Transboundary and Emerging Diseases

Tue, 10/08/2019 - 03:22
Free‐range poultry farms have a high risk of introduction of avian influenza viruses (AIV), and it is presumed that wild (water)birds are the source of introduction. There is very scarce quantitative data on wild fauna visiting free‐range poultry farms. We quantified visits of wild fauna to a free‐range area of a layer farm, situated in an AIV hot‐spot area, assessed by video‐camera monitoring. A...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:23
In the last 10 years, many atypical novel members of Brucella species have been reported, including several Brucella inopinata‐like strains in wild‐caught and “exotic” amphibians from various continents. In 2017, a strain of Brucella was isolated for the first time in animals from a French farm producing frogs – Pelophylax ridibundus – for human consumption, and identified as B. microti‐like....
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:18
For several years, poultry production in Egypt has been suffering from co‐circulation of multiple respiratory viruses including highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 (clade 2.2.1.2) and low pathogenic H9N2 (clade G1‐B). Incursion of HPAIV H5N8 (clade 2.3.4.4b) to Egypt in November 2016 via wild birds followed by spread into commercial poultry flocks further complicated the...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:18
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of caprine brucellosis in herds of a region called “The Impenetrable” in Chaco Province, Argentina, in order to prevent the occurrence of the disease in people consuming goat milk. This was needed because of high levels of child malnutrition and difficulties in having access to high quality protein in this region. To this aim, we travelled...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:18
The first human case of zoonotic H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV) infection was reported in March 2013 in China. This virus continues to circulate in poultry in China while mutating to highly pathogenic AIVs (HPAIVs). Through monitoring at airports in Japan, a novel H7N3 reassortant of the zoonotic H7N9 HPAIVs, A/duck/Japan/AQ‐HE30‐1/2018 (HE30‐1), was detected in a poultry meat product illegally...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:18
Since 2013, H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have been responsible for outbreaks in poultry and wild birds around Asia. H5N6 HPAIV is also a public concern due to sporadic human infections being reported in China. In the current study, we isolated an H5N6 HPAIV strain (A/Muscovy duck/Long An/AI470/2018; AI470) from an outbreak at a Muscovy duck farm in Long An Province in...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:18
Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis affecting humans and a wide range of domesticated and wild animal species. An important element for effective disease containment is to improve knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of afflicted communities. This study aimed to assess the KAP related to brucellosis at the human–animal interface in an endemic area of Egypt and to identify the risk...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:18
Since 2014, H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) from clade 2.3.4.4 have been persistently circulating in Southern China. This has caused huge losses in the poultry industry. In this study, we analysed the genetic characteristics of seven H5N6 HPAIVs of clade 2.3.4.4 that infected birds in Southern China in 2016. Phylogenetic analysis grouped the HA, PB2, PA, M and NS genes as...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:17
Clostridium difficile is considered the leading cause of antibiotic‐associated disease worldwide. In the past decade, a large number of studies have focused on identifying the main sources of contamination in order to elucidate the complete life cycle of the infection. Hospitals, animals and retail foods have been considered as potential vectors. However, the prevalence of C. difficile in these...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:17
Suidae is an important reservoir of hepatitis E virus (HEV) and a source of transmission to humans (direct contact or via consumption of meat products). Our goal was to characterize the epidemiology of HEV infecting domestic pigs in Corsica Island, a French region hyperendemic for HEV. In Corsica, traditional extensive (or semi‐extensive) outdoor pig farming system is common. Sixteen farms were...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:17
Animal feed can be contaminated with fomites carrying swine viruses, and subsequently be a vehicle for viral transmission. This contamination may not be evenly distributed, and there is no validated sampling method for detection of viruses in animal feed or ingredients. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the sensitivity of ingredient sampling methods for detection of porcine epidemic...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:17
Vietnamese poultry are host to co‐circulating subtypes of avian influenza viruses, including H5N1 and H9N2, which pose a great risk to poultry productivity and to human health. AIVs circulate throughout the poultry trade network in Vietnam, with live bird markets being an integral component to this network. Traders at LBMs exhibit a variety of trading practices, which may influence the...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:17
Influenza A viruses are one of the most significant viral groups globally with substantial impacts on human, domestic animal and wildlife health. Wild birds are the natural reservoirs for these viruses, and active surveillance within wild bird populations provides critical information about viral evolution forming the basis of risk assessments and countermeasure development. Unfortunately, active...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:17
Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease that represents a major problem in animal and public health due to its high prevalence and widespread distribution. This zoonotic disease is most prevalent in tropical environments where conditions favour pathogen survival. The ecological preferences of Leptospira serovars are poorly understood, limiting our knowledge of where and when outbreaks can occur,...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:17
Leishmaniasis is one of the most neglected tropical diseases caused by protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania. There is much evidence regarding prevalence of Leishmania RNAvirus (LRV) causing Old World leishmaniasis (OWL) and New World leishmaniasis (NWL); however, a combined evidence‐based knowledge on this topic is not still available. The purpose of this systematic review and...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:17
Wild and domestic aquatic birds are the natural reservoirs of avian influenza viruses (AIVs). All subtypes of AIVs, including 16 hemagglutinin (HA) and nine neuraminidase (NA), have been isolated from the waterfowls. The H5 viruses in wild birds display distinct biological differences from their highly pathogenic H5 counterparts. Here, we isolated seven H5N3 AIVs including three from wild birds...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:17
As one of the important control strategies for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in China, vaccination has been implemented compulsively in poultry flocks since 2004. However, the emergence and dominance of the circulating antigenic variants require the update of vaccines periodically. In order to investigate the key molecular sites responsible for the antigenic drift, a total of 13 amino...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:17
The genus Capripoxvirus in the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae, family Poxviridae, comprises sheeppox virus (SPPV), goatpox virus (GTPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), which cause the eponymous diseases across parts of Africa, the Middle East and Asia. These diseases cause significant economic losses and can have a devastating impact on the livelihoods and food security of small farm holders. So...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:17
The native Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is a reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of animal tuberculosis (TB), a chronic disease in livestock, companion animals and wild mammals. Cases of M. bovis infection in wild boar or feral pig have been reported worldwide, making early detection a priority in the eradication of the disease. Point‐of‐care diagnostic tests, such as low...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:17
Recurrent health emergencies threaten global health security. International Health Regulations (IHR) aim to prevent, detect and respond to such threats, through increase in national public health core capacities, but whether IHR core capacity implementation is necessary and sufficient has been contested. With a longitudinal study we relate changes in national IHR core capacities to changes in...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:17
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic pathogen, in particular genotype 3 HEV is mainly transmitted to humans through the consumption of contaminated pork products. This study aimed at describing HEV infection patterns in pig farms and at assessing the impact of immunomodulating co‐infections namely Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) and Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2),...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:17
Recent emergence of mcr‐1‐positive Escherichia coli (MCRPEC) is causing serious concern around the world. Due to poultry‐origin E. coli holding zoonotic potential, the improved understandings of MCRPEC population structure and antimicrobial resistance are critical to public health purposes. This study provided novel insights into the molecular epidemiology of avian‐origin MCRPEC. For the mcr...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:17
A total of 15 dead or sick birds from 13 clinical outbreaks of avian influenza in ducks, geese, chickens and turkeys in 2017 in Bangladesh were examined. The presence of H5N1 influenza A virus in the affected birds was detected by RT‐PCR. Phylogenetic analysis based on full‐length gene sequences of all eight gene segments revealed that these recent outbreaks were caused by a new reassortant of...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:17
The number of natural infections with Mycobacterium caprae in wildlife and in cattle in the Bavarian and Austrian alpine regions has increased over the last decade. Red deer (Cervus elaphus) have been recognized as maintenance reservoir, however, the transmission routes of M. caprae among and from naturally infected red deer are unknown. The unexpected high prevalence in some hot spot regions...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:17
Leptospirosis presents a complex and dynamic epidemiology. Bovine leptospirosis has been described as a major infectious disease impairing reproductive efficiency. Although infections by Leptospira interrogans, L. santarosai and L. borgpetersenii are frequently reported in cattle, the presence of L. noguchii in these animals should not be neglected. In this study, we describe serological (MAT)...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:17
During the past decade, livestock diseases have (re‐)emerged in areas where they had been previously eradicated or never been recorded before. Drivers (i.e. factors of (re‐)emergence) have been identified. Livestock diseases spread irrespective of borders, and therefore, reliable methods are required to help decisions makers to identify potential threats and try stopping their (re‐)emergence....
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:17
Despite of controls and preventive measures implemented along the food chain, infection with non‐typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) remains one of the major causes of foodborne disease worldwide. Poultry is considered one of the major sources of NTS. This has led to the implementation of monitoring and control programmes in many countries (including Spain) to ensure that in poultry flocks infection is...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:17
Influenza A (H1N1) viruses are distributed worldwide and pose a threat to public health. Swine, as a natural host and mixing vessel of influenza A (H1N1) virus, play a critical role in the transmission of this virus to humans. Furthermore, swine influenza A (H1N1) viruses have provided all eight genes or some genes to the genomes of influenza strains that historically have caused human pandemics...