Toxicon

Thu, 05/31/2018 - 16:12
Publication date: August 2018 Source:, Volume 150 Author(s): Fang Gan, Yulan Yang, Yun Chen, Chaoping Che, Cuiling Pan, Kehe Huang The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of bush sophora root polysaccharide (BSRPS) on the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced hepatotoxicity and to explore the underlying mechanisms. The primary chicken hepatocytes were used as the model in the...
Wed, 05/30/2018 - 16:07
Publication date: July 2018 Source:, Volume 149 Author(s): Mikhail Kalinichev
Mon, 05/28/2018 - 16:04
Publication date: August 2018 Source:, Volume 150 Author(s): Dietrich Mebs, Max Lorentz, Mari Yotsu-Yamashita, Daniela C. Rößler, Raffael Ernst, Stefan Lötters For the first time, alcohol extracts of Atelopus hoogmoedi from the Guiana Shield in Suriname and Guyana were analyzed for the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and of its analogues by high resolution hydrophilic interaction...
Sat, 05/26/2018 - 15:35
Publication date: August 2018 Source:, Volume 150 Author(s): Shurong Hu, Xiaowen Dou, Lei Zhang, Yanjun Xie, Shihai Yang, Meihua Yang A rapid screening of the most toxic aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in medicinal materials of radix and rhizome was performed by an immune chromatography method for the first time. The colloidal gold immunochromatographic strip was prepared after optimization...
Sat, 05/26/2018 - 15:35
Publication date: August 2018 Source:, Volume 150 Author(s): Nan Zheng, Huan Zhang, Songli Li, Jiaqi Wang, Jia Liu, Hui Ren, Yanan Gao Aflatoxins, including aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and M1 (AFM1), are natural potent carcinogens produced by Aspergillus spp. These compounds, which can often be detected in dairy foods, can cause diseases in human beings. However, the molecular...
Sat, 05/26/2018 - 15:35
Publication date: August 2018 Source:, Volume 150 Author(s): Lucía Soliño, Pedro Reis Costa Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are fish metabolism products and a result of biotransformation of precursor gambiertoxins produced, in the first instance, by benthic dinoflagellates Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa. Ciguatoxins are potent neurotoxins that selectively open voltage gated sodium channels in excitable...
Tue, 05/01/2018 - 13:04
Publication date: 15 June 2018 Source:, Volume 148 Author(s): Andrew D. Turner, Maggie Broadwater, Frances Van Dolah A receptor binding assay (RBA) for the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxicity is formally validated through collaborative study and approved for regulatory monitoring use in the US for mussels and clams. However, to date, the method has not been tested on...
Mon, 04/30/2018 - 12:54
Publication date: 15 June 2018 Source:, Volume 148 Author(s): Mete Yilmaz, Amanda J. Foss, Andrew I. Selwood, Mihriban Özen, Michael Boundy Aphanizomenon gracile is one of the most widespread Paralytic Shellfish Toxin (PST) producing cyanobacteria in freshwater bodies in the Northern Hemisphere. It has been shown to produce various PST congeners, including saxitoxin (STX),...
Fri, 04/27/2018 - 12:24
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:, Volume 147 Author(s): Yingchun Zhang, Christopher P. Smith Botulinum toxin's (BoNT) success in treating several pain disorders has triggered interest in its application for pelvic pain disorders. This article summarizes results presented at the recent Neurotoxins Meeting in Madrid, Spain, in January 2017. It does not include BoNT use for Interstitial...
Fri, 04/27/2018 - 12:24
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:, Volume 147 Author(s): Cristina Tassorelli, Grazia Sances, Micol Avenali, Roberto De Icco, Daniele Martinelli, Vito Bitetto, Giuseppe Nappi, Giorgio Sandrini OnabotulinumtoxinA has been approved for the prophylaxis of chronic migraine following the demonstration of efficacy in two large controlled trials. Data collected from pragmatic...
Fri, 04/27/2018 - 12:24
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:, Volume 147 Author(s): Francisco Cardoso The aim of this article is to provide a review of the use of injections of botulinum toxin in the management of selected symptoms and signs of Parkinson's disease and other forms of parkinsonism. Sialorrhea is defined as inability to control oral secretions, resulting in excessive saliva in the oropharynx. There...
Fri, 04/27/2018 - 12:24
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:, Volume 147 Author(s): H.A. Jinnah, Cynthia L. Comella, Joel Perlmutter, Codrin Lungu, Mark Hallett Background Numerous studies have established botulinum toxin (BoNT) to be safe and effective for the treatment of cervical dystonia (CD). Despite its well-documented efficacy, there has been growing awareness that a significant proportion of CD...
Fri, 04/27/2018 - 12:24
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:, Volume 147 Author(s): Joseph Jankovic The therapeutic applications of botulinum toxin (BoNT) have grown manifold since its initial approval in 1989 by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of strabismus, blepharospasm, and other facial spasms. Although it is the most potent biologic toxin known to man, long-term studies have...
Fri, 04/27/2018 - 12:24
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:, Volume 147 Author(s): Antoniangela Cocco, Alberto Albanese Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are increasingly used in clinical practice for several indications. Following the pioneering years of discoveries, the recent years have witnessed an increase of new indications and new toxin brands. We review here the clinical trials on BoNTs performed since...
Fri, 04/27/2018 - 12:24
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:, Volume 147 Author(s): Manuela López de la Paz, Daniel Scheps, Marcel Jurk, Fred Hofmann, Jürgen Frevert Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most potent toxic proteins to mankind known but applied in low doses trigger a localized muscle paralysis that is beneficial for the therapy of several neurological disorders and aesthetic treatment. The...
Fri, 04/27/2018 - 12:24
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:, Volume 147 Author(s): Phillip H. Beske, Aaron B. Bradford, Katie M. Hoffman, Sydney J. Mason, Patrick M. McNutt Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are exceedingly potent neurological poisons that block cholinergic release in the peripheral nervous system and cause death by asphyxiation. While post-exposure prophylaxis can effectively eliminate toxin...
Fri, 04/27/2018 - 12:24
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:, Volume 147 Author(s): O. Rossetto Botulinum neurotoxins are the most potent toxins known. The double receptor binding modality represents one of the most significant properties of botulinum neurotoxins and largely accounts for their incredible potency and lethality. Despite the high affinity and the very specific binding, botulinum neurotoxins are...
Fri, 04/27/2018 - 12:24
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:, Volume 147 Author(s): Kwok-ho Lam, Ruifeng Qi, Shun Liu, Amelie Kroh, Guorui Yao, Kay Perry, Andreas Rummel, Rongsheng Jin Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are causative agents of the life-threatening disease botulism. They are naturally produced by species of the bacteria Clostridium botulinum as stable and non-covalent complexes, in which...
Fri, 04/27/2018 - 12:24
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:, Volume 147 Author(s): Yukako Fujinaga, Michel R. Popoff Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are potent toxins which induce flaccid paralysis by inhibiting the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junctions. They associate with non-toxic proteins (ANTPs or NAPs) to form complexes of various sizes which are resistant to acidic pH and protease...
Fri, 04/27/2018 - 12:24
Publication date: 15 June 2018 Source:, Volume 148 Author(s): Shiro Itoi, Miwa Suzuki, Kiyoshi Asahina, Eitaro Sawayama, Junki Nishikubo, Hikaru Oyama, Mitsuki Takei, Nanae Shiibashi, Tomohiro Takatani, Osamu Arakawa, Haruo Sugita It is known that tetrodotoxin (TTX), also known as pufferfish toxin, is an extremely potent neurotoxin and had been detected in various taxa....
Tue, 04/03/2018 - 07:30
Publication date: Available online 3 April 2018 Source: Author(s): Yi Wang, Chunxia Zhao, Dongdong Zhang, Mingming Zhao, Dan Zheng, Maomin Peng, Wei Cheng, Peng Guo, Zongjun Cui Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites mainly produced by filamentous fungal species that commonly contaminate staple foods and feeds. They cause significant economic losses and greatly harm food...
Thu, 03/22/2018 - 07:26
Publication date: Available online 21 March 2018 Source: Author(s): Rania Jebali, Jalila Ben Salah-Abbès, Samir Abbès, Aziza M. Hassan, Sekena H. Abdel-Aziem, Aziza A. El-Nekeety, Ridha Oueslati, Mosaad A. Abdel-Wahhab This study aimed to assess the disturbances in intestinal genes expression and DNA fragmentation in mice treated orally with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) or aflatoxin M1...
Sun, 03/11/2018 - 10:20
Publication date: Available online 9 March 2018 Source: Author(s): Semra Aktürk, Raikan Büyükavcı, Yüksel Ersoy Objective The aim of this study is to identify the effect on spasticity and walking of US-guided botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injections administered to improve equinovarus walking pattern commonly observed in patients after stroke. Material and method Twenty-three...
Thu, 03/08/2018 - 08:54
Publication date: Available online 8 March 2018 Source: Author(s): Dubravka Rašić, Marin Mladinić, Davor Želježić, Alica Pizent, Srđan Stefanović, Dragan Milićević, Paško Konjevoda, Maja Peraica A multimycotoxin analysis approach in grains results in frequent simultaneous findings of nephrotoxic mycotoxins ochratoxin A (OTA) and citrinin (CTN). The mechanism of CTN and OTA...
Thu, 02/15/2018 - 08:01
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018 Source: Author(s): Jörg Wissel Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is an effective, well-tolerated, and well-established option for the treatment of dystonic and spastic movement disorders. However, a single approach does not suit all patients, even within one disease indication. The degree of flexibility in treatment protocols is determined by...
Thu, 02/15/2018 - 08:01
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018 Source: Author(s): Ophelie Pierre, Laurent Misery, Matthieu Talagas, Raphaele Le Garrec Ciguatoxins (CTXs) and brevetoxins (PbTxs) are phycotoxins that can accumulate along the marine food chain and thus cause seafood poisoning in humans, namely “ciguatera fish poisoning” (CFP) and “neurotoxic shellfish poisoning” (NSP), respectively...
Thu, 02/15/2018 - 08:01
Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018 Source: Author(s): Yasaman Safarpour, Bahman Jabbari This review evaluates the existing level of evidence for efficacy of BoNTs in different pain syndromes using the recommended efficacy criteria from the Assessment and Therapeutic Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. There is a level A evidence (effective) for BoNT therapy...
Thu, 02/15/2018 - 08:01
Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018 Source: Author(s): Elina Zakin, David Simpson Botulinum toxin (BoNT) is a neurotoxin produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum that has become widely used for various neurologic indications. The four toxin formulations currently available for use in the United States (approved by the Food and Drug Administration) are...
Thu, 02/15/2018 - 08:01
Publication date: Available online 14 February 2018 Source: Author(s): Cynthia L. Comella Oromandibular dystonia (OMD) is an isolated focal dystonia that affects the muscles of the jaw, lower face and tongue. It is a rare disorder but is associated with significant impairment in quality of life. Treatment with oral medications has not been successful. Surgical interventions, such as deep...
Thu, 02/15/2018 - 08:01
Publication date: Available online 14 February 2018 Source: Author(s): Benjamin Kövesi, Csilla Pelyhe, Erika Zándoki, Miklós Mézes, Krisztián Balogh Lipid peroxidation, glutathione content, glutathione peroxidase activity and gene expression of transcription factors, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione synthetase and glutathione reductase was investigated in common carp liver. Short...
Thu, 02/15/2018 - 08:01
Publication date: 1 March 2018 Source:, Volume 143 Author(s): David S. Sergeevichev, Anna A. Krasilnikova, Artem G. Strelnikov, Vladislav V. Fomenko, Nariman F. Salakhutdinov, Alexander B. Romanov, Alexander M. Karaskov, Evgeny A. Pokushalov, Jonathan S. Steinberg Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is used for an increasing number of neurological and non-neurological indications...
Thu, 02/15/2018 - 08:01
Publication date: 15 March 2018 Source:, Volume 144 Author(s): Fraser E. Houston, Brian A. Hain, Stephen L. Dodd Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) is used as a therapeutic tool to induce chemical denervation of spastically contracted muscles, yet the neurotoxin can also cause skeletal muscle atrophy. The underlying proteolytic mechanisms that induce this atrophy remain unclear. Our...
Tue, 01/09/2018 - 11:16
Publication date: Available online 8 January 2018 Source: Author(s): Thomas Madigan, Navreet Malhi, Jessica Tan, Catherine McLeod, Ian Stewart, Tim Harwood, Grant Mann, Alison Turnbull In October 2012, paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) were detected in the hepatopancreas of Southern Rock Lobsters (Jasus edwardsii) collected from the east coast of Tasmania, Australia. This...
Sat, 01/06/2018 - 11:16
Publication date: Available online 5 January 2018 Source: Author(s): Ghuncha Ambrin, Raj Kumar, Bal Ram Singh Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs; serotypes A-G) are metalloproteases, which cleave and inactivate cellular proteins essential for neurotransmitter release. In bacterial cultures, BoNTs are secreted as a complex of the neurotoxin and a group of neurotoxin associated proteins (NAPs...
Thu, 12/28/2017 - 11:14
Publication date: Available online 27 December 2017 Source: Author(s): Émilien Pousse, Jonathan Flye-Sainte-Marie, Marianne Alunno-Bruscia, Hélène Hégaret, Fred Jean This study was designed to assess the contribution of feeding behavior to inter-individual variability of paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) accumulation in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. For this purpose 42 oysters...
Wed, 12/20/2017 - 11:12
Publication date: Available online 19 December 2017 Source: Author(s): Sabine Pellett, William H. Tepp, Guangyun Lin, Eric A. Johnson Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) type FA is the only known naturally occurring chimeric BoNT of domains of BoNT/A and BoNT/F. BoNT/FA consists of an F5-like light chain (LC), a unique heavy chain (HC) translocation domain, and a HC receptor binding domain...
Wed, 12/13/2017 - 10:34
Publication date: Available online 12 December 2017 Source: Author(s): Toru Hifumi, Daisuke Nakano, Joe Chiba, Motohide Takahashi, Akihiko Yamamoto, Yoshihide Fujisawa, Kenya Kawakita, Yasuhiro Kuroda, Akira Nishiyama Cases of Clostridium perfringens septicemia, such as liver abscess, often develop a rapidly progressive intravascular hemolysis and coagulation; the mortality...
Tue, 11/14/2017 - 18:38
Publication date: Available online 13 November 2017 Source: Author(s): Gricel Riquelme, Joaquín M. Sepúlveda, Zaki Al Ghumgham, Miguel del Campo, Cecilia Montero, Nestor Lagos Local anesthesia is an effective method to control pain. Neosaxitoxin is a phycotoxin whose molecular mechanism includes a reversible inhibition of voltage–gated sodium channels at the axonal level, impeding...
Wed, 11/01/2017 - 06:46
Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017 Source: Author(s): Matteo Caleo, Laura Restani Local intramuscular injections of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) are effective in the treatment of focal dystonias, muscle spasms, and spasticity. However, not all clinical effects of BoNT/A may be explained by its action at peripheral nerve terminals. For example, the therapeutic...
Mon, 10/30/2017 - 06:26
Publication date: 1 December 2017 Source:, Volume 139 Author(s): Daniel Scheps, Manuela López de la Paz, Marcel Jurk, Fred Hofmann, Jürgen Frevert Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are classified by their antigenic properties into seven serotypes (A-G) and in addition by their corresponding subtypes. They are further characterized by divergent onset and duration of effect. Injections of...
Sat, 10/14/2017 - 09:37
Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017 Source: Author(s): Sunaina Surana, Andrew P. Tosolini, Ione F.G. Meyer, Alexander D. Fellows, Sergey S. Novoselov, Giampietro Schiavo Tetanus (TeNT) and botulinum (BoNT) neurotoxins, the causative agents of tetanus and botulism, respectively, are the most potent toxic molecules known to mankind. This extreme potency is attributed...
Tue, 09/19/2017 - 06:40
Publication date: November 2017 Source:, Volume 138 Author(s): Chetan P. Phadke, Vivekanand Thanikachalam, Farooq Ismail, Chris Boulias The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of compartment syndrome or major bleeding episodes and compare compartment syndrome, patient and intervention characteristics in 110 patients with stroke (treated with Warfarin, new oral...
Fri, 08/11/2017 - 05:33
Publication date: Available online 11 August 2017 Source: Author(s): Mark Hallett Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is a widely used therapeutic in part because its mechanism of action is much wider than initially expected. Since BoNT is taken up more avidly in active presynaptic terminals, there is some selectivity for weakening muscles involved in frequent involuntary movements. BoNT blocks...
Fri, 08/11/2017 - 05:33
Publication date: Available online 11 August 2017 Source: Author(s): Luca Dellafiora, Gianni Galaverna, Chiara Dall'Asta Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin naturally found in terrestrial and marine animals targeting the voltage-gated sodium channels. Historically, TTX has raised food safety concerns mainly in the Asian countries due to the consumption of the typical pufferfish-...
Thu, 07/27/2017 - 05:01
Publication date: Available online 27 July 2017 Source: Author(s): Dana M. Calhoun, Gary M. Bucciarelli, Lee B. Kats, Richard K. Zimmer, Pieter T.J. Johnson The dermal glands of many amphibian species secrete toxins or other noxious substances as a defense strategy against natural enemies. Newts in particular possess the potent neurotoxin tetrodotoxin (TTX), for which the highest...
Thu, 07/20/2017 - 09:28
Publication date: Available online 19 July 2017 Source: Author(s): Yujie Zhong, Chengni Jin, Jing Gan, Xiaorui Wang, Zhenqiang Shi, Xiaodong Xia, Xiaoli Peng Mycotoxins like patulin (PAT) are among the most significant food contaminant with regard to public health. This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of apigenin (API), one of the most bioactive flavonoids in plant...
Thu, 07/20/2017 - 09:28
Publication date: Available online 20 July 2017 Source: Author(s): Yuta Kudo, Chikafumi Chiba, Keiichi Konoki, Yuko Cho, Mari Yotsu-Yamashita The origin of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in amphibians has long been disputed. In this study, TTX and its putative biosynthetic intermediates or shunt compounds (4,9-anhydro-10-hemiketal-5-deoxyTTX and Cep-242) were dietary administered to the captive...
Sat, 07/15/2017 - 09:26
Publication date: Available online 14 July 2017 Source: Author(s): Shanel Raghubeer, Savania Nagiah, Anil A. Chuturgoon Ochratoxin A (OTA), a common contaminant of grain and fruit and known carcinogen, has been linked to impaired antioxidant response and cellular repair. The effect of OTA on inflammation in cells has not been explored. This study investigated OTA's influence on...
Mon, 07/10/2017 - 09:25
Publication date: Available online 8 July 2017 Source: Author(s): Alan R. Jacobson, Michael Adler, Nicholas R. Silvaggi, Karen N. Allen, Genessa M. Smith, Ross A. Fredenburg, Ross L. Stein, Jong-Beak Park, Xiaochuan Feng, Charles B. Shoemaker, Sharad S. Deshpande, Michael C. Goodnough, Carl J. Malizio, Eric A. Johnson, Sabine Pellett, William H. Tepp, Saul...
Fri, 07/07/2017 - 09:24
Publication date: Available online 6 July 2017 Source: Author(s): Daniela Eliza Marin, Cornelia Braicu, Mihai Alexandru Gras, Gina Cecilia Pistol, Roxana Cojocneanu Petric, Ioana Berindan Neagoe, Mihai Palade, Ionelia Taranu Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by fungus belonging to Aspergillus and Penicillium genra. The aim of the present paper was to investigate if a...

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