Transboundary and Emerging Diseases

The Research Publications track research that is published across national and international peer-reviewed journals. The most recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal Title, Subject, USDA Grant Funding Agencies or FDA Grant Funding Agencies. The research publications are tracked across five subject areas: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, and Viruses.

Fri, 07/10/2020 - 22:11
African swine fever (ASF) is a severe viral disease that affects both domestic and wild pigs and is responsible for major production and economic losses. As a transboundary animal disease (TAD) it can be spread by live or dead pigs and via pork products. Transmission can take place via contaminated feed and fomites including shoes, clothes, vehicles, knives and equipment. Unlike classical swine...
Thu, 07/09/2020 - 22:11
In order to control Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 and Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (LPAI) H9N2 virus spread in endemically infected countries, a detailed understanding of infection patterns is required. We conducted cross‐sectional studies in Bangladesh in 2016 and 2017, on 144 backyard, 106 broiler and 113 layer chicken farms. Although all sampled birds were negative for H5...
Thu, 07/09/2020 - 22:11
Environmental testing of poultry premises after an outbreak of an infectious disease like avian influenza (AI) or Newcastle disease, is essential to promptly verify virus‐free status and subsequently return to normal operations. In an attempt to establish an optimized sampling protocol a laboratory study simulating an AI virus contaminated poultry house with wire layer cages was conducted. Three...
Thu, 07/02/2020 - 22:12
African swine fever (ASF) is currently considered the most significant global threat to pork production worldwide. Disease caused by the ASF virus (ASFV) results in high case fatality of pigs. Importantly, ASF is a trade‐limiting disease with substantial implications on both global pork and agricultural feed commodities. ASFV is transmissible through natural consumption of contaminated swine feed...
Thu, 07/02/2020 - 22:12
Comprehensive understanding of the patterns and drivers of avian influenza outbreaks is pivotal to inform surveillance systems and heighten nations’ ability to quickly detect and respond to the emergence of novel viruses. Starting in early 2017, the Italian poultry sector has been involved in the massive H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza epidemic that spread in the majority of the European...
Wed, 07/01/2020 - 22:11
Although the unprecedented efforts the world has been taking to control the spread of the human coronavirus disease (COVID‐19) and its causative etiology [Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome‐Coronavirus‐2 (SARS‐CoV‐2)], the number of confirmed cases has been increasing drastically. Therefore, there is an urgent need for devising more efficient preventive measures, to limit the spread of the...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 22:10
Duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) causes a highly contagious and acute disease in ducklings younger than 3 weeks of age and spreads rapidly by horizontal transmission to all susceptible ducklings in the flock. To date, there is no evidence of vertical transmission of DHAV‐1. In a previous study, we identified a novel DHAV type 1 (DHAV‐1) isolate that could infect adult ducks and induce laying drop....
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 22:10
Pre‐existing immunity against the conserved hemagglutinin (HA) stalk underlies the elicitation of cross‐group antibody induced by natural H7N9 virus infection and immunization in humans. However, whether broadly reactive antibodies can be induced by H7N9 infection and immunization in the absence of pre‐existing stalk‐specific immunity is unclear. In this study, antibody response induced by H7N9...
Sun, 06/28/2020 - 22:11
Migratory waterfowl, including geese and ducks, are indicated as the primary reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIv) which can be subsequently spread to commercial poultry. The US Department of Agriculture's (USDA) surveillance efforts of waterfowl for AIv have been largely discontinued in the contiguous United States. Consequently, the use of technologies to identify areas of high waterfowl...
Mon, 06/22/2020 - 22:12
This study was carried out to investigate the frequency and genetic diversity of pestiviruses in abortion cases in cattle and small ruminants in Turkey. During January 2012 and December 2017, a total of 2029 aborted foetuses (553 bovine foetuses, 1388 sheep foetuses and 88 goat foetuses) were collected from different regions of Turkey. Real‐time RT‐PCR (RRT‐PCR) assays were used to detect...
Wed, 06/17/2020 - 22:11
Even though antimicrobial‐resistant bacteria have begun to be detected in wildlife, raising important issues related to their transmission and persistence of clinically important pathogens in the environment, little is known about the role of these bacteria on wildlife health, especially on endangered species. The Brazilian merganser (Mergus octosetaceus) is one of the most threatened waterfowl...
Tue, 06/16/2020 - 22:11
Brucellosis is a common zoonotic disease caused by Brucella and is an epidemic worldwide. Currently, the most effective way to prevent and control the disease in animals is to use live, attenuated vaccines A19 strain. In China, the live attenuated Brucella abortus vaccine is widely used in animal immunization. To detect and confirm which vaccine strain caused the infection, we developed a new...
Fri, 06/12/2020 - 22:11
Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N8 outbreaks occurred in poultry farms in France in 2016‐17, resulting in significant economic losses and disruption to the poultry industry. Current evidence on associations between actual on‐farm biosecurity risk factors and H5N8 occurrence is limited. Therefore, a retrospective matched case‐control study was undertaken to investigate the inter...
Sun, 06/07/2020 - 22:11
Poultry can become infected with avian influenza viruses (AIV) via (in) direct contact with infected wild birds. Free‐range chicken farms in the Netherlands were shown to have a higher risk for introduction of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus than indoor chicken farms. Therefore, during outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), free‐range layers are confined indoors as a...
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 03:29
Porcine sapelovirus (PSV) is a causative agent of acute diarrhea, pneumonia and reproductive disorders in swine. Since PSV infection interrupts the growth of other viruses due to its high replication capability in cell culture, the prevention of PSV replication is a keystone to the isolation of non‐PSV agents from PSV‐contaminated samples. In the present study, we established the PSV infection‐...
Fri, 05/29/2020 - 03:28
African swine fever (ASF) is an infectious disease of pigs and represents a massive threat to animal health and the pig industry worldwide. The ASF virus (ASFV) is efficiently transmitted via blood and meat from infected animals and can be highly stable in the environment. There is therefore great concern about the potential role of contaminated raw materials used for feed or bedding in the...
Thu, 05/28/2020 - 03:30
Bacteriophage therapy is acknowledged as a potential tool to prevent or treat multidrug resistant bacterial infections. In this study, our major focus was on the bacteriolytic activity of phage EcSw (ΦEcSw) against the emergence of the clinically important Escherichia coli Sw1 and E. coli O157:H7. The amount of the antibiotics were changed in a concentration dependent manner and the ΦEcSw...
Fri, 05/22/2020 - 03:27
Avian coronaviruses, including infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and turkey coronavirus (TCoV), are economically important viruses affecting poultry worldwide. IBV is responsible for causing severe losses to the commercial poultry sector globally. The objectives of this study were to identify the viruses that were causing outbreaks of severe respiratory disease in chickens in Trinidad and Tobago...
Wed, 05/20/2020 - 03:27
African Swine Fever (ASF) is a contagious disease of domestic and wild pigs caused by the African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV). The disease has spread globally in recent years with serious economic consequences to pork production. This report describes an ASF outbreak that occurred in a large‐scale Chinese commercial pig farm. The outbreak started in 2018 and presents the spatial and temporal spread...
Tue, 05/19/2020 - 03:28
In recent years, different subtypes of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses caused outbreaks in several poultry types worldwide. Early detection of HPAI virus infection is crucial to reduce virus spread. Previously, the use of a mortality ratio threshold to expedite notification of suspicion in layer farms was proposed. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical signs...
Tue, 05/19/2020 - 03:28
Highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza viruses (AIV) can spread globally through migratory birds and cause massive outbreaks in commercial poultry. AIV outbreaks have been associated with proximity to waterbodies, presence of waterfowl or wild bird cases near poultry farms. In this study, we compared densities of selected HPAI high‐risk wild bird species around 7 locations (H farms) infected with...
Sat, 05/16/2020 - 03:27
The increasing number of dermatophytoses among animals observed recently in developed countries may be connected with relocation of many exotic species outside their natural living environment. Moreover, an impact on this situation may also be exerted by relapses related to limited compliance with antifungal treatment regimes. Many exotic animals, including camelids, imported to European...
Mon, 05/11/2020 - 03:29
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus that affects both cattle and sheep, causing an array of clinical signs, which include abortions and malformations in the offspring. Manufacturing of modified live virus (MLV) vaccines often includes the use of bovine‐derived products, which implies a risk of contamination with viable BVDV. Recently, the circulation of a specific strain of BVDV 2b...
Mon, 05/11/2020 - 03:29
A survey of influenza A viruses (IAVs) in the Mingalar‐Taung‐Nyunt live bird market (MTN‐LBM), Yangon, Myanmar, was conducted from December 2017 to December 2018. During the survey, 455 swab samples were collected from broilers, layers, backyard chickens and ducks from the MTN‐LBM. Ninety‐one pooled samples were screened for IAVs by real‐time RT‐PCR specific to the M gene. Positive pooled samples...
Sun, 05/10/2020 - 03:27
Swine influenza virus (SIV) causes respiratory diseases in pigs and has impacts on both animal and human health. In this study, we conducted swine influenza surveillance in pig farms in the Yangon and Bago regions, Myanmar during 2017‐2019. Nasal swabs (n=500) were collected from pigs in 10 swine farms. Our results showed that 11 out of 100 pooled samples (11%) were positive for influenza A virus...
Mon, 04/20/2020 - 03:26
Brucella melitensis is a serious public health threat, with human infection exhibiting acute febrile illness and chronic health problems. The present study investigated the genetic diversity and epidemiological links of the important zoonotic bacterium B. melitensis in Egypt using multilocus variable number tandem‐repeat analysis (MLVA‐16) including eight minisatellite (panel 1) and eight...
Mon, 04/20/2020 - 03:26
Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) is highly variable and has multiple genotypes. Previous studies showed that the current epidemic strain in China is genotype 5, but the relevant detection was only carried out in flocks with hepatic rupture hemorrhage syndrome, which does not mean that other genotypes do not exist. In this study, a broader analysis involving different chicken flocks was performed to...
Sun, 04/19/2020 - 03:25
An epidemiological surveillance program was carried out to assess exposure and spatio‐temporal patterns of selected pathogens (Brucella spp., Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), Mycoplasma agalactiae, Pestivirus and bluetongue virus (BTV)) in Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) from Andalusia (southern Spain), the region with the largest population of this species. A total of 602...
Thu, 04/09/2020 - 03:21
Q fever, caused by the zoonotic bacterium Coxiella burnetii, is a globally distributed emerging infectious disease. Livestock are the most important zoonotic transmission sources, yet infection in people without livestock exposure is common. Identifying potential exposure pathways is necessary to design effective interventions and aid outbreak prevention. We used natural language processing and...
Sat, 04/04/2020 - 03:31
Avian influenza is an acute and highly contagious infectious disease that is caused by the influenza virus. Avian influenza has been widely spread all over the world, has caused property loss and has threatened human life and security. In this study, the recombinant plasmid rClone30‐chGM‐CSF was constructed and rescued to the recombinant virus rClone30‐chGM‐CSF successfully. After 8 days of...
Fri, 03/27/2020 - 03:31
SUMMARY Since the first introduction of African swine fever (ASF) into the European wild boar population in 1957, the question of virus survival in carcasses of animals that succumbed to the disease has been discussed. The causative African swine fever virus (ASFV) is known to be very stable in the environment. Thus, carcasses of infected wild boar could play a major role as ASFV reservoir and...
Wed, 03/11/2020 - 03:19
Following its introduction into Georgia in 2007, African swine fever virus (ASFV) has become widespread on the European continent and in Asia. In many cases, the exact route of introduction into domestic pig herds cannot be determined, but most introductions are attributed to indirect virus transmission. In this review, we describe knowledge gained about different matrices that may allow...
Tue, 03/10/2020 - 03:19
The resistance of H‐type and L‐type BSE prions to autoclaving under EU regulation conditions for specified risk material is unknown. We employed transgenic mouse (bovinized line tg1896) bioassay to assess the efficacy of such decontamination on L‐ and H‐type BSE. For each source, titre calculation was based on the comparison of incubation period and attack rate prior to and after decontamination...
Sun, 03/08/2020 - 04:19
The interplay of simultaneous COVID‐19, African swine fever, and avian influenza emergencies on global health and industries is constantly evolving and difficult to predict, and therefore warrants further scrutiny. The need for a health network of global scope for the rapid and open exchange of information needs to be strengthened in order to address ongoing and future epidemics under competing...
Fri, 02/28/2020 - 03:20
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an emerging threat to both human and animal health. Antimicrobial use and resistance in food animal production including swine has received increased scrutiny as a source of resistant foodborne pathogens. Continuous surveillance of AMR in bacterial isolates of swine origin can guide in conservation of antimicrobials used in both human and swine medicine. The...
Mon, 02/24/2020 - 03:34
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an enteric RNA virus from the family Hepeviridae with five genotypes (genotypes 1‐4 and 7) known to infect humans. HEV infection is known to have a zoonotic swine origin in industrialized countries. The role of pigs and wild boars as major reservoirs for human infection is today well‐established, however the list of new animal reservoirs is ever‐expanding as new HEV...
Tue, 02/18/2020 - 03:18
In recent decades multiple subtypes (i.e., H9N2, H5N1, and H7N9) of avian influenza virus (AIV) have become widespread in China, which has caused enormous economic losses and posed considerable threats to public health. In this review, with the aim to provide insights into and guidelines for the control of AIV spread in China and globally in the future, we analyzed the reasons why AIV has...
Fri, 01/31/2020 - 03:18
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and pseudorabies virus (PRV) are two of the most significant trade‐limiting pathogens affecting swine worldwide. Both viruses are endemic to China where millions of kilograms of feed ingredients are manufactured and subsequently imported into the United States. Although stability and oral transmission of both viruses through contaminated pork products has been...
Thu, 01/30/2020 - 03:19
The introduction and spread of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) in North America resulted in significant death loss in the swine industry. As the industry learned how to manage this disease many new risks were identified, including the potential for feed and feed ingredients to become contaminated and spread PEDV. In addition, biosecurity practices were reevaluated and strengthened...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:18
Biosecurity is crucial for infectious disease prevention, more importantly in the absence of vaccination. The need for improving the implementation of biosecurity practices was highlighted in French duck farms following the 2016–2017 H5N8 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) epidemic. Farmers have multiple reasons for not implementing biosecurity practices: external (time, money) and internal...
Thu, 01/16/2020 - 03:17
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), an ongoing emergence enveloped virus with a single‐stranded positive‐sense RNA genome, belongs to the Gammacoronavirus genus in the Coronaviridae family. IBV‐associated tracheitis, nephritis, salpingitis, proventriculitis and egg drop have caused devastating economic losses to poultry industry worldwide. Since the end of 2018, a remarkably increasing number of...
Tue, 01/14/2020 - 03:17
In recent decades, cases of autochthonous hepatitis E (HE) have sharply increased in European countries where foodborne transmission is considered the main route of HE virus (HEV) transmission. Although rabbits are considered the main reservoir of the zoonotic HEV‐3ra subtype, information on the role of wild lagomorphs in the epidemiology of HEV remains scarce. The aim of this study therefore was...
Sun, 01/05/2020 - 03:18
The carriage of two important pathogens of pigs, i.e. enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and Clostridioides difficile, was investigated in 104 cloacal samples from wild griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) fed on pig carcasses at supplementary feeding stations (SFS), along with their level of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). E. coli was isolated from 90 (86.5%) samples but no ETEC was detected, likely...
Sat, 12/28/2019 - 03:18
Meat of the South American camelids (SACs) llama and alpaca is an important source of animal protein and income for rural families in the Andes, and a product with significant growth potential for local and international markets. However, infestation with macroscopic cysts of the coccidian protozoon Sarcocystis aucheniae, a parasitosis known as SAC sarcocystosis, significantly hampers its...
Sat, 12/28/2019 - 03:18
When assessing the role of live animal trade networks in the spread of infectious diseases in livestock, attention has focused mainly on direct movements of animals between premises, whereas the role of haulage vehicles used during transport, an indirect route for disease transmission, has largely been ignored. Here, we have assessed the impact of sharing haulage vehicles from livestock transport...
Sat, 12/14/2019 - 03:18
Asian‐origin H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5 Goose/Guangdong/96 lineage, clade 2.3.4.4 group B reached South Africa by June 2017. By the end of that year, 5.4 million layers and broiler chickens died or were culled, with total losses in the poultry industry estimated at US$ 140 million, and thousands of exotic birds in zoological collections, endangered endemic...
Thu, 12/12/2019 - 03:20
In Europe, African swine fever virus (ASFV) is one of the most threatening infectious transboundary diseases of domestic pigs and wild boar. In September 2018, ASF was detected in wild boar in the South of Belgium. France, as a bordering country, is extremely concerned about the ASF situation in Belgium and an active preparedness is ongoing in the country. One of the questions raised by this...
Mon, 12/02/2019 - 03:19
Effective control of avian diseases in domestic populations requires understanding of the transmission dynamics facilitating viral emergence and spread. In 2016–17, Italy experienced a significant avian influenza epidemic caused by a highly pathogenic A(H5N8) virus, which affected domestic premises housing around 2.7 million birds, primarily in the north‐eastern regions with the highest density...
Thu, 11/28/2019 - 03:32
Since 2004, there have been multiple outbreaks of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses in Laos. Here, we isolated H5N1 HPAI viruses from poultry outbreaks in Laos during 2015–2018 and investigated their genetic characteristics and pathogenicity in chickens. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolates belonged to clade 2.3.2.1c, and that they differed from previous Laos viruses...
Thu, 11/28/2019 - 03:32
In July 2016, an avian influenza outbreak in duck farms in Yogyakarta province was reported to Disease Investigation Center (DIC) Wates, Indonesia with approximately 1,000 ducks death or culled. In this study, two avian influenza (AI) virus subtypes, A/duck/Bantul/04161291‐OR/2016 (H5N1) and A/duck/Bantul/04161291‐OP/2016 (H9N2) isolated from ducks in the same farm during an AI outbreak in Bantul...

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