Toxins

Thu, 11/07/2019 - 03:15
Aflatoxin (AF) contamination of maize is a major concern for food safety. The use of chemical fungicides is controversial, and it is necessary to develop new effective methods to control Aspergillus flavus growth and, therefore, to avoid the presence of AFs in grains. In this work, we tested in vitro the effect of six essential oils (EOs) extracted from aromatic plants. We selected those from...
Wed, 11/06/2019 - 03:15
The Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) contaminates animal feed worldwide. In vivo, DON modifies the cellular protein synthesis, thereby also affecting the immune system. However, the functional consequences of this are still ill-defined. In this study, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy pigs were incubated with different DON concentrations in the presence of Concanavalin A (...
Sun, 11/03/2019 - 02:15
The health burden of foodborne mycotoxins is considerable, but particularly for children due to their lower detoxification capacity, rapid growth and high intake of food in proportion to their weight. Through a Total Dietary Study approach, the objective was to estimate the dietary exposure and health risk caused by mycotoxins for children under 5 years living in the Lao Cai province in northern...
Fri, 11/01/2019 - 03:15
Trichothecenes are sesquiterpenoid mycotoxins produced by fungi from the order Hypocreales, including members of the Fusarium genus that infect cereal grain crops. Different trichothecene-producing Fusarium species and strains have different trichothecene chemotypes belonging to the Type A and B class. These fungi cause a disease of small grain cereals, called Fusarium head blight, and their...
Fri, 11/01/2019 - 03:15
Mycotoxins are produced by fungi and are potentially toxic to pigs. Yeast cell wall extract (YCWE) is known to adsorb mycotoxins and improve gut health in pigs. One hundred and twenty growing (56 kg; experiment 1) and 48 nursery piglets (6 kg; experiment 2) were assigned to four dietary treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design for 35 and 48 days, respectively. Factors were mycotoxins (no...
Thu, 10/31/2019 - 03:14
Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is precipitated by a family of toxins produced by harmful algae, which are consumed by filter-feeding and commercially popular shellfish. The toxins, including saxitoxin, neosaxitoxin, and gonyautoxins, accumulate in shellfish and cause intoxication when consumed by humans and animals. Symptoms can range from minor neurological dysfunction to respiratory...
Thu, 10/31/2019 - 03:14
Aspergillus welwitschiae is a species of the Nigri section of the genus Aspergillus. In nature, it is usually a saprotroph, decomposing plant material. However, it causes the bole rot disease of Agave sisalana (sisal), a plant species used for the extraction of hard natural fibers, causing great economic loss to this culture. In this study, we isolated and sequenced one genome of A. welwitschiae...
Wed, 10/30/2019 - 03:15
Voltage-gated sodium channels (NaVs) are a key determinant of neuronal signalling. Neurotoxins from diverse taxa that selectively activate or inhibit NaV channels have helped unravel the role of NaV channels in diseases, including chronic pain. Spider venoms contain the most diverse array of inhibitor cystine knot (ICK) toxins (knottins). This review provides an overview on how spider knottins...
Sun, 10/27/2019 - 03:19
In this study, magnetic graphene nanocomposite Fe3O4/rGO was synthesized by facile one-pot solvothermal method. The nanocomposite was successfully used as magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) adsorbents for the determination of aflatoxins in edible vegetable oils through the π–π stacking interactions. MSPE parameters including the amount of adsorbents, extraction and...
Fri, 10/25/2019 - 03:19
Montmorillonite clay has a wide range of applications, one of which includes the binding of mycotoxins in foods and feeds through adsorption. T-2 toxin, produced by some Fusarium, Myrothecium, and Stachybotrys species, causes dystrophy in the brain, heart, and kidney. Various formulations that include lemongrass essential oil-modified montmorillonite clay (LGEO-MMT), lemongrass powder (LGP),...
Fri, 10/25/2019 - 03:19
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a carcinogenic mycotoxin, which is produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium genera of fungi and commonly contaminates food and feed. We and others have previously shown that OTA causes sustained activation of PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK1-2 signaling pathways in different cell types and animal models. Given the close relationship between cellular signaling activity and protein...
Fri, 10/25/2019 - 03:19
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) can counteract the highly frequent involuntary muscle contractions and the uncontrolled micturition events that characterize the neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) due to supra-sacral spinal cord lesions. The ability of the toxin to block the neurotransmitter vesicular release causes the reduction of contractions and improves the compliance of the muscle and the...
Wed, 10/23/2019 - 03:20
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and zearalenone (ZEN) exert deleterious effects to human and animal health. In this study, the ability of a CotA laccase from Bacillus subtilis (BsCotA) to degrade these two mycotoxins was first investigated. Among the nine structurally defined chemical compounds, methyl syringate was the most efficient mediator assisting BsCotA to degrade AFB1 (98.0%) and ZEN (100.0%). BsCotA...
Wed, 10/23/2019 - 03:20
Galicia is an area with a strong mussel aquaculture industry in addition to other important bivalve mollusc fisheries. Between 2014 and 2017, 18,862 samples were analyzed for EU regulated marine lipophilic toxins. Okadaic acid (OA) was the most prevalent toxin and the only single toxin that produced harvesting closures. Toxin concentrations in raft mussels were generally higher than those...
Wed, 10/23/2019 - 03:20
An analytical procedure is proposed for determining three cyanotoxins (microcystin RR, microcystin LR, and nodularin) and two phycotoxins (domoic and okadaic acids) in seawater and algae-based food supplements. The toxins were first isolated by a salting out liquid extraction procedure. Since the concentration expected in the samples was very low, a dispersive liquid–liquid...
Wed, 10/23/2019 - 03:20
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections are the product of the interaction between bacteria, phages, animals, humans, and the environment. In the late 1980s, Alberta had one of the highest incidences of STEC infections in North America. Herein, we revisit and contextualize the epidemiology of STEC O157 human infections in Alberta for the period 2009–2016. STEC O157...
Sat, 10/19/2019 - 03:17
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is the predominant cause of diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) worldwide. Its cardinal virulence traits are Shiga toxins, which are encoded by stx genes, the most common of which are stx1a, stx2a, and stx2c. The toxins these genes encode differ in their in vitro and experimental phenotypes, but the human population-level impact of these differences is...
Thu, 10/17/2019 - 03:17
Clays are known to have promising adsorbing characteristics, and are used as feed additives to overcome the negative effects of mycotoxicosis in livestock farming. Modification of clay minerals by heat treatment, also called calcination, can alter their adsorption characteristics. Little information, however, is available on the effect of calcination with respect to mycotoxin binding. The purpose...
Wed, 10/16/2019 - 03:17
Mycotoxin removers include enzymes and adsorbents that may be used in animal feeds to eliminate the toxic effects of mycotoxins. This study aimed to determine the removability of two different types of mycotoxin removers, adsorbents and enzyme degradation reagents (EDRs), in the simulated gastrointestinal conditions of pigs and poultry. Seven commercial mycotoxin removers, including five EDRs and...
Sun, 10/13/2019 - 03:17
Doenjang, a Korean fermented soybean paste, is vulnerable to contamination by mycotoxins because it is directly exposed to environmental microbiota during fermentation. A method that simultaneously determines 20 mycotoxins in doenjang, including aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEN), and fumonisins (FBs) with an immunoaffinity column cleanup was optimized and validated in...
Sat, 10/12/2019 - 03:17
Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/ CPPS) has a negative impact on the quality of life, and its etiology still remains unknown. Although many treatment protocols have been evaluated in CP/CPPS, the outcomes have usually been disappointing. Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A), produced from Clostridium botulinum, has been widely used to lower urinary tract dysfunctions such as...
Sat, 10/12/2019 - 03:17
Although provisional maximum tolerable daily intake and recommended guidelines have been established for fumonisins (FB) in food, few data are available concerning levels of FB in edible animal tissues. Such data are of particular interest in avian species that can tolerate relatively high levels of fumonisins in their feed. Also, even if multiple contamination of animal feed by toxins produced...
Sat, 10/12/2019 - 03:17
The detection of catalytically active botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) can be achieved by monitoring the enzymatic cleavage of soluble NSF (N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor) attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins by the toxins’ light chains (LC) in cleavage-based assays. Thus, for sensitive BoNT detection, optimal cleavage conditions for the clinically relevant A–F...
Fri, 10/11/2019 - 03:17
Sample clean-up remains the most time-consuming and error-prone step in the whole analytical procedure for aflatoxins (AFTs) analysis. Herein, an automated and high-throughput sample clean-up platform was developed with a disposable, cost-effective immunoaffinity magnetic bead-based kit. Under optimized conditions, the automated method takes less than 30 min to simultaneously purify 20 samples...
Thu, 10/10/2019 - 03:17
Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) contributes to diarrhea and an often-lethal enterotoxemia. CPE action starts when it binds to claudin receptors, forming a small complex (90 kDa). Six small complexes then oligomerize to create prepores, followed by insertion of beta-hairpins from CPE to form beta-barrel pores named CH-1 or CH-2. Of the ~27 members of the human claudin protein family,...
Thu, 10/10/2019 - 03:17
Ciguatera is the term for poisoning resulting from eating fish from tropical or subtropical regions. The causative toxins collectively named ciguatoxins (CTXs) widely differ in structures depending on their geographic origins, which range from the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean to the Caribbean Sea. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) is caused by the ingestion of bivalve shellfish...
Sun, 10/06/2019 - 03:16
Aspergillus carbonarius is a saprobic filamentous fungus, food spoiling fungus and a producer of ochratoxin A (OTA) mycotoxin. In this study, the in vitro antifungal activity of neem oil (0.12% p/p of azadirachtin) was evaluated against the growth of six strains of A. carbonarius and the production of OTA. Four different concentrations of neem oil were tested in addition to three incubation times...
Sat, 10/05/2019 - 03:16
Forages are important components of dairy cattle rations but might harbor a plethora of mycotoxins. Ruminants are considered to be less susceptible to the adverse health effects of mycotoxins, mainly because the ruminal microflora degrades certain mycotoxins. Yet, impairment of the ruminal degradation capacity or high ruminal stability of toxins can entail that the intestinal epithelium is...
Thu, 10/03/2019 - 03:17
The manifestation of aflatoxins in feed and food is a major issue in the world as its presence leads to some health problems. This study investigates the incidence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) contamination in raw milk samples which were collected from Punjab, Pakistan. The Cluster Random Sampling technique was used to collect 960 milk samples from five different regions, and samples were collected...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
Acrylamide is formed during baking in some frequently consumed food products. It is proven to be carcinogenic in rodents and a probable human carcinogen. Thus, the food industry is working to find solutions to minimize its formation during processing. To better understand the sources of its formation, the present study is aimed at investigating how acrylamide concentration may be influenced by...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
Two garlic-derived compounds, Propyl Propane Thiosulfonate (PTS) and Propyl Propane Thiosulfinate (PTSO), were examined for their efficacy against mycotoxigenic Fusarium species (F. graminearum, F. langsethiae, F. verticillioides). The objectives were to assess the inhibitory effect of these compounds on growth and mycotoxin production in vitro, and in situ in artificially inoculated wheat, oats...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
The ability to produce enterohemolysin is regarded as a potential virulence factor for enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and is frequently associated with severe human diseases such as hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). The responsible toxin, which has also been termed EHEC-hemolysin (EHEC-Hly, syn. Ehx), belongs to the Repeats in Toxin (RTX)-family of pore-...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
Peanuts are widely consumed in many local dishes in southeast Asian countries, especially in Malaysia which is one of the major peanut-importing countries in this region. Therefore, Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxin contamination in peanuts during storage are becoming major concerns due to the tropical weather in this region that favours the growth of aflatoxigenic fungi. The present study thus...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
The diffusion of Panton–Valentine leukocidin (PVL)–positive methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is a health problem in Algeria. The objectives of the study were to investigate the global distribution of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and MRSA isolates in different ecological niches in this country. In total, 2246 samples were collected from humans, livestock, wild...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
Shiga toxin-producing enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is an important foodborne pathogen. Baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxylflavone), a flavone isolated from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis, is considered as a potential antibacterial agent to control foodborne pathogens. Among seven compounds selected by in silico screening of the natural compound database, baicalein inhibited...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
Chronic Migraine (CM) is a disabling neurologic condition with a severe impact on functioning and quality of life. Successful therapeutic management of patients with CM is complex, and differences in therapeutic response could be attributable to genetically determined factors, sensitivity to pharmacological treatment, psychosocial and relational factors affecting the patient’s...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
Cladosporium species are endophytic fungi that grow on organic matter and are considered food contaminants. The anti-microbial and anti-tumor naphthoquinones fusarubin (FUS) and anhydrofusarubin (AFU) were isolated using column chromatography from a Cladosporium species residing inside Rauwolfia leaves. The impact of FUS and AFU on cell growth was assessed in acute myeloid leukemia (OCI-AML3) and...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
Clostridium perfringens type A causes gas gangrene characterized by myonecrosis and development of an effective therapy for treating affected patients is of clinical importance. It was recently reported that the expression of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is greatly up-regulated by C. perfringens infection. However, the role of G-CSF in C. perfringens-mediated myonecrosis is still...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
Listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular facultative pathogen that causes listeriosis, a foodborne zoonotic infection. There are differences in the pathogenic potential of L. monocytogenes subtypes and strains. Comparison of the genome sequences among L. monocytogenes pathogenic strains EGD-e and F2365 with nonpathogenic L. innocua CLIP1182 and L. monocytogenes strain HCC23 revealed a set of...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
Mycotoxins are ubiquitous and unavoidable harmful fungal products with the ability to cause disease in both animals and humans, and are found in almost all types of foods, with a greater prevalence in hot humid environments. These mycotoxins vary greatly in structure and biochemical effects; therefore, by better understanding the toxicological and pathological aspects of mycotoxins, we can be...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
Brevetoxins are produced by dinoflagellates such as Karenia brevis in warm-water red tides and cause neurotoxic shellfish poisoning. They bind to voltage-gated sodium channels at neurotoxin receptor 5, making the channels more active by shifting the voltage-dependence of activation to more negative potentials and by slowing the inactivation process. Previous work using photoaffinity labeling...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) appears to be one of the best intravesical treatments for interstitial cystitis/bladder painful syndrome (IC/BPS). We aimed to point out what the evidence is regarding the effects of BoNT/A intravesically injected in patients with IC/BPS. We performed a systematic review of all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing BoNT/A for IC/BPS by using Medline, EMBASE...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
Ruminants are less susceptible to the effects of mycotoxins than monogastric animals as their rumen microbiota are claimed to degrade and/or deactivate at least some of these toxic compounds. However, the mycotoxin degradation is not well-known yet. For this, a sensitive, specific, and accurate analytical method is needed to determine mycotoxins in the rumen fluid. This study aims to develop and...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a well-known, natural contaminant in foods and feeds because of its toxic effects, such as nephrotoxicity in various animals. Recent studies have revealed that Alcaligenes faecalis could generate enzymes to efficiently degrade OTA to ochratoxin α (OTα) in vitro. In an effort to obtain the OTA degrading mechanism, we purified and identified a novel...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
Enzymatic detoxification has become a promising approach for control of mycotoxins postharvest in grains through modification of chemical structures determining their toxicity. In the present study fumonisin esterase FumD (EC 3.1.1.87) (FUMzyme®; BIOMIN, Tulln, Austria), hydrolysing fumonisin (FB) mycotoxins by de-esterification, was utilised to develop an enzymatic reduction method in a...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is produced by the anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium Clostridium botulinum. As one of the most poisonous toxins known and a potential bioterrosism agent, BoNT is characterized by a complex mode of action comprising: internalization, translocation and proteolytic cleavage of a substrate, which inhibits synaptic exocytotic transmitter release at neuro-muscular nerve...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
Ultrasound is an emerging decontamination technology with potential use in the global food processing industry. In the present study, we explored power ultrasound for processing aqueous aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). AFB1 was degraded by 85.1% after 80 min of ultrasound exposure. The reaction products of AFB1 were identified and their molecular formulae elucidated by ultra-high-performance liquid...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
Clostridium is a broad genus of anaerobic, spore-forming, rod-shaped, Gram-positive bacteria that can be found in different environments all around the world. The genus includes human and animal pathogens that produce potent exotoxins that cause rapid and potentially fatal diseases responsible for countless human casualties and billion-dollar annual loss to the agricultural sector. Diseases...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
Salmonella Typhimurium is an enteric pathogen that causes acute and chronic infections in humans and animals. One-week-old germ-free piglets were orally colonized/infected with the Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 strain or its isogenic rough ΔrfaL, ΔrfaG or ΔrfaC mutants with exactly defined lipopolysaccharide (LPS) defects. After 24 h, the piglets were euthanized and the...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
The larvae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L., BSFL) have received increased industrial interest as a novel protein source for food and feed. Previous research has found that insects, including BSFL, are capable of metabolically converting aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), but recovery of total AFB1 is less than 20% when accounting for its conversion to most known metabolites. The aim of this...

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