Toxicology and Industrial Health

Wed, 06/16/2021 - 18:03
Despite the ban of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) some decades ago, concerns regarding their adverse health effects are continuing, because the workers employed for installation and repair of electrical equipment may be still exposed to PCBs. This study aimed to assess serum PCBs levels in workers in different industries. To do this, we determined the serum concentrations of 9 non-dioxin-like...
Wed, 06/16/2021 - 18:03
Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal that is widely present in modern industrial production. It is a known, highly toxic environmental endocrine disruptor. Long-term exposure to Cd can cause varying degrees of damage to the liver, kidney, and reproductive system of organisms, especially the male reproductive system. This study aimed to explore the mechanism of Cd toxicity in the male reproductive system...
Sat, 05/29/2021 - 18:02
Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is a type of plasticizer widely used in industry. It is well-known for its toxic effects to endocrine and reproductive systems and has been detected in amniotic fluid and placenta. In the present study, we explored the effects of DEHP on heart development by using zebrafish as a model organism. DEHP (0.02 pg) was injected into the yolk sac of zebrafish embryos at...
Tue, 05/11/2021 - 18:02
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical agent known to have detrimental reproductive and developmental effects. The tissue-specific impacts of BPA exposures and target tissues sensitiveness to BPA are still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the short- and long-term dose-dependent toxic effects of BPA on rat testes. Forty-eight Wistar albino male rats were divided into four groups each...
Sun, 05/02/2021 - 18:02
Synthetic amorphous silica (SAS) nanomaterial – consisting of aggregates and agglomerates of primary silicon dioxide (SiO2) particles in the nanorange (<100 nm) – is commonly used as excipient in pharmaceuticals, in cosmetics and as food additive (E551). The available data suggest that SAS nanoparticles (NP) after intravenous (IV) exposure persist in liver and spleen; however, insufficient...
Thu, 04/22/2021 - 18:02
Bisphenol A (BPA), a component of polycarbonate and epoxy resins, has been reported to induce learning and memory deficits. However, the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Growing evidence has suggested that N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are involved in cognitive impairments. In this study, BPA was administered to female Sprague–Dawley rats (six per dose group) at concentrations...
Fri, 04/16/2021 - 18:02
The organochlorine insecticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and heavy metal cadmium (Cd) are widespread environmental pollutants. They are persistent in the environment and can accumulate in organisms. Although the individual toxicity of DDT and Cd has been well documented, their combined toxicity is still not clear. Since liver is their common target, in this study, the individual and...
Sat, 01/30/2021 - 18:02
Occupational stress is a major health problem among nurses. Critical care nurses appear to experience more stress at work compared to others. Stress is associated with multiple system disorders, hormonal, and immunological disturbances, and genetic effects. The aim of our study was the detection of health effects of work-related stress and to investigate the link between stress and immune...
Tue, 01/26/2021 - 18:02
This study aimed to analyze the neurological changes induced by acrylamide (ACR) poisoning and their underlying mechanisms within the spinal cords of male adult Wistar rats. The rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 9 rats per group). ACR was intraperitoneally injected to produce axonopathy according to the daily dosing schedules of 20 or 40 mg/kg/day of ACR for eight continuous weeks...
Mon, 12/28/2020 - 18:01
The distribution of metals across the environment is increasingly becoming a major concern as they not only pollute the environment but also pose a danger to humans and animals. Human exposure to heavy metals often occurs as a combination of metals the synergistic effects of which can be more toxic than a single metal. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects that the metals mercury (...
Wed, 11/18/2020 - 18:02
Mercury (Hg) is a toxic heavy metal, and the reported effects of exposure on liver function continue to be inconsistent. The objective of our study was to identify correlations between high blood Hg levels and liver enzymes in a pan-India population including adults ≥19 years of age. This retrospective study analyzed the data from 95,398 individuals tested for blood Hg levels and liver enzymes in...
Tue, 11/10/2020 - 18:03
It is well-documented that lead (Pb) toxicity can affect almost all systems in living organisms. It can induce selective autophagy of mitochondria (mitophagy) by triggering reactive oxygen species production. Emerging evidence has suggested that Pb-induced autophagy can also be activated by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway. However, the interplay between ER stress and mitophagy...
Wed, 10/28/2020 - 18:02
Continuous occupational exposure to spent engine oil (SEO) poses physiological risks to humans, especially to automobile mechanics. This study investigated the physiological effects of SEO-contaminated soil in a male Wistar rat model. Animals were dermally exposed to soil contaminated with SEO for 120 consecutive days and compared with rats exposed to uncontaminated soil (negative control). Heavy...
Sat, 10/24/2020 - 18:02
Background:Chronic long-term, low-dose environmental and occupational exposure to lead (Pb) has been extensively studied in large cohorts worldwide among general populations, miners, smelters, or battery workers. However, studies on severe life-threatening Pb poisoning due to accidental or chronic occupational exposure to Pb and manganese (Mn) were rarely reported.Methods:We present one case of...
Sat, 10/24/2020 - 18:02
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the gradual loss of articular cartilage and involves several tissues, such as the synovial membrane, meniscus, ligaments, and adipose tissue known as Hoffa fat pad. There are largely unexplored factors that lead to OA development, such as the impact of exposure to heavy metals like cadmium (Cd) on the viability of cells in the knee joint tissue. The objective of this report...
Fri, 09/11/2020 - 18:02
Some snails (Achatina spp) can be used as a biosensor of heavy metal poisoning. This study thus estimated some heavy metal levels, antioxidant markers, and lipid profiles of snails handpicked around cement factory vicinities in Ogun State, Nigeria. Snails and soil samples were collected from Oke, Ewekoro, Papalanto, and Mowodani Imeko-Afon (control site). Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 18:02
Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight cysteine-rich, metal-binding proteins. They are involved in transportation and detoxification of heavy metals, homeostasis of essential metals, and as antioxidation against reactive oxygen species. Polymorphisms in a gene may increase or decrease the expression efficiency of a gene. This study aimed to determine the genetic effect of MT1A rs8052394...
Thu, 08/20/2020 - 18:02
Because of the numerous industrial applications of lead (Pb), Pb poisoning is an important public health threat in the world particularly in developing and industrialized countries. Oxidative stress is one of the important mechanisms of Pb-mediated toxicity. Deferoxamine (DFO) is an iron chelating agent that has recently shown antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects. This study investigated the...
Thu, 07/30/2020 - 18:02
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental endocrine disruptor and a risk factor for prostate cancer. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is proposed to be a prostate cancer suppressor in some recent researches. However, the potential role and mechanism of CFTR in BPA-induced prostate cancer cells has not been well identified. In this study, BPA decreased the viability of...
Thu, 07/16/2020 - 18:01
Lead (Pb) is one of several environmental pollutants that adversely affect human health by producing toxicity at the tissue level. The aim of the study was to understand the effects of Pb on the metabolic profiles of liver and gastrocnemius muscle of mice in relation to carbohydrate and fat metabolisms. Swiss albino mice were chosen and divided into two groups, control and Pb-treated. The Pb-...
Fri, 07/10/2020 - 18:02
Melatonin (Mel) is known to prevent and mitigate lead (Pb)-induced gonadotoxicity. However, there is no report in literature on the endogenous levels of different biomarkers after the cessation of Pb exposure, with or without treatment with Mel. Fifty adult male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (N = 10), which included control ((vehicle (normal saline) - treated) − 0.1 ml/day); lead...
Tue, 06/16/2020 - 18:01
The aim of this research was to determine concentration, spatial distribution and human health risks of four trace elements (arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni)) in particulate matter PM10 in the mining and smelting basin, Bor, in Serbia. Based on the results, it was concluded that the air in the Bor Basin does not contain significant trace element concentrations despite mining...
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 03:23
Lead is a nonessential metal which enters the body through various means and is considered as one of the most common health toxins. Several cases of lead poisoning are reported as a result of inhalation or ingestion of lead in employees working as painters, smelters, electric accumulator manufacturers, compositors, auto mechanics, and miners. In addition to occupational lead exposure, several...
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 03:23
Many bisphenol A (BPA) analogs have been commercially used recently, such as 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)butane (BPB), 4,4′-ethylidenebisphenol, 4,4′-methylenediphenol (BPF), 4,4′-(1,4-phenylenediisopropylidene)bisphenol (BPP), 4,4′-dihydroxydiphenyl sulfone (BPS), 4,4′-cyclohexylidenebisphenol (BPZ), 4,4′-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphenol (BPAF), 4,4′-(1-phenylethylidene)bisphenol (BPAP), and 2,2-...
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 03:23
Chlorpyrifos (CPF) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) are each known to adversely affect hepatic tissue individually, but their combined hepatic effects have never been previously investigated. HepG2 cell viability, oxidative status, and genetic impairment were examined after exposing HepG2 cells to: (1) CPF alone, (2) AFB1 alone, and (3) CPF and AFB1 combined (20:1). CPF exposure decreased cell viability,...
Wed, 05/20/2020 - 03:22
The use of chemicals in the textile industry has been widely investigated. This study used an improved method with the USEtox model to assess the environmental impacts of chemical pollutants discharged by the textile industry. The environmental impacts attributed to the discharged chemical pollutants were ranked using a quantity analysis method and a toxicity analysis method. The rankings of the...
Tue, 04/14/2020 - 03:16
Cadmium (Cd) has been associated with several physiological problems including reproductive and endocrine system dysfunction resulting in temporary infertility. The principal objective of this project was to investigate the effects of prepubertal exposure to toxic doses of Cd on puberty onset, the endocrine system, and follicular development. For this purpose, 16 female Sprague-Dawley rats weaned...
Fri, 01/10/2020 - 03:14
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are defined as exogenous substances that can alter the development and functioning of the endocrine system. The Wnt signaling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved pathway consisting of proteins that transmit cell-to-cell receptors through cell surface receptors, regulating important aspects of cell migration, polarity, neural formation, and organogenesis,...
Wed, 12/11/2019 - 03:28
The present study used Pimelia latreillei as a biomonitoring insect for heavy metals soil pollution in a populated industrial area at Zawya Abd El-Qader, Alexandria, Egypt. Comet assay and histological analysis were applied to evaluate the potential risk of heavy metals. X-ray analysis of the soil samples collected from the polluted site revealed significantly increased metal percentages compared...
Thu, 11/28/2019 - 03:25
Prostate is sensitive to endocrine hormone level, and the synergetic effect of estrogen and androgen is critical in prostate growth. The change of signal pathways caused by the imbalance of estrogen and androgen might function in the occurrence of prostate diseases. As a well-known endocrine disruptor compound, bisphenol A (BPA) can disturb the normal function of endocrine hormone and affect...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:13
The adverse health consequences of environmental, occupational, and dietary exposure to either diethylnitrosamine (DEN) or cadmium (Cd) have been widely investigated. However, because most environmental exposures to xenobiotics do not occur in isolation but in mixtures, the effects of simultaneous exposure to both DEN and Cd on hepatorenal function deserves investigation. The present study...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:13
The aim of this study was to examine whether a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ agonist could affect cadmium (Cd)-induced cytotoxicity via the increased expression of megalin, one of the uptake pathways, using renal epithelial LLC-PK1 cells. The treatment with 1 µM Cd for 24 h was not cytotoxic; however, when the cells were pretreated with 0.1 µM pioglitazone for 12 h and then...