Toxicological Sciences

Wed, 04/28/2021 - 12:00
The northern Gulf of Mexico has a long history of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination from anthropogenic activities, natural oil seepages, and the 2010 Deepwater Horizon explosion and oil spill. The continental shelf of the same area is a known breeding ground for sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus). To evaluate PAH-DNA damage, a biomarker for potential cancer risk, we compared...
Wed, 04/28/2021 - 12:00
Early diagnosis of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) continues to be a major hurdle during drug development and postmarketing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of promising biomarkers of liver injury—glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), cytokeratin-18 (K18), caspase-cleaved K18 (ccK18), osteopontin (OPN), macrophage colony-stimulating factor (MCSF), MCSF receptor (...
Wed, 04/28/2021 - 12:00
Epitranscriptomics, the study of chemically modified RNAs, is a burgeoning field being explored in a variety of scientific disciplines. Of the currently known epitranscriptomic modifications, N6-methyladenosine (m6A) methylation is the most abundant. The m6A modification is predominantly regulated by 3 tiers of protein modulators classified as writers, erasers, and readers. Depending upon...
Tue, 04/13/2021 - 12:00
Predictive toxicology is increasingly reliant on innovative computational methods to address pressing questions in chemicals assessment. Of importance is the evaluation of contaminant impact differences across species to inform ecosystem protection and identify appropriate model species for human toxicity studies. Here we evaluated 2 complementary tools to predict cross-species differences in...
Tue, 04/13/2021 - 12:00
Lead (Pb) is a highly toxic heavy metal that broadly exists in our living environment. Although Pb has been shown to influence the development of immune cells, to date, the impact of Pb on hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the bone marrow (BM) remains unknown. As people are ubiquitously exposed to Pb and HSC are essential for human health, understanding the impact of Pb on HSC is significant for...
Tue, 04/13/2021 - 12:00
Cadmium exposure is ubiquitous and has been linked to diseases including cancers and reproductive defects. Since cadmium is nonmutagenic, it is thought to exert its gene dysregulatory effects through epigenetic reprogramming. Several studies have implicated germline exposure to cadmium in developmental reprogramming. However, most of these studies have focused on maternal exposure, while the...
Tue, 04/13/2021 - 12:00
Concerns about the potential adverse effects of bisphenol A (BPA) have led to an increase in the use of replacements, yet the toxicity data for several of these chemicals are limited. Using high-content imaging, we compared the effects of BPA, BPAF, BPF, BPS, BPM, and BPTMC in germ (C18-4 spermatogonial) and steroidogenic (MA-10 Leydig and KGN granulosa) cell lines. Effects on cell viability and...
Tue, 04/13/2021 - 12:00
FutureTox IV, a Society of Toxicology Contemporary Concepts in Toxicology workshop, was held in November 2018. Building upon FutureTox I, II, and III, this conference focused on the latest science and technology for in vitro profiling and in silico modeling as it relates to predictive developmental and reproductive toxicity (DART). Publicly available high-throughput screening data sets are now...
Sat, 02/27/2021 - 12:00
There has been limited toxicity testing of cigarillos, including comparison to cigarettes. This study compared the smoke chemistry and the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of 10 conventional cigarettes and 10 cigarillos based on the greatest market share. Whole smoke and total particulate matter (TPM) were generated using the Canadian Intense and International Organization for Standardization...
Sat, 02/27/2021 - 12:00
Epidemiological and experimental studies have associated oral and systemic exposures to the herbicide paraquat (PQ) with Parkinson’s disease. Despite recognition that airborne particles and solutes can be directly translocated to the brain via olfactory neurons, the potential for inhaled PQ to cause olfactory impairment has not been investigated. This study sought to determine if prolonged low-...
Sat, 02/27/2021 - 12:00
Hydroxylated chalcones are phytochemicals which are biosynthetic precursors of flavonoids and their 1,3-diaryl-prop-2-en-1-one structure is used as a scaffold for drug development. In this study, the structure-dependent activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-responsive CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and UGT1A1 genes was investigated in Caco2 colon cancer cells and in non-transformed young adult mouse...
Sat, 02/27/2021 - 12:00
The biological half-life (t1/2) of methylmercury (MeHg) shows considerable individual variability (t1/2 < 30 to > 120 days), highlighting the importance of mechanisms controlling MeHg metabolism and elimination. Building on a prior physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model, we elucidate parameters that have the greatest influence on variability of MeHg t1/2 in the human body....
Sat, 02/27/2021 - 12:00
Trimethoprim (TMP)-induced skin rash and liver injury are likely to involve the formation of reactive metabolites. Analogous to nevirapine-induced skin rash, 1 possible reactive metabolite is the sulfate conjugate of α-hydroxyTMP, a metabolite of TMP. We synthesized this sulfate and found that it reacts with proteins in vitro. We produced a TMP-antiserum and found covalent binding of TMP in the...
Fri, 01/29/2021 - 12:00
Regulatory agencies have derived noncancer toxicity values for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin based on reduced sperm counts relying on single studies from a large body of evidence. Techniques such as meta-regression allow for greater use of the available data while simultaneously providing important information regarding the uncertainty associated with the underlying evidence base when...
Mon, 01/11/2021 - 12:00
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a leading cause of acute liver failure. Reliable and translational biomarkers are needed for early detection of DILI. microRNAs (miRNAs) have received wide attention as a novel class of potential DILI biomarkers. However, it is unclear how DILI drugs other than acetaminophen may influence miRNA expression or which miRNAs could serve as useful biomarkers in...
Mon, 01/11/2021 - 12:00
Chemical modifications of proteins, DNA, and RNA moieties play critical roles in regulating gene expression. Emerging evidence suggests the RNA modifications (epitranscriptomics) have substantive roles in basic biological processes. One of the most common modifications in mRNA and noncoding RNAs is N6-methyladenosine (m6A). In a subset of mRNAs, m6A sites are preferentially enriched near stop...
Mon, 01/11/2021 - 12:00
Methods to assess environmental exposure to hazardous chemicals have primarily focused on quantification of individual chemicals, although chemicals often occur in mixtures, presenting challenges to the traditional risk characterization framework. Sampling sites in a defined geographic region provide an opportunity to characterize chemical contaminants, with spatial interpolation as a tool to...
Tue, 12/01/2020 - 12:01
Over the last 2 decades, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as a stellar model for unraveling molecular signaling events mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), an important ligand-activated receptor found in all eumetazoan animals. Zebrafish have 3 AHRs—AHR1a, AHR1b, and AHR2, and studies have demonstrated the diversity of both the endogenous and toxicological functions of the...
Tue, 12/01/2020 - 12:01
Congenital heart disease (CHD), the leading birth defect worldwide, has a largely unknown etiology, likely to result from complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors during heart development, at a time when the heart adapts to diverse physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Crucial among these is the regulation of cardiomyocyte development and postnatal maturation,...
Tue, 12/01/2020 - 12:01
The plastic component bisphenol A (BPA) impairs reproductive organ development in various experimental animal species. In birds, effects are similar to those caused by other xenoestrogens. Because of its endocrine disrupting activity, BPA is being substituted with other bisphenols in many applications. Using the chicken embryo model, we explored whether the BPA alternatives bisphenol AF (BPAF),...
Wed, 11/11/2020 - 12:01
Amoxicillin-clavulanate is the most common cause of idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Drug-specific CD4+ T cells have been detected in patients with DILI, suggestive of an immune etiology. Furthermore, genetic associations including the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) DRB1*15:01-DQB1*06:02 haplotype influence susceptibility. Amoxicillin forms protein adducts that are postulated to...
Wed, 11/11/2020 - 12:01
Bisphenols are endocrine disrupting chemicals to which humans are ubiquitously exposed to. Prenatal bisphenol A exposure can lead to insulin resistance. However, the metabolic effects of other emerging bisphenols, such as bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol F (BPF), are less understood. Because the skeletal muscle is the largest of the insulin target tissues, the goal of this study was to evaluate...
Wed, 11/11/2020 - 12:01
Recent studies implicate mitochondrial dysfunction in the development and progression of numerous chronic diseases, which may be partially due to modifications in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). There is also mounting evidence that epigenetic modifications to mtDNA may be an additional layer of regulation that controls mitochondrial biogenesis and function. Several environmental factors (eg, smoking,...
Wed, 11/11/2020 - 12:01
Seizures are life-threatening adverse drug reactions which are investigated late in drug development using rodent models. Consequently, if seizures are detected, a lot of time, money and animals have been used. Thus, there is a need for in vitro screening models using human cells to circumvent interspecies translation. We assessed the suitability of cocultures of human-induced pluripotent stem...
Mon, 10/12/2020 - 12:01
Studies have shown that mammalian testes, in particular the Sertoli cells, are highly susceptible to exposure of environmental toxicants, such as cadmium, perfluorooctanesulfonate, phthalates, 2,5-hexanedione and bisphenol A. However, important studies conducted by reproductive toxicologists and/or biologists in the past have been treated as toxicology reports per se. Yet, many of these studies...
Mon, 10/12/2020 - 12:01
In 2019, lung cancer was estimated to be the leading cause of cancer deaths in humans. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known to increase the risk of lung cancer. PAHs are metabolized by the cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A subfamily, comprised of the CYP1A1 and 1A2 monooxygenases. These enzymes bioactivate PAHs into reactive metabolites that induce mutagenic DNA adducts, which can lead to...
Mon, 10/12/2020 - 12:01
Acetamide, a food contaminant, has been shown to induce hepatocellular tumors in rats. However, the mode of action underlying acetamide-induced hepatocarcinogenesis remains unclear. In the current study, we aimed to examine the possible involvement of in vivo mutagenicity in hepatocarcinogenesis of acetamide and evaluate its toxicological profile using a comprehensive medium-term toxicity study...
Wed, 09/16/2020 - 12:01
Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a recognized environment-related factor for bladder cancer (BCa). Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) gene might influence BCa by regulating iAs metabolism. The aim of the present study was to explore whether AS3MT polymorphisms could affect BCa susceptibility. We systematically reviewed eligible case-control studies about AS3MT polymorphisms and BCa...
Wed, 09/16/2020 - 12:01
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitously detected and have been linked to metabolic diseases. Gut microbiome is recognized as a critical regulator of disease susceptibility; however, little is known how PCBs and gut microbiome interact to modulate hepatic xenobiotic and intermediary metabolism. We hypothesized the gut microbiome regulates PCB-mediated changes in the metabolic...
Wed, 09/16/2020 - 12:01
Drug-induced liver injury is a major reason for drug candidate attrition from development, denied commercialization, market withdrawal, and restricted prescribing of pharmaceuticals. The metabolic bioactivation of drugs to chemically reactive metabolites (CRMs) contribute to liver-associated adverse drug reactions in humans that often goes undetected in conventional animal toxicology studies. A...
Wed, 09/16/2020 - 12:01
Early risk assessment of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) potential for drug candidates remains a major challenge for pharmaceutical development. We have previously developed a set of rat liver transcriptional biomarkers in short-term toxicity studies to inform the potential of drug candidates to generate a high burden of chemically reactive metabolites that presents higher risk for human DILI....
Wed, 09/16/2020 - 12:00
Traditional methods for cancer risk assessment are resource-intensive, retrospective, and not feasible for the vast majority of environmental chemicals. In this study, we investigated whether quantitative genomic data from short-term studies may be used to set protective thresholds for potential tumorigenic effects. We hypothesized that gene expression biomarkers measuring activation of the key...
Wed, 09/16/2020 - 12:00
Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal and an environmental pollutant. However, the full spectrum of its neurotoxicity and the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. Our previous studies demonstrated that Cd exposure impairs adult hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampus-dependent memory in mice. This study aims to determine if these adverse effects of Cd exposure can be mitigated by...
Mon, 07/13/2020 - 12:00
Traditional serum biomarkers used to assess skeletal muscle damage, such as activity of creatine kinase (CK), lack tissue specificity and sensitivity, hindering early detection of drug-induced myopathies. Recently, a novel four-factor skeletal muscle injury panel (MIP) of biomarkers consisting of skeletal troponin I (sTnI), CK mass (CKm), fatty-acid-binding protein 3 (Fabp3), and myosin light...
Mon, 07/13/2020 - 12:00
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates developmental toxicity of several xenobiotic classes including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Using embryonic zebrafish, we previously identified 4 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that caused a novel phenotype among AHR ligands—growth of a lateral, duplicate caudal fin fold. The window of sensitivity to the most potent inducer of this phenotype,...
Thu, 05/07/2020 - 03:22
Zearalenone (ZEA) has been proved to be toxic, particularly to the reproductive system of gilts. The effect of ZEA on gilts during embryo implantation window period is of particular interests. Here, we observed window stage dysontogenesis of gilts treated with ZEA. In endometrial tissues and cells, autophagosomes increased significantly and mitochondria were damaged with increasing ZEA...
Thu, 05/07/2020 - 03:22
Epidemiological evidence links polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to skeletal toxicity, however mechanisms whereby PCBs affect bone are poorly studied. In this study, coplanar PCB 126 (5 μmol/kg) or corn oil vehicle was administered to N = 5 and 6 male and female, wild type (WT) or AhR −/− rats via intraperitoneal injection. Animals were sacrificed after 4 weeks. Bone length was measured; bone...
Thu, 05/07/2020 - 03:22
The metabolic fate, toxicity, and effects on endogenous metabolism of paracetamol (acetaminophen, APAP) in 22 female Landrace cross large white pigs were evaluated in a model of acute liver failure (ALF). Anesthetized pigs were initially dosed at 250 mg/kg via an oroduodenal tube with APAP serum concentrations maintained above 300 mg/l using maintenance doses of 0.5–4 g/h until ALF. Studies were...
Fri, 03/27/2020 - 03:24
Drug-induced kidney injury is a serious safety issue in drug development. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of adult zebrafish as a small in vivo system for detecting drug-induced kidney injury. We first investigated the effects of typical nephrotoxicants, gentamicin and doxorubicin, on adult zebrafish. We found that gentamicin induced renal tubular necrosis with increased lysosome and...
Thu, 02/27/2020 - 03:27
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a well-known neurotoxicant; however, its role in metabolic diseases has been gaining wider attention. We have previously shown that MeHg causes metabolic alterations in Caenorhabditis elegans, leading to decreased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide cofactor, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress. We were, therefore, interested in whether MeHg also affects nutrient...
Thu, 02/27/2020 - 03:27
Triclocarban (3,4,4′-trichlorocarbanilide, TCC) is a high-volume chemical used as an antimicrobial ingredient in many consumer and personal care products. In 2016, the Food and Drug Administration removed TCC from over-the-counter hand washing products. However, TCC remains approved to use in many other products and is a ubiquitous contaminant in the environment; furthermore, many common food...
Wed, 01/29/2020 - 03:25
An increasing number of compounds in our diet and environment are being identified as estrogenic, causing serious and detrimental effects on human, animal, and ecosystem health. Time- and cost-effective biological tools to detect and screen these compounds with potential high-throughput capabilities are in ever-growing demand. We generated a knock-in zebrafish transgenic line with enhanced green...
Wed, 01/29/2020 - 03:25
The standard circulating biomarker of liver injury in both clinical settings and drug safety testing is alanine aminotransferase (ALT). However, ALT elevations sometimes lack specificity for tissue damage. To identify novel serum biomarkers with greater specificity for injury, we combined unique animal models with untargeted proteomics, followed by confirmation with immunoblotting. Using...
Wed, 01/29/2020 - 03:25
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a plasticizer with endocrine disrupting properties particularly relevant for children health. Recently BPA has been associated with metabolic dysfunctions but no data are yet available in specific, long-term studies. This study aimed to evaluate BPA modes of action and hazards during animal juvenile life-stage, corresponding to childhood. Immature Sprague-Dawley rats of both...
Wed, 01/29/2020 - 03:25
The effect of variations in the expression of cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR or POR) is determined in mice with decreased POR expression to identify potential vulnerabilities in people with low POR expression. There is an age-dependent appearance of increasing vacuolization in the proximal tubules of the renal cortex in 4- to 9-month-old male (but not female) Cpr-low (CL) mice. These mice have...
Wed, 01/29/2020 - 03:25
Emerging data indicate that structural analogs of bisphenol A (BPA) such as bisphenol S (BPS), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), and bisphenol AF (BPAF) have been introduced into the market as substitutes for BPA. Our previous study compared in vitro testicular toxicity using murine C18-4 spermatogonial cells and found that BPAF and TBBPA exhibited higher spermatogonial toxicities as compared with...
Wed, 01/29/2020 - 03:25
We validated 3 distinct hiPSC-CM cell lines—each of different purity and a voltage sensitive dye (VSD)-based high-throughput proarrhythmia screening assay as a noncore site in the recently completed CiPA Myocyte Phase II Validation Study. Blinded validation was performed using 12 drugs linked to low, intermediate, or high risk for causing Torsades de Pointes (TdP). Commercially sourced hiPSC-CMs...
Tue, 01/07/2020 - 03:15
Drug-induced pancreatic injury (DIPI) has become linked in recent years to many commonly prescribed medications from several pharmacological classes. Diagnosis is currently most often focused on identification of acute pancreatitis and generally based on subjective clinical assessment and serum amylase and lipase enzymatic activity, which have been criticized as being insufficiently sensitive and...
Tue, 01/07/2020 - 03:15
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are highly persistent and ubiquitously distributed environmental pollutants. Based on their chemical structure, PCBs are classified into non-ortho-substituted and ortho-substituted congeners. Non-ortho-substituted PCBs are structurally similar to dioxin and their toxic effects and mode of action are well-established. In contrast, very little is known about the...
Tue, 01/07/2020 - 03:15
Bisphenol F (BPF) is one of several Bisphenol A (BPA) substituents that is increasingly used in manufacturing industry leading to detectable human exposure. Whereas a large number of studies have been devoted to decipher BPA effects, much less is known about its substituents. To support decision making on BPF’s safety, we have developed a new computational approach to rapidly explore the...

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