Toxins

Mon, 01/27/2020 - 03:15
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a highly abundant mycotoxin that exerts many adverse effects on humans and animals. Much effort has been made to control DON in the past, and bio-transformation has emerged as the most promising method. However, useful and effective application of bacterial bio-transformation for the purpose of inhibiting DON remains urgently needed. The current study isolated a novel DON...
Sun, 01/26/2020 - 03:13
Effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on lipid peroxidation and glutathione system were investigated in chicken liver. In a three-week feeding trial, different doses (<1.0 μg/kg (control diet), 17.0 µg (diet A1), 92.0 µg (diet A2), and 182.0 µg (diet A3) AFB1 kg/feed) were used. Markers of lipid peroxidation, conjugated dienes and trienes showed higher values...
Sat, 01/25/2020 - 03:13
Intoxication with botulinum neurotoxin can occur through various routes. Foodborne botulism results after consumption of food in which botulinum neurotoxin-producing clostridia (i.e., Clostridium botulinum or strains of Clostridium butyricum type E or Clostridium baratii type F) have replicated and produced botulinum neurotoxin. Infection of a wound with C. botulinum and in situ production of...
Sat, 01/25/2020 - 03:13
Rats are a reservoir of human- and livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). However, the composition of the natural S. aureus population in wild and laboratory rats is largely unknown. Here, 144 nasal S. aureus isolates from free-living wild rats, captive wild rats and laboratory rats were genotyped and profiled for antibiotic resistances and human-specific...
Fri, 01/24/2020 - 03:13
We appreciate the commentary on our article by Foster and Beard, both employees of Ipsen [...]
Fri, 01/24/2020 - 03:13
In contrast to the prevailing arguments presented in the current review, the incidence of neutralising antibody (NAb) formation is not a significant issue for any of the present type A therapeutic botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) products. Furthermore, clinical non-responsiveness is poorly correlated with the presence of NAbs. The overriding evidence supports the view that the rate of NAb formation is...
Fri, 01/24/2020 - 03:13
Fermented pastes are some of the most popular traditional products in China. Many studies reported a strong possibility that fermented pastes promote exposure to mycotoxins, including aflatoxins, ochratoxins, and cereulide, which were proven to be carcinogenic and neurotoxic to humans. The primary mechanism of pathogenicity is by inhibiting protein synthesis and inducing oxidative stress using...
Fri, 01/24/2020 - 03:13
Cystoscopic onabotulinumtoxinA (onaBoNTA) intradetrusor injection is an efficient and durable modality for treating sensory bladder disorders. However, the inconvenience of using the cystoscopic technique and anesthesia, and the adverse effects of direct needle injection (e.g., haematuria, pain, and infections) have motivated researchers and clinicians to develop diverse injection-free procedures...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:14
: Bacterial genotoxins (BTGX) induce DNA damage, which results in senescence or apoptosis of the target cells if not properly repaired. Three BTGXs have been identified: the cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) family produced by several Gram-negative bacteria, the typhoid toxin produced by several Salmonella enterica serovars, and colibactin, a peptide-polyketide, produced mainly by the...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:14
The severity of human infection by one of the many Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is determined by a number of factors: the bacterial genome, the capacity of human societies to prevent foodborne epidemics, the medical condition of infected patients (in particular their hydration status, often compromised by severe diarrhea), and by our capacity to devise new therapeutic approaches...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:14
Fusarium is among the top 10 most economically important plant pathogens in the world. Trichothecenes are the principal mycotoxins produced as secondary metabolites by select species of Fusarium and cause acute and chronic toxicity in animals and humans upon exposure either through consumption and/or contact. There are over 100 trichothecene metabolites and they can occur in a wide range of...
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:13
Listeria monocytogenes is a widespread foodborne pathogen of high concern and internalin A is an important virulence factor that mediates cell invasion upon the interaction with the host protein E-cadherin. Nonsense mutations of internalin A are known to reduce virulence. Although missense mutations are largely overlooked, they need to be investigated in respect to their effects in cell invasion...
Mon, 01/20/2020 - 03:14
Aspergillus flavus is one of the most opportunistic pathogens invading many important oilseed crops and foodstuffs with such toxic secondary metabolites as aflatoxin (AF) and Cyclopiazonic acid. We previously used the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-azacytidine to treat with an AF-producing A. flavus A133 strain, and isolated a mutant (NT) of A. flavus, which displayed impaired abilities of AF...
Fri, 01/17/2020 - 03:13
The objective of the study was to explore the incidence of patulin (PAT) mycotoxin in mango and orange fruits and derived products marketed in Pakistan. A total of 274 samples, including 70 mango fruits, 63 mango-based products (juices, pulp, and jam), 77 orange fruits, and 64 orange-based products, were collected. PAT was determined by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
Fri, 01/17/2020 - 03:13
Aflatoxins (AF) are highly toxic compounds produced by Aspergillus section Flavi. They spoil food crops and present a serious global health hazard to humans and livestock. The aim of this study was to examine the phylogenetic relationships among aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus isolates. A polyphasic approach combining phylogenetic, sequence, and toxin analyses was applied to 40...
Thu, 01/16/2020 - 03:13
Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa species have been identified in Aotearoa/New Zealand’s coastal waters and G. polynesiensis, a known producer of ciguatoxins, has been isolated from Rangitāhua/Kermadec Islands (a New Zealand territory). The warming of the Tasman Sea and the waters around New Zealand’s northern subtropical coastline heighten the risk of Gambierdiscus proliferating in...
Wed, 01/15/2020 - 03:13
Ligninolytic enzymes from white-rot fungi, such as laccase (Lac) and Mn-peroxidase (MnP), are able to degrade aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), the most harmful among the known mycotoxins. The high cost of purification of these enzymes has limited their implementation into practical technologies. Every year, tons of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) are produced as a by-product of edible mushroom cultivation,...
Wed, 01/15/2020 - 03:13
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains are food-borne pathogens that can cause different clinical conditions. Shiga toxin 2a and/or 2c (Stx2)-producing E. coli O157:H7 is the serotype most frequently associated with severe human disease. In this work we analyzed the hypothesis that host cells participate in Stx2 production, cell damage, and inflammation during EHEC infection. With this...
Tue, 01/14/2020 - 03:13
Trichothecene mycotoxins such as T-2 toxin cause severe problems for agriculture, as well as for veterinary medicine. As liver is one of the key organs in metabolism, the main aim of our study was to investigate the immunomodulatory and cytotoxic effects of T-2 toxin, using primary hepatocyte mono-culture and hepatocyte—nonparenchymal cell (predominantly Kupffer cell) co-culture models...
Sat, 01/11/2020 - 03:13
Avian botulism is a serious neuroparalytic disease mainly caused by a type C/D botulinum neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum group III, one of the entwined bacterial species from the Clostridium novyi sensu lato genospecies. Its isolation is very challenging due to the absence of selective media and the instability of the phage carrying the gene encoding for the neurotoxin. The present...
Wed, 01/08/2020 - 03:15
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a common mycotoxin contaminant in animal feed. When absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, OTA has a propensity for pathological effects on animal health and deposition in animal tissues. In this study, the potential of yeast cell wall extracts (YCWE) to adsorb OTA was evaluated using an in vitro method in which consecutive animal digestion events were simulated. Low pH...
Wed, 01/08/2020 - 03:15
Listeriolysin O (LLO) is a pore-forming cytolysin that allows Listeria monocytogenes to escape from phagocytic vacuoles and enter the host cell cytosol. LLO is expressed continuously during infection, but it has been a challenge to evaluate the importance of LLO secreted in the host cell cytosol because deletion of the gene encoding LLO (hly) prevents localization of L. monocytogenes to the...
Tue, 01/07/2020 - 03:14
Aflatoxins are carcinogenic chemical metabolites produced by Aspergillus spp. of the section Flavi. In Kenya, Aspergillus flavus is the most prevalent and has been associated with several acute and chronic aflatoxin outbreaks in the past. In this study, we evaluated the occurrence of A. flavus in soils from two agro-ecological regions with contrasting climatic conditions, aflatoxin contamination...
Tue, 01/07/2020 - 03:14
Epsilon toxin (ETX), produced by Clostridium perfringens types B and D, causes serious neurological disorders in animals. ETX can bind to the white matter of the brain and the oligodendrocytes, which are the cells forming the myelin sheath around neuron axons in the white matter of the central nervous system. After binding to oligodendrocytes, ETX causes demyelination in rat cerebellar slices. We...
Mon, 01/06/2020 - 03:25
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) possess an analgesic effect through several mechanisms including an inhibition of acetylcholine release from the neuromuscular junction as well as an inhibition of specific pain transmitters and mediators. Animal studies have shown that a peripheral injection of BoNTs impairs the release of major pain transmitters such as substance P, calcitonin gene related peptide (...
Sat, 01/04/2020 - 03:14
Traditional medicinal herbs are widely used and may be contaminated with mycotoxigenic fungi during cultivation, harvesting, and storage, causing spoilage and mycotoxin production. We evaluated the predominant mycoflora and extent of mycotoxin contaminations in 48 contaminated samples of 13 different medicinal herbs. In total, 70.8% of herbs were slightly contaminated with aflatoxins (<5...
Fri, 01/03/2020 - 03:25
Toxin–antitoxin systems (TASs) are widely distributed in prokaryotes and encode pairs of genes involved in many bacterial biological processes and mechanisms, including pathogenesis. The TASs have not been extensively studied in Listeria monocytogenes (Lm), a pathogenic bacterium of the Firmicutes phylum causing infections in animals and humans. Using our recently published TASmania...
Thu, 01/02/2020 - 03:14
The ionophore lasalocid is widely used as a veterinary drug against coccidiosis. We found recently that lasalocid protects cells from two unrelated bacterial toxins, the cytotoxic necrotizing factor-1 (CNF1) from Escherichia. coli and diphtheria toxin. We evaluated lasalocid’s capacity to protect cells against other toxins of medical interest comprising toxin B from Clostridium...
Thu, 01/02/2020 - 03:14
Carcinogenic aflatoxins can be inactivated by smectites (e.g., montmorillonite) through adsorption and degradation. Proteins in gastric fluids can reduce smectite’s adsorption capacity for aflatoxins. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of smectites modified with organic nutrients in restricting the influence of proteins on aflatoxin adsorption. Arginine,...
Wed, 01/01/2020 - 03:14
Fungal spoilage is an important issue for the food industry, leading to food sensory defects, food waste, economic losses and public health concern through the production of mycotoxins. Concomitantly, the search for safer natural products has gained importance since consumers began to look for less processed and chemically treated foods. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the...
Wed, 01/01/2020 - 03:14
The botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) has been extensively researched over the years in regard to its structure, mode of action, and applications. Nevertheless, the biological roles of four proteins encoded from a number of BoNT gene clusters, i.e., OrfX1-3 and P47, are unknown. Here, we investigated the diversity of orfX-p47 gene clusters using in silico analytical tools. We show that the orfX-p47...
Wed, 01/01/2020 - 03:14
Toxin detection is an important issue in numerous fields, such as agriculture/food safety, environmental monitoring, and homeland security. During the past two decades, nanotechnology has been extensively used to develop various biosensors for achieving fast, sensitive, selective and on-site analysis of toxins. In particular, the two dimensional layered (2D) nanomaterials (such as graphene and...
Wed, 01/01/2020 - 03:14
Aflatoxin contamination has been causing great concern worldwide due to the major economic impact on crop production and their toxicological effects to human and animals. Contamination can occur in the field, during transportation, and also in storage. Post-harvest contamination usually derives from the pre-harvest infection of aflatoxigenic molds, especially aflatoxin-producing Aspergilli such...
Wed, 01/01/2020 - 03:14
Ochratoxin A (OTA), an important mycotoxin that occurs in food and animal feed, has aroused widespread concern in recent years. Previous studies have indicated that OTA causes nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, genotoxicity, immunotoxicity, cytotoxicity, and neurotoxicity. The intestinal toxicity of OTA has gradually become a focus of research, but the mechanisms underlying this toxicity have not...
Tue, 12/31/2019 - 03:24
Botulism is a rare but severe neurological disease in man and animals that is caused by botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) produced by Clostridium botulinum and atypical strains from other Clostridium and non-Clostridium species. BoNTs are divided into more than seven toxinotypes based on neutralization with specific corresponding antisera, and each toxinotype is subdivided into subtypes according to...
Sat, 12/21/2019 - 03:22
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) comprise seven agreed-on serotypes, A through G. In 2014, a novel chimeric neurotoxin produced by clostridial strain IBCA10-7060 was reported as BoNT/H, with subsequent names of BoNT/FA or BoNT/HA based on sequence homology of the N-terminus to BoNT/F, the C-terminus to BoNT/A and neutralization studies. The purpose of this study was to define the immunologic...
Thu, 12/19/2019 - 03:15
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species; however, its mechanisms of action in human livers have not been fully elucidated. Thus, we investigated the toxic mechanisms of ZEN in human liver cells. HepG2 cells were treated with ZEN (0–40 μg/mL) for up to 24 h. A significant decrease in cell viability was observed after treatment with 20 and 40 μg/mL of...
Wed, 12/18/2019 - 03:23
Ciguatera poisoning (CP) is a foodborne disease caused by the consumption of seafood contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs) produced by dinoflagellates in the genera Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa. The toxin production and toxin profiles were explored in four clones of G. polynesiensis originating from different islands in French Polynesia with contrasted CP risk: RIK7 (Mangareva, Gambier), NHA4 (Nuku...
Sat, 12/14/2019 - 03:14
Various signaling pathways in filamentous fungi help cells receive and respond to environmental information. Previous studies have shown that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is phosphorylation-dependent and activated by different kinase proteins. Serine/threonine kinase plays a very important role in the MAPK pathway. In this study, we selected the serine/threonine kinase...
Fri, 12/13/2019 - 03:15
Neurogenic and non-neurogenic urethral sphincter dysfunction are common causes of voiding dysfunction. Injections of botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) into the urethral sphincter have been used to treat urethral sphincter dysfunction (USD) refractory to conventional treatment. Since its first use for patients with detrusor sphincter dyssynergia in 1988, BoNT-A has been applied to various causes of USD,...
Thu, 12/12/2019 - 03:15
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a diverse group of plant secondary metabolites with known varied toxicity. Consumption of 1,2-unsaturated PAs has been linked to acute and chronic liver damage, carcinogenicity and death, in livestock and humans, making their presence in food of concern to food regulators in Australia and internationally. In this survey, honey samples sourced from markets and...
Thu, 12/12/2019 - 03:15
Food and feed can be naturally contaminated by several mycotoxins, and concern about the hazard of exposure to mycotoxin mixtures is increasing. In this study, more than 800 metabolites were analyzed in 524 finished pig feed samples collected worldwide. Eighty-eight percent of the samples were co-contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON) and other regulated/emerging mycotoxins. The Top 60 emerging/...
Wed, 12/11/2019 - 03:27
Aspergillus flavus is a renowned plant, animal and human pathogen. areA is a global nitrogen regulatory gene of the GATA transcription factor family, shown to be the major nitrogen regulator. In this study, we identified areA in A. flavus and studied its function. The AreA protein contained a signatory zinc finger domain, which is extremely conserved across fungal species. Gene deletion (&...
Wed, 12/11/2019 - 03:27
In Cuba, ciguatera poisoning associated with fish consumption is the most commonly occurring non-bacterial seafood-borne illness. Risk management through fish market regulation has existed in Cuba for decades and consists of bans on selected species above a certain weight; however, the actual occurrence of ciguatoxins (CTXs) in seafood has never been verified. From this food safety risk...
Tue, 12/10/2019 - 03:16
A knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) study was conducted in three districts of Malawi to test whether the training had resulted in increased knowledge and adoption of recommended pre- and post-harvest crop management practices, and their contribution to reducing aflatoxin contamination in groundnut, maize and sorghum. The study was conducted with 900 farmers at the baseline and 624 farmers at...
Sat, 12/07/2019 - 03:15
Botulinum Neurotoxins (BoNTs) are a large protein family that includes the most potent neurotoxins known to humankind. BoNTs delivered locally in humans at low doses are widely used pharmaceuticals. Reliable and quantitative detection of BoNTs is of paramount importance for the clinical diagnosis of botulism, basic research, drug development, potency determination, and detection in clinical,...
Fri, 12/06/2019 - 03:14
Fumonisins are toxic secondary metabolites produced mainly by Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum. Their toxicity was evaluated, and health-based guidance values established on the basis of both Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommendations. This study presents the results of fumonisin analyses in different maize...
Fri, 12/06/2019 - 03:14
Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) therapy combined with rehabilitation on motor function in post-stroke patients. Methods: The following sources up to December 31, 2018, were searched from inception for articles in English: Pubmed, Scopus, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO, and CENTRAL. Trials using injections of BoNT-A for upper and lower limb...
Fri, 12/06/2019 - 03:14
The ecological conditions during the ripening of dry-cured ham favour the development of moulds on its surface, being frequently the presence of Penicillium nordicum, a producer of ochratoxin A (OTA). Biocontrol using moulds and yeasts usually found in dry-cured ham is a promising strategy to minimize this hazard. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of previously selected Debaryomyces...
Wed, 12/04/2019 - 03:15
Beside Fusarium toxins, Alternaria toxins are among the most commonly found mycotoxins in wheat and wheat products. Currently, investigations of possibilities of reduction of Alternaria toxins in the wheat-processing chain are limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the potency of cold atmospheric plasma treatments, as a new non-thermal approach, for reduction of alternariol (AOH...

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