Toxicon

Sun, 01/26/2020 - 03:20
Author(s): Joseph K.C. TsuiAbstractBotulinum toxin (BoNT) has become a therapeutic agent for a large variety of medical conditions. It is a symptomatic treatment and in most cases requires repeat injections at regular intervals. The first session is crucial in establishing rapport between the physician and the patient to ensure a continuity of treatment on a long term basis. Since the clinical...
Sun, 01/26/2020 - 03:20
Author(s): Chris Boulias, Farooq Ismail, Chetan P. PhadkeAbstractIntroductionIn patients taking warfarin, the level of anticoagulation status using the International Normalized Ratio (INR) is one consideration before botulinum toxin type-A (BoNTA) injections; however, there is wide diversity in physician approaches and preferences in using INR status and the INR cut-off values to determine...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:20
Author(s): Moyosore Joseph Adegbeye, Poonooru Ravi Kanth Reddy, Cynthia Adaku Chilaka, Olalekan Blessing Balogun, Mona M.M.Y. Elghandour, Raymundo Rene Rivas-Caceres, Abdelfattah Z.M. SalemAbstractMycotoxin residues are transferred from feed to animal products, yet, less attention has been paid to it in developing countries like Nigeria, India, Mexico etc. There is a need to find alternative...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:20
Author(s): A.E. Vlasenko, V.G. Kuznetsov, I.Yu. Petrova, T.Yu. MagarlamovAbstract:Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin frequently occurring in marine organisms along with its numerous analogues. To determine the total TTX content, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique utilizing polyclonal antibodies against TTX. The technique was tested using extracts of marine...
Wed, 01/15/2020 - 03:19
Author(s): Aditya Ashok Murgai, Mandar JogAbstractThe association between tremor and dystonia has been known for many decades. Dystonic tremor is seen in the body part affected with dystonia. Tremor and dystonia can also co-exist in different body parts. Subtle dystonic posturing can be missed in patients with upper limb tremor and these patients are often misdiagnosed as essential tremor....
Mon, 01/13/2020 - 03:18
Author(s): Wenji Wang, Yi Ji, Wenjing Yang, Chengzhi Zhang, Linet Angwa, Baiming Jin, Juan Liu, Man Lv, Wenjing Ma, Jie Yang, Kewei WangAbstractT-2 toxin is considered an unavoidable pollutant, which contaminates food crops and stockpiled cereals, impairing the health of humans and animals due to its multi-organ toxicity. Studies have shown that T-2 toxin can cause articular cartilage damage;...
Thu, 12/26/2019 - 03:20
Author(s): Anna Maria Bazzoni, Monica Cangini, Alessandro G. Mudadu, Giuseppa Lorenzoni, Igor Arras, Giovanna Sanna, Fiorella Pino, Anna Milandri, Sebastiano VirgilioAbstractParalytic shellfish poisoning is a human intoxication syndrome associated with the consumption of seafood that has been contaminated with paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), a group of natural neurotoxic alkaloids produced by...
Thu, 12/26/2019 - 03:20
Author(s): Chen Huang, Lin Feng, Xiang-An Liu, Wei-Dan Jiang, Pei Wu, Yang Liu, Jun Jiang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Xiao-Qiu ZhouAbstractDeoxynivalenol (DON) is a common mycotoxin existed in animal feed, and lead to significant economic loss due to its negative impacts on animal growth performance and animal health. The gill is a primary mucosal immune organ in teleosts, and the structural...
Wed, 12/25/2019 - 03:19
Author(s): Xiaojuan Shi, Chengfei Gao, Lin Wang, Xiao Chu, Qilin Shi, Hui Yang, Tieshan LiAbstractChronic inflammatory pain is a serious clinical problem caused by inflammation of the joints and degenerative diseases and greatly affects patients’ quality of life. Persistent pain states are thought to result from the central sensitization of nociceptive pathways in the spinal dorsal horn. Spinal...
Tue, 12/10/2019 - 03:23
Author(s): Jalila Ben Salah-Abbès, Hela Belgacem, Khawla Ezzdini, Mosaad A. Abdel-Wahhab, Samir AbbèsAbstractThe present study was conducted to determine the abilities of the living Lactobacillus plantarum MON03 cells to degrade Zearalenone (ZEN) in liquid medium, and to elucidate the preventive effect in ZEN-contaminated balb/c mice showing kidney damage. The DNA fragmentation, Bcl-2 and Bax...
Sun, 12/08/2019 - 03:36
Author(s): Dirk DresslerAbstractBotulinum toxin (BT) drugs were introduced in the late 1980s. They are now used world wide in a large number of indications. This huge market and its future opportunities have attracted a number of companies about to enter the competition with projects to develop new BT drugs. We want to outline features of BT drugs that are relevant for their therapeutic use and...
Thu, 12/05/2019 - 03:37
Author(s): Hasan Deniz AKBORA, İmge KUNTER, Tuğba ERÇETİN, Ali Murat ELAGÖZ, Burak Ali ÇİÇEKAbstractLagocephalus sceleratus from the family Tetraodontidae, which is originated from the Red Sea, started to migrate to Mediterranean waters after the opening of the Suez Channel in 1869. Since they do not have any predators in the Mediterranean Sea, their population increased in number very fast....
Sat, 11/30/2019 - 03:21
Author(s): Hong-Nan Huang, Jia-Li Lu, Shou-Er Lin, Ren-Jin Zheng, Jie LinAbstractIn this study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was originally developed for simultaneously quantitative analysis of twelve paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins, referring to STX, NEO, dcSTX, GTX1, GTX2, GTX3, GTX4, GTX5, C1, C2, dcGTX2, and dcGTX3 in bivalve...
Fri, 11/29/2019 - 03:16
Author(s): Wei Gao, Misako Yamada, Rieko Ohki, Yuji Nagashima, Ryohei Tatsuno, Koichi Ikeda, Kentaro Kawatsu, Tomohiro Takatani, Osamu ArakawaAbstractThe tetrodotoxin (TTX) uptake ability of pufferfish Takifugu rubripes tissues and its growth-associated changes were investigated using an in vitro tissue slice incubation method. Tissue slices prepared from the liver, skin, and intestine of a non-...
Wed, 11/27/2019 - 03:21
Author(s): Xiaodan Li, Cyrill Brunner, Yufan Wu, Oneda Leka, Gisbert Schneider, Richard A. KammererABSTRACTA dual-receptor interaction with a polysialoganglioside and synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2 (SV2) is required for botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT) toxicity. Here, we review what is currently known about the BoNT/A-SV2 interaction based on structural studies. Currently, five crystal structures...
Wed, 11/27/2019 - 03:21
Author(s): Shiro Itoi, Sora Tabuchi, Misato Abe, Hiroyuki Ueda, Hikaru Oyama, Ryuya Ogata, Taiki Okabe, Ayano Kishiki, Haruo SugitaAbstractPlanocerid flatworms and the related species (Platyhelminthes: polycladida) are known as tetrodotoxin (TTX)-bearing organisms, and they contribute to toxification of marine organisms at higher trophic levels, such as pufferfish and sea slugs. However, little...
Wed, 11/27/2019 - 03:21
Author(s): Naeem Sheik Abdul, Savania Nagiah, Krisnan Anand, Anil A. ChuturgoonAbstractFusaric acid (FA) is a ubiquitous yet neglected mycotoxin. The toxicity of FA is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Sirtuins (SIRTs) are key mediators of cell stress responses through deacetylation of antioxidant, mitochondrial maintenance and energy metabolism proteins. Dietary...
Sat, 11/16/2019 - 03:20
Author(s): Magdalena Gajęcka, Michał Dąbrowski, Iwona Otrocka-Domagała, Paweł Brzuzan, Anna Rykaczewska, Katarzyna Cieplińska, Marzena Barasińska, Maciej T. Gajęcki, Łukasz ZielonkaAbstractPlant-based materials used in the production of pig feed are very often contaminated with deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. Daily intake of small amounts of these mycotoxins with feed induces various subclinical...
Thu, 10/24/2019 - 03:26
Author(s): Murat Kara, Eda Gürçay, Gülümser Aydın, Bayram Kaymak, Merve Sekizkardeş, Ayşen Akıncı, Derya Uludüz, Levent ÖzçakarAbstractThe treatment of chronic migraine headache is quite challenging and new alternatives are still being explored for its management. Onabotulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) applied into extracranial muscles has been shown to inhibit the release of acetylcholine and local...
Tue, 10/15/2019 - 03:28
Author(s): Xin Wang, Hao Yu, Hengtong Fang, Yun Zhao, Yongcheng Jin, Jinglin Shen, Changhai Zhou, Yongfeng Zhou, Yurong Fu, Junmei Wang, Jing ZhangAbstractMounting evidence has shown that zearalenone (ZEA) can have toxic effects on the intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) of mammals and humans, but the mechanism of ZEA-induced toxicity on IECs is unclear. The aim of this study was to reveal the...
Sun, 10/13/2019 - 03:25
Author(s): M.P. Martínez, A.P. Magnoli, M.L. González Pereyra, L. CavaglieriAbstractThe presence of contaminants such as aflatoxins (AFs) in dairy products constitutes a serious risk to the health of consumers, especially children who are most sensitive to the adverse effects of AFs. The presence of Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk is a public health problem since dairy products are massively consumed...
Sun, 10/06/2019 - 03:24
Author(s): Belqes Al-Jaal, Sofia Salama, Noof Al-Qasmi, Morana JaganjacAbstractMycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by different fungal spices and are found in diverse agricultural crops worldwide; they pose a severe threat to public health. Mycotoxins can cause either acute or chronic symptoms, depending on the type and dose of mycotoxin one has been exposed to. Thus, a continuous...
Mon, 09/30/2019 - 17:00
Author(s): Masafumi Amano, Noriko Amiya, Minami Takaoka, Haruka Sato, Tomohiro Takatani, Osamu Arakawa, Yoshitaka SakakuraAbstractWe tested whether tetrodotoxin (TTX) functions as a stress relieving substance in puffer fish. We orally administered TTX to the juveniles of hatchery-reared non-toxic tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes and measured the effects of TTX on brain corticotropin-releasing...
Sat, 09/28/2019 - 03:19
Author(s): Barbara Spolaore, Julián Fernández, Bruno Lomonte, Maria Lina Massimino, Fiorella TonelloAbstractAlmost all animal venoms contain secretory phospholipases A2 (PLA2s), 14 kDa disulfide-rich enzymes that hydrolyze membrane phospholipids at the sn-2 position, releasing lysophospholipids and fatty acids. These proteins, depending on their sequence, show a wide variety of biochemical, toxic...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:19
Author(s): Shana L. Geffeney, Becky L. Williams, Joshua J.C. Rosenthal, Matthew A. Birk, Justin Felkins, Christine M. Wisell, Eveningstar R. Curry, Charles T. HanifinAbstractThe natural history and pharmacology of tetrodotoxin (TTX) has long intrigued biologists. This toxin has a remarkable distribution that spans two domains of life (Bacteria and Eukarya). Within Eukaryotes, TTX has only been...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:19
Author(s): Jung E. Park, Ejaz A. Shamim, Pattamon Panyakaew, Pawan Mathew, Camilo Toro, Jonathan Sackett, Barbara Karp, Codrin Lungu, Katharine Alter, Tianxia Wu, Omar F. Ahmad, Monica Villegas, Sungyoung Auh, Mark HallettAbstractBackgroundWriter's cramp (WC) is a form of focal hand dystonia, for which focal botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injections are the current best therapy. Past studies have...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:19
Author(s): Mahesh Agarwal, Tanmay Mondal, Biplab BoseAbstractMembrane-anchored heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is the receptor for diphtheria toxin (DT). Mutated or truncated, non-toxic DT has been used earlier for HB-EGF-targeted drug delivery and to modulate HB-EGF signaling. In the present work, we have synthesized a peptide corresponding to a 26 amino acid long stretch of the...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:19
Author(s): Aditi Gangopadhyay, Hirak Jyoti Chakraborty, Abhijit DattaAbstractCholera is a major global threat, affecting millions each year. The ADP ribosyltransferase activity of the active cholera toxin catalyses the massive loss of water and electrolytes during cholera infections. The active toxin heterodimer comprises the A1 subunit from Vibrio cholerae and ARF (ADP Ribosylation Factor) from...
Fri, 09/20/2019 - 01:03
Publication date: Available online 18 September 2019Source: Author(s): P. Dhanamjayulu, Ramesh Babu Boga, Alka MehtaAbstractAflatoxins are mutagenic secondary metabolites produced by certain ubiquitous saprophytic fungi. These contaminate agricultural crops and pose a serious health threat to humans and livestock all over the world. Benzimidazole and its derivatives are biologically active...
Mon, 09/16/2019 - 01:08
Publication date: Available online 14 September 2019Source: Author(s): Ayman A. Hassan, Salma H. Abu Hafsa, Mona M.M.Y. Elghandour, Poonooru Ravi Kanth Reddy, Jose Cedillo Monroy, Abdelfattah Z.M. SalemAbstractEighty-four male New Zealand White rabbits with average body weight 778 ± 65 g were blocked into four groups to evaluate the ability of sodium bentonite and coumarin in alleviating the...
Fri, 09/06/2019 - 01:07
Publication date: Available online 4 September 2019Source: Author(s): Agnieszka Rogowska, Paweł Pomastowski, Katarzyna Rafińska, Viorica Railean-Plugaru, Michał Złoch, Justyna Walczak, Bogusław BuszewskiAbstractA study of the mechanism responsible for the zearalenone (ZEA) neutralization by lactic acid bacteria Lactococcus lactis 56 and L929 cell line was carried out by determination of the...
Thu, 08/08/2019 - 01:04
Publication date: Available online 10 July 2019Source: Author(s): Edmund D. Brodie
Sat, 07/27/2019 - 01:07
Publication date: Available online 26 July 2019Source: Author(s): Chen Li, Wenying Chen, Lirong Zheng, Boyang Zhang, Xuqin Yang, Qipeng Zhang, Ning Wang, Yan Wang, Jieyeqi Yang, Jingzhou Sha, Zheng Zhou, Xiaohong Li, Yuzhe Li, Xiao Li ShenAbstractOchratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin ubiquitous in feeds and foodstuffs. The water-insoluble pentacyclic triterpene bioactive compound, ursolic acid (UA),...
Fri, 07/26/2019 - 01:06
Publication date: Available online 24 July 2019Source: Author(s): Jung E. Park, Ejaz A. Shamim, Pattamon Panyakaew, Pawan Mathew, Camilo Toro, Jonathan Sackett, Barbara Karp, Codrin Lungu, Katharine Alter, Tianxia Wu, Omar F. Ahmad, Monica Villegas, Sungyoung Auh, Mark HallettAbstractBackgroundWriter’s cramp (WC) is a form of focal hand dystonia, for which focal botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT)...
Thu, 06/27/2019 - 01:07
Publication date: Available online 25 June 2019Source: Author(s): Jingyuan Yao, Wei Jin, Dongmei Li, Daoyan Xu, Shiyong Wen, Renyan Liu, Yubo Liang, Songhui LuAbstractParalytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are a group of the most harmful neurotoxins distributed worldwide. Marine organism samples, including mollusks, crustaceans and fish, collected from 11 sites around the coastal water of the South...
Sat, 06/08/2019 - 01:13
Publication date: Available online 7 June 2019Source: Author(s): Molly S. Moritz, William H. Tepp, Heather N'te Inzalaco, Eric A. Johnson, Sabine PellettAbstractBotulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are potent neurotoxins and are the causative agent of botulism, as well as valuable pharmaceuticals. BoNTs are divided into seven serotypes that comprise over 40 reported subtypes. BoNT/A1 and BoNT/B1 are...
Wed, 06/05/2019 - 01:14
Publication date: Available online 4 June 2019Source: Author(s): Chunlei Gao, Shuya Lin, Meng Chen, Jiajun Hong, Chenlin LiuAbstractTo gain an understanding of phycotoxin contamination in shellfish in the sub-Arctic and Arctic area, scanning for the presence of 13 hydrophilic and 13 lipophilic toxin components was carried out in shellfish samples collected from the Northern Bering Sea and Chukchi...
Thu, 05/23/2019 - 01:11
Publication date: Available online 21 May 2019Source: Author(s): Chandrashekhar Singh, Chandra Prakash, Pallavi Mishra, Kavindra Nath Tiwari, Sunil Kumar Mishra, Raghunath Shahaji More, Vijay Kumar, Jasmeet SinghAbstractThe present study evaluated hepatoprotective role of ethanol extract of P. integrifolia leaves (EEPL) on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced toxicity in mice. Mice were administered with...
Thu, 05/23/2019 - 01:11
Publication date: Available online 22 May 2019Source: Author(s): Homa Arak, Mohammad Amir Karimi Torshizi, Mehdi Hedayati, Shaban RahimiAbstractThe amelioration of aflatoxicosis in ducklings was examined by feeding molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) synthesized to target the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) analog molecule [5, 7-dimethoxycoumarin (DMC)] as a smart and novel toxin binder in comparison to a...
Wed, 05/01/2019 - 01:12
Publication date: Available online 29 April 2019Source: Author(s): Di Wang, Jiaorong Qu, Haiyue Jiang, Yu JiangAbstractScars can have a dramatic impact on patients' physical appearance and function. Injection of botulinum toxin has been used to prevent scar formation at the site of injury and to remodel scars that have already formed. The purpose of this review is to assess the safety and...
Sat, 04/27/2019 - 01:14
Publication date: Available online 25 April 2019Source: Author(s): Sumei Ling, Xiulan Li, Danping Zhang, Ke Wang, Wenwen Zhao, Qiang Zhao, Rongzhi Wang, Jun Yuan, Sijie Xin, Shihua WangAbstractTetrodotoxin (TTX) is a neurotoxin mainly responsible for severe neurological illness, and okadaic acid (OA) is another important lipophilic toxin to humans. In this study, we developed a gold strip for...
Fri, 04/19/2019 - 01:12
Publication date: Available online 17 April 2019Source: Author(s): Lucian Del Fabbro, Cristiano Ricardo Jesse, Marcelo Gomes de Gomes, Carlos Borges Filho, Franciele Donato, Leandro Cattelan Souza, André Rossito Goes, Ana Flásvia Furian, Silvana Peterini BoeiraAbstractThe mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEA) has strong estrogenic effects and elicits reproductive toxicity. Chrysin is a natural flavonoid...
Tue, 04/16/2019 - 01:13
Publication date: Available online 14 April 2019Source: Author(s): Sharif Najafi, Ehsan Sanati, Mahsa Khademi, Fateme Abdorrazaghi, Reza Kazempoor Mofrad, Zahra RezasoltaniAbstractIn recent years, there is a growing interest in new medical applications of botulinum toxin, including pain control, osteoarthritis treatment, and wound healing. While clinical applications of botulinum toxin seem...
Fri, 04/05/2019 - 01:14
Publication date: Available online 3 April 2019Source: Author(s): Carolina Valenzuela, Cristian Torres, Vanina Muñoz, Juan Carlos Simbaina, Andrella Sánchez, Tamara Bustamante, Joaquín M. Sepúlveda, Robin Piron, Miguel Del Campo, Néstor LagosAbstractObjetiveTo evaluate Neosaxitoxin (NeoSTX) as a local anesthetic drug, for pain control during and after piglet castration.Study designProspective,...
Fri, 04/05/2019 - 01:14
Publication date: June 2019Source: , Volume 164Author(s): Yongfeng Zhou, Yongcheng Jin, Hao Yu, Anshan Shan, Jinglin Shen, Changhai Zhou, Yun Zhao, Hengtong Fang, Xin Wang, Junmei Wang, Yurong Fu, Rui Wang, Ruihua Li, Jing ZhangAbstractAflatoxins are widely occurring food contaminants that are particularly harmful to dairy products and cows. The plant polyphenol resveratrol has been reported to...
Fri, 03/08/2019 - 01:14
Publication date: Available online 6 March 2019Source: Author(s): A. Rogowska, P. Pomastowski, G. Sagandykova, B. BuszewskiAbstractMycotoxins are natural compounds produced as secondary metabolites by mold fungi belonging mainly to the Fusarium family, commonly found on plants such as corn or small grains in the temperate climate zone. One of these mycotoxins is zearalenone, which is classified...
Thu, 03/07/2019 - 01:14
Publication date: Available online 5 March 2019Source: Author(s): Ionelia Taranu, Daniela Eliza Marin, Mihai Palade, Gina Cecilia Pistol, Veronica Sanda Chedea, Mihail Alexandru Gras, Catalin RotarAbstractThe aim of this study was to investigate the potential of a grape seed byproduct to mitigate the harmful damage produced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) at systemic level in plasma and liver as well as...
Sat, 01/19/2019 - 01:11
Publication date: Available online 17 January 2019Source: Author(s): Giulia Bellon, Andrea Venturin, Stefano Masiero, Alessandra Del FeliceAbstractComplex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is characterized by hyperalgesia, autonomic and trophic alterations of bones, muscles and skin. It is supported by neurogenic inflammation and impairment of sympathetic nervous system. Botulinum Toxin (BTX) is an...
Thu, 12/06/2018 - 01:11
Publication date: Available online 4 December 2018Source: Author(s): Maryam Khanian, Mohammad-Amir Karimi-Torshizi, Abdolamir AllamehAbstractGrowing broiler chicks on a diet contaminated with aflatoxins (200 or 2000 ppb) for entire growth period resulted in increased oxidative stress and liver damage markers. The toxicity was subsided in broilers received a specific aflatoxin-binding probiotic i....
Sat, 11/24/2018 - 01:08
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2018Source: Author(s): Paul M. D'Agostino, Michael J. Boundy, Tim D. Harwood, Wayne W. Carmichael, Brett A. Neilan, Susanna A. WoodAbstractTo date Paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) variants in cyanobacteria have primarily been characterized using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection. In this study we re-evaluated...

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