Toxins

Fri, 04/16/2021 - 00:00
Aflatoxins, which commonly contaminate animal feeds and human food, present a major public health challenge in sub-Saharan Africa. After ingestion by cows, aflatoxin B1 is metabolized to aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), some of which is excreted in milk. This study involved smallholder dairy farms in urban and periurban areas of Nairobi and Kisumu, Kenya. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of...
Fri, 04/16/2021 - 00:00
Rice bran, a by-product of the rice milling process, has emerged as a functional food and being used in formulation of healthy food and drinks. However, rice bran is often contaminated with numerous mycotoxins. In this study, a method to simultaneous detection of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2), ochratoxin A (OTA), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisins (FB1 and FB2), sterigmatocystin (STG), T-...
Wed, 04/14/2021 - 00:00
Plant materials used in the production of pig feed are frequently contaminated with mycotoxins. T-2 toxin is a secondary metabolite of selected Fusarium species, and it can exert a harmful influence on living organisms. Most mycotoxins enter the body via the gastrointestinal tract, and they can modulate the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) function. However, little is known about the...
Tue, 04/13/2021 - 00:00
Our climate is projected to change gradually over time. Mycotoxin occurrence in cereal grains is both directly and indirectly related to local weather and to climate changes. Direct routes are via the effects of precipitation, relative humidity, and temperatures on both fungal infection of the grain and mycotoxin formation. Indirect routes are via the effects of the wind dispersal of spores,...
Sat, 04/10/2021 - 00:00
Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin is a clostridial binary toxin consisting of actin ADP-ribosyltransferase (C2I) and C2II binding components. Activated C2II (C2IIa) binds to cellular receptors and forms oligomer in membrane rafts. C2IIa oligomer assembles with C2I and contributes to the transport of C2I into the cytoplasm of host cells. C2IIa induces Ca2+-induced lysosomal exocytosis, extracellular...
Sat, 04/10/2021 - 00:00
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin frequently found in raw and processed foods. While it is considered a possible human carcinogen, the mechanism of action remains unclear. OTA has been shown to be hepatotoxic in both in vitro and in vivo models and oxidative stress may be one of the factors contributing to its toxicity. Hence, the effect of OTA on human hepatocellular carcinoma, HepG2 cells, was...
Fri, 04/09/2021 - 00:00
Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) regularly causes food poisoning and antibiotic-associated diarrhea; therefore, reliable toxin detection is crucial. To this aim, we explored stationary and mobile strategies to detect CPE either exclusively by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) or, alternatively, by toxin-enrichment via the cellular receptor of CPE, claudin-4, and mAb detection. Among the newly...
Wed, 04/07/2021 - 00:00
Beauvericin (BEA) and deoxynivalenol are toxins produced by Fusarium species that can contaminate food and feed. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of these mycotoxins on the maturation of oocytes from gilts and sows. Furthermore, the antioxidant profiles in the oocytes’ environment were assessed. Cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs) from gilts and sows were exposed to beauvericin (BEA)...
Thu, 04/01/2021 - 00:00
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin, considered an emerging toxin in Europe where recently a safety limit of 44 µg TTX kg−1 was recommended by authorities. In this study, three specimens of the large gastropod trumpet shell Charonia lampas bought in a market in south Portugal were analyzed using a neuroblastoma cell (N2a) based assay and by LC-MS/MS. N2a toxicity was observed in the viscera...
Thu, 04/01/2021 - 00:00
The Hbl toxin is a three-component haemolytic complex produced by Bacillus cereus sensu lato strains and implicated as a cause of diarrhoea in B. cereus food poisoning. While the structure of the HblB component of this toxin is known, the structures of the other components are unresolved. Here, we describe the expression of the recombinant HblL1 component and the elucidation of its structure to 1...
Thu, 04/01/2021 - 00:00
Ochratoxin A (OTA) usually contaminates agricultural products such as grapes, oatmeal, coffee and spices. Light was reported as an effective strategy to control spoilage fungi and mycotoxins. This research investigated the effects of light with different wavelengths on the growth and the production of OTA in Aspergillus ochraceus and Aspergillus carbonarius. The results showed that the growth of...
Wed, 03/31/2021 - 00:00
The development of incurred reference materials containing citrinin (CIT) and their successful application in a method validation study (MVS) in order to harmonize CIT determination in food and food supplements are demonstrated. CIT-contaminated materials made of red yeast rice (RYR), wheat flour, and Ginkgo biloba leaves (GBL), as well as food supplements made of red yeast rice (FS-RYR) and...
Fri, 03/26/2021 - 00:00
There is extensive literature supporting the efficacy of botulinum toxin (BoNT-A) for the treatment of post-stroke spasticity, however, there remain gaps in the routine management of patients with post-stroke spasticity. A panel of 21 Italian experts was selected to participate in this web-based survey Delphi process to provide guidance that can support clinicians in the decision-making process....
Thu, 03/25/2021 - 00:00
Bacillus cytotoxicus belongs to the Bacillus cereus group that also comprises the foodborne pathogen Bacillus cereus sensu stricto, Bacillus anthracis causing anthrax, as well as the biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis. The first B. cytotoxicus was isolated in the context of a severe food poisoning outbreak leading to fatal cases of diarrheal disease. Subsequent characterization of the outbreak...
Sat, 03/20/2021 - 00:00
Parkinson’s disease is the most common age-related motoric neurodegenerative disease. In addition to the cardinal motor symptoms of tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability, there are numerous non-motor symptoms as well. Among the non-motor symptoms, autonomic nervous system dysfunction is common. Autonomic symptoms associated with Parkinson’s disease include sialorrhea,...
Sat, 03/20/2021 - 00:00
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a potential human carcinogen that poses a significant concern in food safety and public health. OTA has been found in a wide variety of agricultural commodities, including cereal grains. This study investigated the reduction of OTA during the preparation of rice- and oat-based porridge by a simulated indirect steam process. The effects of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and...
Fri, 03/19/2021 - 00:00
Cordyceps fumosorosea, an insect pathogenic fungus, produces different toxins/secondary metabolites which can act as pest control agents. This study reports the extraction and characterization of crude mycelial extracts of C. fumosorosea isolate SP502 along with their bio-efficacy against Bemisia tabaci and Aphis craccivora. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, liquid chromatography, mass...
Fri, 03/19/2021 - 00:00
The kidney is threatened by a lot of potentially toxic substances. To study the influence of the nephrotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) we established a cell co-culture model consisting of human renal proximal tubule cells and fibroblasts. We studied the effect of OTA on cell survival, the expression of genes and/or proteins related to cell death, extracellular matrix and energy homeostasis. OTA-induced...
Fri, 03/19/2021 - 00:00
Shiga toxins (Stxs) are classic bacterial toxins and major virulence factors of toxigenic Shigella dysenteriae and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). These toxins recognize a glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide (Gb3/CD77) as their receptor and inhibit protein synthesis in cells by cleaving 28S ribosomal RNA. They are the major cause of life-threatening complications such as hemolytic...
Fri, 03/19/2021 - 00:00
Food can be contaminated by various types of contaminants such as mycotoxins and toxic heavy metals. Therefore, it is very likely that simultaneous intake of more than one type of food contaminant by consumers may take place, which provides a strong rationale for investigating the combined toxicities of these food contaminants. Patulin is one of the most common food-borne mycotoxins, whereas...
Thu, 03/18/2021 - 00:00
Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species, is the most widespread mycotoxin in poultry feed worldwide. Long term-exposure from low to moderate DON concentrations can produce alteration in growth performance and impairment of the health status of birds. To evaluate the efficacy of mycotoxin-detoxifying agent alleviating the toxic effects of DON, the most relevant...
Thu, 03/18/2021 - 00:00
Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is one of the most frequently encountered seafood poisoning syndromes; it is caused by the consumption of marine finfish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). The majority of CFP cases result from eating fish flesh, but a traditional belief exists among people that the head and viscera are more toxic and should be avoided. Unlike the viscera, scientific data to...
Wed, 03/17/2021 - 00:00
This study aimed to determine the long-term quality of life (QoL) in hemifacial spasm (HFS) patients after treating with Abo-botulinum toxin A (Abo-BTX). The study assessed the disease-specific QoL (hemifacial spasm questionnaire 30 items; HFS 30), the involuntary movements (abnormal involuntary movement scale; AIMS), general health QoL (Medical Outcomes 36-Item Short Form Health Survey; SF-36),...
Wed, 03/17/2021 - 00:00
The levels of fumonisins (FUMO)—mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides—in maize for food and feed are subject to European Union regulations. Compliance with the regulations requires the targeting of, among others, the agroclimatic factors influencing fungal contamination and FUMO production. Arvalis-Institut du végétal has created a national, multiyear database for maize, based on field...
Wed, 03/17/2021 - 00:00
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a toxic fungal metabolite associated with human and animal diseases, is a natural contaminant encountered in agricultural commodities, food and feed. Heterogeneity of AFB1 makes risk estimation a challenge. To overcome this, novel sample selection, preparation and extraction steps were designed for representative sampling of chicken feed. Accuracy, precision, limits of...
Mon, 03/15/2021 - 00:00
We conducted a scoping review to investigate the effects of intramuscular injection of Botulinum Toxin A (BoNT-A) on bone morphology. We investigated if the muscle atrophy associated with Injection of BoNT-A had effects on the neighboring bone. We used the search terms: osteopenia, bone atrophy, Botulinum Toxin A, Micro-CT, mice or rat. The following databases were searched: Medline, Embase,...
Sun, 03/14/2021 - 00:00
Clostridium perfringens is a Gram-positive bacterium that possess seven toxinotypes (A, B, C, D, E, F, and G) that are responsible for the production of six major toxins, i.e., α, β, ε, ι, CPE, and NetB. The aim of this study is to find out the occurrence of toxinotypes in buffalo and cattle of Punjab province in Pakistan and their corresponding toxin-encoding genes from the isolated toxinotypes...
Sun, 03/14/2021 - 00:00
Mycotoxins are naturally occurring toxins that can affect livestock health and performance upon consumption of contaminated feedstuffs. To mitigate the negative effects of mycotoxins, sequestering agents, adsorbents, or binders can be included to feed to interact with toxins, aiding their passage through the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and reducing their bioavailability. The parietal cell wall...
Sat, 03/13/2021 - 00:00
Aflatoxins (AFs) are among the most harmful fungal secondary metabolites imposing serious health risks on both household animals and humans. The more frequent occurrence of aflatoxins in the feed and food chain is clearly foreseeable as a consequence of the extreme weather conditions recorded most recently worldwide. Furthermore, production parameters, such as unadjusted variety use and improper...
Sat, 03/13/2021 - 00:00
Mammalian animal toxicity of ochratoxin A (OTA) has focused largely in the past half-century on pigs because of initial recognition of it as a principal cause of intermittent growth suppression and renal disease caused by mouldy feed. Subsequent classical toxicology has used laboratory rodents because renal pathology in pigs raised questions concerning possible involvement in the human idiopathic...
Fri, 03/12/2021 - 00:00
Multiple mycotoxins were tested in milled rice samples (n = 200) from traders at different milling points within the Mwea Irrigation Scheme in Kenya. Traders provided the names of the cultivar, village where paddy was cultivated, sampling locality, miller, and month of paddy harvest between 2018 and 2019. Aflatoxin, citrinin, fumonisin, ochratoxin A, diacetoxyscirpenol, T2, HT2, and...
Fri, 03/12/2021 - 00:00
Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) that can be excreted in milk of cows after consuming contaminated feed. The aim of this study consisted of a field monitoring to assess the contamination levels of AFB1 in 60 feed samples from two feeding systems for high-yielding dairy cows and of AFM1 in the corresponding raw milk samples. The aflatoxins were analyzed by in...
Fri, 03/12/2021 - 00:00
Maize silage, which in Europe is the main feed for dairy cattle in winter, can be contaminated by mycotoxins. Mycotoxigenic Fusarium spp. originating from field infections may survive in badly sealed silages or re-infect at the cutting edge during feed-out. In this way, mycotoxins produced in the field may persist during the silage process. In addition, typical silage fungi such as Penicillium...
Thu, 03/11/2021 - 00:00
Zearalenone (ZEA) is a nonsteroidal estrogenic mycotoxin found in several food commodities worldwide. ZEA causes reproductive disorders, genotoxicity, and testicular toxicity in animals. However, little is known about the functions of apoptosis and autophagy after exposure to ZEA in granulosa cells. This study investigated the effects of ZEA on chicken granulosa cells. The results show that ZEA...
Thu, 03/11/2021 - 00:00
Seeking useful biological agents for mycotoxin detoxification has achieved success in the last twenty years thanks to the participation of many multidisciplinary teams. We have recently witnessed discoveries in the fields of bacterial genetics (inclusive of next-generation sequencing), protein encoding, and bioinformatics that have helped to shape the latest perception of how microorganisms/...
Sun, 03/07/2021 - 00:00
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin occurring in foods consumed by humans. Recently, there has been growing global concern regarding OTA toxicity. The main target organ of OTA is the kidney, but the mechanism underlying renal toxicity is not well known. In this study, human-derived proximal tubular epithelial cells, HK-2 cells, were used for RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) and transcriptome analysis. In...
Fri, 03/05/2021 - 00:00
The human intestine is regularly exposed to ingested food contaminants, such as fungal and bacterial toxins, which have been described to co-occur in a mixed diet. Thus, it is of utmost importance to understand possible interactions between contaminants of different origin. Hence, we investigated the single and combined effects of one of the most abundant mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON; 0.1 to...
Fri, 03/05/2021 - 00:00
The natural co-occurrence of 42 mycotoxins was investigated in unprocessed oat grains grown in Ireland. The sample set included a total of 208 oat crops harvested during 2015–2016 and produced using conventional, organic, or gluten free farming systems. A range of different toxins was identified, including the major type A (neosolaniol, HT-2 and T-2 toxins, T-2 triol, and T-2-glucoside, co-...
Fri, 03/05/2021 - 00:00
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a mycotoxin that has been reported to damage various types of cells/tissues, yet its effects on endothelial cells (ECs) have never been investigated. Therefore, this study investigates the potential effects of ZEN using bovine aortic ECs (BAECs). In this study, we found that ZEN induced apoptosis of BAECs through increased cleavage of caspase 3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase...
Thu, 03/04/2021 - 00:00
Aflatoxins (AFs) are some of the most agriculturally important and harmful mycotoxins. At least 20 AFs have been identified to this date. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), the most potent fungal toxin, can cause toxicity in many species, including humans. AFs are produced by 22 species of Aspergillus section Flavi, 4 species of A. section Nidulantes, and 2 species of A. section Ochraceorosei. The most...
Wed, 03/03/2021 - 00:00
The removal of mycotoxins from contaminated feed using lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been proposed as an inexpensive, safe, and promising mycotoxin decontamination strategy. In this study, viable and heat-inactivated L. acidophilus CIP 76.13T and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CIP 101027T cells were investigated for their ability to remove aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (...
Wed, 03/03/2021 - 00:00
With the growing diversity and complexity of diet, humans are at risk of simultaneous exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), which are well-known contaminants in dairy and other agricultural products worldwide. The intestine represents the first barrier against external contaminants; however, evidence about the combined effect of AFB1 and AFM1 on intestinal integrity is lacking...
Wed, 03/03/2021 - 00:00
Project Aquafluosense is designed to develop prototypes for a fluorescence-based instrumentation setup for in situ measurements of several characteristic parameters of water quality. In the scope of the project an enzyme-linked fluorescent immunoassay (ELFIA) method has been developed for the detection of several environmental xenobiotics, including mycotoxin zearalenone (ZON). ZON, produced by...
Tue, 03/02/2021 - 00:00
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a major disease in wheat causing severe economic losses globally by reducing yield and contaminating grain with mycotoxins. In Canada, Fusarium graminearum is the principal etiological agent of FHB in wheat, producing mainly the trichothecene mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON) and its acetyl derivatives (15-acetyl deoxynivalenol (15ADON) and 3-acetyl deoxynivalenol (...
Sat, 02/27/2021 - 00:00
The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) is a potent nephrocarcinogen, mainly in male rats. The aim of this study was to determine the time course of gene expression (GeneChip® Rat Gene 2.0 ST Array, Affymetrix) in kidney samples from male and female F344 rats, treated daily (p.o) with 0.50 mg/kg b.w. (body weight) of OTA for 7 or 21 days, and evaluate if there were differences between both sexes. After...
Fri, 02/26/2021 - 00:00
Staphylococcus aureus is the most common mastitis-related pathogen in dairy cattle, goats, and sheep worldwide. However, the population structure and genomic characteristics of mastitis-associated S. aureus in small ruminants are limited. Furthermore, the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics involved in the pathogenicity of S. aureus have been thoroughly defined, yet their association with...
Wed, 02/24/2021 - 00:00
Consumption of cereals contaminated by mycotoxins poses health risks. For instance, Fumonisins B, mainly produced by Fusarium verticillioides and Fusariumproliferatum, and the type B trichothecene deoxynivalenol, typically produced by Fusarium graminearum, are highly prevalent on cereal grains that are staples of many cultural diets and known to represent a toxic risk hazard. In Peru, corn and...
Wed, 02/24/2021 - 00:00
This review aimed to investigate the occurrence of mycotoxins, their toxic effects, and the detoxifying agents discussed in scientific publications that are related to pig production. Mycotoxins that are of major interest are aflatoxins and Fusarium toxins, such as deoxynivalenol and fumonisins, because of their elevated frequency at a global scale and high occurrence in corn, which is the main...
Tue, 02/23/2021 - 00:00
Mycotoxin contamination of feed does not only cut across food and feed value chains but compromises animal productivity and health, affecting farmers, traders and consumers alike. To aid in the development of a sustainable strategy for mycotoxin control in animal-based food production systems, this study focused on smallholder farming systems where 77 dairy cattle feed samples were collected from...
Tue, 02/23/2021 - 00:00
AbobotulinumtoxinA (aboBoNT-A) has been used for various cosmetic purposes, including minimization of moderate to severe lines, or other cosmetic indications, in the face and neck. We carried out a systematic review to identify all relevant evidence on the treatment approaches and outcomes of aboBoNT-A as a cosmetic treatment of the middle and lower areas of the face, and the neck. Embase,...

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