Transboundary and Emerging Diseases

Mon, 01/11/2021 - 22:09
Human astroviruses (AstVs) are usually associated with acute gastroenteritis. In recent years, atypical animal‐like AstVs have been identified but their pathogenic role in humans has not been determined. Starting from 2010, there has been a growing evidence that AstVs may also be associated with encephalitis in human and animal hosts. Some human atypical AstV strains (VA1, MLB1/MLB2) display...
Thu, 01/07/2021 - 22:09
Hepatitis E is a significant liver disease caused by infection with Hepatitis E virus (HEV). The risk factors for hepatitis E in developed countries include blood transfusion and ingestion of undercooked meat or meat products derived from HEV‐infected animals. Since 2000, there have been increased human hepatitis E incidence reported in Singapore. Although the causes of this increase have not...
Thu, 01/07/2021 - 22:09
Cryptosporidium parvum is a major zoonotic pathogen responsible for outbreaks of severe diarrhea in humans and calves. Almost all investigations of cryptosporidiosis outbreaks caused by C. parvum have focused on its IIa subtype family in industrialized nations. From December 2018 to April 2019, approximately 200 neonatal calves on a large cattle farm in Hebei Province, China were diagnosed with...
Mon, 12/28/2020 - 22:09
Duck hepatitis A virus 1 (DHAV‐1) is a highly prevalent pathogen within adult ducks causing acute as well as chronic hepatitis which closely emulates the progression of human hepatitis. However, the underlying mechanisms of DHAV‐1 persistence and the pathogenesis of chronic liver disease are not well defined. The association between hematopoietic reservoirs of virus and persistent infection is...
Tue, 12/22/2020 - 22:09
Influenza A virus (IAV) outbreaks constitute a constant threat to public health and pose a remarkable impact on socio‐economic systems worldwide. Interactions between wild and domestic birds, humans, and swine can lead to spillover events. Backyard livestock systems in proximity to wetlands represent high‐risk areas for viral spread. However, some gaps remain in our knowledge of IAV transmission...
Tue, 12/15/2020 - 22:09
Since 2013, H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses have caused considerable economic losses in the poultry industry and have caused 24 laboratory‐confirmed human cases. In this study, we isolated nine (B1–B9) H5N6 viruses from healthy ducks in Guangdong Province, Southern China from December 2018 to April 2019. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B7, B8, and B9...
Thu, 12/03/2020 - 22:10
Since its first detection in 1998, avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H9N2 has been enzootic in Iran. To better understand the evolutionary history of H9N2 viruses in Iran, we sequenced 15 currently circulating H9N2 viruses from domestic poultry during 2017–2019 and performed phylogenetic analysis of complete genome sequences. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the Iranian H9N2 viruses formed...
Thu, 11/19/2020 - 22:10
Cryptosporidium is a common enteric parasite that primarily affects those immunocompromised susceptible individuals and newborns. Detailed investigations have revealed that Cryptosporidium (C.) oocysts contain dsRNA segments which are recently classified under the Partitiviridae family. The relationship between parasite and virus whether or not affect the clinical outcomes of newborn calf...
Tue, 11/17/2020 - 22:11
Recently, a wound dressing formulation, (Tri‐Solfen®, Medical Ethics Pty Ltd, Australia; TS) registered for use in ruminant husbandry in Australia, was registered for Foot‐and‐Mouth Disease (FMD) therapy in large ruminants in Laos, following clinical observations of improved welfare and healing following treatment of FMD lesions. In November 2019, an FMD outbreak in Cameroon provided an...
Tue, 11/17/2020 - 22:11
Toxoplasma gondii may cause fatal infection in European brown hares (Lepus europaeus). However, the role of this parasite in terms of mortality rate in tularemia endemic areas, amount of parasites in affected organs and circulating genotypes, are still unknown. In total, 36 hares (killed or found dead) were submitted for pathomorphological examination as a part of the national tularemia and...
Sun, 11/08/2020 - 22:13
Small ruminant brucellosis remains endemic in many low and middle‐income countries (LMICs), where it poses a major economic and public health burden. Lack of resources to support long‐term vaccination, inherent characteristics of small ruminant production systems such as mixing of different flocks for grazing and limitations of the vaccines currently available, which can induce abortion in...
Sun, 11/08/2020 - 22:13
Salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial diseases in pigeons. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in domestic pigeons (Columba livia f. domestica) in Poland, its antimicrobial susceptibility (both phenotypic and genotypic), and its capability for biofilm formation. The presence of selected virulence genes, nucleotide homology of selected genes, and...
Sun, 11/08/2020 - 22:13
Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) is considered a new circovirus and since it first description has been widely reported in most of the swine‐producing countries. Multisystemic inflammation and reproductive failure are consistent and concerning issues associated with PCV3 infection. This report describes the clinical and pathological features of a chronic reproductive disorder in a swine herd in...
Sun, 11/08/2020 - 22:13
Mycobacterium (M.) bovis can infect cats and is a demonstrated zoonosis. We describe an outbreak of M. bovis in pet cats across England and Scotland associated with feeding a commercial raw food diet. Forty‐seven cats presented with (pyo)granulomatous lesions, lymphadenopathy, pulmonary and/or alimentary disease over a one‐year period where M. bovis infection was suspected or definitively...
Sun, 10/11/2020 - 22:13
An introduction of a Foreign Animal Disease (FAD) like African Swine Fever Virus (ASF) would be financially devastating. For example, ASF, a highly contagious pathogen with high mortality rates, is a World Health Organization reportable disease that has recently been spreading across Asia and Europe. Control of ASF would likely require mass euthanasia of infected and exposed animals similar to...
Tue, 10/06/2020 - 22:12
Brucellosis in small ruminants caused mainly due to Brucella melitensis is an important zoonotic disease characterized by abortion, retained placenta, infertility, orchitis, epididymitis, and rarely arthritis. Small ruminants are the main source of economy for the rural and marginally poor farmers and brucellosis is resulting in huge economic losses due to abortions and infertility and causing...
Fri, 10/02/2020 - 22:12
In the last decade in Europe, the number of autochthonous cases of hepatitis E has significantly increased. Most of the cases arise from foodborne infections caused by the zoonotic hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotypes HEV‐3 and HEV‐4. Several human cases have been linked to consumption of raw or undercooked animal products of both pork (liver sausages) and wild boar meat. In this study, the...
Mon, 09/28/2020 - 22:13
Following the increase in wild boar population recorded in urban and peri‐urban areas through Europe, the present survey aimed to assess the occurrence of zoonotic tick‐borne pathogens (TBPs) in wild boars living in southern Italy and in their ticks for evaluating the potential risk of infection for animals and humans. From October to December 2019, a total of 176 ticks collected from 93 wild...
Sun, 09/27/2020 - 22:15
This study describes the pathological changes, antibody response, isolation and distribution patterns following exposure of non‐pregnant goats to live B. melitensis. Eighteen healthy adult female goats were divided into 2 equal groups. Group 1 was infected via conjunctival sac with 109 cfu/mL of B. melitensis while Group 2 was similarly exposed to sterile PBS. Serum and swabs from the eyes and...
Wed, 09/23/2020 - 22:13
The H5 A/Goose/Guangdong/1/1996 (gs/GD) lineage emerged in China in 1996. Rooted in the respective gs/GD lineage, the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) has genetically diversified into a plethora of clades and subclades and evolved into an assortment of sub‐ and genotypes. Some caused substantial losses in the poultry industry and had a major impact on...
Wed, 09/23/2020 - 22:13
Armadillos are specialist diggers and their burrows are used to find food, seek shelter and protect their pups. These burrows can also be shared with dozens of vertebrate and invertebrate species and; consequently, their parasites including the zoonotics. The aim of this study was to diagnose the presence of zoonotic parasites in four wild‐caught armadillo species from two different Brazilian...
Wed, 09/23/2020 - 22:13
This study reports outbreak of a new disease caused by Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (S. pseudintermedius) in Raccoon dogs. The disease occurred in a breeding farm of raccoon dogs in Guan County of Shandong Province in China in August of 2019. 47% (425/896) of the raccoon dogs showed some abnormal symptoms; 17.6% (75/425) of which had sever skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), dyspnea and...
Tue, 09/15/2020 - 22:14
HoBi‐like pestivirus is an emerging atypical pestivirus in cattle and small ruminants, causing clinical signs similar to those observed in bovine viral diarrhea virus infections. Natural infection of HoBi‐like pestivirus has been reported in cattle herds and small ruminants in multiple countries in South America, Europe, and Asia. However, HoBi‐like pestiviruses were only identified from...
Tue, 09/08/2020 - 22:14
The Strategic Alliance for Research into Infectious Diseases of Animals and Zoonoses (STAR‐IDAZ) International Research Consortium (IRC) coordinates global animal health research to accelerate delivery of disease control tools and strategies. With this vision, STAR‐IDAZ IRC has constructed four generic research roadmaps for the development of candidate vaccines, diagnostic tests, therapeutics and...
Tue, 09/01/2020 - 22:14
China has experienced a sudden multi‐focal and multi‐round of African swine fever (ASF) outbreaks during 2018. The subsequent epidemiological survey resulted in a debate including the possibility of a transboundary spread from European Russia to China through wild boar. We contribute to the debate by assessing a hypothetical overland Euro‐Siberian transmission path and its associated ASF arrival...
Mon, 08/24/2020 - 21:30
COVID‐19 is a highly contagious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2). It has rapidly spread to 216 countries and territories since first outbreak in December of 2019, posing a substantial economic losses and extraordinary threats to the public health worldwide. Although bats have been suggested as the natural host of SARS‐CoV‐2, transmission chains of...
Mon, 08/24/2020 - 21:30
Pets from COVID‐19 owners were screened for SARS‐CoV‐2 (April‐May 2020). From 23 pets, an asymptomatic cat showed positive RT‐qPCRs results from oropharyngeal swab (negative rectal swab). Remaining pets were negative. This suggests that cats can contract the virus from their infected owners and may act as potential hosts for SARS‐CoV‐2. Their role in carrying live or infectious viruses and...
Thu, 08/20/2020 - 22:12
Myxoma virus (MYXV) is the aetiological agent of myxomatosis, a systemic, mostly lethal disease that affects European rabbits. Vaccination against it, although widespread, has not been completely effective and disease outbreaks still take place on farms which carry out vaccination programmes. Since some of these cases have been attributed to airborne transmission or the spread of the virus via...
Wed, 08/19/2020 - 22:13
Brucellosis is an important occupational disease, mainly among veterinarians, because of their frequent contact with sick animals, contaminated secretions and live attenuated anti‐Brucella vaccines. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of accidental exposure to S19 and RB51 vaccine strains and occupational brucellosis among veterinarians registered to administer vaccinations in Minas...
Mon, 08/17/2020 - 22:13
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a major cause of acute hepatitis worldwide. Clinical presentation of hepatitis E mainly occurs as an acute and self‐limited disease, though chronic cases are now being commonly reported in immunocompromised individuals. In high‐income developed areas and non‐endemic regions, HEV is mainly transmitted by the zoonotic route through direct contact with infected...
Sun, 08/16/2020 - 22:13
The ongoing circulation of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 poses a threat to both poultry and public health. Adapting the constructs of the Health Belief Model (HBM) framework, we investigated perceptions of backyard, commercial broiler and layer chicken farmers to implement HPAI prevention and control measures in Bangladesh. Two cross‐sectional studies were conducted in 2016 and...
Wed, 08/12/2020 - 22:13
Antimicrobials are the most important therapy to bovine mastitis. Bacterial infection and antibiotic treatment of mastitis cycles frequently in dairy farms worldwide, giving rise to concerns about the emergence of multidrug‐resistant (MDR) bacteria. In this study, we examined the microbial diversity and antibiotic resistance profiles of bacteria isolated from raw milk from dairy farms in Jiangsu...
Sat, 08/08/2020 - 22:12
Numerous infectious diseases impacting livestock impose an important economic burden, and in some cases also represent a threat to humans and are classified as zoonoses. Some zoonotic diseases are transmitted by vectors and, due to complex environmental and socio‐ecconomic factors, the distribution of many of these pathogens is changing, with increasing numbers being found in previously...
Fri, 08/07/2020 - 22:13
Staphylococcus aureus is a versatile and highly adaptable pathogen associated with a wide range of infectious diseases in humans and animals. In the last decades, concern has increased worldwide due to the emergence and spread of methicillin‐resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains shortly after this drug became a therapeutic option. In this study, we report the genomic features of the first mecC‐...
Wed, 08/05/2020 - 22:12
Animal tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) bacteria remains as one of the most significant infectious diseases of livestock, despite decades of eradication programs and research efforts, in an era where the livestock sector is amongst the most important and rapidly expanding commercial agricultural segments worldwide. This work provides a global overview of the...
Wed, 08/05/2020 - 22:12
To deal with the limited literature data on the vectorial capacity of blood‐feeding arthropods (BFAs) and their role in the transmission of African Swine Fever virus (ASFV) in Metropolitan France, a dedicated working group of the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety performed an expert knowledge elicitation. In total, 15 different BFAs were selected as...
Sat, 08/01/2020 - 22:13
Different and contrasting trends related to human migration and the implementation of health control programs influence the spread of drug‐resistant tuberculosis (TB). We analyzed the Mycobacterium tuberculosis population structure in Estonia, a high‐priority EU country for TB control, to detect the dynamic changes and underlying factors. The study collection included 278 M. tuberculosis isolates...
Thu, 07/30/2020 - 22:12
Wild boars represent a potential dissemination source of important pathogens to public and animal health, since they can host several pathogens. This study aimed to evaluate the health profile of wild boars hunted for population control in the state of Santa Catarina, south of Brazil. For this study, tissue and blood samples were collected from 61 wild boars hunted from October 2017 to November...
Wed, 07/29/2020 - 22:11
ExPEC is an important pathogen that causes diverse infection in the humans extraintestinal sites. Although avian‐source phylogroup F E. coli isolates hold a high level of virulence traits, few studies have systematically assessed the pathogenicity and zoonotic potential of E. coli isolates within phylogroup F. A total of 1332 E. coli strains were recovered from chicken colibacillosis in China...
Tue, 07/28/2020 - 22:12
Human noroviruses are recognized as the leading worldwide cause of sporadic and epidemic viral gastroenteritis, causing morbidity and mortality in impoverished developing countries and engendering enormous economic losses in developed countries. Transmitted faecal‐orally, either via person‐to‐person contact, or by consumption of contaminated foods or water, norovirus outbreaks are often reported...
Tue, 07/28/2020 - 22:12
Spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) and Coxiella burnetii are intracellular bacteria that cause potentially life‐threatening tick‐borne rickettsioses and Q fever respectively. Sao Tome and Principe (STP), small islands located in the Gulf of Guinea, recently experienced a dramatic reduction in the incidence of malaria owing to international collaborative efforts. However, unexplained febrile...
Tue, 07/28/2020 - 22:12
We evaluated the factors associated with the prevalence of antibodies against Brucella abortus in buffaloes in the municipality of Santarém, Western Pará, northern Brazil. The study was conducted on 60 farms, representing 25.8% of the total buffalo farms in the region. From those farms, a total of 426 buffaloes were sampled, males of any age and females more than 24 months of age, to avoid a...
Tue, 07/28/2020 - 22:12
Babesia ovis is a tick‐transmitted protozoan haemoparasite causing ovine babesiosis in sheep and goats leading to considerable economic loss in Turkey and neighbouring countries. There are no vaccines available, therapeutic drugs leave toxic residues in meat and milk, and tick vector control entails environmental risks. A panel of eight mini‐ and micro‐satellite marker loci was developed and...
Fri, 07/24/2020 - 22:12
The role of animal feed as a vehicle for the transport and transmission of viral diseases was first identified during the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) epidemic in North America. Since that time, various feed additives have been evaluated at the laboratory level to measure their effect on viral viability and infectivity in contaminated feed using bioassay piglet models. While a valid...
Tue, 07/21/2020 - 22:10
Equine trypanosomosis comprises different parasitic diseases caused by protozoa of the subgenus Trypanozoon: Trypanosoma equiperdum (causative agent of dourine), Trypanosoma brucei (nagana) and Trypanosoma evansi (surra). Due to the absence of a vaccine and the lack of efficacy of the few available drugs, these diseases represent a major health and economic problem for international equine trade...
Mon, 07/20/2020 - 22:10
Significant global efforts have been directed towards understanding the epidemiology of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) across poultry production systems and in wild‐bird reservoirs, yet understanding of disease dynamics in the village poultry setting remains limited. This article provides a detailed account of the first laboratory‐confirmed outbreak of HPAI in the south‐eastern...
Sun, 07/19/2020 - 22:10
The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is a causative agent of toxoplasmosis, an important and widespread zoonotic disease. The transmission of this disease in humans includes ingestion of sporulated oocysts present in contaminated water or food. T. gondii oocysts are widely distributed and toxoplasmosis is considered a major food and waterborne pathogen worldwide, making drinking water containing...
Sat, 07/18/2020 - 22:10
In recent years in China, clade 2.3.4.4 H5N6 plus clade 2.3.2.1 H5N1 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have gradually become endemic in poultry, and their co‐circulation could inevitably facilitate the gene reassortment between each other. During our routine surveillance in live poultry markets (LPMs) in Eastern China in 2017‐2018, a novel reassortant H5N6 strain with the...
Sat, 07/18/2020 - 22:10
Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease with serious consequences on human and animal health. Brucella infections were reported in many terrestrial wild animals, from subtropical and temperate regions to arctic regions. In many areas, the epidemiology of brucellosis in wildlife is closely associated with the occurrence of the disease in livestock. Some wild species may contribute to the re‐...
Fri, 07/10/2020 - 22:11
African swine fever (ASF) is a severe viral disease that affects both domestic and wild pigs and is responsible for major production and economic losses. As a transboundary animal disease (TAD) it can be spread by live or dead pigs and via pork products. Transmission can take place via contaminated feed and fomites including shoes, clothes, vehicles, knives and equipment. Unlike classical swine...

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