Toxins

The Research Publications track research that is published across national and international peer-reviewed journals. The most recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal Title, Subject, USDA Grant Funding Agencies or FDA Grant Funding Agencies. The research publications are tracked across five subject areas: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, and Viruses.

Wed, 08/12/2020 - 00:00
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxic mycotoxin, which deserves particular attention for its widespread contamination of a variety of food and feed. Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus carbonarius, and Penicillium nordicum are an important source of OTA in three different kinds of food commodities, including cereals, grape and dried fruit products, and dry-cured meat products. Deeper knowledge of...
Tue, 08/11/2020 - 00:00
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a heat-stable neurotoxin typically associated with pufferfish intoxications. It has also been detected in shellfish from Japan, the United Kingdom, Greece, China, Italy, the Netherlands and New Zealand. A recent European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) scientific opinion concluded that a level of <0.044 mg TTX/kg in marine bivalves and gastropods, based on a 400 g...
Mon, 08/10/2020 - 00:00
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a highly specific voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) blocker in clinical evaluation as a peripheral-acting analgesic for chronic pain. This study presents the first published results of the safety including cardiac liability of TTX at therapeutic-relevant concentrations in twenty-five healthy adults. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-, and positive- (moxifloxacin)...
Sat, 08/08/2020 - 00:00
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) produced by Clostridia species are the most potent identified natural toxins. Classically, the toxic neurological syndrome is characterized by an (afebrile) acute symmetric descending flaccid paralysis. The most know typical clinical syndrome of botulism refers to the foodborne form. All different forms are characterized by the same symptoms, caused by toxin-induced...
Fri, 08/07/2020 - 00:00
Several analgesic α-conotoxins have been isolated from marine cone snails. Structural modification of native peptides has provided potent and selective analogues for two of its known biological targets—nicotinic acetylcholine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) G protein-coupled (GABAB) receptors. Both of these molecular targets are implicated in pain pathways. Despite...
Fri, 08/07/2020 - 00:00
Pigs are highly susceptible to mycotoxins. This study investigated the effects of a postbiotic yeast cell wall-based blend (PYCW; Nicholasville, KY, USA) on growth and health of newly-weaned pigs under dietary challenge of multiple mycotoxins. Forty-eight newly-weaned pigs (21 d old) were individually allotted to four dietary treatments, based on a three phase-feeding, in a randomized complete...
Wed, 08/05/2020 - 00:00
The three different botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) preparations being licensed in Europe and the U.S. differ in protein content, which seems to be a major factor influencing the antigenicity of BoNT/A. In the present study, several arguments out of our research pool were collected to demonstrate that the clinical response and antigenicity were different for the three BoNT/A preparations: some...
Tue, 08/04/2020 - 00:00
Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a mycotoxin from Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, classified as carcinogenic and hepatotoxic. The objective of the present investigation was to determine its presence in raw milk from north-central Ecuador, constituted by the provinces of Pichincha, Manabí, and Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas. These areas represent approximately 30% of Ecuadorian...
Sun, 08/02/2020 - 00:00
Mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) can negatively affect pig health. However, little is known about their effects on boar semen. We assessed the individual and combined effects of DON and ZEN on boar semen in vitro. In a pretrial, we determined the minimum dose (MiD) of each mycotoxin that induces a significant alteration of sperm progressive motility, as investigated using...
Sat, 08/01/2020 - 00:00
Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) is a major therapeutic agent that has been proven to be a successful treatment for different neurological disorders, with emerging novel therapeutic indications each year. BoNT/A exerts its action by blocking SNARE complex formation and vesicle release through the specific cleavage of SNAP-25 protein; the toxin is able to block the release of pro-inflammatory...
Sat, 08/01/2020 - 00:00
In stroke survivors, rectus femoris (RF) spasticity is often implicated in gait pattern alterations such as stiff knee gait (SKG). Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) is considered the gold standard for focal spasticity treatment. However—even if the accuracy of injection is crucial for BoNT-A efficacy—instrumented guidance for BoNT-A injection is not routinely applied in clinical...
Sat, 08/01/2020 - 00:00
Diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) are among the most prevalent marine toxins in Europe’s and in other temperate coastal regions. These toxins are produced by several dinoflagellate species; however, the contamination of the marine trophic chain is often attributed to species of the genus Dinophysis. This group of toxins, constituted by okadaic acid (OA) and analogous molecules (...
Sat, 08/01/2020 - 00:00
Spastic muscles are weak muscles. It is known that muscle weakness is linked to poor motor performance. Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injections are considered as the first-line treatment for focal spasticity. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively investigate the effects of BoNT injections on force control of spastic biceps brachii muscles in stroke survivors. Ten stroke survivors with...
Sat, 08/01/2020 - 00:00
Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is currently the most common marine biotoxin food poisoning worldwide, associated with human consumption of circumtropical fish and marine invertebrates that are contaminated with ciguatoxins. Ciguatoxins are very potent sodium-channel activator neurotoxins, that pose risks to human health at very low concentrations (>0.01 ng per g of fish flesh in the case...
Fri, 07/31/2020 - 00:00
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi. These contaminate dried seafoods during processing and storage and represent a potential health hazard for consumers. A sensitive, selective and accurate liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was established for simultaneous quantification of four common mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), T-2 toxin (T-2), ochratoxin...
Fri, 07/31/2020 - 00:00
The marine environment is known to be occupied by microorganisms. The potential toxicity of some of these marine microorganisms, that are capable of producing unknown biotoxins, has always been underestimated. Indeed, these biotoxins may be a threat to human health through the consumption of contaminated seafood and fish. For more than ten years, recurrent but atypical toxicity has been detected...
Fri, 07/31/2020 - 00:00
Palytoxin (PLTX) is one of the most poisonous substances known to date and considered as an emergent toxin in Europe. Palytoxin binds to the Na+-K+ ATPase, converting the enzyme in a permeant cation channel. This toxin is known for causing human fatal intoxications associated with the consumption of contaminated fish and crustaceans such as crabs, groupers, mackerel, and parrotfish. Human...
Fri, 07/31/2020 - 00:00
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by some filamentous fungi, which can cause toxicity in animal species, including humans. Because of their high toxicological impacts, mycotoxins have received significant consideration, leading to the definition of strict legislative thresholds and limits in many areas of the world. Mycotoxins can reduce farm profits not only through reduced crop...
Thu, 07/30/2020 - 00:00
Recently, consumption of the gyromitrin-containing neurotoxic mushroom Gyromitra sp. (false morel), as gourmet food was hypothesized to play a role in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis genesis. The present review analyses recent data on edibility and toxicity of false and true morels and Agaricus spp. Controversy about the toxic status of Gyromitra esculenta was due to variable toxin...
Wed, 07/29/2020 - 00:00
Previous studies have reported increased brain deposits of iron in patients with chronic migraine (CM). This study aims to determine the relation between iron deposits and outcome after treatment with OnabotulinumtoxinA (OnabotA). Demographic and clinical data were collected for this study through a prospective cohort study including 62 CM patients treated with OnabotA in the Hospital Cl&...
Wed, 07/29/2020 - 00:00
Climate change is primarily manifested by elevated temperature and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels and is projected to provide suitable cultivation grounds for pests and pathogens in the otherwise unsuitable regions. The impacts of climate change have been predicted in many parts of the world, which could threaten global food safety and food security. The aim of the present work was therefore to...
Tue, 07/28/2020 - 00:00
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a known toxic human carcinogen and can be detoxified by laccases, which are multicopper oxidases that convert several environmental pollutants and toxins. In this study, a new laccase that could catalyze AFB1 degradation was purified and identified from the white-rot fungus Cerrena unicolor 6884. The laccase was purified using (NH4)2SO4 precipitation and anion exchange...
Tue, 07/28/2020 - 00:00
To investigate the mechanism for the production of paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) in toxic dinoflagellates, with a 2D-gel based approach, we had made two sets of proteomic comparisons: (a) between a toxic Alexandrium catenella (AC-T) and a phylogenetically closely related non-toxic strain (AC-N), (b) between toxic AC-T grown in a medium with 10% normal amount of phosphate (AC-T-10%P) known to...
Sun, 07/26/2020 - 00:00
This paper reports the first results on obtaining an enzyme preparation that might be promising for the simultaneous decontamination of plant feeds contaminated with a polyketide fusariotoxin, zearalenone (ZEN), and enhancing the availability of their nutritional components. A novel ZEN-specific lactonohydrolase (ZHD) was expressed in a Penicillium canescens strain PCA-10 that was developed...
Sat, 07/25/2020 - 00:00
Oleander is a spontaneous shrub widely occurring in Mediterranean regions. Poisoning is sporadically reported in livestock, mainly due to the ingestion of leaves containing toxic cardiac glycosides (primarily oleandrin). In this study, 50 lactating Fleckvieh cows were affected after being offered a diet containing dry oleander pruning wastes accidentally mixed with fodder. Clinical examination,...
Sat, 07/25/2020 - 00:00
Cervical dystonia (CD) is a neurological movement disorder characterized by sustained involuntary muscle contractions. First-line therapy for CD is intramuscular injections of botulinum neurotoxin (e.g., abobotulinumtoxinA) into the affected muscles. The objective of this systematic literature review is to assess the clinical evidence regarding the effects of abobotulinumtoxinA for treatment of...
Wed, 07/22/2020 - 00:00
Blueberry (BB) and cherry pomace were investigated as new biosorbents for aflatoxins (AFs) sequestration from buffered solutions, gastrointestinal fluids and model wine. Among the tested biosorbents, BB exhibited the maximum adsorption performance for AFs and hence was further selected for the optimization of experimental parameters like pH, dosage, time and initial concentration of AFs. Material...
Tue, 07/21/2020 - 00:00
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of single and combined administrations of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) on the histology and ultrastructure of pig liver. The study was performed on immature gilts, which were divided into four equal groups. Animals in the experimental groups received DON at a dose of 12 μg/kg body weight (BW) per day, ZEN at 40 μg/...
Mon, 07/20/2020 - 00:00
A multi-mycotoxin chromatographic method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitation of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZON), deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), fumonisins (FB1, FB2 and FB3), T-2 toxin (T-2) and HT-2 toxin (HT-2) in feed. The three most popular sample preparation techniques for determination...
Mon, 07/20/2020 - 00:00
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by various fungal species. They are commonly found in a wide range of agricultural products. Mycotoxins contained in food enter living organisms and may have harmful effects on many internal organs and systems. The gastrointestinal tract, which first comes into contact with mycotoxins present in food, is particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects...
Sun, 07/19/2020 - 00:00
T-2 mycotoxin degradation and detoxification efficiency of seven bacterial strains were investigated with zebrafish microinjection method in three steps ((1) determination of mycotoxin toxicity baseline, (2) examination of bacterial metabolites toxicity, (3) identification of degradation products toxicity). Toxicity of T-2 was used as a baseline of toxic effects, bacterial metabolites of strains...
Sat, 07/18/2020 - 00:00
The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of botulinum toxin (BoNT) in masseter muscle reduction depending on the amount of chin deviation. Exploring distinctive effects of BoNT relative to the characteristics of facial asymmetry will aid in planning and predicting treatment outcomes. Sixteen adult volunteers were classified into two groups according to the degree of menton deviation...
Sat, 07/18/2020 - 00:00
The mutagenic patterns of A. flavus, A. parasiticus and A. fumigatus extracts were evaluated. These strains of toxigenic Aspergillus were collected from the agricultural environment. The Ames test was performed on Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100 and TA102, without and with S9mix (exogenous metabolic activation system). These data were compared with the mutagenicity of the corresponding...
Wed, 07/15/2020 - 00:00
As a side eect of food production, mycotoxins have always accompanied humanity, even if the danger posed by these molecules has only recently been understood and new research has begun to identify and study ways to reduce their presence in food. [...]
Wed, 07/15/2020 - 00:00
Bacillus cereus is a common and ubiquitous foodborne pathogen with an increasing prevalence rate in dairy products in China. High and unmet demands for such products, particularly milk, raise the risk of B. cereus associated contamination. The presence of B. cereus and its virulence factors in dairy products may cause food poisoning and other illnesses. Thus, this review first summarizes the...
Tue, 07/14/2020 - 00:00
Ultra-performance hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry system (UP-HILIC–MS/MS) was used in multi-toxin analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) and tetrodotoxins (TTXs) in sample matrices from bivalve molluscan species commercially produced for human consumption in Sweden. The method validation includes 17 toxins of which GTX6 and two TTX analogues...
Sat, 07/11/2020 - 00:00
In recent years, very many incidences of contamination with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in pistachio nuts have been reported as a major global problem for the crop. In Europe, legislation is in force and 12 μg/kg of AFB1 is the maximum limit set for pistachios to be subjected to physical treatment before human consumption. The goal of the current study was to develop a mechanistic, weather-driven...
Sat, 07/11/2020 - 00:00
International trade is highly affected by mycotoxin contaminations, which result in an annual 5% to 10% loss of global crop production [...]
Wed, 07/08/2020 - 00:00
Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) produced by Alexandrium catenella (formerly A. tamarense) in Korean coastal waters caused the deaths of four people (in 1986 and 1996) who consumed contaminated mussels (Mytilus edulis). This led to more detailed consideration of the risks of PST outbreaks and incidents in Korea, including the introduction of shellfish collection bans. In this study, we...
Tue, 07/07/2020 - 00:00
Botulinum toxin type A (BTXA) has been used for over 25 years in the management of pediatric lower and upper limb hypertonia, with the first reports in 1993. The most common indication is the injection of the triceps surae muscle for the correction of spastic equinus gait in children with cerebral palsy. The upper limb injection goals include improvements in function, better positioning of the...
Sat, 07/04/2020 - 00:00
Pufferfish of the family Tetraodontidae possess tetrodotoxin (TTX) and/or saxitoxins (STXs), but the toxin ratio differs, depending on the genus or species. In the present study, to clarify the distribution profile of TTX and STXs in Tetraodontidae, we investigated the composition and intra-body distribution of the toxins in Canthigaster valentini. C. valentini specimens (four male and six female...
Fri, 07/03/2020 - 00:00
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are toxins produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum, the causing agent for botulism, in different serotypes, seven of which (A–G) are well characterized, while others, such as H or FA, are still debated. BoNTs exert their action by blocking SNARE (soluble N-ethylmale-imide-sensitive factor-attachment protein receptors) complex formation and vesicle...
Thu, 07/02/2020 - 00:00
Several studies have reported a wide range of severe health effects as well as clinical signs, when livestock animals are exposed to high concentration of mycotoxins. However, little is known regarding health effects of mycotoxins at low levels. Thus, a long-term feeding trial (between May 2017 and December 2019) was used to evaluate the effect of low doses of mycotoxin mixtures on performance of...
Wed, 07/01/2020 - 00:00
Food contamination with mycotoxins is a worldwide concern, because these toxins produced by several fungal species have detrimental effects on animal and/or human health. In maize, fumonisins are among the toxins with the highest threatening potential because they are mainly produced by Fusarium verticillioides, which is distributed worldwide. Plant breeding has emerged as an effective and...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 00:00
Aflatoxins, and particularly aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), are toxic mycotoxins to humans and farm animal species, resulting in acute and chronic toxicities. At present, AFB1 is still considered a global concern with negative impacts on health, the economy, and social life. In farm animals, exposure to AFB1-contaminated feed may cause several untoward effects, liver damage being one of the most...
Sun, 06/28/2020 - 00:00
Grape pomace (GP) is the residue of grapes after wine making and is a valuable source of dietary polyphenol and fiber for health promotion. However, studies found the presence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in GP at very high concentrations, which raises a safety issue in the value-added utilization of GP. This study evaluated the effects of thermal pressure, baking, acid and enzymatic treatments on OTA...
Sat, 06/27/2020 - 00:00
Rye (Secale cereale L.) is one of the most important cereals and is used in both the food and feed industries. It is produced mainly in a belt extending from Russia through Poland to Germany. Despite the great economic importance of this cereal, there is little research on rye contamination with mycotoxins. In this study, the occurrence of Fusarium mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, 3-acetyl-...
Fri, 06/26/2020 - 00:00
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a non-steroidal mycotoxin that has various toxicological impacts on mammalian health. Here, we found that ZEN significantly affected the production of nitric oxide (NO) and the expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs). A promoter analysis using 5′-serially deleted human eNOS promoter revealed that the proximal region (...
Fri, 06/26/2020 - 00:00
The trichothecene mycotoxins contaminate cereal grains and have been related to alimentary toxicosis resulted in emetic response. This family of mycotoxins comprises type A to D groups of toxic sesquiterpene chemicals. Diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), one of the most toxic type A trichothecenes, is considered to be a potential risk for human and animal health by the European Food Safety Authority. Other...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 00:00
Macrocyclic trichothecenes are an important group of trichothecenes bearing a large ring. Despite the fact that many of trichothecenes are of concern in agriculture, food contamination, health care and building protection, the macrocyclic ones are becoming the research hotspot because of their diversity in structure and biologic activity. Several researchers have declared that macrocyclic...

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