Toxicon

Thu, 06/10/2021 - 06:10
Author(s): Elif Darbuka, Can Gürkaşlar, Ibrahim Yaman Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a food contaminant mycotoxin with hazardous effects on human and animal health, primarily affecting the kidneys. OTA’s mode of action is not well understood. OTA activates both MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways, which play role in apoptosis and cell survival, respectively. OTA is also known to induce toxicity by...
Wed, 06/09/2021 - 06:04
Author(s): Tayebe Azizi, Mohsen Daneshyar, Manoochehr Allymehr, Ali Shalizar Jalali, Hamed Khalilvandi Behroozyar, Amir Tukmechi The aim of this study was to determine the effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) contaminated diet on performance, immune system, gut morphology and jejunal gene expression in broiler chickens. Eighty-one-day old chicks were randomly allotted into two treatments with 4...
Wed, 06/02/2021 - 06:04
Author(s): Armando Mendoza-Flores, Ignacio Leyva-Valencia, Francisco E. Hernández-Sandoval, Clara E. Galindo-Sánchez, Christine J. Band-Schmidt, José J. Bustillos-Guzmán Paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) content in the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum changes with culture age, with a higher toxin concentration in the logarithmic phase that decreases when the culture ages. The gene copy number (...
Wed, 06/02/2021 - 06:04
Author(s): Stramkauskaite Almina, Ylaite Karile, Prasauskiene Audrone, Bakaniene Indre This review aims to determine the analgesic efficacy of botulinum toxin (BTX) for the management of pain in children with cerebral palsy (CP). During July and August 2020, a systematic literature search was performed using a mixture of subject headings and free text. The eligibility criteria for inclusion in...
Sat, 05/29/2021 - 06:10
Author(s): Qian-Ying Mao, Shang Xie, Li-Ling Wu, Ruo-Lan Xiang, Zhi-Gang Cai Botulinum toxin type A (BTXA) is effective for the treatment of sialorrhea. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have significant functions in salivary diseases, but the role of miRNAs during BTXA-inhibited salivary secretion is not yet clear. A total of 19 differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs and 1072 DE mRNAs were identified following...
Fri, 05/28/2021 - 06:05
Author(s): Mohammad Raza Rezaie, Neda Zareie In this research with the effect of radioactive granite gamma radiation, the reduction of aflatoxin B1 in pistachios was examined in three steps. In the first step, the aflatoxin reduction in small packets by granite bed was tested .In this step, the aflatoxin level of 300 g pistachios packets was reduced up to 81.3±1.5 percent by 4 kg granite bed...
Tue, 05/25/2021 - 06:11
Author(s): Jingming Zhou, Yanghui Li, Zhanxiang Liu, Wenjing Qian, Yumei Chen, Yanhua Qi, Aiping Wang Zearalenone (ZEN), a type of non-steroidal estrogenic mycotoxin, is mainly produced by several species of Fusarium molds. It is ubiquitous in contaminated grains and grain products all over the world, posing a serious threat to animal and human health. This study aims to screen the mimotopes of...
Thu, 05/20/2021 - 06:11
Author(s): Francis Aboagye-Nuamah, Charles Kodia Kwoseh, Dirk E. Maier The study was undertaken to identify the major mycotoxigenic fungi, aflatoxin and fumonisin levels in prepared poultry feeds in Ghana. Three hundred and fifty (350) prepared feed samples were randomly collected from 133 commercial poultry farms, 76 feed processors and eight (8) feed vendors in three major poultry producing...
Mon, 05/10/2021 - 06:04
Author(s): Man Zhao, Yuan Wang, Xin Jia, Weina Liu, Xianghong Zhang, Jinfeng Cui Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a widespread mycotoxin worldwide that causes major health risks. The esophageal epithelium is unavoidably exposed to food contaminated OTA after ingestion. Yet, few studies have involved in the putative effects of OTA on the cytotoxicity and glucose metabolism responses on esophageal epithelial...
Mon, 05/10/2021 - 06:04
Author(s): Zhijun Geng, Lin Kang, Jing Huang, Shan Gao, Jing Wang, Yuan Yuan, Yanwei Li, Jinglin Wang, Wenwen Xin Epsilon toxin (ETX) is a key pathogenic factor of C. perfringens type B and D, causing fatal enterotoxemia in sheep and goats. Excessive production of ETX increases intestinal permeability; its entrance into the bloodstream leads to severe edema in organs such as the brain and kidneys...
Thu, 05/06/2021 - 06:09
Author(s): Ola A.A. Khalil, Ali A. Hammad, Ahmed Salem Sebaei Grains are susceptible to contamination by molds; some cause spoilage and others produce certain mycotoxins that cause a serious health threat to humans and animals. Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus and their mycotoxins, aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, are natural contaminants of various agricultural commodities. Control of...
Thu, 04/29/2021 - 12:01
Author(s): Dipendra Kumar Mahato, Madhu Kamle, Bharti Sharma, Shikha Pandhi, Sheetal Devi, Kajal Dhawan, Raman Selvakumar, Diwakar Mishra, Arvind Kumar, Shalini Arora, Namita Ashish Singh, Pradeep Kumar The mycotoxin patulin is primarily produced as a secondary metabolite by numerous fungal species and predominantly by Aspergillus, Byssochlamys, and Penicillium species. It is generally associated...
Fri, 04/16/2021 - 06:04
Author(s): Changjian Wang, Lei Zhang, Jiaoyang Luo, Jiaan Qin, Jiayi Jiang, Lu Qin, Zhigao Zhao, Shihai Yang, Meihua Yang Animal-derived medicine is an important part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Studies have shown that many animal-derived medicinal products are susceptible to contaminate of aflatoxins, nevertheless, the rapid detection for animal-derived medicine is prone to be ignored...
Tue, 03/30/2021 - 06:09
Author(s): Fernando de Oliveira ANDRIOLA, Gabriela Sperotto CHIEZA, Juliano CAVAGNI, Angelo Luiz FREDDO, Adriana CORSETTI Botulinum toxin is a protease used by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum that causes chemical denervation of skeletal muscles, producing a temporary weakening of muscle activity. Despite having a transitory effect, the application of botulinum toxin has been identified as an...
Sun, 03/14/2021 - 06:04
Author(s): Jésica Tobke, Erica Giarratano, Alejandro Ortiz, Carla Garrido, Mariana Serra, Mónica N. Gil, Jorge M. Navarro Blooms of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella, which produces Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PST), generate serious socio-economic consequences for mariculture in Chile, especially for the production of Mytilus chilensis and other bivalves. Palliative strategies, such as the...
Sat, 03/13/2021 - 06:07
Author(s): Xihong Yang, Xiaoqun Hu, Zequn Dong, Min Li, Zuoxing Zheng, Wancui Xie Economic bivalve ingested toxic algae causes frequent human poisoning events. To explore new compounds that can accelerate the depuration of toxins in shellfish, we investigated the detoxification of the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) and the biotransformation pathway of PSTs during detoxification by the...
Fri, 03/12/2021 - 06:04
Author(s): Tingting Fan, Yanli Xie, Weibin Ma sAflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent hepatotoxic toxin, which can cause hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver immunological damage. It has been involved in the etiology of human hepatocellular carcinoma. AFB1 can cause oxidative stress in the body's metabolism process, and then cause cytotoxicity, such as apoptosis and DNA damage. Scientific research has...
Sat, 02/27/2021 - 06:07
Author(s): Yun Ren, Man Yao, Peipei Chang, Yemei Sun, Rui Li, Di Meng, Xiaoshuang Xia, Yun Wang Patulin, one of the most common mycotoxins produced primarily by the Penicillium, Aspergillus and Byssochlamys species, is often associated with fruits and fruit-based products. Biodegradation by microbes is an effective method to remove or detoxify mycotoxins. In this study, a bacterial strain with...
Sun, 02/21/2021 - 06:05
Author(s): Bunyamin Tras, Hatice Eser Faki, Zeynep Ozdemir Kutahya, Emre Bahcivan, Burak Dik, Banu Bozkurt, Kamil Uney This study was conducted to investigate the effects of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors dexamethasone and minocycline administrations —both single and in combination with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and vitamin E—on the tissue distribution and lethal dose (LD)50 of aflatoxin...
Sat, 02/20/2021 - 06:11
Author(s): Kizito Nishimwe, Isaac Agbemafle, Manju B. Reddy, Kevin Keener, Dirk E. Maier Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a secondary metabolite produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, and is a known carcinogen in humans and animals. High voltage atmospheric cold plasma (HVACP) technology has already shown promise to decontaminate AFB1 in food and feed. This study aimed to investigate the...
Sat, 02/20/2021 - 06:11
Author(s): Sabah Ali, Mariam Hassan, Tamer Essam, Marwa A. Ibrahim, Khaled Al-Amry Aflatoxins are carcinogenic compounds produced by certain Aspergillus spp and naturally contaminate poultry rations. Exposure to low levels of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in poultry feeds is the second most threatening issue facing the poultry industry in Egypt; it can cause a reduction in growth, egg production, and...
Fri, 02/12/2021 - 06:04
Author(s): Mehmet Burak Ates, Mustafa Ortatatli The primary pathway of the detoxification of aflatoxin (AF) metabolites occurring at the end of phase-1 biotransformation is glutathione (GSH) conjugation via glutathione-S-transferase (GST) enzyme in phase-2. In this study, the activity of Nigella sativa seeds (NS) and thymoquinone (TQ) on phase-2 detoxification pathways of AF was investigated in...
Thu, 12/17/2020 - 06:07
Author(s): Ann Abraham, Leanne J. Flewelling, Kathleen R. El Said, William Odom, Stephen P. Geiger, April A. Granholm, Jennifer T. Jackson, Dean Bodager Brevetoxins were confirmed in urine specimens from patients diagnosed with neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) after consumption of gastropods that were recreationally harvested from an area previously affected by a Karenia brevis bloom. Several...
Sun, 12/13/2020 - 06:02
Author(s): Stoycho D. Stoev Carcinogenic effects of ochratoxin A (OTA) on liver, kidneys, intestine, lung and eyes of Wistar rats exposed to 10 ppm or 5 ppm OTA in the diet and additionally supplemented or not with phenylalanine (PHE) were examined during 24-months experimental period. OTA was seen to provoke strong degenerative changes and slight pericapillary oedema in most internal organs, e.g...
Thu, 12/10/2020 - 06:03
Author(s): Mohamed F. Abdallah, André Briend, Gerard Bryan Gonzales Oedematous malnutrition, also known as kwashiorkor, is a severe type of malnutrition in children characterized by oedema, fatty liver, hair depigmentation, a desquamating skin rash and unexplained behavioural changes (Williams, 1935). Children with kwashiorkor are notoriously difficult to manage and exhibit frequently poor...
Sat, 11/28/2020 - 06:12
Author(s): Arunmozhimaran Elavarasi, Vinay Goyal Hemi-facial spasm (HFS) is an off label but well-accepted indication for Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) therapy(Berardelli et al., 1997). BoNT has been used widely over the past few decades and has an excellent safety record. However, there are instances when patients with no neuromuscular disorders have developed symptoms of asthenia, dysphagia,...
Sun, 11/22/2020 - 06:06
Author(s): Lirui Hou, Shuo Liu, Chong Zhao, Lihong Fan, Hongbo Hu, Shutao Yin T-2 toxin is a common fungal toxin, which is not only widely found in wheat, barley, corn, and other food crops and their related products, but also in various animal feeds. Acrylamide (ACR) is mainly formed by the free amino acid, asparagine and reducing sugars, such as glucose and fructose, and is commonly found in...
Sun, 11/15/2020 - 06:07
Author(s): Fengyang Wu, Jia Cui, Xinyu Yang, Shudong Liu, Shuaijuan Han, Baojiang Chen The study aimed to examine the effects of zearalenone on genital organ development, serum immunoglobulin, antioxidant capacity, sex hormones and liver function of prepubertal gilts. Forty-eight prepubertal gilts (Landrace × Yorkshire) were randomly divided into three treatment (T1, T2 and T3) groups and a...
Thu, 10/22/2020 - 06:14
Author(s): Magdalena Twarużek, Robert Kosicki, Justyna Kwiatkowska-Giżyńska, Jan Grajewski, Iwona Ałtyn The aim of this study was to determine the degree of mold contamination and mycotoxin levels in commercially available green coffee products and dietary supplements with green coffee extract. The study included 34 samples from green coffee products: raw beans (n = 16), ground coffee (n = 15)...
Sun, 10/11/2020 - 06:07
Author(s): Sepehr Saeidiborojeni, Patricia Branco Mills, Rajiv Reebye, Heather Finlayson Our objective was to systematically review literature regarding the rationale and current evidence for peri-operative Botulinum Neurotoxin (BoNT) injection to improve outcomes of surgeries on spastic limbs. We conducted a systematic search of databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of...
Sat, 10/10/2020 - 06:11
Author(s): Jiangbing Qiu, Huidan Chen, Ying Ji, Tianshen Li, Aifeng Li Lipophilic shellfish toxins (LSTs) accumulated by shellfish pose a potential threat to consumer health. A mandatory routine monitoring of LSTs has been adopted for seafood products by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in many countries. In this study, two methods developed on liquid chromatography coupled with...
Wed, 09/23/2020 - 06:07
Author(s): Abha Cherkani-Hassani, Imane Ghanname, Abdellah Zinedine, Hassan Sefrioui, Zineb Qmichou, Nezha Mouane The aim of this study was to assess the contamination of breast milk by aflatoxin M1 among nursing mothers from Rabat, Morocco, and to explore its association with several maternal parameters and dietary habits. In addition, the health risk assessment of the newborns by the estimation...
Wed, 09/23/2020 - 06:07
Author(s): Fateme Samiee, Ava Kharazi, Jomana Elaridi, Masoumeh Taravati Javad, Mostafa Leili This research investigated the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), ochratoxin A (OTA), and zearalenone (ZEN) in human milk samples in the Hamadan city, Iran. The study was carried out using the milk of nursing mothers from ten governmental health care centers. Mycotoxin content of ninety milk samples...
Thu, 09/17/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Mustafa Oguzhan Caglayan, Zafer Üstündağ In this study, we proposed label-free saxitoxin (STX) sensor using STX specific aptamer in combination with spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and attenuated internal reflection (AIR) spectroscopic ellipsometry method which is operated under surface plasmon resonance (SPR) conditions. Besides the other surface plasmon resonance-based applications,...
Sat, 09/12/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Egresi Anna, Süle Krisztina, Szentmihályi Klára, Blázovics Anna, Fehér Erzsébet, Hagymási Krisztina, Fébel Hedvig The Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) frequently contaminate grain crops, especially maize, the basis of poultry's feed. Mycotoxins enter the food chain and induce pathological changes in edible tissues. Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) has been...
Fri, 09/11/2020 - 06:07
Author(s): Jungtae Na, Esther Lee, Yu-jin Kim, Mi Ji Choi, Su-Young Kim, Jeong Sun Nam, Bum Jin Yun, Beom Joon Kim A new type A botulinum toxin (BoNT/A) preparation, JTM201 (NCBI chromosomal DNA ID: CP046450), has been developed, which comprises 900-kDa complexed toxin purified from Clostridium botulinum (strain: NCTC13319), but its safety and efficacy have not yet been evaluated. The purpose of...
Mon, 09/07/2020 - 06:06
Author(s): Homa Arak, Mohammad Amir Karimi Torshizi, Mehdi Hedayati, Shaban Rahimi To evaluate the effect of molecularly imprinted polymers as a synthetic polymer (TMU95) and commercial toxin binder (CTB) on aflatoxins (AFs) toxic effects on hepatic gene expression, and the biochemical and immunological parameters in ducklings, 240 four-day-old ducklings were randomly allocated into six groups...
Thu, 09/03/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Victor Ricardo Manuel Muñoz-Lora, Henrique Ballassini Abdalla, Altair Antoninha Del Bel Cury, Juliana Trindade Clemente Napimoga Analgesic mechanism of Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) involves retrograde axonal transport to central nervous system, where it may interact with sensory neurons. Though, some authors suggested that BoNT/A antinociceptive action may also be associated with...
Thu, 09/03/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Pradeep Kumar, Dipendra Kumar Mahato, Bharti Sharma, Rituraj Borah, Shafiul Haque, M.M. Chayan Mahmud, Ajay Kumar Shah, Deepaksshi Rawal, Himashree Bora, Sukni Bui Ochratoxins (OTs) are a group of mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. which are ubiquitous. They infect the crops during pre- and post-harvest conditions and contaminate various food and feed. Among all...
Sun, 08/16/2020 - 06:07
Author(s): Regina Ngozi Ugbaja, Oluwasegun Micheal Okedairo, Adejare Rasaq Oloyede, Emmanuel Ifeanyichukwu Ugwor, Dorcas Ibukun Akinloye, Olusola Peter Ojo, Oladipo Ademuyiwa To investigate the effects of oral administration of probiotics consortium on lipid metabolism in aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposed rats, ninety female albino rats were first grouped into two: NC (control fed standard feed) and AF...
Sat, 08/15/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Qing Cao, Weijing Liu, Yurong Gu, Liqiang Xie, Weili Jiang, Yan Gao, Liuyan Yang Heavy metals and microcystins commonly co-exist in water bodies with cyanobacteria, and have been shown to affect aquatic plants. However, their combined effects remain largely unknown. In this study, the toxic effects of copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) on Ceratophyllum demersum L. were characterized in the...
Wed, 08/12/2020 - 06:07
Author(s): Tuncay Söylemez, Mustafa Yamaç, Zeki Yıldız The aim of this study is to determine the best aflatoxin B1 degradation conditions which was optimized using a combination of the Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken methods with Panus neostrigosus culture filtrate. Panus neostrigosus was grown in a modified Kirk Broth medium to determine optimal growth conditions. As a result, aflatoxin B1 was...
Fri, 08/07/2020 - 06:07
Author(s): F.N. Ahmad, R. Jamaluddin, N. Mohd Esa A study was conducted to screen the occurrence and level of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in urine samples of 206 urban and rural residents in Terengganu, Malaysia. The level of AFM1 was quantified by competitive enzyme-linked immune-absorbent assay (ELISA). Of the 206 samples, 84 were positive for AFM1 (40.8%) in a range of 0.07–5.53 ng/ml (mean = 0.589 ng...
Mon, 07/20/2020 - 06:06
Author(s): Jose M. Soriano, Ana Rubini, María Morales-Suarez, Juan F. Merino-Torres, Dolores Silvestre Originally, the kwashiorkor is a pathology justified by the low consumption of proteins and high carbohydrates in weaned children. However, today, it can appear due to multifactorial causes, one of the hypotheses being the presence of aflatoxins in foods consumed by the child population and...
Mon, 07/20/2020 - 06:06
Author(s): Višnja Drinovac Vlah, Lidija Bach-Rojecky Mirror pain represents pain with complex pathophysiological background experienced at both sides of the body, usually after unilateral injury. Although observed almost 10 years ago, the phenomenon of bilateral antinociceptive effect of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) following its unilateral administration in experimental mirror-image pain (MP...
Fri, 07/03/2020 - 06:06
Author(s): Pauline Christ Ledur, Janio M. Santurio Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungus which cause worldwide concern regarding food and feed safety. Ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisin B1 (FB1) and deoxynivalenol (DON) are some of the main mycotoxins and oxidative stress is the main mechanism of toxicity. Thereby, this study investigates the in vitro cytoprotective effects of...
Mon, 06/22/2020 - 06:05
Author(s): Stoycho Stoev Carcinogenic effects of ochratoxin A (OTA) on liver, kidneys, intestine, muscles and subcutaneous tissue of BALB/c albino mice divided in three experimental and one control groups (30 mice in each group - 15 males and 15 females) and exposed to 10 ppm OTA and/or 50–60 ppm penicillic acid (PA) in the diet were seen. A total 22 neoplasias were found to be induced in the...
Mon, 06/15/2020 - 06:05
Author(s): Jun-hui Su, Ming-na Yang, Fei Teng, Xiao-long Zhang, You-gui Pan, Yue Hu, Li-bin Xiao, Li-zhen Pan, Li-xi Li, Ling-jing Jin Facial synkinesis can be present in both primary and postparalytic hemifacial spasm (HFS). The present retrospective study aimed to summarize the clinical features of synkinesis and explore an appropriate botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) injection strategy to manage the...
Thu, 06/11/2020 - 06:07
Author(s): Mohamed M. Abdel-Daim, Mahmoud A.O. Dawood, Abdullah A. AlKahtane, Ahmed Abdeen, Hany M.R. Abdel-Latif, Hoda H. Senousy, Lotfi Aleya, Saad Alkahtani Aflatoxicosis is one of the threats that cause severe mortalities in fish farms. The dietary functional additives are a friendly approach attributed to beneficial effects on aquatic animals. The study aimed at evaluating the impact of...
Thu, 06/04/2020 - 03:32
Author(s): Chaozhi Wei, Leilei Yu, Nanzhen Qiao, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, Qixiao Zhai, Fengwei Tian, Wei Chen Patulin (PAT) is a secondary metabolite secreted by fungi in the genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Enterobacter and is the most common mycotoxin found in apples and apple derivatives (e.g., juice, cider, preserves). Previous reports described the wide distribution of PAT and more...

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