Toxicon

The Research Publications track research that is published across national and international peer-reviewed journals. The most recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal Title, Subject, USDA Grant Funding Agencies or FDA Grant Funding Agencies. The research publications are tracked across five subject areas: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, and Viruses.

Fri, 07/03/2020 - 06:06
Author(s): Pauline Christ Ledur, Janio M. Santurio Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungus which cause worldwide concern regarding food and feed safety. Ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisin B1 (FB1) and deoxynivalenol (DON) are some of the main mycotoxins and oxidative stress is the main mechanism of toxicity. Thereby, this study investigates the in vitro cytoprotective effects of...
Mon, 06/22/2020 - 06:05
Author(s): Stoycho Stoev Carcinogenic effects of ochratoxin A (OTA) on liver, kidneys, intestine, muscles and subcutaneous tissue of BALB/c albino mice divided in three experimental and one control groups (30 mice in each group - 15 males and 15 females) and exposed to 10 ppm OTA and/or 50–60 ppm penicillic acid (PA) in the diet were seen. A total 22 neoplasias were found to be induced in the...
Mon, 06/15/2020 - 06:05
Author(s): Jun-hui Su, Ming-na Yang, Fei Teng, Xiao-long Zhang, You-gui Pan, Yue Hu, Li-bin Xiao, Li-zhen Pan, Li-xi Li, Ling-jing Jin Facial synkinesis can be present in both primary and postparalytic hemifacial spasm (HFS). The present retrospective study aimed to summarize the clinical features of synkinesis and explore an appropriate botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) injection strategy to manage the...
Thu, 06/11/2020 - 06:07
Author(s): Mohamed M. Abdel-Daim, Mahmoud A.O. Dawood, Abdullah A. AlKahtane, Ahmed Abdeen, Hany M.R. Abdel-Latif, Hoda H. Senousy, Lotfi Aleya, Saad Alkahtani Aflatoxicosis is one of the threats that cause severe mortalities in fish farms. The dietary functional additives are a friendly approach attributed to beneficial effects on aquatic animals. The study aimed at evaluating the impact of...
Thu, 06/04/2020 - 03:32
Author(s): Chaozhi Wei, Leilei Yu, Nanzhen Qiao, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, Qixiao Zhai, Fengwei Tian, Wei Chen Patulin (PAT) is a secondary metabolite secreted by fungi in the genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Enterobacter and is the most common mycotoxin found in apples and apple derivatives (e.g., juice, cider, preserves). Previous reports described the wide distribution of PAT and more...
Sun, 05/24/2020 - 03:29
Author(s): Sabreen E. Fadl, Abeer M. El-Shenawy, Doaa M. Gad, Eman M. El Daysty, Hamdy S. El-Sheshtawy, Walied S. Abdo This paper was designed to analyze the effect of ochratoxin A (OTA) contaminated feed on the growth outcomes, certain serum biochemical, histopathology, and OTA residue in the dorsal muscle, liver, and kidney in Nile tilapia. Also, to improve the drastic effect of OTA through...
Wed, 05/20/2020 - 03:29
Author(s): Syed Wajih ul Hassan, Yumna Sadef, Shabbir Hussain, Muhammad Rafique Asi, Muhammad Yasin Ashraf, Sumera Anwar, Arif Malik The contamination of food with mycotoxins could be a major health risk. Identification and quantification of mycotoxins in maize are essentially required to guarantee food safety. Seven commonly grown maize cultivars were sown at semi-arid conditions in Pakistan....
Mon, 05/18/2020 - 03:30
Author(s): Wancui Xie, Min Li, Lin Song, Xiaoqun Hu, Xihong Yang This study evaluated the performance of an easy-cultivation device for the mass culture of Alexandrium minutum (A. minutum), a dinoflagellate that produces paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). Five culture conditions including three different sizes of containers (250 mL conical flask, 500 mL beaker, and 20 L jar) in two different...
Wed, 04/29/2020 - 03:29
Author(s): Mosaad A. Abdel-Wahhab, Aziza A. El-Nekeety, Amal S. Hathout, Asmaa S. Salman, Sekena H. Abdel-Aziem, Bassem A. Sabry, Nabila S. Hassan, Mohamed S. Abdel-Aziz, Soher E. Aly, Irwandi Jaswir This study aimed to identify the bioactive compounds of the ethyl acetate extract of Aspergillus niger SH2-EGY using GC-MS and to evaluate their protective role against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced...
Wed, 04/22/2020 - 03:27
Author(s): Haiyue Wang, Yujia Wei, Ying Xie, Chao Yan, Hongzhen Du, Zengning Li Aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisin B1 (FB1) and sterigmatocystin (ST) are very common toxic fungal metabolites with high detection rate and toxicity. The co-existence of many mycotoxins in animal feed has been reported worldwide, thus it is important to evaluate the combined cytotoxic effects among...
Fri, 04/17/2020 - 03:21
Author(s): Amin O. Elzupir, Babiker Y. Abdulkhair This study investigated the health risks associated with aflatoxins (AFs) in processed meat products (PMP) sold in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The occurrence and levels of AFs were assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD), whereas the cancer risk attributed to the consumption of meat products...
Wed, 04/15/2020 - 03:21
Author(s): M.L. González Pereyra, A.L. Di Giacomo, A.L. Lara, M.P. Martínez, L. Cavaglieri Zearalenone, an oestogenic mycotoxin produced by Fusarium sp., occurs naturally in agricultural commodities. Economic losses and health concerns associated to mycotoxins has attracted research interest towards exploring novel approaches to detoxify mycotoxin-contaminated food and feed. The aim of the...
Tue, 04/07/2020 - 03:36
Author(s): Yanan Gao, Qiaoyan Ye, Xiaoyu Bao, Xin Huang, Jiaqi Wang, Nan Zheng Mycotoxins-contaminated milk could threaten human health; therefore, it is necessary to demonstrate the toxicological effect of mycotoxins in milk. Most recently, researchers have paid more attention to the immunotoxic effects of the individual cereal-contaminating mycotoxins, namely, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol....
Mon, 04/06/2020 - 03:20
Author(s): Dilek Aşcı Çelik, Nilgun Gurbuz, Vehbi Atahan Toğay, Nurten Özçelik Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a toxic metabolite produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium fungus. OTA found in the human and animal tissues can contaminate many foods that we daily consume in our lives. It accumulates especially in kidney. Although OTA is known to cause cell cycle arrest, the molecular mechanisms underlying...
Mon, 04/06/2020 - 03:20
Author(s): Michał Złoch, Agnieszka Rogowska, Paweł Pomastowski, Viorica Railean-Plugaru, Justyna Walczak-Skierska, Joanna Rudnicka, Bogusław Buszewski The study investigated the zearalenone (ZEA) neutralization process as a consequence of metabolization and binding process by the probiotic bacterial strain Lactobacillus paracasei using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In order to...
Thu, 03/19/2020 - 03:20
Author(s): Fadia Ben Taheur, Chalbia Mansour, Khawla Ben Jeddou, Yasmine Machreki, Bochra Kouidhi, Jawaher Abdualbaqi Abdulhakim, Kamel Chaieb Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most harmful mycotoxin. Aflatoxin occurrence in tea makes this beverage unsuitable for consumption and presented risks to human health. Therefore, researches in aflatoxin microbial degradation are necessary to overcome this...
Mon, 03/16/2020 - 03:19
Author(s): Roberto Eleopra, Sara Rinaldo, Cesare Montecucco, Ornella Rossetto, Grazia Devigili The Botulinum NeuroToxin (BoNT) comprises several serotypes with distinct properties, mechanisms of action, sensitivity and duration of effect in different species. The serotype A (BoNT/A) is the prevalent neurotoxin applied in human's disease. In this paper we present an overview of the current...
Sat, 03/07/2020 - 03:19
Author(s): Mauro Corriere, Miguel Baptista, José R. Paula, Tiago Repolho, Rui Rosa, Pedro Reis Costa, Lucía Soliño Fish are frequently exposed to harmful algal blooms (HAB) and to related toxins. However, the biological effects of okadaic acid (OA), the most abundant and frequent HAB-toxin in Europe, South America and Asia, have been poorly investigated. In this study, fish swimming performance...
Tue, 03/03/2020 - 03:19
Author(s): Dietrich Mebs, Mari Yotsu-Yamashita, Katharina Hartmann, Christine Elbert, Richard Zehner, Stefan W. Toennes
Sun, 02/23/2020 - 03:22
Author(s): Alison R. Turnbull, D. Tim Harwood, Michael J. Boundy, Patrick T. Holland, Gustaaf Hallegraeff, Navreet Malhi, Michael A. QuilliamParalytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are a group of over 50 closely related naturally occurring tetrahydropurine toxins with saxitoxin (STX) as one of the most common and potent. Saxitoxin was first isolated and characterised from the butter clam Saxidomus...
Sat, 02/22/2020 - 03:21
Author(s): Daniele Martinelli, Sebastiano Arceri, Livio Tronconi, Cristina TassorelliAbstractMigraine is a highly prevalent and disabling disorder accounted among the primary headaches. It is the expression of a complex, and not yet fully understood, pathophysiology involving the sensitization of peripheral and central nociceptive pathways. In this review we succinctly illustrate the molecular,...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 10:45
Author(s): Bernard POULAIN, Emmanuel LEMICHEZ, Michel R. POPOFFAbstractBotulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are highly potent toxins responsible for a severe disease, called botulism, but are also efficient therapeutic tools with an increasing number of indications ranging from neuromuscular dysfunction to hypersecretion syndrome, pain release, depression as well as cosmetic application. BoNTs are known...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 10:45
Author(s): Zdravko LackovićAbstractIn 2010, Kissin concluded pessimistically that of the 59 new drugs introduced in the fifty-year period between 1960 and 2009 and still in use, only seven had new molecular targets. Of these, only one, sumatriptan, was effective enough to lead to the introduction of multiple drugs targeting the same target molecules (triptans) (Kissin, 2010). Morphine and...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 10:45
Author(s): Sylvie Cornet, Cindy Périer, Mikhail KalinichevAbstractThe mouse digit abduction score (DAS) assay is commonly used to measure muscle flaccidity-inducing effects of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) in vivo. Adapting the assay to rats has been challenging, as injection of onabotulinumtoxinA (onaBoNT-A) into the gastrocnemius muscle, as performed in mice, or into the tibialis anterior leads...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 10:45
Author(s): Parvaneh Afshar, Mohammad Shokrzadeh, Shahram Naghizadeh Raeisi, Azade Ghorbani-HasanSaraei, Leila Roozbeh NasiraiiAbstractAflatoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that are the most dangerous mycotoxin and food safety challenges. Human exposure to mycotoxins occurs directly throughout the intake of contaminated agricultural products or indirectly throughout the consumption of...
Sun, 02/09/2020 - 03:20
Author(s): Anatol Kivi, Songjin Ri, Jörg WisselAbstractBotulinum toxin (BoNT) is well established in clinical practice for more than 30 years. During this time the area of applications was broaden beyond the ophtalmologic and neurologic indications. Despite of decades of BoNT application with a huge increase of expertise and supporting methods for utilization as well, both patients and physicians...
Thu, 02/06/2020 - 03:21
Author(s): Robert Webb, Patrick M. Wright, Jennifer L. Brown, Janet C. Skerry, Rebecca L. Guernieri, Theresa J. Smith, Christopher Stawicki, Leonard A. SmithAbstractBotulism is an acute neuroparalytic affliction of the motor and autonomic neurons caused by the toxins produced from Clostridium botulinum and related bacterial strains. The botulinum neurotoxins, or BoNTs, consist of a...
Sun, 01/26/2020 - 03:20
Author(s): Joseph K.C. TsuiAbstractBotulinum toxin (BoNT) has become a therapeutic agent for a large variety of medical conditions. It is a symptomatic treatment and in most cases requires repeat injections at regular intervals. The first session is crucial in establishing rapport between the physician and the patient to ensure a continuity of treatment on a long term basis. Since the clinical...
Sun, 01/26/2020 - 03:20
Author(s): Chris Boulias, Farooq Ismail, Chetan P. PhadkeAbstractIntroductionIn patients taking warfarin, the level of anticoagulation status using the International Normalized Ratio (INR) is one consideration before botulinum toxin type-A (BoNTA) injections; however, there is wide diversity in physician approaches and preferences in using INR status and the INR cut-off values to determine...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:20
Author(s): Moyosore Joseph Adegbeye, Poonooru Ravi Kanth Reddy, Cynthia Adaku Chilaka, Olalekan Blessing Balogun, Mona M.M.Y. Elghandour, Raymundo Rene Rivas-Caceres, Abdelfattah Z.M. SalemAbstractMycotoxin residues are transferred from feed to animal products, yet, less attention has been paid to it in developing countries like Nigeria, India, Mexico etc. There is a need to find alternative...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:20
Author(s): A.E. Vlasenko, V.G. Kuznetsov, I.Yu. Petrova, T.Yu. MagarlamovAbstract:Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin frequently occurring in marine organisms along with its numerous analogues. To determine the total TTX content, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique utilizing polyclonal antibodies against TTX. The technique was tested using extracts of marine...
Wed, 01/15/2020 - 03:19
Author(s): Aditya Ashok Murgai, Mandar JogAbstractThe association between tremor and dystonia has been known for many decades. Dystonic tremor is seen in the body part affected with dystonia. Tremor and dystonia can also co-exist in different body parts. Subtle dystonic posturing can be missed in patients with upper limb tremor and these patients are often misdiagnosed as essential tremor....
Mon, 01/13/2020 - 03:18
Author(s): Wenji Wang, Yi Ji, Wenjing Yang, Chengzhi Zhang, Linet Angwa, Baiming Jin, Juan Liu, Man Lv, Wenjing Ma, Jie Yang, Kewei WangAbstractT-2 toxin is considered an unavoidable pollutant, which contaminates food crops and stockpiled cereals, impairing the health of humans and animals due to its multi-organ toxicity. Studies have shown that T-2 toxin can cause articular cartilage damage;...
Thu, 12/26/2019 - 03:20
Author(s): Anna Maria Bazzoni, Monica Cangini, Alessandro G. Mudadu, Giuseppa Lorenzoni, Igor Arras, Giovanna Sanna, Fiorella Pino, Anna Milandri, Sebastiano VirgilioAbstractParalytic shellfish poisoning is a human intoxication syndrome associated with the consumption of seafood that has been contaminated with paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), a group of natural neurotoxic alkaloids produced by...
Thu, 12/26/2019 - 03:20
Author(s): Chen Huang, Lin Feng, Xiang-An Liu, Wei-Dan Jiang, Pei Wu, Yang Liu, Jun Jiang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Xiao-Qiu ZhouAbstractDeoxynivalenol (DON) is a common mycotoxin existed in animal feed, and lead to significant economic loss due to its negative impacts on animal growth performance and animal health. The gill is a primary mucosal immune organ in teleosts, and the structural...
Wed, 12/25/2019 - 03:19
Author(s): Xiaojuan Shi, Chengfei Gao, Lin Wang, Xiao Chu, Qilin Shi, Hui Yang, Tieshan LiAbstractChronic inflammatory pain is a serious clinical problem caused by inflammation of the joints and degenerative diseases and greatly affects patients’ quality of life. Persistent pain states are thought to result from the central sensitization of nociceptive pathways in the spinal dorsal horn. Spinal...
Tue, 12/10/2019 - 03:23
Author(s): Jalila Ben Salah-Abbès, Hela Belgacem, Khawla Ezzdini, Mosaad A. Abdel-Wahhab, Samir AbbèsAbstractThe present study was conducted to determine the abilities of the living Lactobacillus plantarum MON03 cells to degrade Zearalenone (ZEN) in liquid medium, and to elucidate the preventive effect in ZEN-contaminated balb/c mice showing kidney damage. The DNA fragmentation, Bcl-2 and Bax...
Sun, 12/08/2019 - 03:36
Author(s): Dirk DresslerAbstractBotulinum toxin (BT) drugs were introduced in the late 1980s. They are now used world wide in a large number of indications. This huge market and its future opportunities have attracted a number of companies about to enter the competition with projects to develop new BT drugs. We want to outline features of BT drugs that are relevant for their therapeutic use and...
Thu, 12/05/2019 - 03:37
Author(s): Hasan Deniz AKBORA, İmge KUNTER, Tuğba ERÇETİN, Ali Murat ELAGÖZ, Burak Ali ÇİÇEKAbstractLagocephalus sceleratus from the family Tetraodontidae, which is originated from the Red Sea, started to migrate to Mediterranean waters after the opening of the Suez Channel in 1869. Since they do not have any predators in the Mediterranean Sea, their population increased in number very fast....
Sat, 11/30/2019 - 03:21
Author(s): Hong-Nan Huang, Jia-Li Lu, Shou-Er Lin, Ren-Jin Zheng, Jie LinAbstractIn this study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was originally developed for simultaneously quantitative analysis of twelve paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins, referring to STX, NEO, dcSTX, GTX1, GTX2, GTX3, GTX4, GTX5, C1, C2, dcGTX2, and dcGTX3 in bivalve...
Fri, 11/29/2019 - 03:16
Author(s): Wei Gao, Misako Yamada, Rieko Ohki, Yuji Nagashima, Ryohei Tatsuno, Koichi Ikeda, Kentaro Kawatsu, Tomohiro Takatani, Osamu ArakawaAbstractThe tetrodotoxin (TTX) uptake ability of pufferfish Takifugu rubripes tissues and its growth-associated changes were investigated using an in vitro tissue slice incubation method. Tissue slices prepared from the liver, skin, and intestine of a non-...
Wed, 11/27/2019 - 03:21
Author(s): Xiaodan Li, Cyrill Brunner, Yufan Wu, Oneda Leka, Gisbert Schneider, Richard A. KammererABSTRACTA dual-receptor interaction with a polysialoganglioside and synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2 (SV2) is required for botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT) toxicity. Here, we review what is currently known about the BoNT/A-SV2 interaction based on structural studies. Currently, five crystal structures...
Wed, 11/27/2019 - 03:21
Author(s): Shiro Itoi, Sora Tabuchi, Misato Abe, Hiroyuki Ueda, Hikaru Oyama, Ryuya Ogata, Taiki Okabe, Ayano Kishiki, Haruo SugitaAbstractPlanocerid flatworms and the related species (Platyhelminthes: polycladida) are known as tetrodotoxin (TTX)-bearing organisms, and they contribute to toxification of marine organisms at higher trophic levels, such as pufferfish and sea slugs. However, little...
Wed, 11/27/2019 - 03:21
Author(s): Naeem Sheik Abdul, Savania Nagiah, Krisnan Anand, Anil A. ChuturgoonAbstractFusaric acid (FA) is a ubiquitous yet neglected mycotoxin. The toxicity of FA is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Sirtuins (SIRTs) are key mediators of cell stress responses through deacetylation of antioxidant, mitochondrial maintenance and energy metabolism proteins. Dietary...
Sat, 11/16/2019 - 03:20
Author(s): Magdalena Gajęcka, Michał Dąbrowski, Iwona Otrocka-Domagała, Paweł Brzuzan, Anna Rykaczewska, Katarzyna Cieplińska, Marzena Barasińska, Maciej T. Gajęcki, Łukasz ZielonkaAbstractPlant-based materials used in the production of pig feed are very often contaminated with deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. Daily intake of small amounts of these mycotoxins with feed induces various subclinical...
Thu, 10/24/2019 - 03:26
Author(s): Murat Kara, Eda Gürçay, Gülümser Aydın, Bayram Kaymak, Merve Sekizkardeş, Ayşen Akıncı, Derya Uludüz, Levent ÖzçakarAbstractThe treatment of chronic migraine headache is quite challenging and new alternatives are still being explored for its management. Onabotulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) applied into extracranial muscles has been shown to inhibit the release of acetylcholine and local...
Tue, 10/15/2019 - 03:28
Author(s): Xin Wang, Hao Yu, Hengtong Fang, Yun Zhao, Yongcheng Jin, Jinglin Shen, Changhai Zhou, Yongfeng Zhou, Yurong Fu, Junmei Wang, Jing ZhangAbstractMounting evidence has shown that zearalenone (ZEA) can have toxic effects on the intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) of mammals and humans, but the mechanism of ZEA-induced toxicity on IECs is unclear. The aim of this study was to reveal the...
Sun, 10/13/2019 - 03:25
Author(s): M.P. Martínez, A.P. Magnoli, M.L. González Pereyra, L. CavaglieriAbstractThe presence of contaminants such as aflatoxins (AFs) in dairy products constitutes a serious risk to the health of consumers, especially children who are most sensitive to the adverse effects of AFs. The presence of Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk is a public health problem since dairy products are massively consumed...
Sun, 10/06/2019 - 03:24
Author(s): Belqes Al-Jaal, Sofia Salama, Noof Al-Qasmi, Morana JaganjacAbstractMycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by different fungal spices and are found in diverse agricultural crops worldwide; they pose a severe threat to public health. Mycotoxins can cause either acute or chronic symptoms, depending on the type and dose of mycotoxin one has been exposed to. Thus, a continuous...
Mon, 09/30/2019 - 17:00
Author(s): Masafumi Amano, Noriko Amiya, Minami Takaoka, Haruka Sato, Tomohiro Takatani, Osamu Arakawa, Yoshitaka SakakuraAbstractWe tested whether tetrodotoxin (TTX) functions as a stress relieving substance in puffer fish. We orally administered TTX to the juveniles of hatchery-reared non-toxic tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes and measured the effects of TTX on brain corticotropin-releasing...

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