Toxicological Sciences

Mon, 01/11/2021 - 12:00
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a leading cause of acute liver failure. Reliable and translational biomarkers are needed for early detection of DILI. microRNAs (miRNAs) have received wide attention as a novel class of potential DILI biomarkers. However, it is unclear how DILI drugs other than acetaminophen may influence miRNA expression or which miRNAs could serve as useful biomarkers in...
Mon, 01/11/2021 - 12:00
Chemical modifications of proteins, DNA, and RNA moieties play critical roles in regulating gene expression. Emerging evidence suggests the RNA modifications (epitranscriptomics) have substantive roles in basic biological processes. One of the most common modifications in mRNA and noncoding RNAs is N6-methyladenosine (m6A). In a subset of mRNAs, m6A sites are preferentially enriched near stop...
Mon, 01/11/2021 - 12:00
Methods to assess environmental exposure to hazardous chemicals have primarily focused on quantification of individual chemicals, although chemicals often occur in mixtures, presenting challenges to the traditional risk characterization framework. Sampling sites in a defined geographic region provide an opportunity to characterize chemical contaminants, with spatial interpolation as a tool to...
Tue, 12/01/2020 - 12:01
Over the last 2 decades, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as a stellar model for unraveling molecular signaling events mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), an important ligand-activated receptor found in all eumetazoan animals. Zebrafish have 3 AHRs—AHR1a, AHR1b, and AHR2, and studies have demonstrated the diversity of both the endogenous and toxicological functions of the...
Tue, 12/01/2020 - 12:01
Congenital heart disease (CHD), the leading birth defect worldwide, has a largely unknown etiology, likely to result from complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors during heart development, at a time when the heart adapts to diverse physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Crucial among these is the regulation of cardiomyocyte development and postnatal maturation,...
Tue, 12/01/2020 - 12:01
The plastic component bisphenol A (BPA) impairs reproductive organ development in various experimental animal species. In birds, effects are similar to those caused by other xenoestrogens. Because of its endocrine disrupting activity, BPA is being substituted with other bisphenols in many applications. Using the chicken embryo model, we explored whether the BPA alternatives bisphenol AF (BPAF),...
Wed, 11/11/2020 - 12:01
Amoxicillin-clavulanate is the most common cause of idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Drug-specific CD4+ T cells have been detected in patients with DILI, suggestive of an immune etiology. Furthermore, genetic associations including the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) DRB1*15:01-DQB1*06:02 haplotype influence susceptibility. Amoxicillin forms protein adducts that are postulated to...
Wed, 11/11/2020 - 12:01
Bisphenols are endocrine disrupting chemicals to which humans are ubiquitously exposed to. Prenatal bisphenol A exposure can lead to insulin resistance. However, the metabolic effects of other emerging bisphenols, such as bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol F (BPF), are less understood. Because the skeletal muscle is the largest of the insulin target tissues, the goal of this study was to evaluate...
Wed, 11/11/2020 - 12:01
Recent studies implicate mitochondrial dysfunction in the development and progression of numerous chronic diseases, which may be partially due to modifications in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). There is also mounting evidence that epigenetic modifications to mtDNA may be an additional layer of regulation that controls mitochondrial biogenesis and function. Several environmental factors (eg, smoking,...
Wed, 11/11/2020 - 12:01
Seizures are life-threatening adverse drug reactions which are investigated late in drug development using rodent models. Consequently, if seizures are detected, a lot of time, money and animals have been used. Thus, there is a need for in vitro screening models using human cells to circumvent interspecies translation. We assessed the suitability of cocultures of human-induced pluripotent stem...
Mon, 10/12/2020 - 12:01
Studies have shown that mammalian testes, in particular the Sertoli cells, are highly susceptible to exposure of environmental toxicants, such as cadmium, perfluorooctanesulfonate, phthalates, 2,5-hexanedione and bisphenol A. However, important studies conducted by reproductive toxicologists and/or biologists in the past have been treated as toxicology reports per se. Yet, many of these studies...
Mon, 10/12/2020 - 12:01
In 2019, lung cancer was estimated to be the leading cause of cancer deaths in humans. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known to increase the risk of lung cancer. PAHs are metabolized by the cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A subfamily, comprised of the CYP1A1 and 1A2 monooxygenases. These enzymes bioactivate PAHs into reactive metabolites that induce mutagenic DNA adducts, which can lead to...
Mon, 10/12/2020 - 12:01
Acetamide, a food contaminant, has been shown to induce hepatocellular tumors in rats. However, the mode of action underlying acetamide-induced hepatocarcinogenesis remains unclear. In the current study, we aimed to examine the possible involvement of in vivo mutagenicity in hepatocarcinogenesis of acetamide and evaluate its toxicological profile using a comprehensive medium-term toxicity study...
Wed, 09/16/2020 - 12:01
Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a recognized environment-related factor for bladder cancer (BCa). Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) gene might influence BCa by regulating iAs metabolism. The aim of the present study was to explore whether AS3MT polymorphisms could affect BCa susceptibility. We systematically reviewed eligible case-control studies about AS3MT polymorphisms and BCa...
Wed, 09/16/2020 - 12:01
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitously detected and have been linked to metabolic diseases. Gut microbiome is recognized as a critical regulator of disease susceptibility; however, little is known how PCBs and gut microbiome interact to modulate hepatic xenobiotic and intermediary metabolism. We hypothesized the gut microbiome regulates PCB-mediated changes in the metabolic...
Wed, 09/16/2020 - 12:01
Drug-induced liver injury is a major reason for drug candidate attrition from development, denied commercialization, market withdrawal, and restricted prescribing of pharmaceuticals. The metabolic bioactivation of drugs to chemically reactive metabolites (CRMs) contribute to liver-associated adverse drug reactions in humans that often goes undetected in conventional animal toxicology studies. A...
Wed, 09/16/2020 - 12:01
Early risk assessment of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) potential for drug candidates remains a major challenge for pharmaceutical development. We have previously developed a set of rat liver transcriptional biomarkers in short-term toxicity studies to inform the potential of drug candidates to generate a high burden of chemically reactive metabolites that presents higher risk for human DILI....
Wed, 09/16/2020 - 12:00
Traditional methods for cancer risk assessment are resource-intensive, retrospective, and not feasible for the vast majority of environmental chemicals. In this study, we investigated whether quantitative genomic data from short-term studies may be used to set protective thresholds for potential tumorigenic effects. We hypothesized that gene expression biomarkers measuring activation of the key...
Wed, 09/16/2020 - 12:00
Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal and an environmental pollutant. However, the full spectrum of its neurotoxicity and the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. Our previous studies demonstrated that Cd exposure impairs adult hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampus-dependent memory in mice. This study aims to determine if these adverse effects of Cd exposure can be mitigated by...
Mon, 07/13/2020 - 12:00
Traditional serum biomarkers used to assess skeletal muscle damage, such as activity of creatine kinase (CK), lack tissue specificity and sensitivity, hindering early detection of drug-induced myopathies. Recently, a novel four-factor skeletal muscle injury panel (MIP) of biomarkers consisting of skeletal troponin I (sTnI), CK mass (CKm), fatty-acid-binding protein 3 (Fabp3), and myosin light...
Mon, 07/13/2020 - 12:00
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates developmental toxicity of several xenobiotic classes including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Using embryonic zebrafish, we previously identified 4 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that caused a novel phenotype among AHR ligands—growth of a lateral, duplicate caudal fin fold. The window of sensitivity to the most potent inducer of this phenotype,...
Thu, 05/07/2020 - 03:22
Zearalenone (ZEA) has been proved to be toxic, particularly to the reproductive system of gilts. The effect of ZEA on gilts during embryo implantation window period is of particular interests. Here, we observed window stage dysontogenesis of gilts treated with ZEA. In endometrial tissues and cells, autophagosomes increased significantly and mitochondria were damaged with increasing ZEA...
Thu, 05/07/2020 - 03:22
Epidemiological evidence links polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to skeletal toxicity, however mechanisms whereby PCBs affect bone are poorly studied. In this study, coplanar PCB 126 (5 μmol/kg) or corn oil vehicle was administered to N = 5 and 6 male and female, wild type (WT) or AhR −/− rats via intraperitoneal injection. Animals were sacrificed after 4 weeks. Bone length was measured; bone...
Thu, 05/07/2020 - 03:22
The metabolic fate, toxicity, and effects on endogenous metabolism of paracetamol (acetaminophen, APAP) in 22 female Landrace cross large white pigs were evaluated in a model of acute liver failure (ALF). Anesthetized pigs were initially dosed at 250 mg/kg via an oroduodenal tube with APAP serum concentrations maintained above 300 mg/l using maintenance doses of 0.5–4 g/h until ALF. Studies were...
Fri, 03/27/2020 - 03:24
Drug-induced kidney injury is a serious safety issue in drug development. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of adult zebrafish as a small in vivo system for detecting drug-induced kidney injury. We first investigated the effects of typical nephrotoxicants, gentamicin and doxorubicin, on adult zebrafish. We found that gentamicin induced renal tubular necrosis with increased lysosome and...
Thu, 02/27/2020 - 03:27
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a well-known neurotoxicant; however, its role in metabolic diseases has been gaining wider attention. We have previously shown that MeHg causes metabolic alterations in Caenorhabditis elegans, leading to decreased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide cofactor, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress. We were, therefore, interested in whether MeHg also affects nutrient...
Thu, 02/27/2020 - 03:27
Triclocarban (3,4,4′-trichlorocarbanilide, TCC) is a high-volume chemical used as an antimicrobial ingredient in many consumer and personal care products. In 2016, the Food and Drug Administration removed TCC from over-the-counter hand washing products. However, TCC remains approved to use in many other products and is a ubiquitous contaminant in the environment; furthermore, many common food...
Wed, 01/29/2020 - 03:25
An increasing number of compounds in our diet and environment are being identified as estrogenic, causing serious and detrimental effects on human, animal, and ecosystem health. Time- and cost-effective biological tools to detect and screen these compounds with potential high-throughput capabilities are in ever-growing demand. We generated a knock-in zebrafish transgenic line with enhanced green...
Wed, 01/29/2020 - 03:25
The standard circulating biomarker of liver injury in both clinical settings and drug safety testing is alanine aminotransferase (ALT). However, ALT elevations sometimes lack specificity for tissue damage. To identify novel serum biomarkers with greater specificity for injury, we combined unique animal models with untargeted proteomics, followed by confirmation with immunoblotting. Using...
Wed, 01/29/2020 - 03:25
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a plasticizer with endocrine disrupting properties particularly relevant for children health. Recently BPA has been associated with metabolic dysfunctions but no data are yet available in specific, long-term studies. This study aimed to evaluate BPA modes of action and hazards during animal juvenile life-stage, corresponding to childhood. Immature Sprague-Dawley rats of both...
Wed, 01/29/2020 - 03:25
The effect of variations in the expression of cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR or POR) is determined in mice with decreased POR expression to identify potential vulnerabilities in people with low POR expression. There is an age-dependent appearance of increasing vacuolization in the proximal tubules of the renal cortex in 4- to 9-month-old male (but not female) Cpr-low (CL) mice. These mice have...
Wed, 01/29/2020 - 03:25
Emerging data indicate that structural analogs of bisphenol A (BPA) such as bisphenol S (BPS), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), and bisphenol AF (BPAF) have been introduced into the market as substitutes for BPA. Our previous study compared in vitro testicular toxicity using murine C18-4 spermatogonial cells and found that BPAF and TBBPA exhibited higher spermatogonial toxicities as compared with...
Wed, 01/29/2020 - 03:25
We validated 3 distinct hiPSC-CM cell lines—each of different purity and a voltage sensitive dye (VSD)-based high-throughput proarrhythmia screening assay as a noncore site in the recently completed CiPA Myocyte Phase II Validation Study. Blinded validation was performed using 12 drugs linked to low, intermediate, or high risk for causing Torsades de Pointes (TdP). Commercially sourced hiPSC-CMs...
Tue, 01/07/2020 - 03:15
Drug-induced pancreatic injury (DIPI) has become linked in recent years to many commonly prescribed medications from several pharmacological classes. Diagnosis is currently most often focused on identification of acute pancreatitis and generally based on subjective clinical assessment and serum amylase and lipase enzymatic activity, which have been criticized as being insufficiently sensitive and...
Tue, 01/07/2020 - 03:15
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are highly persistent and ubiquitously distributed environmental pollutants. Based on their chemical structure, PCBs are classified into non-ortho-substituted and ortho-substituted congeners. Non-ortho-substituted PCBs are structurally similar to dioxin and their toxic effects and mode of action are well-established. In contrast, very little is known about the...
Tue, 01/07/2020 - 03:15
Bisphenol F (BPF) is one of several Bisphenol A (BPA) substituents that is increasingly used in manufacturing industry leading to detectable human exposure. Whereas a large number of studies have been devoted to decipher BPA effects, much less is known about its substituents. To support decision making on BPF’s safety, we have developed a new computational approach to rapidly explore the...
Tue, 01/07/2020 - 03:15
Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal of great public health concern. Recent studies suggested a link between Cd exposure and cognitive decline in humans. The ε4 allele, compared with the common ε3 allele, of the human apolipoprotein E gene (ApoE) is associated with accelerated cognitive decline and increased risks for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To investigate the gene-environment interactions (GxE)...
Tue, 11/26/2019 - 03:15
Context-specific GEnome-scale metabolic Network REconstructions (GENREs) provide a means to understand cellular metabolism at a deeper level of physiological detail. Here, we use transcriptomics data from chemically-exposed rat hepatocytes to constrain a GENRE of rat hepatocyte metabolism and predict biomarkers of liver toxicity using the Transcriptionally Inferred Metabolic Biomarker Response...
Tue, 11/26/2019 - 03:15
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation has been shown to alter proliferation, apoptosis, or differentiation of adult rat liver progenitors. Here, we investigated the impact of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-mediated AhR activation on a human model of bipotent liver progenitors, undifferentiated HepaRG cells. We used both intact undifferentiated HepaRG cells, and the cells with...
Tue, 11/26/2019 - 03:15
This study was performed to examine the transgenerational effects of bisphenol (BP) A analogs, BPE, and BPS on male reproductive functions using mice as a model. CD-1 mice (F0) were orally exposed to control treatment (corn oil), BPA, BPE, or BPS (0.5 or 50 µg/kg/day) from gestational day 7 (the presence of vaginal plug = 1) to birth. Mice from F1 and F2 offspring were used to generate F3 males....
Tue, 11/26/2019 - 03:15
Gestational exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) can lead to offspring insulin resistance. However, despite the role that the skeletal muscle plays in glucose homeostasis, it remains unknown whether gestational exposure to BPA, or its analog bisphenol S (BPS), impairs skeletal muscle development. We hypothesized that gestational exposure to BPA or BPS will impair fetal muscle development and lead to...
Sat, 10/26/2019 - 03:20
Pregnane X receptor (PXR), which can be activated by xenobiotic chemicals (including pediatric drugs), plays a key role in the regulation of drug-processing genes (DPGs). The induction of DPGs due to PXR activation may reduce therapeutic efficacy or cause toxicity. This work aims to demonstrate the impact of pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN)-mediated PXR activation during early life on DPGs...
Sat, 10/26/2019 - 03:20
The impact of the brominated flame-retardant mixture, DE-71, on gonadal steroidogenesis during sexual differentiation in Silurana tropicalis was examined. A partial lifecycle study exposing S. tropicalis to varying concentrations of DE-71 (0.0, 0.65, 1.3, 2.5, and 5.0 μg/l [nominal]) was conducted from early gastrula-stage embryo to 150 days postmetamorphosis (dpm). Exposure of S. tropicalis to...
Sat, 10/26/2019 - 03:20
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume chemical widely used in plastics, food packaging, and many other products. It is well known that endocrine-disrupting chemicals might be harmful to human health due to interference with normal hormone actions. Recent studies report widespread usage and exposure to many BPA-like chemicals (BPs) that are structurally or functionally similar to BPA....
Thu, 09/26/2019 - 03:13
The recently published study by Truong and Pessah (2018) raised severe food safety concerns about the application of the diamide pesticides chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide. In the present letter we wish to share our thoughts provoked by their paper and provide important future research perspectives.
Thu, 09/26/2019 - 03:13
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Several neurotoxic congeners display axial chirality and atropselectively affect cellular targets implicated in PCB neurotoxicity. Only limited information is available regarding the atropselective metabolism of these congeners in humans and their atropselective effects on neurotoxic outcomes. Here we...
Thu, 09/26/2019 - 03:13
Cardiovascular drug toxicity is responsible for 17% of drug withdrawals in clinical phases, half of post-marketed drug withdrawals and remains an important adverse effect of several marketed drugs. Early assessment of drug-induced cardiovascular toxicity is mandatory and typically done in cellular systems and mammals. Current in vitro screening methods allow high-throughput but are biologically...
Thu, 09/26/2019 - 03:13
Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental pollutant of considerable interest throughout the world and potentially a neurotoxicant. Our recent data indicate that Cd exposure induces impairment of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory in mice. However, the underlying mechanisms for this defect are not known. The goal of this study was to determine if Cd inhibits adult neurogenesis and to identify...
Thu, 09/26/2019 - 03:13
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) remains a major challenge in drug development. Although numerous mechanisms for DILI have been identified, few studies have focused on loss of hepatocyte polarization as a DILI mechanism. The current study investigated the effects of valproate (VPA), an antiepileptic drug with DILI risk, on the cellular mechanisms responsible for loss of hepatocyte polarization....
Thu, 09/26/2019 - 03:13
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-enclosed nanostructures released by cells into the extracellular environment. As major actors of physiological intercellular communication, they have been shown to be pathogenic mediators of several liver diseases. Extracellular vesicles also appear to be potential actors of drug-induced liver injury but nothing is known concerning environmental...

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