Toxicon

Sun, 10/13/2019 - 03:25
Author(s): M.P. Martínez, A.P. Magnoli, M.L. González Pereyra, L. CavaglieriAbstractThe presence of contaminants such as aflatoxins (AFs) in dairy products constitutes a serious risk to the health of consumers, especially children who are most sensitive to the adverse effects of AFs. The presence of Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk is a public health problem since dairy products are massively consumed...
Sun, 10/06/2019 - 03:24
Author(s): Belqes Al-Jaal, Sofia Salama, Noof Al-Qasmi, Morana JaganjacAbstractMycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by different fungal spices and are found in diverse agricultural crops worldwide; they pose a severe threat to public health. Mycotoxins can cause either acute or chronic symptoms, depending on the type and dose of mycotoxin one has been exposed to. Thus, a continuous...
Mon, 09/30/2019 - 17:00
Author(s): Masafumi Amano, Noriko Amiya, Minami Takaoka, Haruka Sato, Tomohiro Takatani, Osamu Arakawa, Yoshitaka SakakuraAbstractWe tested whether tetrodotoxin (TTX) functions as a stress relieving substance in puffer fish. We orally administered TTX to the juveniles of hatchery-reared non-toxic tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes and measured the effects of TTX on brain corticotropin-releasing...
Sat, 09/28/2019 - 03:19
Author(s): Barbara Spolaore, Julián Fernández, Bruno Lomonte, Maria Lina Massimino, Fiorella TonelloAbstractAlmost all animal venoms contain secretory phospholipases A2 (PLA2s), 14 kDa disulfide-rich enzymes that hydrolyze membrane phospholipids at the sn-2 position, releasing lysophospholipids and fatty acids. These proteins, depending on their sequence, show a wide variety of biochemical, toxic...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:19
Author(s): Shana L. Geffeney, Becky L. Williams, Joshua J.C. Rosenthal, Matthew A. Birk, Justin Felkins, Christine M. Wisell, Eveningstar R. Curry, Charles T. HanifinAbstractThe natural history and pharmacology of tetrodotoxin (TTX) has long intrigued biologists. This toxin has a remarkable distribution that spans two domains of life (Bacteria and Eukarya). Within Eukaryotes, TTX has only been...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:19
Author(s): Jung E. Park, Ejaz A. Shamim, Pattamon Panyakaew, Pawan Mathew, Camilo Toro, Jonathan Sackett, Barbara Karp, Codrin Lungu, Katharine Alter, Tianxia Wu, Omar F. Ahmad, Monica Villegas, Sungyoung Auh, Mark HallettAbstractBackgroundWriter's cramp (WC) is a form of focal hand dystonia, for which focal botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injections are the current best therapy. Past studies have...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:19
Author(s): Mahesh Agarwal, Tanmay Mondal, Biplab BoseAbstractMembrane-anchored heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is the receptor for diphtheria toxin (DT). Mutated or truncated, non-toxic DT has been used earlier for HB-EGF-targeted drug delivery and to modulate HB-EGF signaling. In the present work, we have synthesized a peptide corresponding to a 26 amino acid long stretch of the...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:19
Author(s): Aditi Gangopadhyay, Hirak Jyoti Chakraborty, Abhijit DattaAbstractCholera is a major global threat, affecting millions each year. The ADP ribosyltransferase activity of the active cholera toxin catalyses the massive loss of water and electrolytes during cholera infections. The active toxin heterodimer comprises the A1 subunit from Vibrio cholerae and ARF (ADP Ribosylation Factor) from...
Fri, 09/20/2019 - 01:03
Publication date: Available online 18 September 2019Source: Author(s): P. Dhanamjayulu, Ramesh Babu Boga, Alka MehtaAbstractAflatoxins are mutagenic secondary metabolites produced by certain ubiquitous saprophytic fungi. These contaminate agricultural crops and pose a serious health threat to humans and livestock all over the world. Benzimidazole and its derivatives are biologically active...
Mon, 09/16/2019 - 01:08
Publication date: Available online 14 September 2019Source: Author(s): Ayman A. Hassan, Salma H. Abu Hafsa, Mona M.M.Y. Elghandour, Poonooru Ravi Kanth Reddy, Jose Cedillo Monroy, Abdelfattah Z.M. SalemAbstractEighty-four male New Zealand White rabbits with average body weight 778 ± 65 g were blocked into four groups to evaluate the ability of sodium bentonite and coumarin in alleviating the...
Fri, 09/06/2019 - 01:07
Publication date: Available online 4 September 2019Source: Author(s): Agnieszka Rogowska, Paweł Pomastowski, Katarzyna Rafińska, Viorica Railean-Plugaru, Michał Złoch, Justyna Walczak, Bogusław BuszewskiAbstractA study of the mechanism responsible for the zearalenone (ZEA) neutralization by lactic acid bacteria Lactococcus lactis 56 and L929 cell line was carried out by determination of the...
Thu, 08/08/2019 - 01:04
Publication date: Available online 10 July 2019Source: Author(s): Edmund D. Brodie
Sat, 07/27/2019 - 01:07
Publication date: Available online 26 July 2019Source: Author(s): Chen Li, Wenying Chen, Lirong Zheng, Boyang Zhang, Xuqin Yang, Qipeng Zhang, Ning Wang, Yan Wang, Jieyeqi Yang, Jingzhou Sha, Zheng Zhou, Xiaohong Li, Yuzhe Li, Xiao Li ShenAbstractOchratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin ubiquitous in feeds and foodstuffs. The water-insoluble pentacyclic triterpene bioactive compound, ursolic acid (UA),...
Fri, 07/26/2019 - 01:06
Publication date: Available online 24 July 2019Source: Author(s): Jung E. Park, Ejaz A. Shamim, Pattamon Panyakaew, Pawan Mathew, Camilo Toro, Jonathan Sackett, Barbara Karp, Codrin Lungu, Katharine Alter, Tianxia Wu, Omar F. Ahmad, Monica Villegas, Sungyoung Auh, Mark HallettAbstractBackgroundWriter’s cramp (WC) is a form of focal hand dystonia, for which focal botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT)...
Thu, 06/27/2019 - 01:07
Publication date: Available online 25 June 2019Source: Author(s): Jingyuan Yao, Wei Jin, Dongmei Li, Daoyan Xu, Shiyong Wen, Renyan Liu, Yubo Liang, Songhui LuAbstractParalytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are a group of the most harmful neurotoxins distributed worldwide. Marine organism samples, including mollusks, crustaceans and fish, collected from 11 sites around the coastal water of the South...
Sat, 06/08/2019 - 01:13
Publication date: Available online 7 June 2019Source: Author(s): Molly S. Moritz, William H. Tepp, Heather N'te Inzalaco, Eric A. Johnson, Sabine PellettAbstractBotulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are potent neurotoxins and are the causative agent of botulism, as well as valuable pharmaceuticals. BoNTs are divided into seven serotypes that comprise over 40 reported subtypes. BoNT/A1 and BoNT/B1 are...
Wed, 06/05/2019 - 01:14
Publication date: Available online 4 June 2019Source: Author(s): Chunlei Gao, Shuya Lin, Meng Chen, Jiajun Hong, Chenlin LiuAbstractTo gain an understanding of phycotoxin contamination in shellfish in the sub-Arctic and Arctic area, scanning for the presence of 13 hydrophilic and 13 lipophilic toxin components was carried out in shellfish samples collected from the Northern Bering Sea and Chukchi...
Thu, 05/23/2019 - 01:11
Publication date: Available online 21 May 2019Source: Author(s): Chandrashekhar Singh, Chandra Prakash, Pallavi Mishra, Kavindra Nath Tiwari, Sunil Kumar Mishra, Raghunath Shahaji More, Vijay Kumar, Jasmeet SinghAbstractThe present study evaluated hepatoprotective role of ethanol extract of P. integrifolia leaves (EEPL) on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced toxicity in mice. Mice were administered with...
Thu, 05/23/2019 - 01:11
Publication date: Available online 22 May 2019Source: Author(s): Homa Arak, Mohammad Amir Karimi Torshizi, Mehdi Hedayati, Shaban RahimiAbstractThe amelioration of aflatoxicosis in ducklings was examined by feeding molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) synthesized to target the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) analog molecule [5, 7-dimethoxycoumarin (DMC)] as a smart and novel toxin binder in comparison to a...
Wed, 05/01/2019 - 01:12
Publication date: Available online 29 April 2019Source: Author(s): Di Wang, Jiaorong Qu, Haiyue Jiang, Yu JiangAbstractScars can have a dramatic impact on patients' physical appearance and function. Injection of botulinum toxin has been used to prevent scar formation at the site of injury and to remodel scars that have already formed. The purpose of this review is to assess the safety and...
Sat, 04/27/2019 - 01:14
Publication date: Available online 25 April 2019Source: Author(s): Sumei Ling, Xiulan Li, Danping Zhang, Ke Wang, Wenwen Zhao, Qiang Zhao, Rongzhi Wang, Jun Yuan, Sijie Xin, Shihua WangAbstractTetrodotoxin (TTX) is a neurotoxin mainly responsible for severe neurological illness, and okadaic acid (OA) is another important lipophilic toxin to humans. In this study, we developed a gold strip for...
Fri, 04/19/2019 - 01:12
Publication date: Available online 17 April 2019Source: Author(s): Lucian Del Fabbro, Cristiano Ricardo Jesse, Marcelo Gomes de Gomes, Carlos Borges Filho, Franciele Donato, Leandro Cattelan Souza, André Rossito Goes, Ana Flásvia Furian, Silvana Peterini BoeiraAbstractThe mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEA) has strong estrogenic effects and elicits reproductive toxicity. Chrysin is a natural flavonoid...
Tue, 04/16/2019 - 01:13
Publication date: Available online 14 April 2019Source: Author(s): Sharif Najafi, Ehsan Sanati, Mahsa Khademi, Fateme Abdorrazaghi, Reza Kazempoor Mofrad, Zahra RezasoltaniAbstractIn recent years, there is a growing interest in new medical applications of botulinum toxin, including pain control, osteoarthritis treatment, and wound healing. While clinical applications of botulinum toxin seem...
Fri, 04/05/2019 - 01:14
Publication date: Available online 3 April 2019Source: Author(s): Carolina Valenzuela, Cristian Torres, Vanina Muñoz, Juan Carlos Simbaina, Andrella Sánchez, Tamara Bustamante, Joaquín M. Sepúlveda, Robin Piron, Miguel Del Campo, Néstor LagosAbstractObjetiveTo evaluate Neosaxitoxin (NeoSTX) as a local anesthetic drug, for pain control during and after piglet castration.Study designProspective,...
Fri, 04/05/2019 - 01:14
Publication date: June 2019Source: , Volume 164Author(s): Yongfeng Zhou, Yongcheng Jin, Hao Yu, Anshan Shan, Jinglin Shen, Changhai Zhou, Yun Zhao, Hengtong Fang, Xin Wang, Junmei Wang, Yurong Fu, Rui Wang, Ruihua Li, Jing ZhangAbstractAflatoxins are widely occurring food contaminants that are particularly harmful to dairy products and cows. The plant polyphenol resveratrol has been reported to...
Fri, 03/08/2019 - 01:14
Publication date: Available online 6 March 2019Source: Author(s): A. Rogowska, P. Pomastowski, G. Sagandykova, B. BuszewskiAbstractMycotoxins are natural compounds produced as secondary metabolites by mold fungi belonging mainly to the Fusarium family, commonly found on plants such as corn or small grains in the temperate climate zone. One of these mycotoxins is zearalenone, which is classified...
Thu, 03/07/2019 - 01:14
Publication date: Available online 5 March 2019Source: Author(s): Ionelia Taranu, Daniela Eliza Marin, Mihai Palade, Gina Cecilia Pistol, Veronica Sanda Chedea, Mihail Alexandru Gras, Catalin RotarAbstractThe aim of this study was to investigate the potential of a grape seed byproduct to mitigate the harmful damage produced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) at systemic level in plasma and liver as well as...
Sat, 01/19/2019 - 01:11
Publication date: Available online 17 January 2019Source: Author(s): Giulia Bellon, Andrea Venturin, Stefano Masiero, Alessandra Del FeliceAbstractComplex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is characterized by hyperalgesia, autonomic and trophic alterations of bones, muscles and skin. It is supported by neurogenic inflammation and impairment of sympathetic nervous system. Botulinum Toxin (BTX) is an...
Thu, 12/06/2018 - 01:11
Publication date: Available online 4 December 2018Source: Author(s): Maryam Khanian, Mohammad-Amir Karimi-Torshizi, Abdolamir AllamehAbstractGrowing broiler chicks on a diet contaminated with aflatoxins (200 or 2000 ppb) for entire growth period resulted in increased oxidative stress and liver damage markers. The toxicity was subsided in broilers received a specific aflatoxin-binding probiotic i....
Sat, 11/24/2018 - 01:08
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2018Source: Author(s): Paul M. D'Agostino, Michael J. Boundy, Tim D. Harwood, Wayne W. Carmichael, Brett A. Neilan, Susanna A. WoodAbstractTo date Paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) variants in cyanobacteria have primarily been characterized using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection. In this study we re-evaluated...
Sat, 11/17/2018 - 01:10
Publication date: Available online 15 November 2018Source: Author(s): Luana Fiorella Mincarelli, José Ricardo Paula, Pedro Pousão-Ferreira, Rui Rosa, Pedro Reis CostaAbstractDomoic acid (DA) is a neurotoxin naturally produced by Pseudo-nitzschia diatoms that may be transferred through the marine food web and cause mass mortality events at higher trophic levels. Yet, the effects of the dissolved...
Sat, 11/17/2018 - 01:10
Publication date: Available online 15 November 2018Source: Author(s): Yanli Xie, Wei Wang, Shujie ZhangAbstractAflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a secondary metabolite produced by Aspergillus flavus and other fungi. Soil, crops, food, feed, etc. were susceptible to aflatoxin B1 contamination, which caused adverse economic and health consequences. It is necessary to search for microorganisms or microbial...
Sat, 11/17/2018 - 01:10
Publication date: Available online 16 November 2018Source: Author(s): Emna El Golli-Bennour, Rim Timoumi, Meriam Koroit, Hassen Bacha, Salwa Abid-EssefiAbstractKefir is a fermented milk with numerous health favors counting restorative properties of bacterial flora, reduction of the symptoms of lactose intolerance, immune system stimulation, cholesterol reduction, as well as anti-mutagenic and...
Wed, 11/14/2018 - 01:10
Publication date: Available online 12 November 2018Source: Author(s): A.E. Vlasenko, P.V. Velansky, A.V. Chernyshev, V.G. Kuznetsov, T. Yu. MagarlamovAbstractFor the first time search for tetrodotoxin (TTX) and its analogues in the extracts of nemerteans using HPLC-MS/MS was performed. TTX analogues were detected in two nemertean species in addition to TTX: 7 analogues were detected in the...
Mon, 11/05/2018 - 01:12
Publication date: Available online 3 November 2018Source: Author(s): Songcheng Yu, Leiliang He, Fei Yu, Lie Liu, Chenling Qu, Lingbo Qu, Jie Liu, Yuming Wu, Yongjun WuAbstractDeoxynivalenol (DON), Fumonisin B1 (FB1) and Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) have strong toxicity to humans and exist widely in grain and food. It is necessary to screen these mycotoxins to guarantee food safety. In order to develop a...
Sun, 11/04/2018 - 01:07
Publication date: Available online 3 November 2018Source: Author(s): Monali Mukherjee, H.K. Manonmani, Praveena BhattAbstractAflatoxin B1 (AFB1), is one of the most toxic mycotoxins found to contaminate various food commodities like cereals, dried fruits, tree nuts, spices and crude vegetable oils. In spite of considerable progress in analytical techniques, there is still a need to develop rapid...
Fri, 10/12/2018 - 01:11
Publication date: Available online 10 October 2018Source: Author(s): Enjie Diao, Dongliang Ren, Tingwu Liu, Jianmei Zhang, Weicheng Hu, Hanxue HouAbstractPatulin often contaminates fruits and fruit-base products, which seriously threats the health of consumers. In this study, ozone was used to degrade patulin in aqueous solution, and investigated the cytotoxicity of patulin after ozone...
Fri, 09/28/2018 - 01:14
Publication date: Available online 26 September 2018Source: Author(s): Yue Wang, Jian Zhang, Yulu Wang, Kerong Wang, Hong Wei, Lixin ShenAbstractZearalenone (ZEN) causes serious diseases in both animals and humans and thereby leads to substantial economic losses. The elimination of ZEN contamination from food and feed is an important concern worldwide. This study aimed to screen a bacterium that...
Fri, 09/07/2018 - 01:10
Publication date: Available online 5 September 2018Source: Author(s): Yasushi Torii, Mikio Sasaki, Min-Chul Shin, Norio Akaike, Ryuji KajiAbstractBotulinum toxin type A (subtype A1) is used as therapeutic agent for some neurological disorders causing spasticity. The toxin products have an upper dosage limit, and their adverse events, such as side effects of diffusion following high-dose...
Thu, 08/30/2018 - 01:08
Publication date: Available online 29 August 2018Source: Author(s): Csilla Pelyhe, Benjámin Kövesi, Erika Zándoki, Balázs Kovács, Márta Erdélyi, Szabina Kulcsár, Miklós Mézes, Krisztián BaloghAbstractCo-occurrence of mycotoxin contamination of feeds is a frequent problem, therefore the purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol (DON) on lipid...
Thu, 08/30/2018 - 01:08
Publication date: Available online 29 August 2018Source: Author(s): Yoko Kato-Unoki, Yuki Takai, Masato Kinoshita, Toshitaka Mochizuki, Ryohei Tatsuno, Yohei Shimasaki, Yuji OshimaAbstractThe pufferfish saxitoxin- and tetrodotoxin-binding protein 2 (PSTBP2), which is involved in toxin accumulation, was knocked out in Takifugu rubripes embryos by using clustered regularly interspaced short...
Thu, 08/30/2018 - 01:08
Publication date: Available online 29 August 2018Source: Author(s): Sheraz Ahmed Bhatti, Muhammad Zargham Khan, Zahoor Ul Hassan, Muhammad Kashif Saleemi, Aisha Khatoon, Zain ul Abidin, Muhammad Raza HameedAbstractThis study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary ochratoxin A (OA), in the presence and absence of L-carnitine (LC) and vitamin E (VE), on the humoral immune responses of White...
Sat, 08/25/2018 - 01:08
Publication date: Available online 23 August 2018Source: Author(s): Magdalena Gajęcka, Agnieszka Waśkiewicz, Łukasz Zielonka, Piotr Goliński, Anna Rykaczewska, Sylwia Lisieska-Żołnierczyk, Maciej T. GajęckiAbstractMost plant materials are contaminated with small doses of Fusarium mycotoxins and its modified forms that exert subclinical toxic effects on humans and animals. The aim of this study...
Sat, 08/04/2018 - 01:13
Publication date: Available online 4 August 2018Source: Author(s): Dietrich Mebs, Mari Yotsu-Yamashita, Werner Pogoda, Joseph Vargas Alvarez, Raffael Ernst, Gunther Köhler, Stefan W. ToennesAbstractFrogs of the family Dendrobatidae are known to contain toxic alkaloids in their skin secretion, but Allobates species of the closely related Aromobatidae family are considered to lack toxic secretions...
Fri, 07/27/2018 - 01:12
Publication date: Available online 26 July 2018Source: Author(s): Anna Rykaczewska, Magdalena Gajęcka, Michał Dąbrowski, Anita Wiśniewska, Justyna Szcześniewska, Maciej T. Gajęcki, Łukasz ZielonkaAbstractThe aim of this study was to determine whether exposure to low doses of zearalenone (ZEN) induces changes in the serum biochemical profile and body weights (BW). Pre-pubertal gilts (with BW of up...
Fri, 07/27/2018 - 01:12
Publication date: Available online 26 July 2018Source: Author(s): Nakisa Abbasian, Saeideh Momtaz, Maryam Baeeri, Mona Navaei-Nigjeh, Rohollah Hosseini, Mohammad AbdollahiAbstractGlobally, food and animal feed contamination with mycotoxins is one of the most important challenges affecting human health. Zearalenone is a non-steroidal mycotoxin with estrogen-like activity that has been reported to...
Wed, 07/11/2018 - 01:13
Publication date: Available online 11 July 2018Source: Author(s): Priyanka Soni, Md. Sajid Ghufran, Santosh R. KanadeAbstractThe compulsive and insidious secondary metabolite aflatoxin B1, produced by the opportunistic fungi Aspergillus flavus, upholds a distinguished place in midst of the toxicants causing fatal hazards to humans. Aflatoxins alter the function of host cells by inducing multiple...
Tue, 07/03/2018 - 09:34
Publication date: Available online 2 July 2018 Source: Author(s): Siying Chang, Yang Su, Yuchen Sun, Xiangyu Meng, Baoming Shi, Anshan Shan A study was conducted to determine the effects of zearalenone (ZEN) on the mRNA expression of pregnane X receptor (PXR), constitutive and rostane receptor (CAR), and phase I and II enzymes as well as the toxicity in the liver of female...
Thu, 05/31/2018 - 16:12
Publication date: August 2018 Source:, Volume 150 Author(s): Fang Gan, Yulan Yang, Yun Chen, Chaoping Che, Cuiling Pan, Kehe Huang The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of bush sophora root polysaccharide (BSRPS) on the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced hepatotoxicity and to explore the underlying mechanisms. The primary chicken hepatocytes were used as the model in the...
Wed, 05/30/2018 - 16:07
Publication date: July 2018 Source:, Volume 149 Author(s): Mikhail Kalinichev

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