Trends in Microbiology

Fri, 02/12/2021 - 08:02
Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen responsible for listeriosis, an infection that can manifest in humans as bacteremia, meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised patients and the elderly, and fetal-placental infection in pregnant women. Reference strains from this facultative intracellular bacterium have been instrumental in the investigation of basic mechanisms in microbiology,...
Sat, 10/10/2020 - 08:02
In prokaryotes, transcription–translation coupling is thought to guarantee the synthesis of high-quality mRNAs and surveil foreign genes. Surprisingly, Johnson et al. show that translation is uncoupled from transcription in Bacillus subtilis, arguing that bacteria utilize very diverse gene expression strategies to meet their unique regulatory needs.
Tue, 09/29/2020 - 08:02
The toxin-producing bacterium Bacillus cereus is an important and neglected human pathogen and a common cause of food poisoning. Several toxins have been implicated in disease, including the pore-forming toxins hemolysin BL (HBL) and nonhemolytic enterotoxin (NHE). Recent work revealed that HBL binds to the mammalian surface receptors LITAF and CDIP1 and that both HBL and NHE induce potassium...
Sat, 08/15/2020 - 08:04
Host organisms utilize nutritional immunity to limit the availability of nutrients essential to an invading pathogen. Nutrients may include amino acids, nucleotide bases, and transition metals, the essentiality of which varies among pathogens. The mammalian macrophage protein Slc11a1 (previously Nramp1) mediates resistance to several intracellular pathogens. Slc11a1 is proposed to restrict growth...
Fri, 08/14/2020 - 08:01
As plastic debris in the environment continues to increase, an emerging concern is the potential for microplastic to act as vectors for pathogen transport. With aquaculture the fastest growing food sector, and microplastic contamination of shellfish increasingly demonstrated, understanding any risk of pathogen transport associated with microplastic is important for this industry. However, there...
Thu, 07/16/2020 - 08:01
Several intracellular bacterial pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella flexerni, and Rickettsia spp. use an actin-based motility process to spread in mammalian cell monolayers. Cell-to-cell spread is mediated by protrusive structures that contain bacteria encased in the host cell plasma membrane. These protrusions, which form in infected host cells, are internalized by neighboring...
Thu, 07/09/2020 - 08:01
Nguyen et al. used transposon sequencing analysis and competitive colonization assays to describe how aspartate/malate can trigger initial Salmonella Typhimurium gut-lumen colonization in mice, providing insight into the significance of certain key metabolites beyond the realm of Salmonella life. Metabolite-driven diagnostic and anti-infective strategies for preventing salmonellosis could rapidly...
Fri, 06/12/2020 - 08:01
Viruses, as obligate intracellular parasites, exploit cellular pathways and resources in a variety of fascinating ways. A striking example of this is the remodelling of intracellular membranes into specialized structures that support the replication of positive-sense ssRNA (+RNA) viruses infecting eukaryotes. These distinct forms of virus-induced structures include double-membrane vesicles (DMVs...
Sun, 04/26/2020 - 03:19
Salmonella enterica is an important gastrointestinal and facultative intracellular pathogen. After invasion of host cells, it resides in a specialized, replication-permissive compartment, the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). During maturation of the SCV, Salmonella remodels the host endosomal system to form a variety of membranous extensions from the SCV, one type designated Salmonella-...
Fri, 04/17/2020 - 03:14
Interactions between the eukaryotic host, microbiome members, and invading pathogens help to shape disease outcomes. Using the Drosophila model, Fast et al. identified that Vibrio cholerae acts to inhibit epithelial renewal through complex interactions between the type VI secretion system of V. cholerae and the microbial community of the fly.
Tue, 04/14/2020 - 03:15
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a gram-negative autochthonous bacterium found in temperate and tropical marine and coastal waters globally. V. parahaemolyticus is the most prevalent food-poisoning bacterium associated with seafood consumption, typically causing self-limiting gastroenteritis. V. parahaemolyticus grows preferentially in warm (>15°C), low-salinity marine water (<25 ppt NaCl)....
Thu, 04/09/2020 - 03:16
Shigella sonnei is a rod-shaped, Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen. It was named ‘Sonne’s bacillus’ after Carl Olaf Sonne who described it as a causative agent of bacillary dysentery. S. sonnei is distributed worldwide and represents the most common cause of shigellosis in industrialized regions in Europe, North America, and Australia. It is currently undergoing expansion in middle...
Tue, 04/07/2020 - 03:24
Lantibiotic salivaricins are polycyclic peptides containing lanthionine and/or β-methyllanthionine residues produced by certain strains of Streptococcus salivarius, which almost exclusively reside in the human oral cavity. The importance of these molecules stems from their antimicrobial activity towards relevant oral pathogens which has so far been applied through the development of salivaricin-...
Tue, 11/26/2019 - 03:14
Espinoza-Vergara et al. unveiled a novel transmission mode of Vibrio cholerae based on environmental protozoan predation, which the bacterial pathogen evades via its release in ‘expelled food vacuoles.’ Vacuole-enclosed bacteria are not only fairly protected against environmental stressors, but also show enhanced intestinal colonization fitness upon oral ingestion.
Tue, 11/19/2019 - 03:15
DOI of original article: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2019.05.002
Wed, 09/11/2019 - 00:00
Vibrio vulnificus is a Gram-negative naturally occurring bacterium found commonly in warm (>15oC), low-salinity/brackish waters worldwide. This bacterium occurs in high numbers in seafood, such as shellfish, particularly in warmer months. V. vulnificus is an important opportunistic pathogen that can cause both wound infections and sepsis, typically via exposure to seawater or through...
Fri, 05/31/2019 - 00:00
Salmonella enterica is a zoonotic pathogen of substantial concern to global human and animal health. It is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in people worldwide. S. enterica can successfully colonize animals, humans, and plants, and is also found in the environment. Some serovars have a broad host range (S. Typhimurium and S. Enteriditis), others are host-adapted (S. Typhi and S....
Wed, 04/24/2019 - 00:00
Vibrio cholerae is the bacterial pathogen responsible for the disease cholera, plaguing many developing nations and areas of poor sanitation, and causing about 2.9 million cases and ~95 000 deaths annually. It is transmitted through contaminated water and infects the host using two major virulence factors: the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) and cholera toxin (CT). TCP is important for colonization...
Mon, 11/20/2017 - 00:00
Persistent viral infections result from evasion or avoidance of sterilizing immunity, extend the timeframe of virus transmission, and can trigger disease. Prior studies in mouse models of persistent infection have suggested that ineffective adaptive immune responses are necessary for persistent viral infection. However, recent work in the murine norovirus (MNV) model of persistent infection...