Toxins

Mon, 01/25/2021 - 00:00
Little is known about the degradability of mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) by the spent mushroom substrate (SMS)-derived manganese peroxidase (MnP) and lignin peroxidase (LiP) and its potential. The present study investigated the growth inhibition of Fusarium graminearum KR1 and the degradation of DON by MnP and LiP extracted from SMS. The results from the 7-day treatment period showed that...
Sat, 01/23/2021 - 00:00
The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) is a frequent contaminant of animal feed and is well known for its estrogenic effects in animals. Cattle are considered less sensitive to ZEN than pigs. However, ZEN has previously been shown to be converted to the highly estrogenic metabolite α-zearalenol (α-ZEL) in rumen fluid in vitro. Here, we investigate the metabolism of ZEN in the...
Fri, 01/22/2021 - 00:00
The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the effects between injecting botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) transconjunctivally into the palpebral lobe and transcutaneously into the orbital lobe of the lacrimal gland in patients with epiphora due to lacrimal outflow obstruction. This randomized controlled study included 53 eyes of 31 patients with unilateral or bilateral epiphora. Patients...
Fri, 01/22/2021 - 00:00
Since its first patent (1897), commercial dry feed (CDF) for dogs has diversified its formulation to meet the nutritional needs of different breeds, age, or special conditions and establish a foundation for integration of these pets into urban lifestyles. The risk of aflatoxicosis in dogs has increased because the ingredients used to formulate CDF have also proliferated, making it difficult to...
Thu, 01/21/2021 - 00:00
Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an important foodborne pathogen with the ability to cause bloody diarrhea (BD) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Little is known about enterohemolysin-encoded by ehxA. Here we investigated the prevalence and diversity of ehxA in 239 STEC isolates from human clinical samples. In total, 199 out of 239 isolates (83.26%) were ehxA positive,...
Thu, 01/21/2021 - 00:00
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a common trichothecene mycotoxin found worldwide. DON has broad toxicity towards animals and humans. However, the mechanism of DON-induced neurotoxicity in vitro has not been fully understood. This study investigated the hypothesis that DON toxicity in neurons occurs via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Using piglet hippocampal nerve cells (PHNCs), we evaluated the...
Thu, 01/14/2021 - 00:00
The Spanish National Network on Mycotoxins and Toxigenic Fungi and their Decontamination Processes (MICOFOOD) held its V Workshop on 10–11 December 2020. The venue was the University of Valencia, although, due to the pandemic situation, most of the participants followed the event online. Over 100 scientists, researchers, and representatives of the industry followed the Workshop, with...
Thu, 01/14/2021 - 00:00
Investigating workplace exposure to mycotoxins is of the utmost importance in supporting the implementation of preventive measures for workers. The aim of this study was to provide tools for measuring mycotoxins in urine and airborne samples. A multi-class mycotoxin method was developed in urine for the determination of aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin M1, ochratoxin A, ochratoxin α,...
Thu, 01/14/2021 - 00:00
Dry-cured meat products are worldwide food with high-salt content, and filamentous fungi are beneficial to the maturation process. However, some salt-tolerant strains of Aspergillus and Penicillium produce ochratoxin A (OTA) on these products and thus threaten food safety. In our study, proteomic analysis was performed to reveal the mechanism of adaptability to high-salt environment by...
Thu, 01/14/2021 - 00:00
Since its introduction as a treatment for strabismus, botulinum toxin (BoNT) has had a phenomenal journey and is now recommended as first-line treatment for focal dystonia, despite short-term clinical benefits and the risks of adverse effects. To cater for the high demand across various medical specialties, at least six US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved formulations of BoNT are...
Sun, 01/10/2021 - 00:00
Mycotoxin contamination causes significant economic loss to food and feed industries and seriously threatens human health. Aflatoxins (AFs) are one of the most harmful mycotoxins, which are produced by Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, and other fungi that are commonly found in the production and preservation of grain and feed. AFs can cause harm to animal and human health due to their...
Sun, 01/10/2021 - 00:00
This study aimed to detect and quantify mycotoxins on building materials using innovative laser mass spectroscopy methods—silver-109/silver/gold nanoparticle-enhanced target surface-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry (109AgNPs, AgNPs and AuNPs SALDI). Results from SALDI-type methods were also compared with commonly used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (...
Sat, 01/09/2021 - 00:00
Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a widely spread cyanotoxin that can occur in fresh water and food. This research aims to investigate CYN toxicity by studying the effects of drinking 0.25 nM of CYN-contaminated water from a natural source, and of the direct application of moderate concentrations of CYN on different animal targets. The chosen structures and activities are rat mitochondria inner...
Sat, 01/09/2021 - 00:00
Novel optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS)-based immunosensor formats were developed for label-free detection of Fusarium mycotoxin zearalenone (ZON). To achieve low limits of detection (LODs), both immobilised antibody-based (direct) and immobilised antigen-based (competitive) assay setups were applied. Immunoreagents were immobilised on epoxy-, amino-, and carboxyl-functionalised...
Sat, 01/09/2021 - 00:00
Since its initial approval in 1989 by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of blepharospasm and other facial spasms, botulinum toxin (BoNT) has evolved into a therapeutic modality for a variety of neurological and non-neurological disorders. With respect to neurologic movement disorders, BoNT has been reported to be effective for the treatment of dystonia, bruxism, tremors, tics...
Fri, 01/08/2021 - 00:00
Many bacterial pathogens utilize ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs) as virulence factors. The critical aspect of ARTs is their target specificity. Each individual ART modifies a specific residue of its substrates, which could be proteins, DNA, or antibiotics. However, the mechanism underlying this specificity is poorly understood. Here, we review the substrate recognition mechanism and target residue...
Thu, 01/07/2021 - 00:00
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of filamentous fungi and represent one of the most common groups of food contaminants with low molecular weight. These toxins are considered common and can affect the food chain at various stages of production, harvesting, storage and processing. Zearalenone is one of over 400 detected mycotoxins and produced by fungi of the genus Fusarium; it mainly has...
Thu, 01/07/2021 - 00:00
Novel sensitive analytical agents that can be used for simple, affordable, and rapid analysis of mycotoxins are urgently needed in scientific practice, especially for the screening of perspective bio-destructors of the toxic contaminants. We compared the characteristics of a rapid quantitative analysis of different mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A, patulin, sterigmatocystin, and...
Thu, 01/07/2021 - 00:00
Sows were fed naturally contaminated diets containing: (i) 100 ppb zearalenone (ZEN) one week before farrowing and during the lactation period (at 26 days), (ii) 100 ppb ZEN one week before farrowing and 300 ppb ZEN during the lactation period, or (iii) 300 ppb ZEN one week before farrowing and during the lactation period. All diets contained 250 ppb deoxynivalenol (DON). The highest levels of...
Thu, 01/07/2021 - 00:00
Over the last few decades, proteins and peptides have become increasingly more common as FDA-approved drugs, despite their inefficient delivery due to their inability to cross the plasma membrane. In this context, bacterial two-component systems, termed AB toxins, use various protein-based membrane translocation mechanisms to deliver toxins into cells, and these mechanisms could provide new...
Wed, 01/06/2021 - 00:00
Scorpion toxins represent a variety of tools to explore molecular mechanisms and cellular signaling pathways of many biological functions. These toxins are also promising lead compounds for developing treatments for many neurological diseases. In the current study, we purified a new scorpion toxin designated as BmK NSPK (Buthus martensii Karsch neurite-stimulating peptide targeting Kv channels)...
Wed, 01/06/2021 - 00:00
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are extremely potent and can induce respiratory failure, requiring long-term intensive care to prevent death. Recombinant monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) hold considerable promise as BoNT therapeutics and prophylactics. In contrast, equine antitoxin cannot be used prophylactically and has a short half-life. Two three-mAb combinations are in development that specifically...
Wed, 01/06/2021 - 00:00
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by several species of fungi, including the Fusarium, Aspergillus, and Penicillium species. Currently, more than 300 structurally diverse mycotoxins are known, including a group called minor mycotoxins, namely enniatins, beauvericin, and fusaproliferin. Beauvericin and enniatins possess a variety of biological activities. Their antimicrobial,...
Tue, 01/05/2021 - 00:00
There are still concerns about masseteric bulging due to a lack of knowledge about the internal architecture of the masseter muscle. Further investigations are therefore required of the most-effective botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injection points and strategies for managing masseteric bulging. The purpose of this study was to identify safer and more effective botulinum neurotoxin injection points...
Sat, 01/02/2021 - 00:00
In this work, adsorption of the carcinogenic mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by two sequestrants—a yeast cell wall-based adsorbent (YCW) and a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS)—was studied across four laboratory models: (1) an in vitro model from a reference method was employed to quantify the sorption capabilities of both sequestrants under buffer conditions at...
Fri, 01/01/2021 - 00:00
The response to BoNT is not uniform; a broad spectrum of responses and side-effects usually occurs. This study aimed to show special cervical dystonia cases with therapy response very different to normal treatment course which indicate the extreme ends of therapy spectrum. Patients: Clinical data and course of treatment of five long-term treated patients with cervical dystonia out of therapy...
Fri, 01/01/2021 - 00:00
Marine bivalves could accumulate paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) produced by toxic microalgae, which might induce oxidative stress. Glutathione peroxidases (GPxs) are key enzymes functioning in the antioxidant defense, whereas our understanding of their roles in PST challenge in bivalves is limited. Herein, through genome-wide screening, we identified nine (CfGPx) and eight (PyGPx) GPx genes in...
Fri, 12/25/2020 - 00:00
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are among the most poisonous known biological substances, and therefore the availability of reliable, easy-to use tools for BoNT detection are important goals for food safety and human and animal health. The reference method for toxin detection and identification is the mouse bioassay (MBA). An EndoPep-MS method for BoNT differentiation has been developed based on...
Fri, 12/25/2020 - 00:00
Mycotoxins contamination is a global public health concern. Therefore, highly sensitive and selective techniques are needed for their on-site monitoring. Several approaches are conceivable for mycotoxins analysis, among which colorimetric methods are the most attractive for commercialization purposes thanks to their visual read-out, easy operation, cost-effectiveness, and rapid response. This...
Fri, 12/25/2020 - 00:00
Pathogenic microorganisms produce various virulence factors, e.g., enzymes, cytotoxins, effectors, which trigger development of pathologies in infectious diseases. Cholera toxin (CT) produced by O1 and O139 serotypes of Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) is a major cytotoxin causing severe diarrhea. Cholix cytotoxin (Cholix) was identified as a novel eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) adenosine-...
Fri, 12/25/2020 - 00:00
Ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination widely occurs in various feed ingredients and food crops, potentially posing a serious health threat to animals. In this research, 1260 juvenile grass carp were separately fed with seven distinct experimental diets (0, 406, 795, 1209, 1612, 2003 and 2406 µg of OTA/kg of diet) for 60 consecutive days to evaluate OTA’s toxic effect on the...
Thu, 12/24/2020 - 00:00
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infections can cause EHEC-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (eHUS) via its main virulent factor, Shiga toxins (Stxs). Complement has been reported to be involved in the progression of eHUS. The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions of the most effective subtype of the toxin, Stx2a, with pivotal complement proteins C3b and C5. The study...
Thu, 12/24/2020 - 00:00
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by species of Penicillium and Aspergillus that can contaminate products of plant origin that are used as animal feed. Through oral exposure, this mycotoxin primarily affects the chicken gastrointestinal system. The present study evaluated the intestinal toxic effects of OTA and the introduction of L-tryptophan to alleviate these effects in chickens. One-...
Thu, 12/24/2020 - 00:00
Botulinum toxin type A (BTA) injection is considered an available alternative treatment for myofascial pain. However, its efficacy in treating masticatory myofascial pain syndrome (MMPS) remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the BTA injection into the affected muscles would significantly reduce pain and improve function, and to assess its efficacy, safety, and...
Wed, 12/23/2020 - 00:00
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) show increasing therapeutic applications ranging from treatment of locally paralyzed muscles to cosmetic benefits. At first, in the 1970s, BoNT was used for the treatment of strabismus, however, nowadays, BoNT has multiple medical applications including the treatment of muscle hyperactivity such as strabismus, dystonia, movement disorders, hemifacial spasm, essential...
Wed, 12/23/2020 - 00:00
This study evaluated the efficacy of potentially probiotic fruit-derived Lactobacillus isolates, namely, L. paracasei 108, L. plantarum 49, and L. fermentum 111, to remove aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) from a phosphate buffer solution (PBS; spiked with 0.15 µg/mL AFM1). The efficacy of examined isolates (approximately 109 cfu/mL) as viable and non-viable cells (heat-killed; 100 °C, 1 h)...
Wed, 12/23/2020 - 00:00
In this study, eight food by-products were investigated as biosorbent approaches in removing mycotoxin load towards potential dietary inclusion in animal feed. Among these food-derived by-products, grape seed (GSM) and seabuckthorn (SBM) meals showed the most promising binding capacity for Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and Zearalenone (ZEA), measured as percent of adsorbed mycotoxin. Furthermore, we...
Mon, 12/21/2020 - 00:00
In this first, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled exploratory trial, we evaluate the efficacy and safety of incobotulinumtoxinA and feasibility of using kinematic tremor assessment to aid in the planning of muscle selection in a multicenter setting. Reproducibility of the planning technology to other clinical sites was explored. In this trial (NCT02207946), patients with upper-limb...
Sun, 12/20/2020 - 00:00
Bacillus cereus is the fourth most common cause of foodborne illnesses that produces a variety of pore-forming proteins as the main pathogenic factors. B. cereus hemolysin II (HlyII), belonging to pore-forming β-barrel toxins, has a C-terminal extension of 94 amino acid residues designated as HlyIICTD. An analysis of a panel of monoclonal antibodies to the recombinant HlyIICTD protein...
Sat, 12/19/2020 - 00:00
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) serotype A inhibits neurotransmitter release by cleaving SNAP-25 and represents an established pharmaceutical for treating medical conditions caused by hyperactivity of cholinergic nerves. Oversecretion from non-neuronal cells is often also the cause of diseases. Notably, excessive release of inflammatory messengers is thought to contribute to diseases such as chronic...
Fri, 12/18/2020 - 00:00
Botulinum toxin type A has been used in the treatment of chronic migraine for over a decade and has become established as a well-tolerated option for the preventive therapy of chronic migraine. Ongoing research is gradually shedding light on its mechanism of action in migraine prevention. Given that its mechanism of action is quite different from that of the new monoclonal antibodies directed...
Wed, 12/16/2020 - 00:00
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a mycotoxin that frequently contaminates cereals and cereal byproducts. This study investigates the effect of AFB1 on the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) of piglets and evaluates if a diet containing grape seed meal (GSM) can counteract the negative effect of AFB1 on inflammation and oxidative stress. Twenty-four weaned piglets were fed the following diets: Control, AFB1...
Tue, 12/15/2020 - 00:00
Equinovarus/equinus foot is a pattern most commonly treated with botulinum toxin type A in patients with post-stroke spasticity involving the lower limbs; the gastrocnemius is the muscle most frequently injected. Spastic equinovarus/equinus can present a mixture of conditions, including spasticity, muscle/tendon shortening, muscle weakness and imbalance. In this study, we wanted to determine...
Tue, 12/15/2020 - 00:00
Research on the ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to bind aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) has mostly been focusing on lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. In this study, the AFB1 binding capacities of 20 Enterococcus strains belonging to E. casseliflavus, E. faecalis, E. faecium, E. hirae, E. lactis, and E. mundtii, 24 Pediococcus strains belonging to species P. acidilactici, P. lolii, P. pentosaceus, and P...
Mon, 12/14/2020 - 00:00
The evolution of instrumentation in terms of separation and detection allowed a real improvement of the sensitivity and analysis time. However, the analysis of ultra-traces of toxins in complex samples requires often a step of purification and even preconcentration before their chromatographic analysis. Therefore, immunoaffinity sorbents based on specific antibodies thus providing a molecular...
Sat, 12/12/2020 - 00:00
Spices are imported worldwide mainly from developing countries with tropical and/or subtropical climate. Local conditions, such as high temperature, heavy rainfall, and humidity, promote fungal growth leading to increased occurrence of mycotoxins in spices. Moreover, the lack of good agricultural practice (GAP), good manufacturing practice (GMP), and good hygienic practice (GHP) in developing...
Sat, 12/12/2020 - 00:00
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a rising health and environmental concern in the United States, particularly in South Florida. Skin contact and the ingestion of contaminated water or fish and other seafood have been proven to have severe toxicity to humans in some cases. However, the impact of aerosolized HAB toxins is poorly understood. In particular, knowledge regarding either the immediate or...
Fri, 12/11/2020 - 00:00
An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of trichothecenes—namely, nivalenol (NIV), deoxynivalenol (DON) and its acetylated derivatives (3- and 15-acetyl-DON), T-2 and HT-2 toxins—and zearalenone (ZEN) in wheat, wheat flour, and wheat crackers was validated through a collaborative study involving 15 participants from 10 countries. The validation study, performed...
Wed, 12/09/2020 - 00:00
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. (MRS) have been identified in several foods, including dairy products. Studies are needed about their occurrence and genetic diversity in the dairy production chain in order to gain a better understanding of their epidemiology and control. This study therefore focuses on isolating and characterizing MRS strains detected in milk used in the production of...
Wed, 12/09/2020 - 00:00
Diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) is caused by the consumption of shellfish contaminated with a group of phycotoxins that includes okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1), and dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX-2). These toxins are inhibitors of serine/threonine protein phosphatases 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A), but show distinct levels of toxicity. Aside from a difference in protein phosphatases (PP)...

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