiti is an important obligate intracellular parasite of cattle which primarily infects host endothelial cells of blood vessels during the acute phase of infection. Similar to the closely related parasite Toxoplasma gondii, B. besnoiti has fast proliferating properties leading to rapid host cell lysis within 24–30 h p.i. in vitro. Some apicomplexan parasites were demonstrated to...
Mon, 06/15/2020 - 02:02
It is known that the current treatment for toxoplasmosis causes side effects. Thus, it is essential to develop new therapies with reduced adverse effects while concurrently maintaining broad coverage and prophylactic therapy. Melatonin is a hormone that participates in the circadian cycle in vertebrates and has antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and antitumoral functions. In addition, it has been...
Fri, 05/29/2020 - 03:24
Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic protozoan of the phylum Apicomplexa that can infect nearly all warm-blooded animals. The parasite can exist as the interconvertible tachyzoite or bradyzoite forms, leading to acute or latent infection, respectively. No drug has been reported to penetrate the cyst wall and reduce bradyzoite survival and proliferation till now. The transcriptional level of...
Thu, 05/14/2020 - 03:23
Trichomoniasis is the most prevalent curable sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide and a risk factor for the acquisition of other STIs and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of T. vaginalis and related coinfections in women attending a third-level hospital of Madrid (Spain). A retrospective study of 24,173 vaginal exudates from women...
Wed, 05/13/2020 - 03:24
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate protozoan parasite infecting diverse hosts. Studies have demonstrated that different hosts respond differently to Toxoplasma infection. Pigs are among the most susceptible hosts of T. gondii, but the host-pathogen interactions that shape the outcome of infection in pigs are completely unknown. Here, we used dual RNA-seq to profile the transcriptomic changes of...
Fri, 04/03/2020 - 03:15
In temperate regions, some avian haemosporidian parasites have evolved seasonal transmission strategies, with chronic infections relapsing during spring and transmission peaking during the hosts’ breeding season. Because lineages with seasonal transmission strategies are unlikely to produce gametocytes in winter, we predicted that (1) resident birds living within wintering areas of Neotropical...
Tue, 03/24/2020 - 03:25
The foodborne trematodiases refer to a cluster of zoonotic neglected tropical diseases caused by trematodes, with transmission involving ingestion of contaminated plants, fishes, and crustaceans. Over 40 million people are infected with foodborne trematodes and 750 million are at risk of infection. From a public health point of view, important species include Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis...
Fri, 02/07/2020 - 03:29
Bertiella sp. is a typical parasite in non-human primates and only a few cases of bertiellosis have been reported in humans. We present a new case study of bertiellosis in a 42-year-old woman caretaker of howler monkeys in a wild rehabilitation center in Argentina. Bertiella sp. infection was also diagnosed in the monkeys. Proglottids and feces were collected from the caretaker and monkeys; the...
Tue, 01/07/2020 - 03:16
Amoebiasis is caused by the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica that affects millions of people throughout the world. The standard treatment is metronidazole, however, this drug causes several side effects, and is also mutagenic and carcinogenic. Therefore, the search for therapeutic alternatives is necessary. Quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides (QdNOs) derivatives have been shown to exhibit activity against...
Sat, 12/28/2019 - 03:15
In this study, we explore blood parasite prevalence, infection intensity, and co-infection levels in an urban population of feral pigeons Columba livia in Cape Town. We analyze the effect of blood parasites on host body condition and the association between melanin expression in the host’s plumage and parasite infection intensity and co-infection levels. Relating to the haemosporidian parasite...
Sat, 12/14/2019 - 03:15
Aminopeptidase N is an important metalloenzyme from the M1 zinc metallopeptidase family, which is present in numerous apicomplexan parasites, including Plasmodium, Eimeria, and Cryptosporidium. Aminopeptidase N is a potential drug target, and hence, its properties have been widely investigated. In the current study, the cellular localization and enzyme characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii...
Sat, 12/07/2019 - 03:16
Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an opportunistic pathogen in immunodeficient patients. Although this pathogen has been reported in many domestic animals, few data are available about the occurrence of E. bieneusi in wild rats. In the current study, a total of 228 fecal samples from two wild rat species (Leopoldamys edwardsi and Berylmys bowersi) in China were examined by a nested PCR-based sequencing...
Tue, 12/03/2019 - 03:27
Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite which can infect almost all warm-blooded animals. Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Brazil have greater genetic diversity with a predominance of virulent and atypical genotypes, compared with the Northern Hemisphere. Considering that previous studies have demonstrated a high seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies in animals from Fernando de Noronha Island,...
Fri, 11/15/2019 - 03:15
Metacercariae of Clinostomum Leidy, 1856 are frequently encountered in freshwater fish. In 2015, a provisional species of Clinostomum in People’s Republic of China (PRC) was distinguished from C. complanatum (Rudolphi, 1819) in Europe based on divergent cytochrome c oxidase I (CO1). However, in subsequent studies in East Asia, the same divergent CO1 genotype was identified as C. complanatum....
Wed, 10/30/2019 - 03:16
We assessed the risk for toxoplasmosis in 10 school restaurants in Armenia (Quindio, Colombia). We analyzed the presence of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in the food, water, and living and inert surfaces of school restaurants, and we correlated these findings with the results of food safety inspection scores and with the prevalence of specific anti-T. gondii antibodies in children who ate at these...
Tue, 10/22/2019 - 03:19
Aeromonas hydrophila, considered as an emerging pathogen, is increasingly involved in opportunistic human infections. This bacterium, mainly present in aquatic environments, can therefore develop relationships with the free-living amoeba Vermamoeba vermiformis in hospital water networks. We showed in this study that the joint presence of V. vermiformis and A. hydrophila led to an increased...
Tue, 10/22/2019 - 03:19
Cryptosporidiosis is a significant cause of gastroenteritis in both humans and livestock in developing countries. The only FDA-approved drug available against the same is nitazoxanide, with questionable efficacy in malnourished children and immunocompromised patients. Recent in vitro studies have indicated the viability of Triacsin C as a potential drug candidate, which targets the parasite’s...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:14
The eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) specifically recognizes the 5′ mRNA cap, a rate-limiting step in the translation initiation process. Although the 7-methylguanosine cap (MMGcap) is the most common 5′ cap structure in eukaryotes, the trans-splicing process that occurs in several organism groups, including nematodes and flatworms, leads to the addition of a trimethylguanosine cap (TMGcap...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:14
Echinostomes are important intestinal foodborne parasites. Despite their significance as pathogens, characterization of the molecular biology and phylogenetics of these parasites are limited. In the present study, we determined the entire mitochondrial (mt) genome of the echinostome Echinostoma miyagawai (Hunan isolate) and examined the phylogenetic relationship with selected members of the...