Toxins

Sun, 07/25/2021 - 00:00
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin that was first identified in pufferfish but has since been isolated from an array of taxa that host TTX-producing bacteria. However, determining its origin, ecosystem roles, and biomedical applications has challenged researchers for decades. Recognized as a poison and for its lethal effects on humans when ingested, TTX is primarily a powerful sodium...
Sat, 07/24/2021 - 00:00
The aim of this study was to conduct a first evaluation on the co-occurrence of aflatoxins (AF) M1, B1, B2, G1 and G2; fumonisins (F) B1 and B2; deoxynivalenol (DON); de-epoxydeoxinivalenol (DOM-1); ochratoxin A (OTA); zearalenone (ZEN); α-zearalenol (α-ZEL); and β-zearalenol (β-ZEL) in 68 samples of fluid milk consumed in Pirassununga, São Paulo, Brazil. The probable daily intake (PDI) was also...
Sat, 07/24/2021 - 00:00
Two high-mass polar compounds were observed in aqueous side-fractions from the purification of okadaic acid (1) and dinophysistoxin-2 (2) from Dinophysis blooms in Spain and Norway. These were isolated and shown to be 24-O-β-d-glucosides of 1 and 2 (4 and 5, respectively) by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and enzymatic hydrolysis. These, together with standards...
Sat, 07/24/2021 - 00:00
We review and develop conceptual models for the bio-transfer of ciguatoxins in food chains for Platypus Bay and the Great Barrier Reef on the east coast of Australia. Platypus Bay is unique in repeatedly producing ciguateric fishes in Australia, with ciguatoxins produced by benthic dinoflagellates (Gambierdiscus spp.) growing epiphytically on free-living, benthic macroalgae. The Gambierdiscus are...
Sat, 07/24/2021 - 00:00
The tomato is one of the most consumed agri-food products in Lebanon. Several fungal pathogens, including Alternaria species, can infect tomato plants during the whole growing cycle. Alternaria infections cause severe production and economic losses in field and during storage. In addition, Alternaria species represent a serious toxicological risk since they are able to produce a wide range of...
Sat, 07/24/2021 - 00:00
There is no available data on the journey of dystonia patients once referred to a tertiary center to undergo deep brain stimulation (DBS). We hypothesized that some patients might be incorrectly diagnosed while others might decline the procedure or experience significant benefit with switching to a different botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT). This is a single-center, retrospective study of dystonia...
Sat, 07/24/2021 - 00:00
Mycotoxins contaminate crops worldwide and play a role in animal health and performance. Multiple mycotoxins may co-occur which may increase the impact on the animal. To assess the multiple mycotoxin profile of corn (Zea mays), we conducted a 7-year survey of new crop corn grain and silage in the United States. A total of 711 grain and 1117 silage samples were collected between 2013 and 2019 and...
Wed, 07/21/2021 - 00:00
Parkinson’s patients often suffer from depression and anxiety, for which there are no optimal treatments. Hemiparkinsonian (hemi-PD) rats were used to test whether intrastriatal Botulinum neurotoxin-A (BoNT-A) application could also have antidepressant-like properties in addition to the known improvement of motor performance. To quantify depression- and anxiety-like behavior, the forced swim test...
Mon, 07/19/2021 - 00:00
The voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.8 is linked to neuropathic and inflammatory pain, highlighting the potential to serve as a drug target. However, the biophysical mechanisms that regulate Nav1.8 activation and inactivation gating are not completely understood. Progress has been hindered by a lack of biochemical tools for examining Nav1.8 gating mechanisms. Arizona bark scorpion (Centruroides...
Sun, 07/18/2021 - 00:00
Mycotoxin contamination of cereals used for feed can cause intoxication, especially in farm animals; therefore, efficient analytical tools for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of toxic fungal metabolites in feed are required. Current trends in food/feed analysis are focusing on the application of biosensor technologies that offer fast and highly selective and sensitive detection with...
Sat, 07/17/2021 - 00:00
This study analyses the influence of the course of the disease of idiopathic cervical dystonia (CD) before botulinum toxin (BoNT) therapy on long-term outcomes. 74 CD-patients who were treated on a regular basis in the botulinum toxin outpatient department of the University of Düsseldorf and had received at least 3 injections were consecutively recruited after written informed consent. Patients...
Sat, 07/17/2021 - 00:00
Botulinum toxin serotype-A (BoNT-A) preparations are widely used to improve the appearance of wrinkles. While effective and well tolerated, patients require retreatment over time to re-establish the effects. There is growing interest from patients as to whether higher doses can prolong response without significantly increasing side effects. We reviewed the efficacy and safety evidence for high-...
Thu, 07/15/2021 - 00:00
The real-world use of onabotulinumtoxinA and incobotulinumtoxinA for cervical dystonia and blepharospasm treatment was assessed in two separate retrospective studies using identical protocols (TRUDOSE and TRUDOSE II). The studies were conducted in Mexico, Norway, and United Kingdom and designed to evaluate dose utilization of the two botulinum toxins in clinical practice. Eighty-three patients...
Wed, 07/14/2021 - 00:00
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites that are produced by molds during their development. According to fungal physiological particularities, mycotoxins can contaminate crops before harvest or during storage. Among toxins that represent a real public health issue, those produced by Fusarium genus in cereals before harvest are of great importance since they are the most frequent in European...
Tue, 07/13/2021 - 00:00
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin found mainly in puffer fish and other marine and terrestrial animals. TTX blocks voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) which are typically classified as TTX-sensitive or TTX-resistant channels. VGSCs play a key role in pain signaling and some TTX-sensitive VGSCs are highly expressed by adult primary sensory neurons. During pathological pain conditions,...
Mon, 07/12/2021 - 00:00
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a major mycotoxin with high toxicity that often contaminates grains, foods and feeds. The traditional approaches for DON removal are difficult to meet industry and agriculture demands due to the high stability of the DON molecule. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop green and effective strategies for DON degradation. In this study, a batch of photocatalytic...
Sun, 07/11/2021 - 00:00
Exposure to environmental contaminants might play an important role in neurodegenerative disease pathogenesis, such as Parkinson´s disease (PD) and Alzheimer´s disease (AD). For the first time in Spain, the plasmatic levels of 19 mycotoxins from patients diagnosed with a neurodegenerative disease (44 PD and 24 AD) and from their healthy companions (25) from La Rioja region were analyzed. The...
Sun, 07/11/2021 - 00:00
Ochratoxins (OTs) are mycotoxins frequently found in wines, and their contamination can occur during any stage of the winemaking process. Ochratoxin A (OTA) has been the most widely reported and the only one whose concentrations are legislated in this beverage. However, ochratoxin B, ochratoxin A methyl ester, ochratoxin B methyl ester, ochratoxin A ethyl ester, ochratoxin B ethyl ester,...
Sat, 07/10/2021 - 00:00
Concerns for human and environmental health regarding mycotoxins are predominantly raised in connection with their occurrence in food and feed (especially in grains) [1,2]. Thus, mycotoxin contamination is an emerging problem in agriculture. These toxic secondary metabolites produced by some fungal species belong to chemically diverse groups of low molecular weight fungal metabolites with a range...
Fri, 07/09/2021 - 00:00
At least 40 toxin subtypes of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), a heterogenous group of bacterial proteins, are produced by seven different clostridial species. A key factor that drives the diversity of neurotoxigenic clostridia is the association of bont gene clusters with various genomic locations including plasmids, phages and the chromosome. Analysis of Clostridium sporogenes BoNT/B1 strain CDC...
Thu, 07/08/2021 - 00:00
Mycotoxins, toxins of fungal origin, can directly or indirectly contaminate food and feed and are poisonous to livestock and humans. While a large amount is known about their occurrence in crops, food, and feeds, little is known about mycotoxin amounts in soil. However, soil is known as a major fungal habitat and a potential sink for mycotoxins in the environment. Furthermore, there is neither a...
Wed, 07/07/2021 - 00:00
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of modified clinoptilolite (Minazel Plus®, MZ) as a mycotoxin adsorbent for preventing the negative the effects of ochratoxin A (OTA) on performance, pathohistological changes, and OTA residue in the eggs of laying hens. Methods: Forty eight (n = 48) laying hens (27 weeks old) were equally divided into six groups and depending on the type...
Thu, 07/01/2021 - 00:00
Pastures are key feed sources for dairy production and can be contaminated with several secondary metabolites from fungi and plants with toxic or endocrine-disrupting activities, which possess a risk for the health, reproduction and performance of cattle. This exploratory study aimed to determine the co-occurrences and concentrations of a wide range of mycotoxins, phytoestrogens and other...
Thu, 07/01/2021 - 00:00
Cultures of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis are frequently affected by accumulation of the amnesic shellfish poisoning toxin domoic acid (DA). This species is characterized by a fast uptake and release of the toxin. In this work, the main characteristics of the uptake mechanism have been studied by incubation of digestive gland thin slices in media with different composition and DA...
Thu, 07/01/2021 - 00:00
In 2017–2018, extensive symptoms of sudden decline and fruit rot were observed on date palms in southern Tunisia. Samples of diseased plants were randomly collected in six localities. Based on morphological identification, Fusarium was the most frequent fungal genus detected. A sequencing of translation elongation factor, calmodulin, and second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II genes was used...
Wed, 06/30/2021 - 00:00
Marine biotoxins have been frequently implicated in morbidity and mortality events in numerous species of birds worldwide. Nevertheless, their effects on seabirds have often been overlooked and the associated ecological impact has not been extensively studied. On top of that, the number of published studies confirming by analyses the presence of marine biotoxins from harmful algal blooms (HABs)...
Tue, 06/29/2021 - 00:00
The objective was to evaluate the use of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) injection in children with medically refractory neurogenic bladder. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using three databases (Medline via PubMed, Cochrane, and EMBASE). Articles evaluating BTX-A in children with neurogenic bladder were collected. The clinical and urodynamic parameters were reviewed for the safety...
Tue, 06/29/2021 - 00:00
Zearalenone (ZEN) and its metabolites, alpha-zearalenol (α-ZEL) and beta-zearalenol (β-ZEL), are ubiquitous in plant materials used as feed components in dairy cattle diets. The aim of this study was to confirm the occurrence of ZEN and its selected metabolites in blood samples collected from different sites in the hepatic portal system (posthepatic–external jugular vein EJV; prehepatic–abdominal...
Mon, 06/28/2021 - 00:00
At exactly the individual permitted EU-tolerance dietary limits, fumonisins (FB: 5 mg/kg diet) and mixed fusariotoxins (DZ: 0.9 mg deoxynivalenol + 0.1 mg zearalenone/kg diet, and FDZ: 5 mg fumonisins + 0.9 mg deoxynivalenol + 0.1 mg zearalenone/kg diet) were administered to piglets (n = 6/group) for three weeks. Bodyweights of intoxicated piglets increased, while feed conversion ratios decreased...
Sun, 06/27/2021 - 00:00
Phytobiotics with a mycotoxin adsorbent were used to mitigate negative effects of multiple mycotoxins in diets fed to pigs. In experiment 1, 120 pigs (11.6 kg body weight; BW) were assigned to five treatments (three pigs/pen) and fed for 28 days. Treatments were CON (control), MTD (CON + 2.5 mg/kg of deoxynivalenol), DP (MTD + phytobiotics at 0.1%), and DPA1 and DPA2 (MTD + phytobiotics and...
Sat, 06/26/2021 - 00:00
As milk provides both micro- and macronutrients, it is an important component in the diet. However, the presence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in the feed of dairy cattle results in contamination of milk and dairy products with aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), a toxic metabolite of the carcinogenic mycotoxin. With the aim to determine AFM1 concentrations in milk and milk products consumed in Bangladesh, in total,...
Sat, 06/26/2021 - 00:00
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEN), and deoxynivalenol (DON) are frequent mycotoxins that may cause carcinogenic, mutagenic, estrogenic, or gastrointestinal effects. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure to and risk from AFB1, OTA, ZEN, and DON in 172 participants of the Maule Cohort (MAUCO) by a biomarker analysis in urine and to associate their exposure with...
Fri, 06/25/2021 - 00:00
The present study investigated the presence of 30 mycotoxins in 110 beverage samples of beer, wine, cava, and cider purchased in Valencia (Spain). A validated method based on dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction and chromatographic methods coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was applied. The method showed satisfactory recoveries ranging from 61 to 116% for the different beverages studied....
Thu, 06/24/2021 - 00:00
Several classes of non-antibiotic drugs, including psychoactive drugs, proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and others, appear to have strong antimicrobial properties. We considered whether psychoactive drugs induce the SOS response in E. coli bacteria and, consequently, induce Shiga toxins in Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC). We measured the induction of...
Wed, 06/23/2021 - 00:00
Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains often produce Shiga toxins encoded by genes on lambdoid bacteriophages that insert into multiple loci as prophages. O157 strains were classified into distinct clades that vary in virulence. Herein, we used PCR assays to examine Shiga toxin (Stx) prophage occupancy in yehV, argW, wrbA, and sbcB among 346 O157 strains representing nine clades. Overall, yehV was...
Wed, 06/23/2021 - 00:00
Bacillus sp. H16v8 and Bacillus sp. HGD9229 were identified as Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) degrader in nutrient broth after a 12 h incubation at 37 °C. The degradation efficiency of the two-strain supernatant on 100 μg/L AFB1 was higher than the bacterial cells and cell lysate. Moreover, degradations of AFB1 were strongly affected by the metal ions in which Cu2+ stimulated the degradation and Zn2+...
Wed, 06/23/2021 - 00:00
In the food industry, microbiological safety is a major concern. Mycotoxin patulin represents a potential health hazard, as it is heat-resistant and may develop at any stage during the food chain, especially in apple-based products, leading to severe effects on human health, poor quality products, and profit reductions. The target of the study was to identify and characterize an excellent...
Tue, 06/22/2021 - 00:00
Peanuts are frequently infected by Aspergillus strains and then contaminated by aflatoxins (AF), which brings out economic losses and health risks. AF production is affected by diverse environmental factors, especially water activity (aw). In this study, A. flavus was inoculated into peanuts with different aw (0.90, 0.95, and 0.99). Both AFB1 yield and conidia production showed the highest level...
Tue, 06/22/2021 - 00:00
Synergistic interaction of adsorbents in reducing the adverse impacts of mycotoxin on performance and proximate composition of broiler feeds was investigated. Fungal growth was induced by sprinkling water on the feed. S. cerevisiae + bentonite, kaolin + bentonite or S. cerevisiea + kaolin adsorbent combinations (1.5 g/kg feed) were added and the feeds were stored in black polythene bags. An...
Sun, 06/20/2021 - 00:00
The co-occurrence of multiple mycotoxins, including aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEN) and deoxynivalenol (DON), widely exists in cereal-based animal feed and food. At present, most reported mycotoxins degrading enzymes target only a certain type of mycotoxins. Therefore, it is of great significance for mining enzymes involved in the simultaneous degradation of different types of mycotoxins....
Sat, 06/19/2021 - 00:00
Post-stroke spasticity impedes patients' rehabilitation progress. Contradictory evidence has been reported in using Botulinum Neurotoxin type A (BoNT-A) to manage post-stroke lower extremity spasticity (PLES); furthermore, an optimum dose of BoNT-A for PLES has not yet been established. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to...
Fri, 06/18/2021 - 00:00
This study assessed the impact of increasing seawater surface temperature (SST) and toxic algal abundance (TAA) on the accumulation, tissue distribution and elimination dynamics of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in mussels. Mytilus coruscus were fed with the PSTs-producing dinoflagellate A. catenella under four simulated environment conditions. The maximum PSTs concentration was determined to...
Wed, 06/16/2021 - 00:00
The aim of this study was to demonstrate an increase in muscle action potentials and an enhancement of the efficacy of botulinum toxin (BoNT) after mechanical leg vibration. Methods: A 53-year-old healthy male volunteer underwent vibration ergometry training (VET) every morning and every evening for 10 min for 14 days. Compound muscle action potential (CMAP) of the right (R) and left (L) extensor...
Mon, 06/14/2021 - 00:00
A host’s immune system can be invaded by mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) poisoning and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infections, which affect the host’s natural immune function. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and IL-6, are important regulators in the process of natural immune response, which participate in inflammatory response and enhance immune-mediated tissue damage. Preliminary studies...
Mon, 06/14/2021 - 00:00
Spain is a relevant producer of oats (Avena sativa), but to date there has been no study on the occurrence/co-occurrence of mycotoxins in oats marketed in Spain. The present study is addressed to overcome this lack of knowledge. One hundred oat kernel samples were acquired across different Spanish geographic regions during the years 2015–2019 and analyzed for mycotoxin content using an ultra-high...
Mon, 06/14/2021 - 00:00
Bacterial ghosts (BGs) are empty cell envelopes possessing native extracellular structures without a cytoplasm and genetic materials. BGs are proposed to have significant prospects in biomedical research as vaccines or delivery carriers. The applications of BGs are often limited by inefficient bacterial lysis and a low yield. To solve these problems, we compared the lysis efficiency of the wild-...
Sun, 06/13/2021 - 00:00
Heat-labile toxin I (LT-I), produced by strains of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), causes profuse watery diarrhea in humans. Different in vitro and in vivo models have already elucidated the mechanism of action of this toxin; however, their use does not always allow for more specific studies on how the LT-I toxin acts in systemic tracts and intestinal cell lines. In the present work,...
Sat, 06/12/2021 - 00:00
Escherichia coli (EHEC) and Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 are enterohemorrhagic bacteria that induce hemorrhagic colitis. This, in turn, may result in potentially lethal complications, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), which is characterized by thrombocytopenia, acute renal failure, and neurological abnormalities. Both species of bacteria produce Shiga toxins (Stxs), a phage-encoded...
Sat, 06/12/2021 - 00:00
In the course of assessing the human exposure to mycotoxins, biomarker-based approaches have proven to be important tools. Low concentration levels, complex matrix compositions, structurally diverse analytes, and the large size of sample cohorts are the main challenges of analytical procedures. For that reason, an online solid phase extraction-ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem...
Fri, 06/11/2021 - 00:00
Fungal spoilage is one of the main reasons of economic losses in the food industry, especially in the wine sector. Consequently, the search for safer and new preservation techniques has gained importance in recent years. The objective of this study was to investigate the antifungal and anti-mycotoxigenic activity from 28 microorganisms (MO) isolated from red grape. The antifungal activity of a...

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