Toxicon

Sat, 11/28/2020 - 06:12
Author(s): Arunmozhimaran Elavarasi, Vinay Goyal
Sun, 11/22/2020 - 06:06
Author(s): Lirui Hou, Shuo Liu, Chong Zhao, Lihong Fan, Hongbo Hu, Shutao Yin T-2 toxin is a common fungal toxin, which is not only widely found in wheat, barley, corn, and other food crops and their related products, but also in various animal feeds. Acrylamide (ACR) is mainly formed by the free amino acid, asparagine and reducing sugars, such as glucose and fructose, and is commonly found in...
Sun, 11/15/2020 - 06:07
Author(s): Fengyang Wu, Jia Cui, Xinyu Yang, Shudong Liu, Shuaijuan Han, Baojiang Chen The study aimed to examine the effects of zearalenone on genital organ development, serum immunoglobulin, antioxidant capacity, sex hormones and liver function of prepubertal gilts. Forty-eight prepubertal gilts (Landrace × Yorkshire) were randomly divided into three treatment (T1, T2 and T3) groups and a...
Thu, 10/22/2020 - 06:14
Author(s): Magdalena Twarużek, Robert Kosicki, Justyna Kwiatkowska-Giżyńska, Jan Grajewski, Iwona Ałtyn The aim of this study was to determine the degree of mold contamination and mycotoxin levels in commercially available green coffee products and dietary supplements with green coffee extract. The study included 34 samples from green coffee products: raw beans (n = 16), ground coffee (n = 15)...
Sun, 10/11/2020 - 06:07
Author(s): Sepehr Saeidiborojeni, Patricia Branco Mills, Rajiv Reebye, Heather Finlayson Our objective was to systematically review literature regarding the rationale and current evidence for peri-operative Botulinum Neurotoxin (BoNT) injection to improve outcomes of surgeries on spastic limbs. We conducted a systematic search of databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of...
Sat, 10/10/2020 - 06:11
Author(s): Jiangbing Qiu, Huidan Chen, Ying Ji, Tianshen Li, Aifeng Li Lipophilic shellfish toxins (LSTs) accumulated by shellfish pose a potential threat to consumer health. A mandatory routine monitoring of LSTs has been adopted for seafood products by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in many countries. In this study, two methods developed on liquid chromatography coupled with...
Wed, 09/23/2020 - 06:07
Author(s): Abha Cherkani-Hassani, Imane Ghanname, Abdellah Zinedine, Hassan Sefrioui, Zineb Qmichou, Nezha Mouane The aim of this study was to assess the contamination of breast milk by aflatoxin M1 among nursing mothers from Rabat, Morocco, and to explore its association with several maternal parameters and dietary habits. In addition, the health risk assessment of the newborns by the estimation...
Wed, 09/23/2020 - 06:07
Author(s): Fateme Samiee, Ava Kharazi, Jomana Elaridi, Masoumeh Taravati Javad, Mostafa Leili This research investigated the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), ochratoxin A (OTA), and zearalenone (ZEN) in human milk samples in the Hamadan city, Iran. The study was carried out using the milk of nursing mothers from ten governmental health care centers. Mycotoxin content of ninety milk samples...
Thu, 09/17/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Mustafa Oguzhan Caglayan, Zafer Üstündağ In this study, we proposed label-free saxitoxin (STX) sensor using STX specific aptamer in combination with spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and attenuated internal reflection (AIR) spectroscopic ellipsometry method which is operated under surface plasmon resonance (SPR) conditions. Besides the other surface plasmon resonance-based applications,...
Sat, 09/12/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Egresi Anna, Süle Krisztina, Szentmihályi Klára, Blázovics Anna, Fehér Erzsébet, Hagymási Krisztina, Fébel Hedvig The Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) frequently contaminate grain crops, especially maize, the basis of poultry's feed. Mycotoxins enter the food chain and induce pathological changes in edible tissues. Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) has been...
Fri, 09/11/2020 - 06:07
Author(s): Jungtae Na, Esther Lee, Yu-jin Kim, Mi Ji Choi, Su-Young Kim, Jeong Sun Nam, Bum Jin Yun, Beom Joon Kim A new type A botulinum toxin (BoNT/A) preparation, JTM201 (NCBI chromosomal DNA ID: CP046450), has been developed, which comprises 900-kDa complexed toxin purified from Clostridium botulinum (strain: NCTC13319), but its safety and efficacy have not yet been evaluated. The purpose of...
Mon, 09/07/2020 - 06:06
Author(s): Homa Arak, Mohammad Amir Karimi Torshizi, Mehdi Hedayati, Shaban Rahimi To evaluate the effect of molecularly imprinted polymers as a synthetic polymer (TMU95) and commercial toxin binder (CTB) on aflatoxins (AFs) toxic effects on hepatic gene expression, and the biochemical and immunological parameters in ducklings, 240 four-day-old ducklings were randomly allocated into six groups...
Thu, 09/03/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Victor Ricardo Manuel Muñoz-Lora, Henrique Ballassini Abdalla, Altair Antoninha Del Bel Cury, Juliana Trindade Clemente Napimoga Analgesic mechanism of Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) involves retrograde axonal transport to central nervous system, where it may interact with sensory neurons. Though, some authors suggested that BoNT/A antinociceptive action may also be associated with...
Thu, 09/03/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Pradeep Kumar, Dipendra Kumar Mahato, Bharti Sharma, Rituraj Borah, Shafiul Haque, M.M. Chayan Mahmud, Ajay Kumar Shah, Deepaksshi Rawal, Himashree Bora, Sukni Bui Ochratoxins (OTs) are a group of mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. which are ubiquitous. They infect the crops during pre- and post-harvest conditions and contaminate various food and feed. Among all...
Sun, 08/16/2020 - 06:07
Author(s): Regina Ngozi Ugbaja, Oluwasegun Micheal Okedairo, Adejare Rasaq Oloyede, Emmanuel Ifeanyichukwu Ugwor, Dorcas Ibukun Akinloye, Olusola Peter Ojo, Oladipo Ademuyiwa To investigate the effects of oral administration of probiotics consortium on lipid metabolism in aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposed rats, ninety female albino rats were first grouped into two: NC (control fed standard feed) and AF...
Sat, 08/15/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Qing Cao, Weijing Liu, Yurong Gu, Liqiang Xie, Weili Jiang, Yan Gao, Liuyan Yang Heavy metals and microcystins commonly co-exist in water bodies with cyanobacteria, and have been shown to affect aquatic plants. However, their combined effects remain largely unknown. In this study, the toxic effects of copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) on Ceratophyllum demersum L. were characterized in the...
Wed, 08/12/2020 - 06:07
Author(s): Tuncay Söylemez, Mustafa Yamaç, Zeki Yıldız The aim of this study is to determine the best aflatoxin B1 degradation conditions which was optimized using a combination of the Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken methods with Panus neostrigosus culture filtrate. Panus neostrigosus was grown in a modified Kirk Broth medium to determine optimal growth conditions. As a result, aflatoxin B1 was...
Fri, 08/07/2020 - 06:07
Author(s): F.N. Ahmad, R. Jamaluddin, N. Mohd Esa A study was conducted to screen the occurrence and level of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in urine samples of 206 urban and rural residents in Terengganu, Malaysia. The level of AFM1 was quantified by competitive enzyme-linked immune-absorbent assay (ELISA). Of the 206 samples, 84 were positive for AFM1 (40.8%) in a range of 0.07–5.53 ng/ml (mean = 0.589 ng...
Mon, 07/20/2020 - 06:06
Author(s): Jose M. Soriano, Ana Rubini, María Morales-Suarez, Juan F. Merino-Torres, Dolores Silvestre Originally, the kwashiorkor is a pathology justified by the low consumption of proteins and high carbohydrates in weaned children. However, today, it can appear due to multifactorial causes, one of the hypotheses being the presence of aflatoxins in foods consumed by the child population and...
Mon, 07/20/2020 - 06:06
Author(s): Višnja Drinovac Vlah, Lidija Bach-Rojecky Mirror pain represents pain with complex pathophysiological background experienced at both sides of the body, usually after unilateral injury. Although observed almost 10 years ago, the phenomenon of bilateral antinociceptive effect of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) following its unilateral administration in experimental mirror-image pain (MP...
Fri, 07/03/2020 - 06:06
Author(s): Pauline Christ Ledur, Janio M. Santurio Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungus which cause worldwide concern regarding food and feed safety. Ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisin B1 (FB1) and deoxynivalenol (DON) are some of the main mycotoxins and oxidative stress is the main mechanism of toxicity. Thereby, this study investigates the in vitro cytoprotective effects of...
Mon, 06/22/2020 - 06:05
Author(s): Stoycho Stoev Carcinogenic effects of ochratoxin A (OTA) on liver, kidneys, intestine, muscles and subcutaneous tissue of BALB/c albino mice divided in three experimental and one control groups (30 mice in each group - 15 males and 15 females) and exposed to 10 ppm OTA and/or 50–60 ppm penicillic acid (PA) in the diet were seen. A total 22 neoplasias were found to be induced in the...
Mon, 06/15/2020 - 06:05
Author(s): Jun-hui Su, Ming-na Yang, Fei Teng, Xiao-long Zhang, You-gui Pan, Yue Hu, Li-bin Xiao, Li-zhen Pan, Li-xi Li, Ling-jing Jin Facial synkinesis can be present in both primary and postparalytic hemifacial spasm (HFS). The present retrospective study aimed to summarize the clinical features of synkinesis and explore an appropriate botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) injection strategy to manage the...
Thu, 06/11/2020 - 06:07
Author(s): Mohamed M. Abdel-Daim, Mahmoud A.O. Dawood, Abdullah A. AlKahtane, Ahmed Abdeen, Hany M.R. Abdel-Latif, Hoda H. Senousy, Lotfi Aleya, Saad Alkahtani Aflatoxicosis is one of the threats that cause severe mortalities in fish farms. The dietary functional additives are a friendly approach attributed to beneficial effects on aquatic animals. The study aimed at evaluating the impact of...
Thu, 06/04/2020 - 03:32
Author(s): Chaozhi Wei, Leilei Yu, Nanzhen Qiao, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, Qixiao Zhai, Fengwei Tian, Wei Chen Patulin (PAT) is a secondary metabolite secreted by fungi in the genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Enterobacter and is the most common mycotoxin found in apples and apple derivatives (e.g., juice, cider, preserves). Previous reports described the wide distribution of PAT and more...
Sun, 05/24/2020 - 03:29
Author(s): Sabreen E. Fadl, Abeer M. El-Shenawy, Doaa M. Gad, Eman M. El Daysty, Hamdy S. El-Sheshtawy, Walied S. Abdo This paper was designed to analyze the effect of ochratoxin A (OTA) contaminated feed on the growth outcomes, certain serum biochemical, histopathology, and OTA residue in the dorsal muscle, liver, and kidney in Nile tilapia. Also, to improve the drastic effect of OTA through...
Wed, 05/20/2020 - 03:29
Author(s): Syed Wajih ul Hassan, Yumna Sadef, Shabbir Hussain, Muhammad Rafique Asi, Muhammad Yasin Ashraf, Sumera Anwar, Arif Malik The contamination of food with mycotoxins could be a major health risk. Identification and quantification of mycotoxins in maize are essentially required to guarantee food safety. Seven commonly grown maize cultivars were sown at semi-arid conditions in Pakistan....
Mon, 05/18/2020 - 03:30
Author(s): Wancui Xie, Min Li, Lin Song, Xiaoqun Hu, Xihong Yang This study evaluated the performance of an easy-cultivation device for the mass culture of Alexandrium minutum (A. minutum), a dinoflagellate that produces paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). Five culture conditions including three different sizes of containers (250 mL conical flask, 500 mL beaker, and 20 L jar) in two different...
Wed, 04/29/2020 - 03:29
Author(s): Mosaad A. Abdel-Wahhab, Aziza A. El-Nekeety, Amal S. Hathout, Asmaa S. Salman, Sekena H. Abdel-Aziem, Bassem A. Sabry, Nabila S. Hassan, Mohamed S. Abdel-Aziz, Soher E. Aly, Irwandi Jaswir This study aimed to identify the bioactive compounds of the ethyl acetate extract of Aspergillus niger SH2-EGY using GC-MS and to evaluate their protective role against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced...
Wed, 04/22/2020 - 03:27
Author(s): Haiyue Wang, Yujia Wei, Ying Xie, Chao Yan, Hongzhen Du, Zengning Li Aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisin B1 (FB1) and sterigmatocystin (ST) are very common toxic fungal metabolites with high detection rate and toxicity. The co-existence of many mycotoxins in animal feed has been reported worldwide, thus it is important to evaluate the combined cytotoxic effects among...
Fri, 04/17/2020 - 03:21
Author(s): Amin O. Elzupir, Babiker Y. Abdulkhair This study investigated the health risks associated with aflatoxins (AFs) in processed meat products (PMP) sold in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The occurrence and levels of AFs were assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD), whereas the cancer risk attributed to the consumption of meat products...
Wed, 04/15/2020 - 03:21
Author(s): M.L. González Pereyra, A.L. Di Giacomo, A.L. Lara, M.P. Martínez, L. Cavaglieri Zearalenone, an oestogenic mycotoxin produced by Fusarium sp., occurs naturally in agricultural commodities. Economic losses and health concerns associated to mycotoxins has attracted research interest towards exploring novel approaches to detoxify mycotoxin-contaminated food and feed. The aim of the...
Tue, 04/07/2020 - 03:36
Author(s): Yanan Gao, Qiaoyan Ye, Xiaoyu Bao, Xin Huang, Jiaqi Wang, Nan Zheng Mycotoxins-contaminated milk could threaten human health; therefore, it is necessary to demonstrate the toxicological effect of mycotoxins in milk. Most recently, researchers have paid more attention to the immunotoxic effects of the individual cereal-contaminating mycotoxins, namely, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol....
Mon, 04/06/2020 - 03:20
Author(s): Dilek Aşcı Çelik, Nilgun Gurbuz, Vehbi Atahan Toğay, Nurten Özçelik Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a toxic metabolite produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium fungus. OTA found in the human and animal tissues can contaminate many foods that we daily consume in our lives. It accumulates especially in kidney. Although OTA is known to cause cell cycle arrest, the molecular mechanisms underlying...
Mon, 04/06/2020 - 03:20
Author(s): Michał Złoch, Agnieszka Rogowska, Paweł Pomastowski, Viorica Railean-Plugaru, Justyna Walczak-Skierska, Joanna Rudnicka, Bogusław Buszewski The study investigated the zearalenone (ZEA) neutralization process as a consequence of metabolization and binding process by the probiotic bacterial strain Lactobacillus paracasei using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In order to...
Thu, 03/19/2020 - 03:20
Author(s): Fadia Ben Taheur, Chalbia Mansour, Khawla Ben Jeddou, Yasmine Machreki, Bochra Kouidhi, Jawaher Abdualbaqi Abdulhakim, Kamel Chaieb Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most harmful mycotoxin. Aflatoxin occurrence in tea makes this beverage unsuitable for consumption and presented risks to human health. Therefore, researches in aflatoxin microbial degradation are necessary to overcome this...
Mon, 03/16/2020 - 03:19
Author(s): Roberto Eleopra, Sara Rinaldo, Cesare Montecucco, Ornella Rossetto, Grazia Devigili The Botulinum NeuroToxin (BoNT) comprises several serotypes with distinct properties, mechanisms of action, sensitivity and duration of effect in different species. The serotype A (BoNT/A) is the prevalent neurotoxin applied in human's disease. In this paper we present an overview of the current...
Sat, 03/07/2020 - 03:19
Author(s): Mauro Corriere, Miguel Baptista, José R. Paula, Tiago Repolho, Rui Rosa, Pedro Reis Costa, Lucía Soliño Fish are frequently exposed to harmful algal blooms (HAB) and to related toxins. However, the biological effects of okadaic acid (OA), the most abundant and frequent HAB-toxin in Europe, South America and Asia, have been poorly investigated. In this study, fish swimming performance...
Tue, 03/03/2020 - 03:19
Author(s): Dietrich Mebs, Mari Yotsu-Yamashita, Katharina Hartmann, Christine Elbert, Richard Zehner, Stefan W. Toennes
Sun, 02/23/2020 - 03:22
Author(s): Alison R. Turnbull, D. Tim Harwood, Michael J. Boundy, Patrick T. Holland, Gustaaf Hallegraeff, Navreet Malhi, Michael A. QuilliamParalytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are a group of over 50 closely related naturally occurring tetrahydropurine toxins with saxitoxin (STX) as one of the most common and potent. Saxitoxin was first isolated and characterised from the butter clam Saxidomus...
Sat, 02/22/2020 - 03:21
Author(s): Daniele Martinelli, Sebastiano Arceri, Livio Tronconi, Cristina TassorelliAbstractMigraine is a highly prevalent and disabling disorder accounted among the primary headaches. It is the expression of a complex, and not yet fully understood, pathophysiology involving the sensitization of peripheral and central nociceptive pathways. In this review we succinctly illustrate the molecular,...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 10:45
Author(s): Bernard POULAIN, Emmanuel LEMICHEZ, Michel R. POPOFFAbstractBotulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are highly potent toxins responsible for a severe disease, called botulism, but are also efficient therapeutic tools with an increasing number of indications ranging from neuromuscular dysfunction to hypersecretion syndrome, pain release, depression as well as cosmetic application. BoNTs are known...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 10:45
Author(s): Zdravko LackovićAbstractIn 2010, Kissin concluded pessimistically that of the 59 new drugs introduced in the fifty-year period between 1960 and 2009 and still in use, only seven had new molecular targets. Of these, only one, sumatriptan, was effective enough to lead to the introduction of multiple drugs targeting the same target molecules (triptans) (Kissin, 2010). Morphine and...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 10:45
Author(s): Sylvie Cornet, Cindy Périer, Mikhail KalinichevAbstractThe mouse digit abduction score (DAS) assay is commonly used to measure muscle flaccidity-inducing effects of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) in vivo. Adapting the assay to rats has been challenging, as injection of onabotulinumtoxinA (onaBoNT-A) into the gastrocnemius muscle, as performed in mice, or into the tibialis anterior leads...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 10:45
Author(s): Parvaneh Afshar, Mohammad Shokrzadeh, Shahram Naghizadeh Raeisi, Azade Ghorbani-HasanSaraei, Leila Roozbeh NasiraiiAbstractAflatoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that are the most dangerous mycotoxin and food safety challenges. Human exposure to mycotoxins occurs directly throughout the intake of contaminated agricultural products or indirectly throughout the consumption of...
Sun, 02/09/2020 - 03:20
Author(s): Anatol Kivi, Songjin Ri, Jörg WisselAbstractBotulinum toxin (BoNT) is well established in clinical practice for more than 30 years. During this time the area of applications was broaden beyond the ophtalmologic and neurologic indications. Despite of decades of BoNT application with a huge increase of expertise and supporting methods for utilization as well, both patients and physicians...
Thu, 02/06/2020 - 03:21
Author(s): Robert Webb, Patrick M. Wright, Jennifer L. Brown, Janet C. Skerry, Rebecca L. Guernieri, Theresa J. Smith, Christopher Stawicki, Leonard A. SmithAbstractBotulism is an acute neuroparalytic affliction of the motor and autonomic neurons caused by the toxins produced from Clostridium botulinum and related bacterial strains. The botulinum neurotoxins, or BoNTs, consist of a...
Sun, 01/26/2020 - 03:20
Author(s): Joseph K.C. TsuiAbstractBotulinum toxin (BoNT) has become a therapeutic agent for a large variety of medical conditions. It is a symptomatic treatment and in most cases requires repeat injections at regular intervals. The first session is crucial in establishing rapport between the physician and the patient to ensure a continuity of treatment on a long term basis. Since the clinical...
Sun, 01/26/2020 - 03:20
Author(s): Chris Boulias, Farooq Ismail, Chetan P. PhadkeAbstractIntroductionIn patients taking warfarin, the level of anticoagulation status using the International Normalized Ratio (INR) is one consideration before botulinum toxin type-A (BoNTA) injections; however, there is wide diversity in physician approaches and preferences in using INR status and the INR cut-off values to determine...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:20
Author(s): Moyosore Joseph Adegbeye, Poonooru Ravi Kanth Reddy, Cynthia Adaku Chilaka, Olalekan Blessing Balogun, Mona M.M.Y. Elghandour, Raymundo Rene Rivas-Caceres, Abdelfattah Z.M. SalemAbstractMycotoxin residues are transferred from feed to animal products, yet, less attention has been paid to it in developing countries like Nigeria, India, Mexico etc. There is a need to find alternative...

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